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1.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 24(3): 130-139, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144332

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tumor desmoplásico de célula redonda y pequeña (TDCRP) es una patología neoplásica maligna agresiva y poco común. Afecta predominantemente a hombres entre la segunda y tercera década de la vida. Los pacientes que la padecen tienen un pronóstico pobre, con una supervivencia global a 5 años de hasta el 30%. Por lo general se presenta como una masa en la cavidad abdominal, frecuentemente multifocal. Para su tratamiento se recomienda un enfoque multimodal con cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia. Poco más de 20 casos de TDCRP a nivel testicular/paratesticular se han reportado en la literatura. A continuación, se presenta un caso ilustrativo en esta localización, se discute el caso y se realiza revisión de la literatura.


Abstract Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an aggressive and rare malignant neoplasm. It mainly affects young men in their twenties and thirties. Patients with it have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of up to 30%. It generally presents as a mass in the abdominal cavity, often multifocal. A multimodal approach is recommended for its treatment, with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Just over 20 cases of testicular/paratesticular DSRCT have been reported in the literature. Below, we present an illustrative case in this location, we discuss the case and review the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Retroperitoneal Neoplasms/therapy , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor/diagnosis , Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor/therapy , Genital Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Male/therapy , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnosis , Testicular Neoplasms/therapy , Ganglia
2.
Oncol. (Guayaquil) ; 29(1): 1-11, 30 de abril 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000441

ABSTRACT

Propósito de la revisión: el objetivo de la revisión es delinear el rol del Manejo Quirúrgico del carcinoma metastásico primario de cabeza y cuello. Buscamos reportes en indicaciones, posibles hallazgos y subsecuentes tratamientos. Recientes hallazgos: La punción aspirativa con aguja fina, permite diferenciar la etiología de los nódulos del cuello: melanoma, carcinoma tiroideo, linfoma y otros tumores indiferenciados. La medición de tiroglobulina ayuda a diferenciar una neoplasia de tiroides. El nivel ganglionar afectado I al III incluye el protocolo de paratiroidectomia, amigadalectomía. El nivel ganglionar IV y V el primario es infraclavicular. Extracto: El cáncer metastásico de primario oculto es una neoplasia con confirmación histológica pero con lesión primaria desconocida. Su manejo es controversial y en la mayoría de los casos insuficiente para llegar al diagnóstico, incluso con la autopsia. La aproximación inicial comprende una serie de exámenes de laboratorio e imágenes de alta complejidad que incluyen la tomografía por emisión de positrones con el test de la Flúor 2-Deoxi Glucosa (FDG-PET/CT), los estudios de anatomía patológica son el segundo paso dentro del manejo estándar e incluyen la Punción y Aspiración con Aguja fina (PAAF). La microscopia tradicional no es suficiente para identificar el tumor primario, las tinciones inmunohistoquímicas aunque no son especificas ni sensibles ayudan con ese propósito y aún más la microscopia electrónica. La biopsia o procedimientos más agresivos como la amigdalectomía son conductas a seguir si aún no se ha logrado el diagnóstico. Se presenta una revisión del estado del arte del manejo del Carcinoma Metastásico de Primario Desconocido de Cabeza y Cuello.


Purpose of the review: the objective of the review is to delineate the role of Surgical Management of primary metastatic carcinoma of the head and neck. We look for reports on indications, possible findings and subsequent treatments. Recent findings: Fine-needle aspiration can differentiate the etiology of neck nodules: melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, lymphoma and other undifferentiated tumors. The measurement of thyroglobulin helps to differentiate a thyroid neoplasm. The affected lymph node level I to III includes the protocol of parathyroidectomy, amigdalectomy. The nodal level IV and V the primary is infraclavicular. Excerpt: Metastatic cancer of the occult primary is a neoplasm with histological confirmation but with an unknown primary lesion. Its management is controversial and in most cases insufficient to reach the diagnosis, even with autopsy. The initial approach involves a series of laboratory tests and highly complex images that include positron emission tomography with the Flucor 2-Deoxy Glucose test (FDG-PET / CT), pathology studies are the second step within standard handling and include Puncture and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNAP). Traditional microscopy is not enough to identify the primary tumor, immunohistochemical stains although they are not specific or sensitive help with this purpose and even more so electron microscopy. Biopsy or more aggressive procedures such as tonsillectomy are behaviors to follow if the diagnosis has not yet been achieved. A review of the state of the art of metastatic carcinoma of Unknown Head and Neck Primary is presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms, Unknown Primary , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Positron-Emission Tomography , Ganglia
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787527

