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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468989

ABSTRACT

Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de [...].


Subject(s)
Apocynaceae/chemistry , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services , Garbage
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 110 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444053

ABSTRACT

Dentre os serviços de limpeza pública destaca-se a grande quantidade de resíduos orgânicos (resíduos verdes e de feira livre) resultantes da manutenção e conservação de áreas verdes e da arborização urbana como galhos, gravetos, troncos, cascas, folhas, aparas de capina e roçada de áreas públicas, assim como aqueles provenientes das sobras de feiras livres como frutas, legumes, verduras além de carcaças de peixes, moluscos e crustáceos. Estes resíduos representam uma biomassa preciosa e de composição variada, que podem ter uma destinação mais nobre ao invés de gerar altos custos e ocupar espaço nos sistemas de disposição final dos municípios. A solução para esse problema pode ser um conjunto variado de alternativas de valorização, que merecem um estudo na área. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar e apontar os caminhos de valorização dos resíduos orgânicos no município de São Roque - SP. Para tanto, foi feita a seleção de áreas para coleta dos resíduos verdes e de feira livre gerados in situ. A intenção foi caracterizar estes resíduos para buscar a solução mais adequada de valorização. Além disso, foi feita uma busca em literatura para apoiar nesta etapa de encontro dos melhores recursos tecnológicos e obter uma resposta sustentável. Os resultados obtidos sustentam uma reflexão do atual panorama dos resíduos orgânicos, sua geração e tratamento, assim como o compromisso em relação à sua destinação e valorização. Portanto, com um desfecho satisfatório, a compostagem por leiras estáticas aeradas demonstrou possuir um desenvolvimento que atende melhor às atuais necessidades da cidade em relação às outras tecnologias estudadas. Com características e controles necessários para a produção de um composto de qualidade, dentro dos padrões exigidos por lei e nas condições de tempo e área demandadas pelo município de São Roque - SP, sendo uma solução viável para vencer esse desafio na gestão dos RSU localmente e assim contribuir na edificação de cidades mais sustentáveis pelo Brasil.


Among the public cleaning services, the large amount of organic waste (green waste and free fair waste) resulting from the maintenance and conservation of green areas and urban afforestation stands out, such as branches, sticks, trunks, bark, leaves, weeding and mowing from public areas, as well as those from leftovers from free fairs such as fruits, vegetables, greens, as well as carcasses of fish, molluscs and crustaceans. These residues represent a precious biomass with varied composition, which can have a more noble destination instead of generating high costs and occupying space in the municipal final disposal systems. The solution to this problem can be a varied set of valuation alternatives, which deserve a study in the area. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize and point out the ways of valuing organic waste in the municipality of São Roque - SP. For this purpose, the selection of areas for the collection of green waste and open-air waste generated in situ was made. The intention was to characterize these residues in order to find the most appropriate recovery solution. In addition, a literature search was carried out to support this step in finding the best technological resources and obtaining a sustainable response. The results obtained support a reflection on the current panorama of organic waste, its generation and treatment, as well as the commitment in relation to its destination and valorization. Therefore, with a satisfactory outcome, composting using aerated static windrows demonstrated a development that better meets the current needs of the city in relation to the other technologies studied. With characteristics and controls necessary for the production of a quality compost, within the standards required by law and in the conditions of time and area demanded by the municipality of São Roque - SP, being a viable solution to overcome this challenge in the management of MSW locally and thus contribute to the construction of more sustainable cities in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Solid Waste , Composting , Waste Management , Garbage
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468916

ABSTRACT

Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Citrullus/chemistry , Fermentation , Bioreactors , Garbage
4.
Rev. tecnol. (St. Tecla, En línea) ; (15): 27-30, ene.-dic. 2022. tab.^c28 cm.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412635

