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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 141-154, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153057

ABSTRACT

The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae and their antigenic proteins, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in Wistar albino rats. Nematode worms were isolated from the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax. They were examined and taxonomically identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: a control group (I), a garlic oil (GO) inoculated group (II), a fresh L3 inoculated group (III), a thermally treated L3 inoculated group (IV), a fresh L3 + GO inoculated group (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated group (VI). It was observed that rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 crude extracts showed abnormal oxidative stress markers associated with the destruction of normal architecture of spleen and thymus. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO administration via the amelioration of oxidative stress markers, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure of the organs' histology. Cooking of L3 infected fish induced severe physiological and histopathological alterations compared to uncooked infected fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.(AU)


O consumo de peixes tratados termicamente de forma inadequada é um risco à saúde pública devido à possível propagação das larvas de Anisakis e suas proteínas antigênicas, o agente causador da doença zoonótica anisakidose. O presente estudo demonstrou as alterações fisiológicas e histopatológicas que acompanharam a inoculação oral de extratos brutos de Anisakis Tipo II (L3) frescos e termicamente tratados em ratos Wistar albinos. Vermes nematoides foram isolados do peixe marinho Dicentrarchus labrax e foram examinados e identificados taxonomicamente usando microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O estudo foi realizado em 6 grupos de ratos: grupo controle (I), grupo inoculado com óleo de alho (GO) (II), grupo inoculado com L3 fresco (III), grupo inoculado com L3 tratado termicamente (IV), grupo inoculado com L3 + GO fresco (V), e grupo inoculado com L3 + GO tratado termicamente (VI). Observou-se que ratos inoculados com extrato bruto L3 fresco e tratado termicamente mostraram marcadores de estresse oxidativo anormais associados à destruição da estrutura normal do baço e do timo. GO produziu um efeito protetor em grupos de ratos inoculados com extrato L3 + administração de GO através da melhoria dos marcadores de estresse oxidativo, que foi confirmada pela marcante estrutura normal da histologia dos órgãos. O cozimento de peixes infectados com L3 induziu alterações fisiológicas e histopatológicas graves quando comparado com peixes infectados não cozidos. Recomenda-se a administração de alho antes e depois da ingestão do peixe para evitar o efeito perigoso dos anisakídeos, mesmo se cozidos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anisakis , Anisakiasis/therapy , Anisakiasis/veterinary , Fishes/parasitology , Garlic/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Rats, Wistar
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(1): 23-35, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1290962

ABSTRACT

The excessive use of antibiotics has increased pathogenic microorganisms resistance, which derives in patient mortality. Therefore, the strategies for searching new natural and unconventional strategies has become constant and important. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) against stingless bees propolis. Methods: We evaluated nine (20 %) propolis from stingless bees ethanolic extracts from different regions: Melipona beecheii, Melipona solani, Tetragonisca angustula and Scaptotrigona mexicana. The chemical characterization was performed by liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbial resistance tests by the macrodilution method, to determine the effect of the combinations. Results: The compounds that were of interests and the most abundant were the following; hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanones, flavonoids and the glycosylated derivatives. Four of the nine propolis were effective against MRSA, which came from the following species; one from M. solani and three from S. mexicana. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S. mexicana was in the range of 3-8 mg mL-1 and for M. solani it was 4 mg mL-1. Isobolographic studies resulted in an additive effect (ɤ = 1) for the combination of Allium sativum with the S. mexicana propolis sambles and an antagonistic effect (ɤ > 1) for the combination of A. sativum with the propolis of M. solani. Conclusions: the combination of extracts with lower concentrations of A. sativum, may be the most effective, than those that were individually tested. More detailed studies are required to define the mechanisms of stingless bees propolis as well as their combination with other organic substances.


