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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 394-405, jul. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352427


In this study, it was aimed to determine the antioxidant and anticancer activities of Sideritis perfoliata methanolic extract (SPE) on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Different doses (25, 50,100 and 200 µg/mL) of SPE were used to determine proliferation of HeLa cells by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining method. Induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexine-V and propidium iodide staining method. Interleukin (IL) 6-8 levels were measured by ELISA method. Antioxidant activities of SPE were determined by DPPH, DNA (plasmid pBR322) protecting and cellular antioxidant activity tests. Some phytochemicals of SPE were also screened by LC-MS-MS. It was determined that SPE reduced the proliferation of HeLa cells and also induced apoptosis. IL6-8 levels importantly decreased at 200 µg/mL. SPE exhibited moderately antioxidant activities in tests used. Among the phenolics identified, vanillic acid had the highest amount. As a result, it was determined to have the anticancer activity of SPE by decreasing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and decreasing IL6-8 in HeLa cells.

En este estudio, se tuvo como objetivo determinar las actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas del extracto metanólico de Sideritis perfoliata (SPE) en las células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa). Se utilizaron diferentes dosis (25, 50, 100 y 200 µg/mL) de SPE para determinar la proliferación de células HeLa mediante el método de tinción con bromuro de 3-[4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il] -2,5-difenil-tetrazolio (MTT). La inducción de apoptosis se determinó mediante el método de tinción con anexina-V y yoduro de propidio. Los niveles de interleucina (IL) 6-8 se midieron mediante el método ELISA. Las actividades antioxidantes de SPE se determinaron mediante pruebas de DPPH, protección de ADN (plásmido pBR322) y actividad antioxidante celular. Algunos fitoquímicos de SPE también se analizaron mediante LC-MS-MS. Se determinó que SPE redujo la proliferación de células HeLa y también indujo apoptosis. Los niveles de IL6-8 disminuyeron de manera importante a 200 µg/mL. SPE mostró actividades moderadamente antioxidantes en las pruebas utilizadas. Entre los fenólicos identificados, el ácido vainílico tuvo la mayor cantidad. Como resultado, se determinó que tenía la actividad anticancerígena de SPE al disminuir la proliferación celular, inducir apoptosis y disminuir la IL6-8 en las células HeLa.

Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Sideritis/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cell Survival , Interleukin-8/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants/chemistry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879039


The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, which directly affects the efficacy and safety of clinical medication. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish an identification method for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. In this review, the identification methods for the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were summarized systematically, and were divided into four types according to the identification principles and methods: traditional identification, molecular identification, physical/chemical identification, and integrated identification. Relying on rich experience, objective molecular markers, various physical/chemical methods and integrated identification techniques(including infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, bionic identification technology and their tandem technologies, etc.), the differences of characters or chemical fingerprints were compared in depth. The growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials were quickly identified or predicted by the appearance and characters, the whole fingerprint information or the content of specific chemical markers, and their content ratios. Through the case analysis of mature varieties, we intend to promote the establishment of a perfect technology system for the identification of the growth years of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, and to provide a reference for other perennial herbal materials, finally resulting in the accurate and precise quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879037


Chrysanthemum is widely used as a type of edible flower and also considered as the important materials of many beverages in China. Due to the occurrence of diseases and pests, and the lack of regulations for species, frequency, dose of pesticides in Chrysanthemum, pesticides have become one of the main pollutants in Chrysanthemum. The pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum were detected frequently and worth noting. This paper focused on the types of pesticides, pesticide residue detection techniques, and risk assessment methods for Chrysanthemums on the basis of relevant literatures. The pesticide residues of traditional Chinese medicine are mainly organochlorines, organophosphorus and pyrethroids, and the detection techniques include gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC) or both combined with mass spectrometry(MS). With the increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine, Chrysanthemum is widely circulated in the market. Therefore, it is important to understand the current situation of pesticide residues in different varieties of Chrysanthemum, so as to provide theoretical reference for the control of quality and safety of Chrysanthemum and the formulation of the maximum residue limit.

