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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927927

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism of Ganoderma against gastric cancer based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cell experiment. The active components and targets of Ganoderma were retrieved from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and gastric cancer-related targets from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the common targets was constructed with STRING, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the common genes based on Bioconductor and R language. The medicinal-disease-component-target network and medicinal-disease-component-target-pathway network were established by Cytoscape. Molecular docking was performed between β-sitosterol(the key component in Ganoderma) and the top 15 targets in the PPI network. Cell experiment was performed to verify the findings. A total of 14 active components and 28 targets of Ganoderma were retrieved, and the medicinal and the disease shared 25 targets, including caspase-3(CASP3), caspase-8(CASP8), caspase-9(CASP9), and B-cell lymphoma-2(BCL2). The common targets involved 72 signaling pathways and apoptosis and p53 signaling pathway may play a crucial role in the effect of Ganoderma against gastric cancer. β-sitosterol had strong binding activity to the top 15 targets in the PPI network. The in vitro cell experiment demonstrated that β-sitosterol inhibited gastric cancer AGS cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the S phase, which might be related to the regulation of the p53 pathway. This study shows the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics of Ganoderma against gastric cancer, which lays a scientific basis for further research on the molecular mechanism.


Subject(s)
Ganoderma , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3293-3299, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921425

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lingzhi is widely recognized as a medicinal basidiomycetes. Triterpene acids (TAs) are the key bioactive medicinal components of G. lingzhi. Our previous studies have shown that phospholipid acid (PA) produced by phospholipase D (PLD) plays a regulatory role in TA synthesis. In order to further elucidate the molecular mechanism how PA regulates TA synthesis in G. lingzhi, PA beads enrichment combined with LC-MS/MS technology was used to identify PA interacting proteins in G. lingzhi. A total of 19 PA interacting proteins were identified, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (GL22084), specific protein kinase MAPK (GL23765), catalase and cell surface hydrophobicity-associated protein. GST tagged GL22084 and GL23765 proteins were obtained through gene cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The interactions between GL22084/GL23765 and PA were verified by GST pull down assay. The identification of PA interacting proteins provides a basis for further understanding the molecular mechanism how PLD-mediated PA signaling molecules regulates the TA synthesis in G. lingzhi. Moreover, the PA interacting proteins identified in this study can also provide clues for the research of PLD/PA signaling pathway in other species.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Ganoderma , Phosphatidic Acids , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879092

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents were isolated and purified from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma calidophilum by various column chromatographic techniques, and their chemical structures were identified through combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. As a result, 11 compounds were isolated and identified as(24E)-lanosta-8,24-dien-3,11-dione-26-al(1), ganoderone A(2), 3-oxo-15α-acetoxy-lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-26-oleic acid(3),(23E)-27-nor-lanosta-8,23-diene-3,7,25-trione(4), ganodecanone B(5), ganoderic aldehyde A(6), 11β-hydroxy-lucidadiol(7), 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone(8), methyl gentiate(9), ganoleucin C(10), ganotheaecolumol H(11). Among them, compound 1 is a new triterpenoid. The cytotoxic activities of all of the compounds against tumor cell lines were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed cytotoxic activity against BEL-7402, with IC_(50) values of 26.55, 11.35, 23.23, 18.66 μmol·L~(-1); compounds 1 and 3-6 showed cytotoxic activity against K562, with IC_(50) values of 5.79, 22.16, 12.16, 35.32, and 5.59 μmol·L~(-1), and compound 4 showed cytotoxic activity against A549, with IC_(50) value of 42.50 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal , Ganoderma , Molecular Structure , Triterpenes/pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828049