Introducción: El uso excesivo de antibióticos ha traído el aumento de resistencia en los microorganismos patógenos que provocan mortalidad de los pacientes. Por consiguiente, la búsqueda de nuevas estrategias naturales y no convencionales se ha vuelto constante e importante. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad antimicrobiana contra Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) de los propóleos por abejas sin aguijón. Métodos: Nueve fueron los extractos etanolicos de propóleos al 20 % de las abejas sin aguijón de distintas regiones: de Melipona beecheii, de Melipona solani, de Tetragonisca angustula y de Scaptotrigona mexicana. Se realizó la caracterización química de los compuestos por cromatografía liquida y las pruebas de resistencia microbiana por el método de macrodilución para determinar el efecto de las combinaciones. Resultados: Los compuestos de interés fueron detectados, y destacan como los más abundantes los ácidos hidroxicinámicos, flavanonas, flavonoides y sus derivados glicosilados. Cuatro de los nueve propóleos resultaron efectivos contra SARM, los cuales provinieron, uno de Melipona solani y tres de Scaptotrigona mexicana. La CMI para S. mexicana está en el rango de 3-8 mg mL-1 y para M. solani fue de 4 mg mL-1. Los estudios isobolográficos dieron como resultado un efecto aditivo (ɤ = 1) para la combinación de Allium sativum con los 3 propóleos de S. mexicana y un efecto antagónico (ɤ > 1) para la combinación de A. sativum con el propóleos de M. solani. Conclusiones: la combinación de extractos menores puede ser más efectiva que usando la CE50 de los extractos de forma individual. Se requieren estudios más detallados para definir los mecanismos de los propóleos de las abejas sin aguijón, así como su combinación con otras sustancias orgánicas.


Subject(s)
Propolis , Garlic , Chromatography , Anti-Infective Agents
3.
Alger. J. health sci. (Online. Oran) ; 3(2): 9-14, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292903

ABSTRACT

Introduction : En peu de temps, une flambée épidémique localisée de COVID 19 s'est transformée en une pandémie mondiale avec un taux brut de létalité supérieur à 3 %. L'objectif de notre travail était d'observer l'effet de l'ail (Allium sativum L.) chez les malades atteints du coronavirus COVID 19. Matériel et Méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude d'intervention avant et après menée chez des personnes déclarées PCR positive ayant développées des formes plus ou moins sévères de la maladie et ont mal réagi au schéma thérapeutique reçu à domicile. La dose administrée est de 6 caïeux moyens (24g) d'ail écrasés trois fois par jour pendant trois jours. Résultats : une amélioration de l'état général avec disparition de la plupart des symptômes (fièvre, céphalées, asthénie, agueusie, anosmie et diarrhées) a été observée dès le deuxième jour du traitement chez tous les patients. Conclusion : Les résultats obtenus après utilisation de l'ail chez les malades atteints du SARS-CoV-2 nous encouragent à lancer une étude en milieu hospitalier sur un échantillon plus important afin de renforcer les résultats de cette étude préliminaire par des tests statistiques appropriés.


Introduction: In a short time, a localized outbreak of COVID 19 has evolved into a global pandemic with a crude case fatality rate of over 3%. The objective of our work was to observe the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in patients with the COVID 19 coronavirus. Material and Methods: This is an intervention study before and after carried out in people declared PCR positive who have developed more or less severe forms of the disease and have reacted badly to the treatment regimen received at home. The administered dose is 6 medium cloves (24g) of crushed garlic three times a day for three days. Results: An improvement in the general condition with resolution of most of the symptoms (fever, headache, asthenia, ageusia, anosmia and diarrhea) was observed from the second day of treatment in all patients. Conclusion: The results obtained after using garlic in patients with SARS-CoV-2 encourage us to initiate a study in a hospital setting on a larger sample in order to strengthen the results of this preliminary study with appropriate statistical tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Therapeutics , Garlic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Algeria
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 412-441, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1141472

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial, incrementándose su relevancia ante la reciente infección por SARS-CoV-2, causante de la pandemia de COVID-19. Las opciones terapéuticas para esta infección respiratoria son escasas y sin eficacia comprobada. El objetivo de esta revisión fue buscar la información sobre plantas con actividad antiviral o viricida publicada en los últimos 10 años, en las bases de datos de Google Scholar, Scopus y PubMed. La búsqueda priorizó aquellas especies disponibles en Guatemala, la cual se complementó con la búsqueda de moléculas con actividad antiviral para finalmente postular aquellas que puedan prevenir la infección o aminorar la patogénesis del SARS-CoV-2. Se detectaron más de 170 especies con actividad antiviral y se organizó la información por país o región y tipo de actividad antiviral contra virus específicos. De las especies de mayor disponibilidad en Guatemala se seleccionaron 20. La revisión culmina con 15 artículos que proponen plantas o moléculas con potencial actividad específica en el manejo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Se concluye que existen especies vegetales (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis y Eucalyptus globulus) y fitocompuestos vegetales (hesperidina, rutina, diosmina, apiina, aloe-emodina, piperina, capsaicina, curcumina, oleuropeina, rhamnetina y gallato de epicatequina) que podrían contribuir al manejo de la enfermedad. Se insta a académicos y autoridades a poner más atención a estas opciones terapéuticas que nos ofrece la naturaleza y que podrían contribuir a aliviar el colapso de los sistemas de salud prevalentes.


Respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, increasing their relevance by the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic options for this respiratory infection are scarce and without proven effectiveness. The objective of this review was the search for information on plants with antiviral or viricidal activity published in the last 10 years in the Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed databases. The search prioritized those species available in Guatemala, was completed with the search of molecules with potential to prevent infection or reduce the activity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 170 species with antiviral activity were detected and the information organized in surveys by country or region, activity against specific viruses and antiviral information on the 20 most commonly available species in the country. It is complemented with a summary of 15 articles that proposed plants or molecules with potential specific activity in the management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is concluded there are plant species (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus) and phytocompounds isolated from these species (hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, apiine, aloe-emodin, piperine, capsaicin, curcumin, oleuropein and epicatechin gallate) that could contribute to the management of the disease. Academics and authorities are urged to pay more attention to these therapeutic options that nature offer to us and could contribute to alleviate the collapse of the prevailing health systems in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Infections , Therapeutics , Catechin/therapeutic use , Echinacea , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Salvia officinalis , Psidium , Diosmin , Aloe , Eucalyptus , Betacoronavirus , Garlic , COVID-19 , Guatemala , Hesperidin
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1600-1606, 01-09-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147829

ABSTRACT

Growth measurements such as leaf area (LA) and dry matter (DM) are important in experiments about plants population, fertilization, irrigation and others parameters of cultivation, in garlic crop. The LA and DM are commonly defined as destructive, lengthy and cause loss of plants in the experimental units. The objective of this study was to fit mathematical models using linear models that estimate the leaf area and dry matter of garlic plants - variety Ito. For that, garlic plants were collected at 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 115 and 120 days after planting. The measurements of width (W), length (L) of leaves, LA, DM, pseudostem diameter (PD), number of leaves per plant (NL) and height (H) were determined in each time. The models were fitted to estimate the LA or DM as function of the variables W, L, L*W, PD and LA. The statistical analysis of the linear regression, coefficient of determination of the linear regression (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), modified concordance index (d1) and the BIAS index were verified to determine the most representative models. It`s possible to estimate the LA and the leaf DM of garlic plants using the variables: length, width, pseudostem diameter and height of plants.


Medidas de crescimento como área foliar (AF) e matéria seca (MS) são importantes em experimentos com população de plantas, adubação, irrigação e outros parâmetros de cultivo, na cultura do alho. Muitas vezes a AF e MS são definidas por avaliações destrutivas, demoradas e com perdas de plantas nas unidades experimentais. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, definir modelos matemáticos através de medidas lineares, que estimem a área foliar e a matéria seca das folhas de plantas de alho da variedade Ito. Para isso, quinze plantas foram coletadas aos 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 115 e 120 dias após o plantio (DAP). As medidas de largura (L), comprimento (C) das folhas, AF, MS, diâmetro do pseudocaule (DP), número de folhas por planta (NF) e altura da planta (AP) foram determinadas em cada época. Ajustaram-se modelos para estimar a AF ou MS em função das variáveis L, C, L*C, DP e AF. Para determinar os modelos mais representativos foram verificados a análise estatística da regressão linear, o coeficiente de determinação da regressão linear (R2), raiz do quadrado médio do erro (RQME), índice de concordância modificado (d1) e o índice BIAS. É possível estimar a AF e MS foliar de plantas de alho através das variáveis comprimento, largura, diâmetro do pseudocaule e altura de plantas.


Subject(s)
Garlic
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901002, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054669

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of garlic on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague dawley rats were divided into three groups. In Group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In Group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and 2 cc of saline was intraperitoneally administered to each rat. In Group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Allium sativum derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum Results: In Group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: No positive outcomes indicating that Allium sativum reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, allium sativum increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Peritoneal Diseases/prevention & control , Garlic/chemistry , Peritoneal Diseases/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Free Radicals/analysis , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.


Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776905

ABSTRACT

While most types of malignancies remain recalcitrant to treatment, application of natural products or their analogs in daily life has offered some hopes as an effective prophylaxis against cancer onset and progression in the past decades. Emerging evidence supports a link between garlic consumption and decreased cancer incidence. Notably, aged garlic extract (AGE) exhibits stronger anti-cancer activities than that of fresh garlic, by virtue of enrichment of several AGE-specific organosulfur compounds, including S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC). In this review, we summarize the up-to-date mechanistic pathways associated with the anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and pro-apoptotic effects of SAMC in various cancer models. Based upon the proven safety and improved understanding on its anti-neoplastic properties, SAMC has gained recognition as a promising daily food supplement for cancer prevention or management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Apoptosis , Cysteine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Disease Models, Animal , Garlic , Chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although aged black garlic has various biological activities such as anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and neuroprotection, effect of aged black garlic on chemically contact dermatitis is unclarified. MATERIALS/METHODS: To evaluate anti-dermatitic activity of aged black garlic extract, we investigated effects of a fraction of aged black garlic extract (BG10) on both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: BG10 almost inhibited formation of nitric monoxide and interleukin-6 (IL-6; IC50, 7.07 µg/mL) at 25 µg/mL, and dose-dependently reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; IC50, 52.07 µg/mL) and prostaglandin E2 (IC50, 38.46 µg/mL) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, BG10 significantly inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear NF-κB, and improved that of cytosolic levels of NF-κB and IκBα in the cells. Consistent with in vitro studies, BG10 (0.5 mg/mL) not only reduced ear edema but also suppressed the formation of IL-6 and TNF-α induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in ear tissues of mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest BG10 has anti-dermatitic activity through inhibiting activation of macrophages. Therefore, such effects of BG10 may provide information for the application of aged black garlic for prevention and therapy of contact dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Cytosol , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Contact , Dinoprostone , Ear , Edema , Garlic , In Vitro Techniques , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Mice , Necrosis , Neuroprotection , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) is a widely-distributed flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent flavoprotein that promotes obligatory 2-electron reductions of quinones, quinoneimines, nitroaromatics, and azo dyes. This reduces quinone levels and thereby minimizes generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by redox cycling, and concurrent depletion of intracellular thiol pools. Ajoene is derived from crushed garlic. It is formed by a reaction involving two allicin molecules, and is composed of allyl sulfide and vinyl disulfide. Ajoene is present in two isomers, E- and Z-form. METHODS: Expression of antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was measured by Western blot analysis. NQO1 promoter activity was assessed by the luciferase reporter gene assay. ROS accumulation was monitored by using the fluorescence-generating probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The intracellular glutathione levels were measured by using a commercially available kit. RESULTS: Z-ajoene significantly up-regulated the expression of representative antioxidant enzyme NQO1 in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF-10A cells at non-toxic concentrations. Z-ajoene enhanced up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, which plays a pivotal role in the induction of many genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and other cytoprotective proteins. Z-ajoene treatment also increased the activity of nqo1-promoter harboring antioxidant response element consensus sequences in MCF-10A cells. Silencing of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA abrogated ajoene-induced expression of NQO1. Z-ajoene activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of ERK activation by U0126 abrogated ability of Z-ajoene to activate Nrf2 and to induce NQO1 expression. Intracellular ROS accumulation was observed after treatment with Z-ajoene, whereas the E-isoform was not effective. The inhibition of ROS by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a radical scavenger, abrogated Z-ajoene-induced expression of NQO1 as well as activation of ERK and Nrf2, suggesting that Z-ajoene augments the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense via ROS generation and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS: Z-ajoene induces NQO1 expression in MCF-10A cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Adenine , Antioxidant Response Elements , Azo Compounds , Blotting, Western , Breast , Consensus Sequence , Epithelial Cells , Flavoproteins , Garlic , Genes, Reporter , Glutathione , Humans , Luciferases , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidation-Reduction , Phosphotransferases , Quinones , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Small Interfering , Up-Regulation
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18027, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039062