ABSTRACT

En el beneficiado del cacao se producen una gran cantidad de residuos, las mazorcas generalmente son desechadas dentro de los mismos cultivos y genera problemáticas como la proliferación de insectos y microorganismos patógenos. De estos desechos las cáscaras son las de mayor relevancia. La Escuela de Ingeniería Química de ITCA-FEPADE evaluó añadirle valor a este subproducto, incorporando desechos de cáscara de cacao en la formulación de un sustrato para el cultivo de plántulas de hortalizas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener un sustrato orgánico que sirva de soporte material y nutritivo a partir de cáscaras de cacao criollo. La biomasa vegetal se caracterizó teniendo en cuenta parámetros como el porcentaje de humedad, pH, porcentaje de cenizas, contenido de potasio, nitrógeno y fósforo. Se ejecutaron pruebas comparativas de formulación del sustrato, siembra, cultivo y crecimiento de las plántulas de hortalizas de tomate y pepino, obteniendo como resultado la fórmula óptima de un sustrato y abono orgánico y el mejor medio de desarrollo. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, a partir de un adecuado procesamiento y aprovechamiento de las cáscaras de cacao, se puede transformar este desecho en un producto biomaterial alternativo que genera una opción de bioprospección agroindustrial. Los valores obtenidos en la caracterización fisicoquímica de las cáscaras de las mazorcas, dependen de condiciones como el tipo de suelo, variables agrometeorológicas, calidad de agua, abono y especie de la planta de cacao. El escenario de siembra condiciona el desarrollo óptimo de las plántulas; los factores como requerimiento de agua, distribución de nutrientes y estabilidad de las plántulas, se ven afectados por la relación del espacio de germinación. Como resultado de la caracterización fisicoquímica, se obtuvo: pH de 5.7, cenizas 18.83%, humedad 73.56%, celulosa 21.39%, lignina 39.81%, nitrógeno total 0.02%, fósforo total 0.02% y ausencia de potasio.


In the cacao beneficiation, a large amount of waste is produced, generally, the cacao pods are discarded within the same crops and generate problems such as the proliferation of insects and pathogenic microorganisms. The shell are the most relevant this waste. In Escuela de Ingeniería Química of ITCA-FEPADE the incorporation of cacao shell waste in the formulation of a substrate for growing vegetables was evaluated because the giving benefit to these by-products. The objective of this research was to obtain a substrate that serves as material and nutritional support for vegetable seedlings, from creole cacao shells. The vegetal biomass was characterized taking into account parameters such as moisture percentage, pH, ash percentage, potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus content. Subsequently, comparative tests of formulation, planting and growth of vegetable tomato and cucumber seedlings were carry out, obtaining as result, the optimal formula for the substrate and the best development environment. It concludes that, through an adequate processing and use of the cacao shell, it is possible to transform a waste into an alternative biomaterial product that generates an agro industrial bioprospecting option. The values obtained in the physicochemical characterization of the shells of cacao pods depend on conditions such as soil type, agrometeorological variables, water quality, fertilizer and cacao plant species. The planting environment determines the optimal development of the seedlings, factors such as water requirement, nutrient distribution and seedling stability seems affected because relation of the germination space. The results of the characterization were a pH of 5.7, ashes 18.83%, humidity 73.56%, cellulose 21.39%, lignin 39.81%, total nitrogen 0.02%, total phosphorus 0.02%, and total phosphorus 0.02% and an absence of potassium.


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Composting/methods , Garbage , Waste Products , Nutrients , Fertilizers , Bioprospecting
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468530

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the proline and protease production of different bacteria in several organic waste materials. Our aim was to produce proline and protease economically in waste that is abundantly available while reducing its environmental impact. 5 ml of different organic waste materials (OWW: Olive waste water; N.B: Nutrient Broth; EW: Eggshell; PBS: PBS buffer; PLW: Peach leaf wastes; TCW: Turkish coffee wastes; TWW: Tea waste water; WCW: Waste cheese whey; WFO: Waste frying oil) were placed in 10 ml grow tubes, inoculated and incubated for 24 h. Phosphate-buffered saline and 10% solutions of different organic wastes were added. These cultures were subsequently incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Cells were harvested at 24 h for L-proline assay. 1 ml of culture was transferred by pipette into an Eppendorf tube and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 20 min at room temperature. Cellular debris was removed by centrifuge and the supernatant was used for proline activity assays. Protease activity was determined using a modified method with casein as the substrate. We found that proline and protease can easily be produced economically using Turkish coffee wastes (TCW), Waste cheese whey (WCW) and Olive waste water (OWW) organic waste. We believe that this study will result in similar research leading to the economical use of these waste materials thus reducing their impact on the environment.


