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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 141-154, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153057


The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae and their antigenic proteins, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in Wistar albino rats. Nematode worms were isolated from the marine fish Dicentrarchus labrax. They were examined and taxonomically identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: a control group (I), a garlic oil (GO) inoculated group (II), a fresh L3 inoculated group (III), a thermally treated L3 inoculated group (IV), a fresh L3 + GO inoculated group (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated group (VI). It was observed that rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 crude extracts showed abnormal oxidative stress markers associated with the destruction of normal architecture of spleen and thymus. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO administration via the amelioration of oxidative stress markers, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure of the organs' histology. Cooking of L3 infected fish induced severe physiological and histopathological alterations compared to uncooked infected fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.(AU)

O consumo de peixes tratados termicamente de forma inadequada é um risco à saúde pública devido à possível propagação das larvas de Anisakis e suas proteínas antigênicas, o agente causador da doença zoonótica anisakidose. O presente estudo demonstrou as alterações fisiológicas e histopatológicas que acompanharam a inoculação oral de extratos brutos de Anisakis Tipo II (L3) frescos e termicamente tratados em ratos Wistar albinos. Vermes nematoides foram isolados do peixe marinho Dicentrarchus labrax e foram examinados e identificados taxonomicamente usando microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. O estudo foi realizado em 6 grupos de ratos: grupo controle (I), grupo inoculado com óleo de alho (GO) (II), grupo inoculado com L3 fresco (III), grupo inoculado com L3 tratado termicamente (IV), grupo inoculado com L3 + GO fresco (V), e grupo inoculado com L3 + GO tratado termicamente (VI). Observou-se que ratos inoculados com extrato bruto L3 fresco e tratado termicamente mostraram marcadores de estresse oxidativo anormais associados à destruição da estrutura normal do baço e do timo. GO produziu um efeito protetor em grupos de ratos inoculados com extrato L3 + administração de GO através da melhoria dos marcadores de estresse oxidativo, que foi confirmada pela marcante estrutura normal da histologia dos órgãos. O cozimento de peixes infectados com L3 induziu alterações fisiológicas e histopatológicas graves quando comparado com peixes infectados não cozidos. Recomenda-se a administração de alho antes e depois da ingestão do peixe para evitar o efeito perigoso dos anisakídeos, mesmo se cozidos.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Anisakis , Anisakiasis/therapy , Anisakiasis/veterinary , Fishes/parasitology , Garlic/chemistry , Plant Oils/chemistry , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901002, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054669


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of garlic on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague dawley rats were divided into three groups. In Group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In Group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and 2 cc of saline was intraperitoneally administered to each rat. In Group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Allium sativum derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum Results: In Group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: No positive outcomes indicating that Allium sativum reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, allium sativum increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.

Animals , Peritoneal Diseases/prevention & control , Garlic/chemistry , Peritoneal Diseases/pathology , Postoperative Complications/pathology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Tissue Adhesions/pathology , Tissue Adhesions/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Free Radicals/analysis , Laparotomy , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.

Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 154-162, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983823


Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, leading to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis impairment . MiR-126 and miR-210 support angiogenic response in endothelial cells. Objective: The present study sought to explore the effect of garlic and voluntary exercise, alone or together, on miR-126 and miR-210 expressions and cardiac angiogenesis in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): Control, Diabetes, Diabetes+Garlic, Diabetes+Exercise, and Diabetes+Garlic+Exercise. Diabetes was induced in the animals by streptozotocin (ip, 50 mg/kg). The rats were then fed raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) or were subjected to voluntary exercise, or to combined garlic and voluntary exercise for 6 weeks. MiR-126 and miR-210 expressions in the myocardium were determined by real time PCR, and the serum lipid profile was measured by enzymatic kits. Angiogenesis was evaluated by immunostaining for PECAM-1/ CD31 in the myocardium. Results: Diabetes reduced both cardiac miR-126 expression and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was a miR-210 expression increase in the myocardium of diabetic animals (p < 0.001). However, those effects reversed either with garlic or voluntary exercise (p < 0.01). Moreover, treating diabetic rats with garlic and voluntary exercise combined had an additional effect on the expressions of miR-126 and miR-210 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, both voluntary exercise and garlic significantly improved serum lipid profiles (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The induction of diabetes decreased angiogenesis in the myocardium, whereas our treatment using long-term voluntary exercise and garlic improved myocardial angiogenesis. These changes were possibly owing to the enhancement of myocardial miR-126 and miR-210 expressions.