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharide from Ganoderma applanatum has the activities of anti-tumor and enhancing immune function. There were no reports on antitumor effect of its intratumoral injection. In this study, the polysaccharide was extracted from G. applanatum by water extraction and alcohol precipitation, and purified by ceramic membrane after removing protein by Sevage method. The total polysaccharide content from G. applanatum(PGA)was about 63%. The combination of PGA and paclitaxel showed synergistic effect on cytotoxicity of 4 T1 cells at lower concentrations in vitro. In addition, the growth curve of 4 T1 cells showed that PGA could retard the growth of 4 T1 cells gradually. The PGA thermosensitive gel(PGA-TG)was prepared by using poloxamer 188 and 407. The gel temperature was 36 ℃, and the PGA-TG could effectively slow down the release rate of PGA in vitro. 4 T1 breast cancer-bearing mice were used as a model to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intratumoral injection of PGA combined with tail vein injection of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel(nab-PTX). In high and low dose PGA groups, each mice was given with 2.25, 1.125 mg PGA respectively, twice in total, and the dosage of paclitaxel was 15 mg·kg~(-1), once every 3 days, for a total of five times. The tumor inhibition rate was 29.65% in the high dose PGA-TG group, 58.58% in the nab-PTX group, 63.37% in low dose PGA-TG combined with nab-PTX group, and 68.10% in high dose PGA-TG combined with nab-PTX group respectively. The inhibitory effect in high dose PGA-TG group combined with nab-PTX on tumors was significantly higher than that in nab-PTX group(P<0.05). The results showed that paclitaxel therapy combined with intratumoral injection of PGA-TG could improve the therapeutic effect for 4 T1 mice and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Line, Tumor , Ganoderma , Mice , Neoplasms , Paclitaxel , Poloxamer , Polysaccharides
5.
Mycobiology ; : 112-119, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760520

ABSTRACT

Compounds from Lingzhi has been demonstrated the ability for inhibiting tyrosinase (a key enzyme in melanogenesis) activity. In this study, we investigated the anti-melanogenic activity from the submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma weberianum and elucidated the skin lightening mechanism by B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. From the cellular context, several fractionated mycelium samples exhibited anti-melanogenic activity by reducing more than 40% extracellular melanin content of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In particular, the fractionated chloroform extract (CF-F3) inhibited both secreted and intracellular melanin with the lowest dosage (25 ppm). Further analysis demonstrated that CF-F3 inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity without altering its protein expression. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that the chemical extracts from submerged mycelial culture of G. weberianum have the potential to serve as an alternative anti-melanogenic agent.


Subject(s)
Chloroform , Ganoderma , Melanins , Melanoma , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Mycelium , Reishi , Skin
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777474

ABSTRACT

Chemical constituents were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma australe by various column chromatographic techniques and HPLC method, and their chemical structures were identified through the combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Meanwhile, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and anti-oxidative ability were evaluated. Seven compounds were isolated from G. australe and were identified as 6-methoxyl-cyclo-(Phe-Ile)(1), applanoxidic acid A methyl ester(2), ergosta-7,22 E-dien-3β-ol(3), cinnamic acid(4), 5α,8α-epidioxy-(20S,22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-diene-3β-ol(5), 1-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone(6), salicylic acid(7) and benzoic acid(8). Among the compounds, compound 1 was a new cyclic dipeptide. Compound 2 was a new lanosta natural product, and compounds 4, 6, 7 and 8 were obtained from G. australe for the first time. Moreover, compounds 4 and 8 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rates of 36.8% and 34.7%, and compounds 4, 7 and 8 had a certain activity in DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC_(50) values of 0.168, 0.458 and 0.170 g·L~(-1), respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of compound 1 was 41.1%.


Subject(s)
Free Radical Scavengers , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal , Chemistry , Ganoderma , Chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Molecular Structure
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80644