ABSTRACT

Single garlic has been used as a traditional medicine for hypercholesterolemia and increasing stamina. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of single-bulb garlic oil (SGO) extract toward hematology and histopathology liver and kidney in mice. Male mice (strain Balb-C, 12 weeks old, weight of 28±3 g) was treated by SGO for 28 days (once per days) with various doses K- (Normal); K+ (SGO 0.0 mg/kg BW); T1 (SGO 6.25 mg/kg BW); T2 (SGO 12.5 mg/kg BW); T3 (SGO 25.0 mg/kg BW); T4 (SGO 50.0 mg/kg BW). The end of the treated mice was sacrificed. Blood was collected to analyze hematology. Liver and kidney were collected then made microanatomy slide with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Parameters of hematology are the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, number of erythrocytes, and number of leukocytes. Histopathology of liver and kidney determine by cell necrosis. The result of the research showed that SGO increased the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes but there is no effect on the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit. Histopathology on liver and kidney showed there is no effect in necrosis. The conclusion is the single-bulb garlic oil extract safe if consumed continuously


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Medulla Oblongata/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Garlic/adverse effects , Kidney , Liver , Hematology/classification
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 395-401, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954127

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the effects of detorsion and Allium sativum (garlic oil) treatment on the ovarian reserve in an ovarian torsion model. Ovarian torsion may lead to loss of ovarian tissue and infertility. It is an experimental rat study that was carried out on 16 sets of ovaries each, one for treatment group and a control group. In the control group, the procedure involved only the surgically opening and closing the abdomen. Bilateral adnexal torsion/detorsion was performed after a 3-hour ischemia period for the detorsion-only group. The detorsion + Allium sativum group received a 5 ml/kg dose of Allium sativum intraperitoneally, 2 hours before surgery. After the second surgery, removed ovarian samples were evaluated for follicle counts, damage scores and other parameters. Primordial, preantral, small antral and large antral follicle counts were significantly higher in the detorsion + Allium sativum group. Degeneration, congestion, hemorrhage ,inflammation and total damage scores were significantly elevated in the detorsion only group compared to those for the detorsion + Allium sativum group. Finally, there was a significant correlation between AMH alterations and postoperative, preantral follicle count (p<0.05). As a conclusion detorsion + Allium sativum treatment may be effective in protecting the ovarian reserve after torsion.


Intentamos evaluar los efectos de la detorsión y el tratamiento con Allium sativum (aceite de ajo) en la reserva ovárica en un modelo de torsión ovárica. La torsión ovárica puede ocasionar pérdida de tejido ovárico e infertilidad. Este es un estudio experimental en ratas que se llevó a cabo en 16 sets de ovarios para cada grupo: tratamiento y control. En el grupo control, el procedimiento involucró solamente la apertura y el cierre quirúrgicos del abdomen. La torsión / detorsión anexial bilateral se realizó después de un período de isquemia de 3 horas para el grupo de solo detorsión. El grupo de detorsión + Allium sativum recibió una dosis de 5 ml / kg de Allium sativum por vía intraperitoneal, 2 horas antes de la cirugía. Después de la segunda cirugía, las muestras ováricas eliminadas se evaluaron para recuentos de folículos, puntajes de daño y otros parámetros. Los recuentos de folículos antrales primordiales, preantrales, antrales pequeños y grandes fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo con detorsión + Allium sativum. Los puntajes de degeneración, congestión, hemorragia, inflamación y daño total fueron significativamente elevados en el grupo de solo detorsión, en comparación con los del grupo de detorsión + Allium sativum. Finalmente, hubo una correlación significativa entre las alteraciones de AMH y el recuento de folículos preantrales postoperatorios (p <0,05). Como conclusión, el tratamiento con detorsión + Allium sativum puede ser eficaz para proteger la reserva ovárica después de la torsión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Ovarian Diseases/drug therapy , Ovary/drug effects , Sulfides/administration & dosage , Allyl Compounds/administration & dosage , Garlic/chemistry , Torsion Abnormality , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , Ovarian Reserve/drug effects
16.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 3049-3055
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192565

ABSTRACT

Background: alterations in the level of hormones including thyroid hormones lead to physiological/ clinical abnormalities