Resumo Fundamento: O diabetes mellitus (DM) é um dos principais fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, levando à disfunção endotelial e inibição da angiogênese. O miRNA-126 e o miRNA-210 promovem a resposta angiogênica em células endoteliais. Objetivo: O presente estudo buscou explorar o efeito do alho e de exercícios físicos voluntários, isoladamente ou em conjunto, nas expressões do miRNA-126 e do miR-210 e na angiogênese cardíaca em ratos com diabetes tipo 1. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7): Controle, Diabetes, Diabetes+Alho, Diabetes+Exercícios e Diabetes+Alho+Exercícios. Introduziu-se diabetes nos animais por estreptozotocina (ip, 50 mg/kg). Os ratos foram então alimentados com homogenato de alho fresco cru (250 mg/kg), ou foram submetidos a exercícios voluntários, ou a uma combinação de alho e exercícios voluntários, durante 6 semanas. As expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 no miocárdio foram determinadas por PCR em tempo real, e o perfil lipídico sérico foi medido por kits enzimáticos. A angiogênese foi avaliada por imunocoloração por PECAM-1/CD31 no miocárdio Resultados: O diabetes reduziu a expressão do miRNA-126 cardíaco e da angiogênese (p < 0,05). Por outro lado, houve um aumento da expressão do miRNA-210 no miocárdio dos animais diabéticos (p < 0,001). No entanto, tais efeitos foram revertidos com alho ou exercícios voluntários (p < 0,01). Além disso, o tratamento de ratos diabéticos conjuntamente com alho e exercícios voluntários teve um efeito adicional sobre as expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA-210 (p < 0,001). Além disso, tanto os exercícios voluntários quanto o alho melhoraram significativamente os perfis lipídicos séricos (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A indução de diabetes diminuiu a angiogênese no miocárdio, enquanto nosso tratamento com exercícios voluntários de longa duração e alho melhorou a angiogênese miocárdica. Estas alterações devem-se, possivelmente, ao aumento das expressões do miRNA-126 e do miRNA no miocárdio.

Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Garlic/chemistry , Triglycerides/blood , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , MicroRNAs/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart/physiopathology
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 395-401, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954127


We aimed to evaluate the effects of detorsion and Allium sativum (garlic oil) treatment on the ovarian reserve in an ovarian torsion model. Ovarian torsion may lead to loss of ovarian tissue and infertility. It is an experimental rat study that was carried out on 16 sets of ovaries each, one for treatment group and a control group. In the control group, the procedure involved only the surgically opening and closing the abdomen. Bilateral adnexal torsion/detorsion was performed after a 3-hour ischemia period for the detorsion-only group. The detorsion + Allium sativum group received a 5 ml/kg dose of Allium sativum intraperitoneally, 2 hours before surgery. After the second surgery, removed ovarian samples were evaluated for follicle counts, damage scores and other parameters. Primordial, preantral, small antral and large antral follicle counts were significantly higher in the detorsion + Allium sativum group. Degeneration, congestion, hemorrhage ,inflammation and total damage scores were significantly elevated in the detorsion only group compared to those for the detorsion + Allium sativum group. Finally, there was a significant correlation between AMH alterations and postoperative, preantral follicle count (p<0.05). As a conclusion detorsion + Allium sativum treatment may be effective in protecting the ovarian reserve after torsion.

Intentamos evaluar los efectos de la detorsión y el tratamiento con Allium sativum (aceite de ajo) en la reserva ovárica en un modelo de torsión ovárica. La torsión ovárica puede ocasionar pérdida de tejido ovárico e infertilidad. Este es un estudio experimental en ratas que se llevó a cabo en 16 sets de ovarios para cada grupo: tratamiento y control. En el grupo control, el procedimiento involucró solamente la apertura y el cierre quirúrgicos del abdomen. La torsión / detorsión anexial bilateral se realizó después de un período de isquemia de 3 horas para el grupo de solo detorsión. El grupo de detorsión + Allium sativum recibió una dosis de 5 ml / kg de Allium sativum por vía intraperitoneal, 2 horas antes de la cirugía. Después de la segunda cirugía, las muestras ováricas eliminadas se evaluaron para recuentos de folículos, puntajes de daño y otros parámetros. Los recuentos de folículos antrales primordiales, preantrales, antrales pequeños y grandes fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo con detorsión + Allium sativum. Los puntajes de degeneración, congestión, hemorragia, inflamación y daño total fueron significativamente elevados en el grupo de solo detorsión, en comparación con los del grupo de detorsión + Allium sativum. Finalmente, hubo una correlación significativa entre las alteraciones de AMH y el recuento de folículos preantrales postoperatorios (p <0,05). Como conclusión, el tratamiento con detorsión + Allium sativum puede ser eficaz para proteger la reserva ovárica después de la torsión.