ABSTRACT

Ganglioneuroma (GN) is benign neurogenic tumor arising from ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. They are mostly found at posterior mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and adrenal gland, whereas only 1–5% occurred in the cervical region. GN usually present as a single, painless and slow-growing mass, but multiple cervical occurrences are extremely rare. An 80-year-old woman came to our clinic complained of posterior neck mass for three years. We performed surgical excision, and it was finally diagnosed as GN. We report the unique and rare disease entity with a brief literature review.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Ganglia , Ganglioneuroma , Humans , Mediastinum , Neck , Rare Diseases , Sympathetic Nervous System
4.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 266-273, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718953

ABSTRACT

The ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body is situated along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in the aortic window and is an extremely large component of the cardiac nerve plexus. This study was performed to describe the morphologies of the ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body in human fetuses and to compare characteristics with intracardiac ganglion. Ganglia were immunostained in specimens from five fetuses of gestational age 12–16 weeks and seven fetuses of gestational age 28–34 weeks. Many ganglion cells in the ganglia were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve marker) and chromogranin A, while a few neurons were positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS; parasympathetic nerve marker) or calretinin. Another ganglion at the base of the ascending aorta carried almost the same neuronal populations, whereas a ganglion along the left common cardinal vein contained neurons positive for chromogranin A and NOS but no or few TH-positive neurons, suggesting a site-dependent difference in composite neurons. Mixtures of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons within a single ganglion are consistent with the morphology of the cranial base and pelvic ganglia. Most of the intracardiac neurons are likely to have a non-adrenergic non-cholinergic phenotype, whereas fewer neurons have a dual cholinergic/noradrenergic phenotype. However, there was no evidence showing that chromogranin A- and/or calretinin-positive cardiac neurons corresponded to these specific phenotypes. The present study suggested that the ganglion cardiacum was composed of a mixture of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which were characterized the site-dependent differences in and near the heart.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Calbindin 2 , Chromogranin A , Fetus , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , Gestational Age , Heart , Humans , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenotype , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Skull Base , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase , Veins
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor, GDNF family receptor alpha subunit 1 (GFRα-1) in the pelvic (middle third) vagina and, particularly, in the paravaginal ganglia of nulliparous and primiparous rabbits. METHODS: Chinchilla-breed female rabbits were used. Primiparas were killed on postpartum day 3 and nulliparas upon reaching a similar age. The vaginal tracts were processed for histological analyses or frozen for Western blot assays. We measured the ganglionic area, the Abercrombie-corrected number of paravaginal neurons, the cross-sectional area of the neuronal somata, and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs) per neuron. The relative expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 were assessed by Western blotting, and the immunostaining was semiquantitated. Unpaired two-tailed Student t -test or Wilcoxon test was used to identify statistically significant differences (P≤0.05) between the groups. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that the ganglionic area, neuronal soma size, Abercrombie-corrected number of neurons, and number of SGCs per neuron were similar in nulliparas and primiparas. The relative expression of both GDNF and GFRα-1 was similar. Immunostaining for both GDNF and GFRα-1 was observed in several vaginal layers, and no differences were detected regarding GDNF and GFRα-1 immunostaining between the 2 groups. In the paravaginal ganglia, the expression of GDNF was increased in neurons, while that of GFRα-1 was augmented in the SGCs of primiparous rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest an ongoing regenerative process related to the recovery of neuronal soma size in the paravaginal ganglia, in which GDNF and GFRα-1 could be involved in cross-talk between neurons and SGCs.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Carisoprodol , Female , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Humans , Nerve Growth Factors , Neuroglia , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Postpartum Period , Rabbits , Reproduction , Vagina
6.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 36(132): 49-63, oct. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122631