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury causes tissue damage, breakdown of cerebral blood flow and metabolic regulation. This study aims to investigate the protective influence of antioxidant Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides (GLPs) on brain injury in brain-traumatized rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley conducted a head-traumatized method on rats by dropping off 300 g weight from 1 m height. Groups were categorized as control, G. lucidum, trauma, trauma+ G. lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage). Brain tissues were dissected from anesthetized rats 7 days after injury. For biochemical analysis, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase values were measured. RESULTS: In histopathological examination, neuronal damage in brain cortex and changes in blood brain barrier were observed. In the analysis of immunohistochemical and western blot, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, vascular endothelial growth factor and cluster of differentiation 68 expression levels were shown. These analyzes demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLPs on brain injury. CONCLUSION: We propose that GLPs treatment after brain injury could be an alternative treatment to decraseing inflammation and edema, preventing neuronal and glial cells degeneration if given in appropriate dosage and in particular time intervals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Blotting, Western , Brain Injuries , Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Edema , Ganoderma , Glutathione , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde , Methods , Neuroglia , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidase , Polysaccharides , Protein Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reishi , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
8.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(3)jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-845109

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los hongos del género Ganoderma han sido utilizados para el cuidado de la salud en la medicina tradicional asiática por más de 2000 años. Desde 1980 los estudios químicos han reportado un sin número de metabolitos secundarios con propiedades bioactivas. Objetivo: identificar compuestos lipídicos en el extracto etanólico del hongo Ganoderma sp., además de evaluar sus actividades antioxidante y leishmanicida. Métodos: la extracción de las fracciones lipídicas presentes en el cuerpo fructífero de Ganoderma sp. Se realizó por Cromatografía en Columna. La elucidación estructural se determinó por Espectrometría de Masas y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. La actividad antioxidante del extracto etanólico fue evaluada con las metodologías del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) y el radical catiónico 2,2'-azinobis (3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfónico) (ABTS); la actividad leishmanicida por citometría de flujo y la actividad citotóxica usando el ensayo colorimétrico de bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil tetrazolio (MTT) sobre la línea celular U937. Resultados: diecinueve esteres metílicos y ergosterol fueron identificados por espectrometría de masas en el extracto etanólico. Un compuesto triterpenoidal se elucidó usando Espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. Los valores de concentración media inhibitoria (IC 50) de la actividad antioxidante del extracto etanólico para las metodologías de los radicales DPPH y ABTS fueron de 85,63 µg/mL y 62,82 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los valores de las actividades citotóxica y leishmanicida fueron > 200,0 µg/mL y 21,5 µg/mL ± 4,4 respectivamente. Conclusiones: las estructuras de los derivados de ácidos grasos elucidados corresponden a compuestos con diferentes grados de insaturación. En este estudio se realizó el reporte de la Ganoderona A, como compuesto triterpenoidal. La elevada actividad antioxidante en relación a otros trabajos sugiere que este organismo es una fuente importante de metabolitos secundarios con propiedades captadoras de radicales libres, aunque los valores de actividad leishmanicida no fueron significativos se recomienda continuar con el estudio de otras particiones del extracto etanólico(AU)


Introduction: Fungi from the genus Ganoderma have been used in Asian traditional medicine for more than 2 000 years. Since the year 1980 chemical studies have reported a large number of secondary metabolites with bioactive properties. Objective: Identify lipid compounds in ethanolic extract from the fungus Ganoderma sp. and evaluate their antioxidant and leishmanicidal activities. Methods: Extraction of lipid fractions from the fruiting body of Ganoderma sp. was conducted by column chromatography. Structural features were determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract was evaluated with the methodologies for radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cationic radical 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS); leishmanicidal activity by flow cytometry, and cytotoxic activity with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) on cell line U937. Results: Nineteen methyl esters and ergosterol were identified by mass spectrometry in the ethanolic extract. A triterpenoid compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mean inhibitory concentration values (IC50) for antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract using the methodologies for radicals DPPH and ABTS were 85.63 µg/ml and 62.82 µg/ml, respectively. Values for cytotoxic and leishmanicidal activities were > 200.0 µg/ml and 21.5 µg/ml ± 4.4, respectively. Conclusions: The structure of the fatty acid derivatives identified corresponds to compounds with varying degrees of unsaturation. The study included the report of Ganoderma A as a triterpenoid compound. Antioxidant activity was found to be higher than in previous studies, suggesting that this organism is an important source of secondary metabolites with free radical scavenging properties. Although leishmanicidal activity values were not found to be significant, it is recommended to study other partitions of the ethanolic extract(AU)