Animals , Female , Rats , Ovarian Diseases/drug therapy , Ovary/drug effects , Sulfides/administration & dosage , Allyl Compounds/administration & dosage , Garlic/chemistry , Torsion Abnormality , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Protective Agents , Disease Models, Animal , Ovarian Reserve/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 848-855, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888827


Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

Resumo O alho (Allium sativum L.) é cultivado em todo o mundo como hortaliça condimentar e medicinal desde 3.000 a. C. A alicina é o principal componente do alho, sendo atribuída a ela a maior parte das suas atividades biológicas, dentre elas as ações bactericida, antifúngica e antiviral. Porém, outros compostos do alho apresentam atividade antioxidante, hipocolesterolemiante, vasodilatadora, ação protetora contra diversos tipos de câncer e imunomoduladora. As infecções por fungos são causas importantes de morbidade e mortalidade no homem principalmente em indivíduos imunossuprimidos. O Sporothrix schenckii, agente causal da esporotricose (micose subcutânea mais comum na América Latina), é fungo dimórfico, de vida saprofítica no solo ou em vegetais, infectando homens e os animais principalmente através de lesões e arranhões na pele. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência do consumo de alho na imunomodulação de camundongos Swiss saudáveis e infectados de forma induzida por S. schenckii, a partir do estado funcional dos macrófagos peritoneais desses animais quanto à produção de óxido nítrico e das citocinas (IL-1β, IL-10 e IL-12) e avaliar o potencial antifúngico do alho frente ao S. schenckii por meio de teste de concentração inibitória mínima e unidades formadoras de colônia. Os resultados demonstraram que o alho apresenta potencial antifúngico frente S. schenckii. A administração oral de extratos de alho influencia a liberação de citocinas por macrófagos, o consumo regular apresenta efeito anti-inflamatório, e seu uso agudo pode gerar uma resposta inflamatória. Camundongos que consumiram alho responderam de forma mais efetiva no combate da infecção.

Animals , Male , Mice , Sporotrichosis/drug therapy , Sporothrix/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/immunology , Garlic/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/drug effects , Immunomodulation
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 126-129, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041397


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The activity of garlic oil extract against Schistosoma japonicum cercariae was evaluated. METHODS: The in vitro and in vivo cercaricidal activities against S. japonicum larvae were determined. RESULTS: Exposure to ≥ 10-6 (v/v) garlic emulsions for 30 min led to 100% cercariae mortality; pre-exposure treatment with ≥ 10-4 (v/v) garlic emulsions showed 100% preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection, while pre-treatment with 10-5 and 10-6 (v/v) emulsions achieved 20%-40% preventive efficacy and 35.2%-63.6% worm burden reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Garlic oil extract has activity against S. japonicum larvae and a promising preventive efficacy against S. japonicum infection.

Animals , Female , Schistosoma japonicum/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cercaria/drug effects , Garlic/chemistry , Time Factors , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Mice
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(4): 291-299, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829740


Abstract Objective: Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods: Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results: Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%); P<0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

Animals , Female , Rabbits , Arteriosclerosis/prevention & control , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Tunica Intima/pathology , Garlic/chemistry , Arteriosclerosis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Cilostazol , Hyperplasia/prevention & control
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-10, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950834