ABSTRACT

Introducción El tratamiento estándar en estadios tempranos del cáncer de mama es la cirugía conservadora (cc) más radioterapia del volumen total mamario (wbi). Dado que la mayoría de las recidivas locales ocurren cercanas al sitio del tumor (85%) y existiendo la posibilidad de acortar tiempos de irradiación ­debido a que esta insume varias semanas­, podría no ser necesario irradiar toda la mama, sino el área donde estaba situado el tumor más margen de seguridad, lo que insume un menor tiempo. Este el fundamento de la Irradiación Parcial Acelerada Mama (apbi). Consensos internacionales proporcionan guías para administrar apbi fuera de ensayos clínicos. Objetivos El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar y analizar las características clinico-anatomopatológicas e inmunohistoquímicas de las pacientes que fueron operadas y luego seleccionadas para ser irradiadas con técnica de apbi con radioterapia externa con intensidad modulada guiada por imágenes (imrt). Material y método Se trata de un trabajo prospectivo, no randomizado. La muestra está constituida por las primeras 20 pacientes ingresadas al protocolo apbi. El reclutamiento se realizó entre marzo de 2012 y julio de 2014. Se analizaron las características clínico-patológicas e inmunohistoquímicas de esas pacientes luego de cc más biopsia del ganglio centinela (bgc). Resultados Media de seguimiento en meses: 37,7 (r: 22-51); edad media: 65,7 años. Tamaño tumoral medio por anatomía patológica: 12,03 mm. Media de número de ganglios centinelas extirpados: 1,7. Todos los tumores fueron unifocales. Los márgenes quirúrgicos resultaron negativos en todos los casos. Tumores Luminal A: 19 pacientes; tumores Luminal B: 1 paciente. Hormonoterapia adyuvante en todas las pacientes. Control locorregional: 100%. Conclusiones A pesar del corto tiempo de seguimiento y del escaso número de pacientes, este análisis sugiere que la apbi en el lecho del tumor marcado intraoperatoriamente con fiduciales de titanio es factible para pacientes que reúnen los criterios estrictos clínico-patológicos e inmunohistoquímicos acordes con las guías internacionales.


Introduction The standard conservative treatment for early stage breast carcinomas is the breast conservative surgery plus whole breast irradiation. Because most local recurrences occur close to the site of the primary tumor (80- 90%) and the possibility of shortening the irradiation times ­because it takes several weeks­, it may not be necessary to irradiate the entire breast, but the area where the tumor was located plus a margin of safety in less time. This is the basis of Accelerated Partial Irradiation of the Breast Objectives Determination and analysis of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics in patients selected for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (apbi) performed by imrt + igrt technique after breast conservative surgery plus sentinel node biopsy. Materials and method A prospective, non-randomized study of the first 20 patients performed apbi strictly following the recommendations of international consensus. It was initiated in March 2012 until July 2014. Clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these patients were analyzed to be selected for apbi, after breast conservative surgery plus sentinel node biopsy. Results Median follow up: 37.7 months (r: 22-51); average age: 65.7 years. Mean tumor size by pathological analysis: 12.03 mm. Mean number of sentinel nodes removed: 1.7. All tumors were unifocal. Negative surgical margins in all cases. Luminal A tumors: 19 patients; Luminal B tumors: 1 patient. Adjuvant hormone therapy in all patients. Loco-regional control: 100%. Conclusions Despite the short time of follow up and the small numbers of patients, this analysis suggests that apbi performed by imrt + igrt technique added to the placement of fiduciary marks at the time of surgery is feasible for highly selected patients who meet the clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical selection criteria according to international guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Radiotherapy , Titanium , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Ganglia
7.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 54(2): 51-63, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-967123