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ganoderma , Fatty Acids , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Colombia
9.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 23(2): 109-118, 2016. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988465

ABSTRACT

Background: Natural compounds are a good source for the development of antiretroviral drugs with low cytotoxicity. The laccase enzyme, produced by fungi of the genera Ganoderma sp. and Lentinus sp., inhibits the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), in cell-free models in vitro. Objetives: In this study we evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity of the enzymatic extracts (EE) enriched with laccase, produced by two native species of fungi of the same genera in an in vitro cell culture model. Methods: The inhibition of viral replication was performed using the U373-MAGI cell line infected with recombinant viruses in the presence/absence of the EE and 48 hpi, the percentage of infected cells was evaluated by flow cytometry for green fluorescent protein ­GFP­ and ELISA for p24. The inhibition of the RT was determined by quantification of early and late products of reverse transcription using quantitative PCR. Results: The EEs from Ganoderma sp. and Lentinus sp. inhibited the replication of HIV-1 between 80 and 90% and decreased the production of early and late transcripts between 55,5%-91,3% and 82,1%-93,6% respectively. The EE from Lentinus sp. had the best selectivity index (SI: 8.3). Conclusions: These results suggest the potential anti-HIV-1 activity of the EE for the exploration of an alternative therapy against HIV-1 infection.


Antecedentes: Los compuestos naturales son una buena fuente para el desarrollo de fármacos antirretrovirales con baja citotoxicidad. La enzima lacasa, producida por hongos del género Ganoderma sp. y Lentinus sp., inhibe la transcriptasa reversa (TR) del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1), en modelos in vitro, libres de células. Objetivos: En este estudio se evaluó la actividad anti-VIH-1 del extracto enzimático (EE) enriquecido con lacasa, producida por dos especies nativas de hongos de los mismos géneros en un modelo in vitro de cultivo celular. Métodos: La inhibición de la replicación viral se realizó usando la línea celular U373-MAGI infectada con virus recombinantes en la presencia/ ausencia del EE y 48 hpi, el porcentaje de células infectadas se evaluó mediante citometría de flujo para GFP y ELISA para p24. La inhibición de la TR se determinó mediante la cuantificación de los productos tempranos y tardíos de la transcripción reversa utilizando una PCR cuantitativa. Resultados: El EE de Ganoderma sp. y Lentinus sp. inhibió la replicación del VIH-1 entre el 80 y 90% y disminuyó la producción de transcriptos tempranos y tardíos entre el 55,5% -91,3% y 82,1% -93,6%, respectivamente. El EE de Lentinus sp. mostró el mejor índice de selectividad (IS: 8.3). Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren el potencial anti-VIH-1 del EE para la exploración de una terapia alternativa contra la infección por el VIH-1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents , HIV-1 , Biological Products , Lentinula , Ganoderma , Laccase
10.
Mycobiology ; : 217-236, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729718

ABSTRACT

Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species, 69 genera, 22 families, and 11 orders were recognized. Half (74 species) of the species were polypores, and the other half (75 species) were corticioid fungi. Most of the species belonged to Polyporales (92 species) followed by Hymenochaetales (33 species) and Russulales (11 species). At the genus level, a high number of species was observed from Steccherinum, Hyphodontia, Phanerochaete, Postia, and Trametes. Concerning distribution, almost all the species could be found below 1,000 m, and only 20% of the species were observed from above 1,000 m. Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, T. pubescens, Bjerkandera adusta, and Ganoderma applanatum had wide distribution areas. Deciduous wood was the preferred substrate for the collected species. Sixty-three species were new to this region, and 21 species were new to Korea, of which 17 species were described and illustrated.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Biological Products , Classification , Coriolaceae , Fruit , Fungi , Ganoderma , Humans , Korea , Parks, Recreational , Phanerochaete , Polyporales , Trametes , Wood
11.
Mycobiology ; : 1-6, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729460

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of use as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species remains controversial, since they were initially classified on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that G. lucidum from China be renamed as G. sichuanense or G. lingzhi. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region rDNA sequences of the Ganoderma species indicated that all strains of the Korean 'G. lucidum' clustered into one group together with G. sichuanense and G. lingzhi from China. However, strains from Europe and North American, which were regarded as true G. lucidum, were positioned in a clearly different group. In addition, the average size of the basidiospores from the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains was similar to that of G. lingzhi. Based on these results, we propose that the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains of 'G. lucidum' should be renamed as G. lingzhi.