Neste estudo, investigamos a produção de prolina e protease de diferentes bactérias em diversos resíduos orgânicos. Nosso objetivo era produzir prolina e protease economicamente em resíduos que estão disponíveis em abundância, reduzindo seu impacto ambiental. Cinco ml de diferentes materiais de resíduos orgânicos (OWW: resíduos de azeitona; NB: caldo nutriente; EW: casca de ovo; PBS: tampão PBS; PLW: resíduos de folhas de pêssego; TCW: resíduos de café turco; TWW: resíduos de chá; WCW: resíduos de queijo soro de leite; WFO: óleo de fritura residual) foram colocados em tubos de cultivo de 10 ml, inoculados e incubados por 24 horas. Adicionaram-se solução salina tamponada com fosfato e soluções a 10% de diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Essas culturas foram subsequentemente incubadas a 37° C durante 24 h. As células foram colhidas às 24 h para o ensaio de L-prolina. Um ml de cultura foi transferido por pipeta para um tubo Eppendorf e centrifugado a 14.000 rpm, por 20 min, em temperatura ambiente. Os detritos celulares foram removidos por centrifugação e o sobrenadante foi usado para ensaios de atividade de prolina. A atividade da protease foi determinada usando um método modificado com caseína como substrato. Descobrimos que a prolina e a protease podem ser facilmente produzidas economicamente, usando resíduos de café turco (TCW), resíduos de soro de queijo (WCW) e resíduos orgânicos de água de oliva (OWW). Acreditamos que este estudo resultará em pesquisas semelhantes, levando ao uso econômico desses materiais residuais, reduzindo, assim, seu impacto no meio ambiente.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Proline/biosynthesis , Garbage , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1301-1308, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355670

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin concentration and reproductive performance of ewes supplemented with orange residue prior to insemination. Fifty-five multiparous ewes were divided into two corrals, and 15 unbred ewes were kept individually to measure feed consumption. Two integral diets were administered; T0: control treatment and T1: with 20% of dry matter of orange residue. Ten days after the start of supplementation, the ewes were synchronized. Supplementation was finalized prior to artificial insemination, then, a blood sample was taken to measure the antioxidant capacity and glucose and insulin concentration. An analysis of variance was made to evaluate the effect of treatment on the antioxidant capacity, glucose and insulin; and to analyze the response to estrus, percentage of gestation and prolificity a ji squared test was performed. Of 9 antioxidant compounds found in the orange residue, hesperidin (7.44%), chlorogenic acid (0.50%) and protocatechuic acid had the highest concentration. Feed intake, estrus response, percentage of gestation, antioxidant capacity, and glucose and insulin concentration were not affected by the treatment. It is concluded that inclusion of 20% of orange residue in the diet prior to insemination in ewes is possible.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e insulina e o comportamento reprodutivo de ovelhas suplementadas com resíduo de laranja antes da inseminação. Cinquenta e cinco ovelhas multíparas foram divididas em dois currais e 15 ovelhas sem raça foram mantidas individualmente para se medir o consumo de ração. Duas dietas integrais foram administradas; T0: tratamento controle e T1: dieta com 20% de resíduo de laranja seco. Dias após o início da suplementação, as ovelhas foram sincronizadas. A suplementação foi finalizada antes da inseminação artificial e, em seguida, foi coletada uma amostra de sangue para medir a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração de glicose e insulina. Uma análise de variância foi feita para avaliar o efeito do tratamento sobre a capacidade antioxidante, a glicose e a insulina, e um teste do ji quadrado foi realizado para analisar a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação e de prolificidade. Dos nove compostos antioxidantes encontrados no resíduo laranja, a hesperidina (7,44%), o ácido clorogênico (0,50%) e o ácido protocatecuico foram os de maior concentração. O consumo alimentar, a resposta ao estro, a porcentagem de gestação, a capacidade antioxidante, a concentração de glicose e a insulina não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Conclui-se que é possível a inclusão de 20% de resíduos de laranja na dieta antes da inseminação em ovelhas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Blood Glucose/analysis , Sheep/physiology , Citrus sinensis/metabolism , Estrus Synchronization/methods , Insulins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Garbage
7.
Perspect. nutr. hum ; 23(2): 143-157, jul.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375983

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: los alimentos desperdiciados en ventas al detalle en Latinoamérica (15 %) podrían suplir las necesidades alimenticias del 64 % de quienes sufren hambre en la región. Objetivo: determinar los desperdicios de alimentos en tres servicios de alimentación de la sede Rodrigo Facio de la Universidad de Costa Rica a partir de la guía de medición de la Red Costarricense para Disminuir la Pérdida y el Desperdicio de Alimentos. Materiales y métodos: los desperdicios en los servicios de alimentación N1 y N2 fueron medidos en 2018 y 2019 y en el N3 en 2019; se realizaron 15 mediciones siguiendo la metodología de la guía y se reportaron como porcentaje del total de producción de sólidos. Resultados: los desperdicios en la producción total fueron 15,0-16,6 % en 2018 y 6,4-11,5 % en 2019. No se encontraron diferencias entre los servicios de alimentación en la producción promedio (p=0,1467), en el desperdicio del área de almacenamiento (p=0,1293) ni en la producción de alimentos (p=0,7718). Se encontraron diferencias en el desperdicio entre los servicios de alimentación en el área de servicio: desperdicios en barra (p=0,0197), en plato/ desayuno (p=0,0075) y en plato/almuerzo (p=0,0362). Conclusiones: la cantidad de desperdicios encontrados son menores a los reportados en otros estudios.