ABSTRACT

Las metástasis ganglionares regionales del cuello están presentes en un gran porcentaje de los casos con CPT. Sin embargo, en varios trabajos se pudo observar como no todo compromiso ganglionar tiene igual impacto en la evolución de dicha patología. Recientemente en Argentina, Chile y Brasil se modificaron las guías del manejo del CDT y estas recomiendan una estratificación de riesgo y abordaje terapéutico diferente según el número, el tamaño y la extensión del compromiso ganglionar. En esta monografía se analizaron las características de las metástasis ganglionares y su impacto en la evolución del CDT y esto fue realizado previamente a la reciente publicación de las nuevas guías de la ATA. Dada esta situación, se incorporaron a la monografía original algunos aspectos de las guías de ATA


Cervical lymph node metastases are usually present in a high number of cases with papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, many studies have shown that not all lymph node metastases have the same impact on the outcome of this disease. Argentina, Chile, and Brazil have recently changed their differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) guidelines and recommend a different ranking of risk and therapeutic approach according to the number, size, and extension of lymph node metastasis. An analysis of lymph node metastases is presented in this article, which includes their characteristics and impact on DTC. As this analysis was made before the latest publication of the new American Thyroid Association guidelines, some aspects of these guidelines have also been included


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/complications , Lymphatic Metastasis/physiopathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Ganglia/physiopathology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771016

ABSTRACT

Although methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide, it is different from the other organophosphates in terms of toxicity. Because of its relatively high fat solubility, the apparent volume of methidathion distribution throughout the body is very high, indicating that hemoperfusion is not effective in removing this organophosphate from the body. Redistribution of methidathion from fat to blood can also occur when plasma levels diminish. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase aging, which is the loss of an alkyl side chain that prevents reactivation by oximes, is very rapid so that the effective reactivation by oximes is thwarted. Thus, methidathion's effect on acetylcholinesterase inhibition is long lasting, particularly with a high dose. In addition to its parasympatholytic effect and ability to induce muscle paralysis, methidathion poisoning is associated with a profound and long-lasting circulatory collapse due to sympathetic ganglion blockade. This report presents the case of a 55-year-old man who accidentally ingested a high dose of methidathion. He later developed enteroinvasive aspergillosis infection-induced multiple bowel perforations on two separate occasions while on mechanical ventilator support, resulting in a fatal outcome. The renin-angiotensin axis activated by sympathetic ganglion blockade may have reduced the patient's splanchnic blood flow, contributing to translocation of endotoxin. Also, the effect of excessive acetylcholine on non-neuronal acetylcholine receptors may have contributed to the development of fatal enteroinvasive aspergillosis in this patient.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Aging , Aspergillosis , Fatal Outcome , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Middle Aged , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Oximes , Paralysis , Parasympatholytics , Plasma , Poisoning , Receptors, Cholinergic , Shock , Solubility , Ventilators, Mechanical
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. METHODS: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall. Patch clamp recordings were employed to examine neural excitability and voltage-gated sodium channel currents. Electromyograph technique was used to determine the responses of neck muscles to gastric distension. RESULTS: Incubation of acutely isolated DRG neurons with CORT significantly depolarized action potential threshold and enhanced the number of action potentials induced by current stimulation of the neuron. Under voltage-clamp mode, incubation of CORT enhanced voltage-gated sodium current density of the recorded neurons. Pre-incubation of GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocked the CORT-induced hyperexcitability and potentiation of sodium currents. However, pre-incubation of H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, did not alter the sodium current density. More importantly, intraperitoneal injection of CORT produced gastric hypersensitivity of healthy rats, which was blocked by pre-administration of GF109203X but not H-89. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that CORT rapidly enhanced neuronal excitability and sodium channel functions, which is most likely mediated by protein kinase C but not protein kinase A signaling pathway in DRG neurons innervating the stomach, thus underlying the gastric hypersensitivity induced by CORT injection.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Action Potentials , Animals , Corticosterone , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Dyspepsia , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neck Muscles , Neurons , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Rats , Sodium , Sodium Channels , Spinal Nerve Roots , Stomach , Visceral Pain
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20754