BACKGROUND: Aged garlic extract (AGE) and its main constituent S-allylcysteine (SAC) are natural antioxidants with protective effects against cerebral ischemia or cancer, events that involve hypoxia stress. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) has been used to mimic hypoxic conditions through the stabilization of the α subunit of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) and up-regulation of HIF-1α-dependent genes as well as activation of hypoxic conditions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. The present study was designed to assess the effect of AGE and SAC on the CoCl2-chemical hypoxia model in PC12 cells. RESULTS: We found that CoCl2 induced the stabilization of HIF-1α and its nuclear localization. CoCl2 produced ROS and apoptotic cell death that depended on hypoxia extent. The treatment with AGE and SAC decreased ROS and protected against CoCl2-induced apoptotic cell death which depended on the CoCl2 concentration and incubation time. SAC or AGE decreased the number of cells in the early and late stages of apoptosis. Interestingly, this protective effect was associated with attenuation in HIF-1α stabilization, activity not previously reported for AGE and SAC. CONCLUSIONS: Obtained results show that AGE and SAC decreased apoptotic CoCl2-induced cell death. This protection occurs by affecting the activity of HIF-1α and supports the use of these natural compounds as a therapeutic alternative for hypoxic conditions

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cysteine/analogs & derivatives , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/drug effects , Garlic/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Tetrazolium Salts , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , PC12 Cells , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Cobalt , Cysteine/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Formazans
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 110-115, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741223


The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of six Indian plant extracts and 0.2% chlorhexidine against clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, which were isolated from the plaque samples of 45 pediatric patients. Six plant extracts were prepared in three different forms, namely aqueous extracts, organic solvent-based extracts and crude (raw) extracts. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the mean zones of inhibition (mm) produced against the bacterial isolates. Results showed that crude garlic extract exhibited greater antibacterial activity than chlorhexidine. Aqueous extract of amla and organic solvent-based extract of ginger showed the maximum antibacterial activity against S. mutans, whereas aqueous extract of tulsi and organic solvent based extract of amla showed the minimum antibacterial activity. This study suggests that plant extracts like garlic in crude form, amla as aqueous infusion and ginger as alcoholic tincture have potential for the control of S. mutans. These extracts can be used as an alternative remedy for dental caries prevention or in the form of mouthwash, which is safe and economical.

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar comparativamente a atividade antibacteriana de seis plantas indianas contra linhagens clínicas de Streptococcus mutans, que foram isoladas das amostras de biofilme dental de 45 pacientes pediátricos, com 0,2% de clorexidina. Seis extratos vegetais foram preparados em três formas diferentes, a saber, extratos aquosos, extratos à base de solventes orgânicos e extratos brutos. Os testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana foram realizados por método de difusão em agar. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada através da medição da zona de inibição, em milímetros, produzida contra os isolados bacterianos. Os resultados mostraram que o extrato de alho cru apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana do que a clorexidina. O extrato aquoso de amla e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de gengibre mostraram a máxima atividade antibacteriana contra S. mutans, enquanto o extrato aquoso de tulsi (manjericão) e o extrato à base de solventes orgânicos de amla mostraram mínima atividades antibacteriana. Este estudo sugere que extratos de plantas como o alho em forma bruta, amla como infusão aquosa e gengibre como tintura alcoólica tem um potencial para o controle de S. mutans. Estes extratos podem ser utilizados como uma via alternativa para a prevenção de cáries dentárias ou sob a forma de bochechos, que são seguros e econômicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Dental Plaque/diagnosis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Aloe/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Ginger/chemistry , Glycerides/chemistry , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ocimum/chemistry , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Terpenes/chemistry
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1094-1100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150297


Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/metabolism , Amnesia/pathology , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/chemistry , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Garlic/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Scopolamine/toxicity
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 500-504
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150263


Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p<0.05), compared with the hypercholesterolemic group. Expression of the intestinal npc1l1 was significantly decreased (p<0.01) in the garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p<0.01), abcg8 (p<0.01) and abca1 (p<0.05) expressions were significantly increased. In conclusion, this study reveals a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of the garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/genetics , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics , Animals , Garlic/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hypercholesterolemia/genetics , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Lipids/blood , Lipoproteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(3): 294-301, mayo 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-723575


Sampled population was children under 6 years with acute respiratory infection and the sample were obtained from sputum. The aim was to determine the changes in the concentrations ob both, lisozyme and total protein, before and after the intervention with the garlic mother tincture. It was a pilot study quantitative and through a system of nonrandomness simple of the probabilistic a sample of 25 individuals for determining if you belong to the treatment group (mother tincture) or control (placebo). The results indicate a decrease in the concentration of lysozyme and total proteins in the treatment group between 3 to 5 days after initiated treatment, on the other hand the control group showed an increase in the measurements. Only the treatment group showed positive changes in type symptomatical of the disease. Mother Tincture of garlic is a phytotherapeutic alternative excellent for effectively combat acute respiratory infections in children.