Abstract Background: Food wasted in retail in Latinamerica (15%) could supply the nutritional needs of 64% of the hungry in the region. Objective: To determine food waste in three food services of the Rodrigo Facio campus of the Universidad de Costa Rica, using the measurement guide of the Costa Rican Network to reduce food loss and waste. Materials and Methods: Waste in food services N1 and N2 were measured in 2018 and 2019, and in the N3 in 2019. In total 15 measurements were made following the methodology of the guide and they were reported as a percentage of total solids production. Results: Waste in total production was 15.0-16.6% in 2018 and 6.4-11.5% in 2019. No differences were found between food services in average production (p=0.1467), in the waste storage area (p=0.1293), nor food production (p = 0.7718). Differences in waste were found between food services in the service area: Waste in the service bar (p=0.0197), in plate/breakfast (p=0.0075), and in plate/lunch (p=0.0362). Conclusions: The amount of waste found is lower than that reported in other studies.


Subject(s)
Garbage
8.
Hig. aliment ; 35(292): e1027, Jan.-Jun. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1399825

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o índice de resto e ingesta em um restaurante de empresa privada, que possui clientela fixa. Para a mensuração desse índice, foram utilizadas 25 numerações aleatórias nos pratos dispostos na unidade de alimentação e nutrição, os quais foram pesados inicialmente e recolhidos ao final das refeições, e colocados em fórmula padrão para o cálculo desse índice. Foram observados que de acordo com a média e desvio padrão, o índice de resto e ingesta foi maior que 10%, o que mostra desperdício de alimentos nessa unidade, o que aumenta os custos ao final da produção, visto que o tempo dispendido em cada etapa da produção é somado ao custo final, sendo importante que haja ações educativas para capacitação dos colaboradores da unidade a fim de diminuir o quantitativo de refeições rejeitadas, fazendo só a quantidade suficiente para cada.(AU)


The present study aims to evaluate the rate of reinstatement and entrance to the restaurant of a private company, which has a fixed clientele. To measure this index, 25 random numbers were used in dishes arranged in the food and nutrition unit, which were weighed and collected at the end of meals, and used in the standard method for calculating the index. It was observed that the agreement with mean and standard deviation, the rest ratio and the input was greater than 10%, which shows the waste of food in this unit, which increases the costs until the final production, given the time spent in each the production stage is added to the final cost, and it is important that there are educational actions to train the unit's employees and reduce the quantitative value of rejected meals, thus making the quantity sufficient for each meal schedule.(AU)


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Eating , Garbage , Menu Planning/methods , Cost Efficiency Analysis , Food Production
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 96 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390906

ABSTRACT

Esta dissertação busca estudar formas para valorização de resíduos orgânicos (RO) por meio da técnica de digestão anaeróbia e redução de desperdício em empresa do ramo industrial alimentício responsável pelo fornecimento de suprimentos alimentares para restaurantes do tipo "fast-food". O panorama atual dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil indica que a fração orgânica representa mais da metade de sua composição, descartando como rejeito o que, nos moldes da economia circular, pode ser tratado como resíduo, sendo reinserido na cadeia produtiva e promovendo assim, grande redução dos impactos ambientais causados por sua destinação inadequada. A digestão anaeróbia consiste em viável alternativa para o aproveitamento de um valoroso subproduto dos resíduos orgânicos (RO), o metano; esse tratamento promove entalpia do resíduo e garante sua valorização de forma ampla. O resíduo abordado neste estudo consiste em itens que compõem sanduíches de rede "fast food", os quais serão avaliados de acordo com seu potencial de produção de metano; além disso, foi feita uma análise dos critérios utilizados pela empresa deste estudo para classificar o alimento como avaria, possibilitando a abertura de caminhos no quesito redução de desperdícios, tornando ínfima a quantidade destinada a aterros. Os resíduos orgânicos gerados pela empresa foram analisados em escalada de bancada identificando sua viabilidade para a produção de metano através de conjuntos eudiômetros, porém a rápida velocidade de hidrólise resultou em acidificação dos resíduos impedindo a ocorrência da metanogênese. Os resultados demonstraram a grande importância de ampliar o espectro de análises incluindo dados como relação Carbono/Nitrogênio e DQO (Demanda Química de Oxigênio) e DBO (Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio) para equilibrar parâmetros capazes de permitir a ocorrência de todas as etapas da biodigestão, uma vez que a estrutura disponível no desenvolvimento desta pesquisa não permitiu tal aprofundamento. Um manual de redução de desperdícios com foco nos Rs foi desenvolvido a fim de aprimorar processos de descarte que resultam hoje em grande geração de resíduos no cenário deste estudo.