Subject(s)
Asians , China , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Europe , Ganoderma , Humans , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Phylogeny , Reishi
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328301

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Ganoderma lipsiense extract (GLE) on the growth of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231-HM in a mouse model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The mouse model of TNBC was established by subcutaneous injection of 1.5 x 10(6) of MDA-MB-231-HM cells into BALB/c-nu mouse. Twenty successfully modeled mice were divided into the GLE group and the negative control group according to random digit table, 10 in each group. GLE (0.2 mL 100 mg/mL) was peritoneally injected to mice in the GLE group, while equal dose of normal saline was peritoneally injected to mice in the negative control group. The medication was administered once per 3 days and discontinued after 45 days. The CD34 expression was detected using immunohistochemical assay for counting microvessels. Meanwhile, expressions of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and cyclin D1 were detected using immunohistochemical assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average weight was obviously lower in the GLE group than in the negative control group [(0.33 ± 0.16) g vs (0.68 ± 0.37)g, P < 0.05]. The tumor inhibition rate was 51.4% in the GLE group. The volume of transplanted tumor was obviously lesser in the GLE group than in the negative control group (P < 0.05). Results of immunohistochemical staining showed, the microvessel density (MVD) under every field was (20.7 ± 2.1), TSP-1 positive cell count was (66.2 ± 9.2), cyclin D1 positive cell count was (33.8 ± 16.4) in the GLE group, and they were 34.0 ± 2.0, 24.0 ± 6.6, and 168.2 ± 32.6, respectively in the negative control group. There was statistical difference in all indices between the two groups (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>GLE could inhibit malignant proliferation of tumor cells by suppressing angiogenesis of blood vessels in tumor tissues and regulating cell cycles, thereby inhibiting TNBC.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Products , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cyclin D1 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ganoderma , Chemistry , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Microvessels , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Random Allocation , Thrombospondin 1 , Metabolism , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(3): 188-195, May 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750646

ABSTRACT

Background The role of polysaccharides isolated from the Ganoderma species of fungi in innate immunity has recently become a topic of research. Although some work has been conducted concerning Ganoderma lucidum, the characteristics of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma neojaponicum (Imazeki) as immunomodulatory agents are largely unknown. The aims for this study were to isolate and characterize the intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs) and extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) of G. neojaponicum from STR reactor. Results The production of EPS and IPS was optimized on day 4 of the cultivation time in 2 L STR reactor based on the amount of biomass yield, total carbohydrate, β-glucan and a-glucan content. Further analysis, both the EPSs and IPSs showed the enhancement on proliferation and increment of phagocytosis activities of macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines. Using an oral toxicity test, we also observed that 2000 mg/kg body weight/day dosage of dried G. neojaponicum mycelium does not cause any significant toxic effects on Sprague-Dawley rats in 14 d of administration. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the IPSs and EPSs of G. neojaponicum have the potential to be used as immunomodulating agents to stimulate the innate immune system for fighting infectious diseases. The polysaccharides from G. neojaponicum have to be further commercially explored as an alternative for medicinal Ganoderma variety of G. lucidum production.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Ganoderma , Immunologic Factors , Phagocytosis , Toxicity Tests, Acute , beta-Glucans/analysis , Cell Proliferation , Immunity, Innate , Macrophages
14.
Mycobiology ; : 107-117, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729853

ABSTRACT

A mycoparasite, Scytalidium parasiticum sp. nov., isolated from the basidiomata of Ganoderma boninense causing basal stem rot of oil palm in Johor, Malaysia, is described and illustrated. It is distinct from other Scytalidium species in having smaller asci and ascospores (teleomorphic stage), longer arthroconidia (anamorphic stage), hyaline to yellowish chlamydospores, and producing a fluorescent pigment. The phylogenetic position of S. parasiticum was determined by sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacers and the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene regions. A key to identify Scytalidium species with teleomorphic stage is provided.