ABSTRACT

Although methidathion is an organophosphate insecticide, it is different from the other organophosphates in terms of toxicity. Because of its relatively high fat solubility, the apparent volume of methidathion distribution throughout the body is very high, indicating that hemoperfusion is not effective in removing this organophosphate from the body. Redistribution of methidathion from fat to blood can also occur when plasma levels diminish. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase aging, which is the loss of an alkyl side chain that prevents reactivation by oximes, is very rapid so that the effective reactivation by oximes is thwarted. Thus, methidathion's effect on acetylcholinesterase inhibition is long lasting, particularly with a high dose. In addition to its parasympatholytic effect and ability to induce muscle paralysis, methidathion poisoning is associated with a profound and long-lasting circulatory collapse due to sympathetic ganglion blockade. This report presents the case of a 55-year-old man who accidentally ingested a high dose of methidathion. He later developed enteroinvasive aspergillosis infection-induced multiple bowel perforations on two separate occasions while on mechanical ventilator support, resulting in a fatal outcome. The renin-angiotensin axis activated by sympathetic ganglion blockade may have reduced the patient's splanchnic blood flow, contributing to translocation of endotoxin. Also, the effect of excessive acetylcholine on non-neuronal acetylcholine receptors may have contributed to the development of fatal enteroinvasive aspergillosis in this patient.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Acetylcholinesterase , Aging , Aspergillosis , Fatal Outcome , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Hemoperfusion , Humans , Middle Aged , Organophosphate Poisoning , Organophosphates , Oximes , Paralysis , Parasympatholytics , Plasma , Poisoning , Receptors, Cholinergic , Shock , Solubility , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor blocker, is also considered the most effective regimen for patients with LUT symptoms such as BPH and overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS: In the present study, the effects of tamsulosin on the expression of c-Fos, nerve growth factor (NGF), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the afferent micturition areas, including the pontine micturition center (PMC), the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), and the spinal cord (L5), of rats with an SCI were investigated. RESULTS: SCI was found to remarkably upregulate the expression of c-Fos, NGF, and NADPH-d in the afferent pathway of micturition, the dorsal horn of L5, the vlPAG, and the PMC, resulting in the symptoms of OAB. In contrast, tamsulosin treatment significantly suppressed these neural activities and the production of nitric oxide in the afferent pathways of micturition, and consequently, attenuated the symptoms of OAB. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, tamsulosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, could be used to attenuate bladder dysfunction following SCI. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism and effects of tamsulosin on the afferent pathways of micturition.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Antagonists , Afferent Pathways , Aged , Animals , Brain , Ganglia , Humans , Male , NAD , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System Diseases , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Periaqueductal Gray , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Rats , Reflex , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urinary Tract , Urination
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224470

ABSTRACT

Neuro-tracing approach is a great option to study innervation of the visceral organs including the kidneys. Important factors contributing to the success of this technique include the choice of a neuro-tracer, and delivery methods to result in successful labeling of peripheral sensory and motor ganglia. The neuro-tracer is usually applied directly to the kidney accessed via a surgical opening of the abdominal wall under deep anesthesia. A series of local microinjections of the dye are performed followed by a wound closure, and recovery period from the surgery. An extra care should be taken to prevent neuro-tracer spillage and accidental labeling of the surrounding organs during injections of the dye. Retrograde neuro-tracers like Fast Blue do not cross synapses, therefore, only neuronal bodies located within dorsal root ganglion neurons and major peripheral ganglia will be labeled by this approach. Retrogradely labeled peripheral neurons could be freshly isolated and dissociated for electrophysiological recordings and biochemical analyses (gene and protein expression), whereas the whole fixed ganglia could be sectioned to undergo immunohisto- and immunocytochemical targeted staining.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Anesthesia , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Kidney , Microinjections , Neurons , Synapses , Wounds and Injuries
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 556-561, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173106