This dissertation seeks to study ways to valorize organic waste (OR) through the technique of anaerobic digestion and waste reduction in a food industrial company responsible for the supply of food supplies for "fast-food" restaurants. The current scenario of solid waste in Brazil indicates that the organic fraction represents more than half of its composition, discarding as waste what, in the circular economy molds, can be treated as waste, being reinserted in the production chain and thus promoting a large reduction of environmental impacts caused by its improper disposal. Anaerobic digestion is a viable alternative for the use of a valuable by-product of organic waste (OR), the methane; this treatment promotes enthalpy of the waste and ensures its recovery in a broad way. The waste addressed in this study consists of items that make up "fast food" sandwiches, which will be evaluated according to their potential for methane production; furthermore, an analysis was made of the criteria used by the company of this study to classify the food as a malfunction, enabling the opening of ways in the waste reduction item, making the amount destined to landfills minimal. The organic waste generated by the company was analyzed in bench scale, identifying its viability for methane production through eudiometer sets, but the fast speed of hydrolysis resulted in acidification of the waste preventing the occurrence of methanogenesis. The results showed the great importance of broadening the spectrum of analyses by including data such as Carbon/Nitrogen ratio and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) to balance parameters capable of allowing the occurrence of all stages of biodigestion, since the structure available in the development of this research did not allow such deepening. A waste reduction manual focused on the Rs was developed in order to improve disposal processes that currently result in large waste generation in the scenario of this study.


Subject(s)
Waste Products , Food Losses , Anaerobic Digestion , Hunger , Eating , Fast Foods , Recycling , Garbage
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200102, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278441

ABSTRACT

Abstract The synergism of food waste associated with swine manure can provide an increase in biogas production, besides promoting greater stability in the anaerobic co-digestion process. To verify this effect, co-digestion tests were performed in two reactors, one with agitation, and the other without agitation. In both systems, gasometers were used to measure biogas production in an experiment lasting two hydraulic retention times (HRT). On each feeding day, the temperatures of the ambient and of the effluent taken from the reactors were measured, and samples of the food waste and effluent were collected to perform analysis of pH, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), fixed solids (FS), volatile acidity (AV), and total alkalinity (TA). In addition, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was determined every five days, and gas composition was determined at the beginning of the second HRT. As important results, in both reactors a decrease in pH was verified due to the weakening of the buffer effect of the medium. This was due to the low alkalinity found in the food waste, causing an increase in acidity in the contents of the reactors. The volume of biogas produced was higher in the reactor with agitation, which meant an increased efficiency of the process. Finally, a low methane content was verified through chromatographic analyses, indicating a reduction in the activity of the microorganisms present in the medium. Thus, it is concluded that agitation linked to anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure with food waste exerted a positive effect on biogas production.


Subject(s)
Biofuels , Garbage , Anaerobic Digestion , Activated Sludges
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200319, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345491

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alkaline pectinase is the utmost significant industrial enzyme of the bioscouring process. By considering bio scouring of cotton, 30 microbial isolates from fruit and vegetable waste rich dump soil of Solang Valley and Vasishta (Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India) were isolated and screened for the alkaline pectinase production in the current research work. Only four isolates P3, P16, P21, and P27 were capable to produce extracellular alkaline pectinase at pH 9. Further by applying submerged fermentation, the alkaline pectinase production was quantitatively screened. The most efficient isolate was P3 identified as Bacillus tropicus, based on morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization. Molecular characteristics confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The nucleotide sequence of the isolate was novel with a 97% similarity index and submitted to the GenBank with accession number MK332379. The Bacillus strain selected was active at broad pH range from 8-10.5 and a temperature range from 25-50 oC. Optimum pH and temperature observed were 9 and 37 oC respectively and can be suitably used for the bio scouring process for the pretreatment of the fabrics.