Subject(s)
Ganoderma , Genes, rRNA , Hyalin , Malaysia , Sequence Analysis
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106148

ABSTRACT

We report four cases of Ganoderma lucidum-induced aplastic anemia involving members of the same family. A 33-year-old man and three family members were admitted to the hospital due to fever and pancytopenia. The illness arose after ingesting herbal wine containing G. lucidum 2 weeks earlier. A bone-marrow biopsy showed hypocellularity in three of the four family members (the exception was the one who died). They were treated with supportive management, including transfusions, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and empirical antibiotics for neutropenic fever. The pancytopenia improved 4-5 weeks after the symptoms first appeared.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia, Aplastic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Fever , Ganoderma , Granulocytes , Humans , Pancytopenia , Plants, Medicinal , Reishi , Wine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812522

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to prepare nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based topical gel of Ganoderma Triterpenoids (GTs) and evaluate their effects on frostbite treatment. GT-NLCs was prepared by the high pressure homogenization method and then characterized by morphology and analyses of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL). The NLCs was suitably gelled for skin permeation studies in vitro and pharmacodynamic evaluation in vivo, compared with the GT emulgel. The GT-NLC remained within the colloidal range and was uniformly dispersed after suitably gelled by carbopol preparation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study showed GT-NLCs was spherical in shape. The EE (%) and DL (%) could reach up to (81.84 ± 0.60)% and (2.13 ± 0.12)%, respectively. The result of X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed that GTs were in an amorphous state in the NLC-gel. In vitro permeation studies through rat skin indicated that the amount of GTs permeated through skin of GT-NLCs after 24 h was higher than that of GT emulsion, and GT-NLCs increased the accumulative amounts of GTs in epidermis 7.76 times greater than GT emulsion. GT-NLC-gel was found to possess superior therapeutic effect for frostbite, compared with the GT emulgel. The NLC based topical gel of GTs could improve -their therapeutic effect for frostbite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Frostbite , Drug Therapy , Ganoderma , Chemistry , Gels , Chemistry , Humans , Lipids , Chemistry , Male , Nanostructures , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1197-1208, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753682

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma includes species of great economic and ecological importance, but taxonomists judge the current nomenclatural situation as chaotic and poorly studied in the neotropics. From this perspective, phylogenetic analyses inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences have aided the clarification of the genus status. In this study, 14 specimens of Ganoderma and two of Tomophagus collected in Brazil were used for DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of the ITS and LSU regions (rDNA). The phylogenetic delimitation of six neotropical taxa (G. chalceum, G. multiplicatum, G. orbiforme, G. parvulum, G. aff. oerstedtii and Tomophagus colossus) was determined based on these Brazilian specimens and found to be distinct from the laccate Ganoderma from Asia, Europe, North America and from some specimens from Argentina. Phylogenetic reconstructions confirmed that the laccate Ganoderma is distinct from Tomophagus, although they belong to the same group. The use of taxonomic synonyms Ganoderma subamboinense for G. multiplicatum, G. boninense for G. orbiforme and G. chalceum for G. cupreum was not confirmed. However, Ganoderma parvulum was confirmed as the correct name for specimens called G. stipitatum. Furthermore, the name G. lucidum should be used only for European species. The use of valid published names is proposed according to the specimen geographical distribution, their morphological characteristics and rDNA analysis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1197-1208. Epub 2014 September 01.