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: An experimental animal study. PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the content and distribution of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal ganglia in a rat model. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Increased expression of VEGF in degenerative disc disease increases the levels of inflammatory cytokines and nerve ingrowth into the damaged discs. In animal models, increased levels of VEGF can persist for up to 2 weeks after an injury. METHODS: Through abdominal surgery, the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) innervating L5/L6 intervertebral disc were labeled (FluoroGold neurotracer) in 24, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were randomly allocated to three groups of eight rats each. The anti-VEGF group underwent L5/6 intervertebral disc puncture using a 26-gauge needle, intradiscal injection of 33.3 µg of the pegaptanib sodium, a VEGF165 aptamer. The control-puncture group underwent disc puncture and intradiscal injection of 10 µL saline solution, and the sham-surgery group underwent labeling but no disc puncture. Two rats in each group were sacrificed on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28 after surgery. L1–L6 DRGs were harvested, sectioned, and immunostained to detect the content and distribution of CGRP. RESULTS: Compared with the control, the percentage of CGRP-positive cells was lower in the anti-VEGF group (p<0.05; 40.6% and 58.1% on postoperative day 1, 44.3% and 55.4% on day 7, and 42.4% and 59.3% on day 14). The percentage was higher in the control group compared with that of the sham group (p<0.05; sham group, 34.1%, 40.7%, and 33.7% on postoperative days 1, 7, and 14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing CGRP-positive cells using anti-VEGF therapy provides fundamental evidence for a possible therapeutic role of anti-VEGF in patients with discogenic lower back pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Back Pain , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Cytokines , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Endothelial Growth Factors , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Intervertebral Disc , Low Back Pain , Models, Animal , Needles , Neuropeptides , Punctures , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium , Sodium Chloride , Spinal Nerve Roots , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
14.
Cambios rev. méd ; 15(2): 11-14, jul. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000091

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio es describir la frecuencia con la que realizamos este examen y el tipo de tejidos obtenidos con el procedimiento. Materiales y Métodos: La muestra obtenida fue de 300 pacientes a quienes se les realizó una PAAF desde septiembre 2014 a diciembre del mismo año. Los resultados se presentan en tablas de frecuencia clasificadas por órgano puncionado y resultado citológico. Resultados: En los cuatro meses, el órgano más puncionado fue la glándula tiroides (73%); el segundo lugar, la mama (19.3%); siguen, los ganglios cervicales (5%); ganglios axilares (1.3%); y, finalmente, las glándulas salivales (1.3%). Discusión: La PAFF guiada por ultrasonografía es uno de los procedimientos diagnósticos más utilizados en todo el mundo, cuando se trata de lesiones accesibles e identificables por ecografía. De allí la alta frecuencia de su uso en nuestro medio y particularmente en el HCAM, cuyos resultados son similares a los reportes de estándares internacionales.


Introduction: The objective of this study was describing the frequency this procedure is performed and detailing the kind of tissue samples obtained. Methods: Descritptive study that included 300 patients who underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) guided by ultrasound to obtain samples from different organs for cytology at Carlos Andrade Marin hospital. Results: During a four-month period 192(73%) subjects underwent FNA of the thyroid gland; 57(19.3%) of the breast; 14(5%) from cervical lymph nodes; 4(1.3%) from axillary lymph nodes AND 2 (1.3%) samples were taken from salivary glands. Discusion: FNA guided by ultrasound is a frequent procedure worldwide performed when accessible lesions are identified by ultrasound. That explains the frequency of its use anda particularly at Carlos Andrade Marin Hospital. Our reports are simResumen


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biopsy, Needle , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Ultrasonography , Diagnosis , Neoplasms , Thyroid Gland , Diagnostic Imaging , Ganglia
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. METHODS: The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. RESULTS: The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon , Choline , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diarrhea , Enteric Nervous System , Fluorescence , Ganglia , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gastrointestinal Tract , Ileum , Intestine, Small , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Rats , Stress, Psychological , Submucous Plexus , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. RESULTS: Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749-1.000). CONCLUSION: 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.