Subject(s)
Polygalacturonase , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Garbage
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 46-52, nov. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fructose and single cell protein are important products for the food market. Abundant amounts of low-grade dates worldwide are annually wasted. In this study, highly concentrated fructose syrups and single cell protein were obtained through selective fermentation of date extracts by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RESULTS: The effect of air flow (0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 vvm) and pH (4.5, 4.8, 5, 5.3 and 5.6) was investigated. Higher air flow led to lower fructose yield. The optimum cell mass production of 10 g/L was achieved at air flow of 1.25 vvm with the fructose yield of 91%. Similar cell mass production was obtained in the range pH of 5.0­5.6, while less cell mass was obtained at pH less than 5. Controlling the pH at 4.5, 5.0 and 5.3 failed to improve the production of cell mass which were 5.6, 5.9 and 5.4 g/L respectively; however, better fructose yield was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Extension of the modified Gompertz enabled excellent predictions of the cell mass, fructose production and fructose fraction. The proposed model was also successfully validated against data from literatures. Thus, the model will be useful for wide application of biological processes.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Phoeniceae , Fructose/biosynthesis , Aerobiosis , Mathematical Concepts , Fermentation , Garbage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
13.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e41995, jan.- mar.2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103904

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O desperdício é um grande problema enfrentado pelo Brasil, em função dos hábitos alimentares, sendo o aproveitamento de cascas de frutas, folhas e talos de hortaliças ainda baixo. Sabe-se, no entanto, que a utilização dessas partes tradicionalmente não aproveitadas pode contribuir para a produção de alimentos mais saudáveis, nutritivos e com menor impacto negativo para o meio ambiente. Objetivo: Aproveitar os vegetais na sua forma integral ou de suas partes alimentícias não convencionais, e caracterizar as farinhas obtidas, com vistas à alimentação humana. Métodos: As farinhas foram obtidas de banana verdes (casca e polpa), casca de tangerina, casca e polpa de berinjela e bagaço de uva oriundo da produção de suco de uva, que foram secas em estufa ventilada a 40°C por 48 horas. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Resultados: As farinhas apresentaram alto teor de fibras (17,7 a 48,94 g/100g) e compostos fenólicos (778,81 a 2708,11 mg EAG/100g), e baixo teor de lipídeos (0,70 a 3,40 g/100g). Para a quantidade de proteínas, a farinha de berinjela foi a que mais se destacou (13,81 g/100g), podendo ser uma alternativa aos indivíduos que não consomem produtos de origem animal. Conclusões: Todas as farinhas são seguras do ponto de vista microbiológico, de acordo com a legislação vigente, e portanto, podem ser utilizadas na alimentação humana para aumentar o aporte de nutrientes e diminuir os impactos da poluição, contribuindo para a manutenção do meio ambiente e gerando renda. (AU)


Introduction: Waste is a great problem faced by Brazil, due to dietary habits, with a low use of fruit peels, leaves and stems of vegetables. However, it is known that the use of these parts traditionally not used can contribute to the production of healthier and more nutritious food with less negative impact on the environment. Objective: Take advantage of vegetables in their entirety or from their non-conventional food parts, and to characterize the flours obtained, for human consumption. Methods: Flours were obtained from green bananas (peel and pulp), tangerine peel, eggplant peel and pulp and grape marc from grape juice production, which were dried in a ventilated oven at 40 ° C for 48 hours. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were realized. Results: Flours showed a high fiber (17.7 to 48.94 g/100g) and phenolic compounds (778.81 to 2708.11 mg EAG/100g) content, and low lipid content (0.70 to 3.40 g/100g). For the amount of proteins, eggplant flour was the one that stood out the most (13.81g/100g), it can be an alternative to individuals who do not consume animal products. Conclusions: All flours are safe in a microbiological point of view, according to current legislation, and therefore they can be used in food to increase the supply of nutrients and reduce the impacts of pollution, contributing to the environment maintenance and income generating. (AU)


Subject(s)
Whole Utilization of Foods , Plants, Edible , Garbage
14.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e46753, fev. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460939

ABSTRACT

Metals are non-biodegradable and recurrent in the environs. Heavy metals tolerant fungiwere isolated from refuse dumpsite soil using pour plate method. These fungiwere identified as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenumandRhizomucor sp. The fungal isolates were screened for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) with concentration of 200ppm, 400ppm and 600ppm. Aspergillus nigerand Penicillium chrysogenumshowed high tolerance for the metals in contrast to the control. The fungiwith high tolerance were used for biosorption study. However, Penicillium chrysogenumshowed higher lead removal or biosorption potential of 1.07ppm, 3.35ppm and 4.19ppm as compared with Aspergillus nigerwith lead removal of 0.67ppm, 3.11ppm and 3.79ppm at 5th, 10thand 15thday respectively. One-way Analysis of Variance was used to interpret the data generated from the biosorption study which revealed that there was no significant different (p>0.05)between the lead removal of Aspergillus nigerandPenicillium chrysogenumon the 5thday but there was significant difference (p<0.05)in the lead removal of Aspergillus nigerand Penicillium chrysogenumon the 10thand 15thday. This study suggests the use of these fungal isolates for removal and biotreatment of heavy metal contaminated and polluted environment.