Ganoderma incluye especies de gran importancia económica y ecológica, sin embargo, su nomenclatura actual es caótica y poco estudiada en el neotrópico. En este estudio se utilizaron 14 muestras de Ganoderma y dos de Tomophagus recolectados en Brasil para la extracción de ADN, amplificación y secuenciación de las regiones ITS y LSU. La delimitación filogenética de seis táxones neotropicales fue discutida con base en especímenes brasileños y secuencias del GenBank. Estas especies mostraron ser distintas de los Ganoderma lacados de Asia, Europa, América del Norte y de algunos ejemplares de Argentina. Las reconstrucciones filogenéticas confirman que los Ganoderma lacados son distintos de Tomophagus, aunque pertenecen al mismo grupo. No se confirman los sinónimos de G. subamboinense a G. multiplicatum, de G. boninense a G. orbiforme y G. chalceum a G. cupreum. G. parvulum se confirma como el nombre correcto para G. stipitatum. G. lucidum sólo se debe utilizar para especies europeas. Por lo tanto, se propone el uso de nombres publicados válidamente de acuerdo con la distribución geográfica de las muestras, características morfológicas y análisis de ADNr.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Ganoderma/cytology , Ganoderma/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321371

ABSTRACT

The chemical investigation on Ganoderma philippii led to the isolation of sixteen compounds by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. On the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, their structures were elucidated as 2, 5-dihydroxyacetophenone (1), methyl gentisate (2), (S) -dimethyl malate (3), muurola-4, 10 (14) -dien-11beta-ol (4), dihydroepicubenol (5), 5-hydroxymethylfuran carboxaldehyde (6), ergosta-7, 22E-dien-3beta-ol (7), ergosta-7, 22E-dien-3-one (8), ergosta-7, 22E-diene-2beta, 3alpha, 9alpha-triol (9), 6/beta-methoxyergo-sta-7, 22E-dien-3beta, 5alpha-diol (10), ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22E-tetraen-3-one (11), ergosta4, 6, 8-(14), 22E-etetraen-3beta-ol (12), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22E-dien-3beta-ol (13), 7alpha-methoxy-5alpha, 6alpha-epoxyergosta-8-(14), 22E-dien-3beta-ol (14), ergosta-8, 22E-diene-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta, 7alpha-tetraol (15), and ergosta-5, 23-dien-3beta-ol, acetate (16). All the compounds were obtained from this fungus for the first time, and compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the Ganoderma genus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Ganoderma , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Organic Chemicals
19.
Mycobiology ; : 42-46, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730083

ABSTRACT

The effects of the composition of a mixture containing food waste compost (FWC), rice bran (RB), and oak sawdust (SD) on the antler-type fruiting body (FB) yield of Ganoderma lucidum were studied. Experiments were performed using 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40% (w/w) FWC added to a basal growth medium consisting of 20% (w/w) RB and 80% (w/w) SD. The content of 15% FWC gave the highest FB yield (27.0 +/- 1.3 g/bottle), which was 44% higher than the yield (18.6 +/- 2.8 g/bottle) of the control treatment. However, FWC contents of 20~40% showed reduced yield (2.4~23.0 g/bottle), partly because FWC had a high Na concentration (0.6%). These results demonstrate the potential for use of FWC as a component of a growth medium for production of G. lucidum FBs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Ganoderma , Reishi , Soil
20.
Mycobiology ; : 248-251, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730033

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma is a cosmopolitan wood-rot basidiomycete that has been extensively studied for its pathogencity and medicinal properties. Identification of Ganoderma based on macro-microscopic features led to large number of synonyms which resulted in 250 taxonomic names. A Ganoderma species collected from Courtallam, Tamil Nadu was identified as G. cupreum. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from internal transcribed spacer rDNA region resolved the Indian isolate MYC1 as Ganoderma cupreum which clustered with Australian and Asian "cupreum" clade with 85% bootstrap support BS and shared 99% and 98% nucleotide similarity with Malaysian and Australian 'cupreum' respectively. This study represents the first molecular evidence of G. cupreum from Asian origin.


Subject(s)
Asians , Basidiomycota , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Ganoderma , Humans , India , Polyporales
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