Subject(s)
Carotid Artery, Internal , Consensus , Ganglia , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Pathology , Prospective Studies
17.
Rev. argent. mastología ; 34(123): 52-62, Jul.2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-777934

ABSTRACT

La estatificación axilar es uno de los más importantes factores pronósticos en pacientes con cáncer de mama. La punción con aguja fina (PAAF) guiada por ecografía de los ganglios axilares es un método técnicamente factible y de baja morbilidad para la evaluación preoperatoria del compromiso axilar, en especial cuando hay sospecha clínica o ecográfica de compromiso a ese nivel. Este procedimiento aún no es parte de la rutina en la práctica general y sus indicaciones no se han establecido claramente. Objetivos: Analizar la utilidad de la punción con aguja fina (PAAF) guiada por ecografía de los ganglios linfáticos axilares en la evaluación preoperatoria de las pacientes con cáncer de mama y sospecha de compromiso axilar clínico o por imágenes; determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad del método;comparar los resultados con la bibliografía. Material y método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, prospectivo donde se evaluaron 23 pacientes con cáncer de mama a las cuales se les realizó PAAF axilar en el Servicio de Ginecología y el Servicio de Diagnóstico por Imágenes del Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos (HIGA) de Mar del Plata, en el períodonoviembre de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Resultados: La edad promedio de las pacientes fue de 49,4 años. El tamaño tumoral promedio por imágenes fue de 31 mm y por anatomía patológica de 32,5 mm. Se realizaron 25 punciones axilares (dos casos bilaterales) con 14 resultados positivos (56%), 9 negativos (36%) y 2 (8%) insatisfactorios. La sensibilidad del método fue del 82,3% con un 17,7% de falsos negativos; la especificidad fue del 100%, el VPP del 100% y el VPN del 66,6%. No hubo diferencia significativa en la relación del tamaño tumoral con el resultado de la PAAF...


Subject(s)
Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Ganglia , Neoplasm Staging , Punctures
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(1): 73-81, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia are a recent subject of research in the field of pain and a possible therapeutic target in the future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize some of the important physiological and morphological characteristics of these cells and gather the most relevant scientific evidence about its possible role in the development of chronic pain. CONTENT: In the sensory ganglia, each neuronal body is surrounded by satellite glial cells forming distinct functional units. This close relationship enables bidirectional communication via a paracrine signaling between those two cell types. There is a growing body of evidence that glial satellite cells undergo structural and biochemical changes after nerve injury, which influence neuronal excitability and consequently the development and/or maintenance of pain in different animal models of chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Satellite glial cells are important in the establishment of physiological pain, in addition to being a potential target for the development of new pain treatments. .


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As células gliais satélite de gânglios sensitivos são um objeto recente de pesquisa na área da dor e um possível alvo terapêutico no futuro. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo resumir algumas das características morfológicas e fisiológicas mais importantes destas células e reunir as evidências científicas mais relevantes acerca do seu possível papel no desenvolvimento da dor crônica. CONTEÚDO: Nos gânglios sensitivos cada corpo neuronial é envolvido por células gliais satélite, formando unidades funcionais distintas. Esta íntima relação possibilita a comunicação bidirecional, através de uma sinalização parácrina, entre estes dois tipos de células. Existe um número crescente de evidências de que as células gliais satélite sofrem alterações estruturais e bioquímicas, após lesão nervosa, que influenciam a excitabilidade neuronial e consequentemente o desenvolvimento e/ou manutenção da dor, em diferentes modelos animais de dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: As células gliais satélite são importantes no estabelecimento da dor não fisiológica e constituem um alvo potencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos da dor. .