Subject(s)
Soil Analysis , Fungi/physiology , Lead Poisoning , Garbage , Aspergillus niger , Penicillium chrysogenum , Rhizomucor
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1595-1600, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038643

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade do farelo de palmiste (Elaeis guineensis) para o tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), em duas classes de peso: 1 (210 alevinos de 4,45±1,18g) e 2 (54 juvenis de 115,91±4,01g). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta do farelo de palmiste foram avaliados pela metodologia de substituição da dieta referência, utilizando-se 0,1% de óxido crômico como indicador externo. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Student, a 5% de probabilidade. Os CDAs da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta do ingrediente foram iguais (P>0,05) nas classes de peso avaliadas. Os CDAs observados nas classes 1 e 2, respectivamente, foram: matéria seca (17,52% e 20,75%), proteína bruta (62,83% e 63,75%) e energia bruta (14,16% e 22,43%). A capacidade do tambaqui para digerir os nutrientes do farelo de palmiste não foi influenciada pelo peso corporal, e o aproveitamento satisfatório da proteína (63,29%) faz desse ingrediente uma potencial fonte alternativa de proteína em dietas para a espécie.(AU)


The objective of this work was to determine the digestibility of palm kernel meal (Elaeis guineensis) in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), in two weight classes: 1 (210 fingerlings of 4.45±1.18g) and 2 (54 juveniles of 115.91±4.01g). The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy of the palm kernel meal were evaluated by the substitution of the reference diet methodology, using 0.1% chromic oxide as an external indicator. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test at 5% probability. The dry matter, crude protein and crude energy ADCs of the ingredient were the same (P> 0.05) in the weight classes evaluated. The ADCs observed in classes 1 and 2, respectively, were: dry matter (17.52% and 20.75%), crude protein (62.83% and 63.75%) and crude energy (14.16% and 22.43%). The ability of tambaqui to digest the nutrients of palm kernel meal was not influenced by body weight, and satisfactory protein utilization (63.29%) makes this ingredient a potential alternative source of protein in diets for the species.(AU)


Subject(s)
Elaeis guineensis , Aquaculture/methods , Characidae/growth & development , Garbage , Animal Feed/analysis
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1759-1763, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038662

ABSTRACT

It was determined by the total collection of excreta method, with broilers from 22 to 32 days of age, the coefficients of apparent metabolism of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for zero nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the ethanol co-products of corn: acid oil and dried distillery grains with soluble (DDGS). The DDGS and corn acid oil presented nutritional metabolization coefficients ranging from 43 to 83% and AMEn equal 2393.5 and 7859.2kcal/kg respectively, and may be food alternatives to soybean meal and soybean oil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Biomass , Zea mays , Ethanol/analysis , Garbage , Animal Feed/analysis
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 732-740, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048631

ABSTRACT

Soil organic matter has a strong relation to total organic carbon, and about 85% of organic carbon consists of humic substances (HS), classified as humin (HU), humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), and denominated as recalcitrant carbon in soil. HS are formed by complex, heterogeneous and polydisperse molecules, which have significant influence on the soil physical and chemical characteristics. The study evaluates the hypothesis that agricultural soils treated with organic residues may present higher carbon stocks as presented in forest soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen stocks in Oxisol (Forest - FL, unfertilized Brachiaria - UB, and fertilized Brachiaria - FB) and Cambisol (Forest - FC, Coastcross - CC, sugarcane - CA, and silage corn - SM) at surface (0.0 - 0.1) and subsurface (0.1 - 0.2 m), in the Zona da Mata in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Result shows that fertilization, low soil disturbance and residual removal promoted increase of C and N content in HS, being close to native forests. Both, carbon and nitrogen recalcitrant, presented reduction with soil depth. HU ranged from 10.5 to 16.7 g kg-1 and presented the highest concentration compared to FA and HA. In Oxisol, FL and FB presented the highest SH concentration and demonstrate the positive effect of fertilization on carbon stocks improving soil quality in well-managed and productive areas. While, In Cambisol, FC and CC presented higher carbon and nitrogen in HS, mainly for HU and HA fractions, and SM showed the lowest concentrations in all fractions. Our results suggest that soil managements with lower soil disturbance and residual removal promotes increasing of carbon and nitrogen in recalcitrant fraction, with concentration close to native forests. Pasture should be fertilized to improve recalcitrant carbon and nitrogen stocks, avoiding process of degradation in tropical soil. It is an important outcome due to high levels of degraded areas in Brazil caused by inadequate use of soil mainly with pasture.