Aim of work: this study aimed to illustrate the protective effect of Trigonella, Allium sativum or their mixture against hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxin in male albino rats


Materials and methods: thirty albino rats were divided randomly into five groups. Group A: healthy rats, Group B: normal rats were subcutaneously injected with 500 micro g/kg body weight L-thyroxin once daily for two weeks to induce hyperthyroidism, Group C: hyperthyroid rats received oral dose of 250 micro g/kg body weight/day Trigonella extract. Group D: hyperthyroid rats received oral dose of 250 micro g/kg body weight/day Allium sativum extract. Group E: hyperthyroid rats received mixture of Trigonella and Allium sativum extract. At the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis


Results: Hyperthyroid rats had significant increase [P<0.05] in serum levels of triodothyronine [T[3]], thyroxin [T[4]], TG, VLDL,AST,ALP,BUN and uric acid as well as a significant decrease in TSH, LDL, HDL, LDL/HDL and TC, total protein and percentage of body weight change compared to the normal control group. Oral administration of these extracts ameliorated most of the tested parameters


Conclusion: This study concluded that Allium sativum,Trigonella or their mixture have a protective effect against hyperthyroidism


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Trigonella , Garlic , Rats , Protective Agents , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Thyroxine
17.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 16: e17075, jan.-dez. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-884050

ABSTRACT

Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for traditional medicine since ages. It has many uses such as an antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-aging, reduce the risk of heart disease, and antibacterial1. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the inhibition and eradication ability for garlic against Streptococcus mutans, the bacteria that cause dental caries. Methods: Garlic extract was obtained from Ciwidey garlic maseration process in etanol 96%. MIC was a test to measure the inhibition ability of garlic extract against Streptococcus mutans in planktonic form, and MBIC in biofilms form. MBEC was a test to measure the eradication ability of garlic extract against Streptococcus mutans in biofilms form. Statistic analysis using ANOVA followed by post hoc with ρ value <0.05. Results: The garlic extract showed MIC value at 9.39 % and MBIC value at 37.5 % but was not observed to have eradication activity against Streptococcus mutans in biofilms form up to concentration 37.5%. Conclusion: Garlic extract inhibit Streptococcus mutans both in planktonic and biofilm form. Garlic extract has no eradication activity against Streptococcus mutans in biofilms form up to concentration 37.5% (AU)


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dental Caries , Garlic , Streptococcus mutans
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 848-855, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888827

ABSTRACT

Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.


Resumo O alho (Allium sativum L.) é cultivado em todo o mundo como hortaliça condimentar e medicinal desde 3.000 a. C. A alicina é o principal componente do alho, sendo atribuída a ela a maior parte das suas atividades biológicas, dentre elas as ações bactericida, antifúngica e antiviral. Porém, outros compostos do alho apresentam atividade antioxidante, hipocolesterolemiante, vasodilatadora, ação protetora contra diversos tipos de câncer e imunomoduladora. As infecções por fungos são causas importantes de morbidade e mortalidade no homem principalmente em indivíduos imunossuprimidos. O Sporothrix schenckii, agente causal da esporotricose (micose subcutânea mais comum na América Latina), é fungo dimórfico, de vida saprofítica no solo ou em vegetais, infectando homens e os animais principalmente através de lesões e arranhões na pele. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do consumo de alho na imunomodulação de camundongos Swiss saudáveis e infectados de forma induzida por S. schenckii, a partir do estado funcional dos macrófagos peritoneais desses animais quanto à produção de óxido nítrico e das citocinas (IL-1β, IL-10 e IL-12) e avaliar o potencial antifúngico do alho frente ao S. schenckii por meio de teste de concentração inibitória mínima e unidades formadoras de colônia. Os resultados demonstraram que o alho apresenta potencial antifúngico frente S. schenckii. A administração oral de extratos de alho influencia a liberação de citocinas por macrófagos, o consumo regular apresenta efeito anti-inflamatório, e seu uso agudo pode gerar uma resposta inflamatória. Camundongos que consumiram alho responderam de forma mais efetiva no combate da infecção.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Garlic/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Immunomodulation
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(4): 905-913, july/aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966252

ABSTRACT

Dehydrated garlic is an importance spice in pre-cooked and processed food products, but studies of the drying variables of this product are scarce. Thus, this work aimed to model and study the kinetics of garlic drying at three different temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) and analyze the thermodynamic parameters during the process. The drying was analyzed using pre-established mathematical models for agricultural products and equations that describe the thermodynamics of product dehydration. The best mathematical adjustment for all drying temperatures was the Midilli equation. The moisture ratio was seen to decrease during the process for all situations. The effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature. The enthalpy change was positive during the process and decreased with increasing temperature. The study entropy was negative, indicating a non-spontaneous reaction. In addition, the Gibbs free energy increased with increasing drying temperature. The thermodynamic standards were satisfactory and correctly described the moisture loss by the garlic samples.