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Las células gliales satélite de ganglios sensoriales son un objeto reciente de investigación en el área del dolor y un posible objeto terapéutico en el futuro. Por tanto, este trabajo intenta resumir algunas de las características morfológicas y fisiológicas más importantes de estas células y reunir las evidencias científicas más relevantes acerca de su posible papel en el desarrollo del dolor crónico. CONTENIDO: En los ganglios sensoriales cada cuerpo neuronal está envuelto por células gliales satélite, formando unidades funcionales distintas. Esta íntima relación posibilita la comunicación bidireccional a través de una señalización paracrina entre esos 2 tipos de células. Existe un número creciente de evidencias de que las células gliales satélite sufren alteraciones estructurales y bioquímicas después de la lesión nerviosa que influyen en la excitabilidad neuronal y por ende en el desarrollo y/o en el mantenimiento del dolor en diferentes modelos animales de dolor crónico. CONCLUSIONES: Las células gliales satélite son importantes en el establecimiento del dolor no fisiológico y son un potencial objetivo para el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos del dolor. .


Subject(s)
Neuroglia/physiology , Receptors, Purinergic , Chronic Pain , Ganglia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms suggestive of obstruction such as abdominal pain, proximal distension with extremely suppressed motility in the absence of lumen-occluding lesion, whose etiology/pathophysiology is poorly understood. In this study we investigated a functionally obstructive lesion that could underlie symptoms of CIPO. METHODS: We studied colons surgically removed from 13 patients exhibiting clinical/pathological features of pseudo-obstruction but were unresponsive to standard medical treatments. The colons were characterized morphologically, functionally and molecularly, which were compared between regions and to 28 region-matched controls obtained from colon cancer patients. RESULTS: The colons with pseudo-obstruction exhibited persistent luminal distension proximally, where the smooth muscle was hypertrophied with changes in the cell phenotypes. Distinct luminal narrowing was observed near the distal end of the dilated region, close to the splenic flexure, previously referred to as the "transition zone (TZ)" between the dilated and non-dilated loops. Circular muscles from the TZ responded less to depolarization and cholinergic stimulation, which was associated with down-regulation of L-type calcium channel expression. Smooth muscle contractile protein was also downregulated. Myenteric ganglia and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) positive cells were deficient, more severely in the TZ region. Interstitial cells of Cajal was relatively less affected. CONCLUSIONS: The TZ may be the principal site of functional obstruction, leading to proximal distension and smooth muscle hypertrophy, in which partial nNOS depletion could play a key role. The neuromuscular abnormalities probably synergistically contributed to the extremely suppressed motility observed in the colonic pseudo-obstruction.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Colon , Colon, Transverse , Colonic Neoplasms , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction , Constipation , Down-Regulation , Ganglia , Humans , Hypertrophy , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Phenobarbital , Phenotype
20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 246-251, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215498

ABSTRACT

Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a key role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which in turn mediates various cellular functions including learning and memory. We previously cloned and characterized three PDE4 isoforms (ApPDE4) from Aplysia kurodai. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we found that ApPDE4 isoforms are primarily expressed in the central nervous system. However, the detailed distribution of ApPDE4 mRNA in Aplysia individual ganglions was not evident. In this study, to determine the distribution of ApPDE4 mRNAs in Aplysia ganglions, we performed in situ hybridization (ISH) using a probe targeting ApPDE4, including the PDE catalytic domain. Interestingly, we found the strongest ISH-positive signals in the symmetrical bag cell clusters of the abdominal ganglion. The R2, R14, L7, L2 and L11 neurons in the abdominal ganglion, LP1 neuron in pleural ganglion, and metacerebral (MCC) neurons were ISH-positive. Mechanosensory neurons of the sensory cluster were also stained on the ventral aspect of the right and left pleural ganglia. Taken together, we found the detailed distribution of ApPDE4 mRNA in Aplysia ganglion and support their roles in serotonin (5-HT)-induced synaptic facilitation of Aplysia mechanosensory neurons.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Aplysia , Catalytic Domain , Central Nervous System , Clone Cells , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4 , Ganglia , Ganglion Cysts , In Situ Hybridization , Learning , Memory , Neurons , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Isoforms , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Serotonin
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