A matéria orgânica do solo tem uma forte relação com o carbono orgânico total, cerca de 85% do carbono orgânico é composto por substâncias húmicas (HS), classificadas como humina (HU), ácidos húmicos (HA) e fúlvicos (FA), denominadas como carbono recalcitrante no solo. As HS são formadas por moléculas complexas, heterogêneas e polidispersas, que exercem influência significativa nas características físicas e químicas do solo. O estudo avalia a hipótese de que solos agrícolas tratados com resíduos orgânicos podem apresentar maiores estoques de carbono como os encontrados em solos florestais. O objetivo destetrabalho foi avaliar as alterações nos estoques de carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrantes em Latossolo (Floresta - FL, Brachiaria não fertilizada ­ UB, e Brachiaria fertilizada - FB) e Cambissolo (Floresta - FC, coastcross - CC, cana-de-açúcar e milho para silagem - SM) na superfície (0,0 - 0,1) e sub-superfície (0,1 - 0,2 m), na Zona da Mata em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os resultados mostram que a adubação, a baixa perturbação do solo e a remoção dos resíduos promoveram aumento do teor de C e N na HS, estando próximos às florestas nativas. Ambos, carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrantes, apresentaram redução com a profundidade do solo. A HU variou de 10,5 a 16,7 g kg-1 e apresentou a maior concentração em relação à FA e HA. Em Latossolo, FL e FB apresentaram a maior concentração de SH e demonstraram o efeito positivo da adubação nos estoques de carbono, melhorando a qualidade do solo em áreas bem manejadas e produtivas. Enquanto, no Cambissolo, FC e CC apresentarammaiores teores de carbono e nitrogênio nas HS, principalmente nas frações HU e HA, e SM apresentou as menores concentrações em todas as frações. Nossos resultados mostram que manejos de solo com menor perturbação e remoção de resíduos promovem o aumento de carbono e nitrogênio em frações recalcitrantes, com concentração próxima às florestas nativas. A pastagem deve ser fertilizada para melhorar o estoque de carbono e nitrogênio recalcitrante, evitando o processo de degradação do solo tropical. Este é um resultado importante devido aos altos níveis de áreas degradadas no Brasil causadas pelo uso inadequado do solo,principalmente com pastagens.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Zones , Brachiaria , Garbage , Carbon , Tropical Ecosystem , Nitrogen
20.
NOVA publ. cient ; 17(31): 129-163, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056784

ABSTRACT

Resumen La biodiversidad de los microorganismos así como la naturaleza única y las capacidades biosintéticas en condiciones ambientales específicas hacen que los microorganismos sean los probables candidatos para resolver problemas de escases de alimentos, contro de plagas, biodegradación de los xenobióticos, descomposición de la basura, las pilas de desechos producidas, entre otros. Los microorganismos ofrecen un gran potencial para la exploración de moléculas y procesos, y el conocimiento de las especies no convencionales, especialmente dentro del grupo Archaea, ha estimulado la investigación molecular de genes de interés. Estos nuevos genes pueden incorporarse mediante tecnología recombinante en especies biológicamente conocidas, como E. coli y S. cerevisiae, para la síntesis a gran escala de productos. La microbiología tecnológica tiene grandes potenciales para explorar y obstáculos por superar. Por lo tanto, solo la investigación en esta área resulta prometedora para científicos en todo el mundo. En la presente revisión se presentan las aplicaciones más significativas de los microorganismos en la industria de alimentos, la agricultura, compuestos químicos, combustibles, farmacología y materiales.


Abstract The biodiversity of microorganisms as well as the unique nature and biosynthetic capabilities in specific environmental conditions make microorganisms the likely candidates to solve problems of food shortages, pest control, biodegradation of xenobiotics, decomposition of garbage, batteries of produced waste, among others. Microorganisms offer great potential for the exploration of molecules and processes, and knowledge of non-conventional species, especially within the Archaea group, has stimulated the molecular investigation of genes of interest. These new genes can be incorporated by recombinant technology into biologically known species, such as E. coli and S. cerevisiae, for the large-scale synthesis of products. Technological microbiology has great potentials to explore and obstacles to overcome. Therefore, only research in this area is promising for scientists around the world. In this review we present the most significant applications of microorganisms in the food industry, agriculture, chemical compounds, fuels, pharmacology and materials.


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Xenobiotics , Food Industry , Garbage , Microbiology
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