La población muestreada fueron niños menores de 6 años con I.R.A y la muestra fue obtenida de la expectoración. El objetivo fue determinar los cambios en la concentraciones de lisozima y proteínas totales, antes y después de la intervención con la tintura madre de ajo. Fue un estudio cuantitativo experimental y a través de un sistema de aleatoriedad simple del tipo probabilístico se toma una muestra de 25 individuos para determinar si pertenecerán al grupo tratamiento (tintura madre) o control (placebo). Los resultados obtenidos indican una disminución en la concentración de lisozima y proteínas totales del grupo tratamiento entre los 3 a 5 días después de iniciado el tratamiento, en cambio el grupo control reveló un aumento en las mediciones. Solamente el grupo tratamiento evidenció cambios positivos de tipo sintomatológico de la enfermedad. La tintura madre de ajo es una excelente alternativa fitoterapeútica para el combate eficaz contra las infecciones respiratorias agudas en niños.

Humans , Child , Anti-Infective Agents , Garlic/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Muramidase , Proteins , Acute Disease , Garlic/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bronchodilator Agents/pharmacology , Chile , Muramidase/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Qualitative Research
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 10(5): 423-428, sept. 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618823


Epidemiological studies link increased garlic consumption with a reduced incidence of cancer in various human populations. Experimental carcinogenesis studies in animal models and in cell culture systems indicate that several allium-derived compounds exhibit inhibitory effects. To provide a better understanding of the effects of allium derivatives on the prevention of cancer, we examined allicin, the major component of garlic, for their effects on antitumoral activity in vitro and in L5178Y lymphoma bearing mice. We found that allicin decreased the growth of tumor cells whereas in vivo, the compound shown an antitumor effect in murine L5178Y lymphoma. Allicin enhanced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokines from mouse plasma. These cytokines are associated with the beneficial Th1 antitumor response, which is characteristic of effective cancer immunotherapies.

Los estudios epidemiológicos relacionan el aumento del consumo de ajo con una disminución en la incidencia de cáncer en diferentes poblaciones humanas. Los estudios experimentales de carcinogénesis en modelos animales y en los cultivos de células tumorales indican que varios compuestos derivados del ajo tienen efectos inhibitorios. A fin de proporcionar una mejor comprensión de los efectos de derivados del ajo en la prevención del cáncer, se evaluó la alicina el principal componente del ajo, en la actividad antitumoral in vitro y en ratones con linfoma. Se encontró que la alicina disminuyó el crecimiento de células tumorales, mientras que in vivo, el compuesto muestra un efecto antitumoral en el linfoma murino L5178Y. La alicina incrementó la secreción de las citocinas IL-2, interferón-gamma y TNF-alfa obtenidas de plasma de ratón con linfoma. Estas citocinas están asociadas con la respuesta antitumoral benéfica Th1, que es característica de inmunoterapias efectivas para el cáncer.

Male , Animals , Rats , Sulfinic Acids/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(3): 155-163, May-June 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592776


The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ) were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

Os efeitos do alho (Allium sativum) e cebola (Allium cepa) em parâmetros bioquímicos de camundongos infectados pelo Schistosoma mansoni individualmente e misturados seja com ou sem as drogas correntemente usadas como o Praziquantel (PZQ), foram investigados. Isto envolveu parâmetros imunológicos tais como IgM, IgG, Interleucina 2 e 6 (IL-2 e 6), fator de necrose tumoral (TNF-α) e algumas enzimas anti-oxidantes [catalase, super-óxido dismutase (SOD) e glutationa peroxidase (GPX)]. Em adição foram realizadas investigações parasitológicas e histopatológicas. Nenhuma alteração foi observada nos camundongos controles normais tratados com extrato seco de cebola ou alho, individualmente ou misturado, com ou sem PZQ, comparados com os controles normais sadios. Infecção com o Schistosoma mansoni revelou um aumento em IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α e catalase, acompanhados de diminuição do GPX e atividade enzimática do anti-oxidante SOD. Melhora acentuada foi notada nos níveis de todos os parâmetros medidos em camundongos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni após administração dos extratos estudados. Mais ainda, significante redução na quantidade de vermes, e ovos no fígado e intestino e na contagem do oograma foi notada refletindo a normalização da arquitetura do fígado.