O alho desidratado é um tempero de suma importância em produtos pré-cozidos e processados, no entanto, o estudo das variáveis de secagem desse produto é escasso. Diante disso, objetivou-se com esse trabalho estudar a cinética e a modelagem da secagem de alho, em três temperaturas distintas (40, 50 e 60 °C), e analisar os parâmetros termodinâmicos durante o processo. O estudo da secagem foi feito por meio de modelos matemáticos pré-estabelecidos para produtos agrícolas e por equações que descrevem a termodinâmica da desidratação de produtos. O melhor ajuste matemático foi à equação de Midilli para todas as temperaturas de secagem. A razão de umidade apresentou-se decrescente durante o processo para todas as situações. A difusividade efetiva aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. A variação de entalpia apresentou-se positiva durante o processo de secagem e diminui com o aumento da temperatura. A entropia estudada foi negativa, indicando uma reação não-espontânea. E a energia livre de Gibbs aumentou com a elevação da temperatura de secagem. Os padrões termodinâmicos foram satisfatórios e descreveram como ocorreu a perda de umidade pelas amostras de alho.


Subject(s)
Thermodynamics , Kinetics , Food Preservation , Garlic
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 411-421, mar./apr. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966195

ABSTRACT

Previous studies show that nutritional interventions with anti-oxidants have various healthpromoting effects in several model organisms. Here, we examine the effects of S-allyl cysteine on resistance to environmental stressors and age-related physiological changes using C. elegans as a model system. S-allyl cysteine is a modified amino acid found in aged garlic extracts and known to have strong anti-oxidant activity. The survival of worms under oxidative-stress conditions significantly increased with supplementation of S-allyl cysteine. In addition, pretreatment of S-allyl cysteine significantly increased resistance to both heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. However, lifespan was not affected by S-allyl cysteine treatment. We also examined the effect of S-allyl cysteine on motility of C. elegans and found that S-allyl cysteine can retard the age-related decline of muscle tissue locomotive activity. S-allyl cysteine also significantly suppressed amyloid -induced paralysis in Alzheimer's disease model animals. Taken together, our study indicates that dietary supplementation of S-allyl cysteine can improve health span and suggests that S-allyl cysteine can be used to develop novel health-promoting pharmaceuticals.


Estudos anteriores mostram que intervenções nutricionais com antioxidantes têm vários efeitos promotores da saúde em vários organismos-modelo. Aqui, examinamos os efeitos da S-alil cisteína sobre a resistência a estressores ambientais e alterações fisiológicas relacionadas com a idade usando C. elegans como um sistema modelo. Salil cisteína é um aminoácido modificado encontrado em extratos de alho envelhecido e conhecido por ter forte atividade antioxidante. A sobrevivência de vermes sob condições de estresse oxidativo aumentou significativamente com a suplementação de S-alil cisteína. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com S-alil cisteína aumentou significativamente a resistência tanto ao estresse térmico como à irradiação ultravioleta. No entanto, o tempo de vida não foi afetado pelo tratamento com S-alil cisteína. Nós também examinamos o efeito da S-alil cisteína na motilidade de C. elegans e descobrimos que a S-alil cisteína pode retardar o declínio relacionado à idade da atividade locomotora do tecido muscular. A S-alil cisteína também suprimiu significativamente a paralisia induzida por amilóide em animais-modelo da doença de Alzheimer. Tomados em conjunto, o nosso estudo indica que a suplementação dietética de S-alil cisteína pode melhorar a duração da saúde e sugere que S-alil cisteína pode ser usada para desenvolver novos produtos farmacêuticos de promoção da saúde.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans , Cysteine , Garlic , Antioxidants
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