Animals , Male , Mice , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Garlic/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , /blood , /blood , Oxidoreductases/blood , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135523


Background & objectives: Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has further complicated the problem of tuberculosis (TB) control. Medicinal plants offer a hope for developing alternate medicines for the treatment of TB. The present study was done to evaluate in vitro anti-tubercular activity of five medicinal plants viz., Acalypha indica, Adhatoda vasica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Aloe vera. Methods: Aqueous extracts of leaves of A. indica, A. vasica, bulbs of A. cepa, cloves of A. sativum and pure gel of A. vera leaves, were tested in vitro for their activity against two MDR isolates (DKU-156 and JAL-1236), reference susceptible strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv as well as rapid grower mycobacterial pathogen M. fortuitum (TMC-1529) using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J) medium and colorimetric BacT/ALERT 3D system. Activity in L-J medium was evaluated by percentage inhibition which was calculated by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing as compared to extract free controls. Results: Extracts of all the five plants A. indica, A. vasica, A. cepa, A. sativum and A. vera exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium, the proportion of inhibition of these plants extract in respect mentioned above is 95, 32, 37, 72, 32 per cent, respectively for MDR isolate DKU-156 and 68, 86, 79, 72, 85 per cent, respectively for another MDR isolate JAL-1236, while for sensitive M. tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibition was found to be 68, 70, 35, 63 and 41 per cent, at 4 per cent v/v concentration in L-J medium. There was no inhibition against rapid grower M. fortuitum (TMC-1529). In BacT/ALERT also, extracts of these plants showed significant inhibition against M. tuberculosis. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of M. tuberculosis. While the anti-TB activity of A. vera, A. vasica and A. sativum against MDR isolates confirm earlier results, activity of the extracts of A. indica and A. cepa is reported for the first time. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts which exhibited promising activities, need to be carried out.

Justicia/chemistry , Aloe/chemistry , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Garlic/chemistry , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Onions/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2010; 40 (Sept.): 350-364
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168621


The possible protective potential of exposure to low dose of gamma radiation in presence or absence of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract was examined in the present study on doxorubicin [DOX]-induced experimental nephropathy in rats. Preliminary study was carried out to select the suitable dose of DOX to induce nephrotoxicity. In the current experiment 5 mg/kg, i.p. was selected as a single dose to induce nephrotoxicity during 15 days. The possible modulating effect of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract on kidney function was examined. Animals were subdivided into three sets. Three groups of the 1[st] set were exposed to [gamma] radiation at a single dose level of 0.3 Gy then received DOX, 1, 3 or 7 days postirradiation respectively. The groups of 2[nd] set daily received L-carnitine [40 mg/kg, i.p.], curcumin [50 mg/kg, i.p.], garlic powder [100 mg/kg, p.o.] and green tea extract [300 mg/kg, p.o.] daily for two weeks before induction of nephropathy. Groups of the 3[rd] set received the same doses of drugs then were injected with DOX, 1, 3 or 7 days following gamma irradiation respectively. Two groups of animals, one of them received saline and served as normal and the other received DOX and served as nephropathic group were included in 1[st], 2[nd] as well as 3[rd] set. Fifteen days following DOX administration, serum was collected and the animals were then sacrificed. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid were evaluated. Data revealed that, a single DOX dose [5 mg/kg] induced marked acute nephrotoxicity manifested as significant increase in the activities of serum creatinine, urea as well as uric acid. Interestingly, pre-exposure to gamma radiation at a dose level of 0.3 Gy, 1 or 3 days before DOX injection exhibited significant improvement in the above altered mentioned parameters. However, exposure to low dose radiation 7 days prior to DOX administration did not show a protective effect. Moreover, pretreatment with L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract in rats unexposed or exposed to gamma radiation before DOX administration ameliorated, to a great extent, the effects induced by DOX. The present findings suggest that exposure to a single low dose of gamma radiation [0.3 Gy] one day before DOX administration is a promising approach for maximizing the nephroprotective effects of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract with minimal adverse effects of DOX

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney Function Tests , Gamma Rays , Carnitine/pharmacology , Curcumin/pharmacology , Garlic/chemistry , Camellia sinensis , Rats , Protective Agents