China , Chromatography, Liquid , Chrysanthemum/genetics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879015


The volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum medicinal materials was extracted by steam distillation, and the chemical components of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS technology. The differences of the volatile oil components were compared and study on the Helicobacter pylori in vitro antimicrobial activitiy was conducted. The results showed that the yields of the volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum were 11.93% and 2.40%, respectively. A total of 46 compounds(91.31%) were identified from the volatile oil from Mastiche annd 35 compounds(92.49%) from Olibanum. The classification and comparison study of the components showed that the content of monoterpenes in the volatile oil from Mastiche was the highest(40.69%), followed by alcohols(28.48%); while the content of alcohols in the volatile oil from Olibanum was the highest(35.81%), followed by esters(24.92%). There were significant differences in the components of volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum, which might be one of the reasons for the difference in efficacy and application. In vitro bacteriostatic experiments showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the volatile oil from Mastiche against H. pylori was 1 mg·mL~(-1), and the MIC of the volatile oil from Olibanum against H. pylori was more than 1 mg·mL~(-1). In combination with the results of the oil yield experiment, Mastiche had the advantage of inhibiting H. pylori activity. The research results provide scientific basis for the rational application of Mastiche and Olibanum.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Frankincense , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Helicobacter pylori , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1450, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289473


Introducción: La Minthostachys mollises una planta aromática que crece en América Latina y produce aceites esenciales con acción antimicrobiana. Objetivo: Determinar la actividad del aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis en diferentes concentraciones, comparado con doxiciclina y fluconazol frente a Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans, a las 24, 48 y 72 horas. Métodos: Se realiza estudio experimental in vitro y longitudinal. Se prepararon 15 pocillos por subgrupo para evaluar el efecto inhibitorio de todas las concentraciones, dando un total de 360 pocillos. Por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas se identificaron los componentes químicos del aceite esencial. Se analizó el efecto inhibitorio por el método de difusión de Kirby-Bauer en Agar Columbia y Agar Muller Hinton. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba ANOVA y Tukey. Resultados: En el análisis químico se identificó principalmente pulegona (30,17 por ciento) y mentona (16,55 por ciento). Los halos de inhibición de Minthostachys mollis al 100 por ciento a las 24, 48 y 72 horas frente a la Porphyromonas gingivalis, midieron: 10,2 mm, 9,8 mm y 9,6 mm, respectivamente; frente al Staphylococcus aureus, midieron: 10,4 mm, 9,7 mm y 9,4 mm, respectivamente; y, por último, frente a Candida albicans midieron: 9,8 mm, 8,9 mm y 8,5 mm, respectivamente. Todas las concentraciones de Minthostachys mollis presentaron un efecto antimicrobiano significativamente menor que el fluconazol y la doxiciclina (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: El aceite esencial de Minthostachys mollis al 100 % presentó su mejor actividad inhibitoria frente al Staphylococcus aureus, la Porphyromonas gingivalis y la Candida albicans a las 24 horas. Sin embargo, este efecto antimicrobiano disminuye a medida que pasa el tiempo(AU)

Introduction: Minthostachys mollis is an aromatic plant species growing in Latin America which produces essential oils with antimicrobial activity. Objective: Determine the activity of essential oil from Minthostachys mollis at various concentrations as compared with doxycycline and fluconazole against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methods: An in vitro experimental longitudinal study was conducted. Fifteen wells were prepared per subgroup to evaluate the inhibitory effect of all concentrations, for a sum total of 360 wells. Chemical components of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect was analyzed with the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton and Columbia agar. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Chemical analysis mainly found pulegone (30.17 percent) and menthone (16.55 percent). The inhibition halos of 100 percent Minthostachys mollis at 24, 48 and 72 hours against Porphyromonas gingivalis measured 10.2 mm, 9.8 mm and 9.6 mm, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus they measured 10.4 mm, 9.7 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, and against Candida albicans they measured 9.8 mm, 8.9 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of Minthostachys mollis at all concentrations was significantly lower than that of fluconazole and doxycycline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The essential oil from 100% Minthostachys mollis displayed its best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Candida albicans at 24 hours. However, such antimicrobial effect decreases with the passing of time(AU)

Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile , Fluconazole , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography, Gas , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Longitudinal Studies , Chemical Phenomena
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405


This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.

Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 61-68, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130580


El uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) a nivel de la industria global se ha venido incrementando en los ultimos anos, y fueron los mercados emergentes los impulsores de esta demanda creciente. Las aplicaciones de BPA en la industria de los alimentos y bebidas representan solo del 3 al 4% del consumo global de policarbonato, pero su uso esta siendo reexaminado debido a que se conocieron varios trabajos cientificos que indican la existencia de una relacion directa entre el BPA y los efectos adversos para la salud. La contaminacion de los alimentos y bebidas se produce por migracion del BPA desde los envases que los contienen (alimentos enlatados, vinos, etc.), y es la principal fuente de exposicion en el humano. Para evaluar dicha exposicion se desarrollo y valido un metodo analitico por cromatografia gaseosa acoplada a espectrometria de masa para la cuantificacion de BPA total en orina de mujeres embarazadas atendidas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en el ano 2013, con un limite de cuantificacion de 2,0 ng/mL y un limite de deteccion de 0,8 ng/mL. De las 149 muestras de orina analizadas, el 66,4% fueron cuantificables, con la mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) y la media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).

The use of bisphenol-A (BPA) at the level of the global industry has been increasing in recent years, with emerging markets being the drivers of this growing demand. BPA applications in the food and beverage industry represent only 3 to 4% of the global consumption of polycarbonate, but its use is being reexamined because several scientific works were reported indicating the existence of a direct relationship between BPA and adverse effects on health. The contamination of food and beverages is produced by the migration of BPA from the containers that hold them (canned foods, wines, etc.) and it is the main source of exposure in humans. To evaluate this exposure, an analytical method was developed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the quantification of total BPA in urine of pregnant women treated at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires in 2013, with a limit of quantification of 2.0 ng/mL and of detection of 0.8 ng/mL. Of the 149 urine samples analyzed, 66.4% were quantifiable, with a median total BPA of 4.8 ng/mL (4.3 ng/mg creatinine) and a geometric mean of 4.8 ng/mL (4.7 ng/mg creatinine).

O uso de bisfenol-A (BPA) ao nivel da industria global foi aumentando nos ultimos anos, e foram os mercados emergentes que deram impulso a essa demanda crescente. As aplicacoes de BPA na industria de alimentos e bebidas representam apenas 3 a 4% do consumo global de policarbonato, mas seu uso esta sendo reexaminado visto que varios trabalhos cientificos indicando a existencia de uma relacao direta entre o BPA e os efeitos adversos na saude foram conhecidos. A contaminacao dos alimentos e bebidas e produzida pela migracao de BPA das embalagens que os contem (alimentos enlatados, vinhos, etc.) e e a principal fonte de exposicao em humanos. Para avaliar esta exposicao, foi desenvolvido e avaliado um metodo analitico por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas para a quantificacao do BPA total na urina de gestantes atendidas no Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires em 2013, com um limite de quantificacao de 2,0 ng/mL e um limite de deteccao de 0,8 ng/mL. Das 149 amostras de urina analisadas, 66,4% foram quantificaveis, com uma mediana de BPA total de 4,8 ng/mL (4,3 ng/mg de creatinina) e a media geometrica de 4,8 ng/mL (4,7 ng/mg de creatinina).

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urine , Pregnancy/urine , Endocrine Disruptors , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toxicology/statistics & numerical data , Food Industry , Health , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Food and Beverages , Pregnant Women , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Food
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 15-28, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102865


The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and acaricidal effect of two Psidium species essential oils and selected compounds on Tetranychus urticae. Essential oils from the leaves of Psidium laruotteanum and Psidium myrsinites were obtained through hydrodistillation, analyzed using CG-FID and CG-MS and evaluated for toxicity to T. urticae by fumigation and residual contact. The susceptibility of T. urticae to monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes was also investigated. The major constituents of the P. laruotteanum oil were (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) and γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) and the major constituents of the P. myrsinites oil were ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) and α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%). Based on the LC50 estimates, no significant differences were found between the two oils regarding toxicity by fumigation or residual contact. ß-Caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol had the highest level of toxicity, independently of the method investigated. The findings indicate that both oils and selected constituents, especially ß-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol, are promising as natural acaricidal agents that affect T. urticae through more than one mode of action.

Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Psidium laruotteanum y Psidium myrsinites se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, se analizaron por CG-FID y CG-MS, y se evaluaron sus toxicidades por fumigación y contacto residual contra Tetranychus urticae. Se investigó también la susceptibilidad del T. urticae a monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos. En el aceite esencial de P. laruotteanum, (E)-nerolidol (9.6 ± 0.4%) y γ-terpinene (9.4 ± 0.6%) se identificaron como constituyentes mayoritarios, mientras que en el aceite esencial de P. myrsinites, ß-caryophyllene (21.2 ± 0.9%) y α-humulene (10.3 ± 0.5%) se encontraron como mayoritarios. Con base en las CL50 estimadas, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre las toxicidades de los aceites por fumigación, y tampoco por contacto residual. ßCaryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol presentaron las mayores toxicidades, independientemente del método investigado. Estos resultados indican, que los dos aceites, así como los constituyentes seleccionados, entre los que se destacan ß-caryophyllene y (E)-nerolidol, son promisores agentes acaricidas naturales por actuar en el T. urticae por más de un mecanismo de acción.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Tetranychidae/drug effects , Psidium/chemistry , Acaricides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control , Fumigation , Acaricides/chemistry , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 65-76, ene. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102867


Due to the biological activities of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil, its incorporation in methacrylate polymeric (Eudragit E100) nanoparticles (NP), physical characterization, and antimicrobial essays were evaluated. The clove bears great potential for applications in dentistry. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and oil loaded NP using the nanoprecipitation method. Particle size and polydispersity index were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, and physical morphology by electron microscopy. Loading capacity and in vitro eugenol release were evaluated by gas mass chromatography, and the antimicrobial activity of oil loaded-NP was calculated against Streptococcus mutans. Different chemical ingredients were characterized, and eugenol was the principal compound with 51.55%. Polymer content was directly related to NP homogenous size, which was around 150 nm with spherical morphology. A 73.2% loading capacity of eugenol was obtained. Oil loaded NP presented a fickian-type release mechanism of eugenol. Antimicrobial activity to 300 µg/mL was obtained after 24 h.

Debido a las actividades biológicas del aceite esencial de Syzygium aromaticum, se evaluó su incorporación en nanopartículas (NP) de metacrilato polimérico (Eudragit E100), su caracterización y ensayos antimicrobianos. El clavo tiene un gran potencial para aplicaciones en odontología. El aceite se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y las NP cargado de aceite utilizando el método de nanoprecipitación. El tamaño de partícula y el índice de polidispersidad se determinaron mediante espectroscopia de correlación fotónica y su morfología por microscopía electrónica. La capacidad de carga y la liberación de eugenol in vitro se evaluaron mediante cromatografía de gases en masa, y la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Streptococcus mutans. Se caracterizaron diferentes ingredientes químicos, siendo el eugenol el principal compuesto con 51.55%. El contenido de polímero se relacionó directamente con el tamaño homogéneo de NP, que fue de alrededor de 150 nm con morfología esférica. Se obtuvo un 73,2% de capacidad de carga de eugenol. El aceite cargado en NP presentó un mecanismo de liberación de eugenol de tipo fickiano. La actividad antimicrobiana a 300 µg/mL se obtuvo después de 24 h.

Polymers/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Syzygium/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Eugenol/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Delivery Systems , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1181-1189, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826860


Trichoderma spp. is a kind of filamentous fungi with important biocontrol value. Twelve strains of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the soils of different types of crops in Shaoxing, Zhejiang and Foshan, Guangdong. The antagonistic resistance to Fusarium oxysporum was compared by plate confrontation test. The further analysis of volatile secondary metabolites for two strains were carried out using HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The results showed that T. asperellum ZJSX5003 and GDFS1009 had fast growth ability, and the inhibition effects on F. oxysporum were 73% and 74% respectively. Six identical volatile metabolites were detected as follows 2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol, Acetyl methyl carbinol, Butane-2,3-diol and 6-n-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (6-PAP). Among them, 6-PAP was validated to have a higher inhibitory effect on F. oxysporum in vitro. This study will provide basis for the development of biocontrol agents with metabolites of Trichoderma, such as 6-PAP.

Antibiosis , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Fusarium , Physiology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Trichoderma , Chemistry , Metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828424


Resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from four different appearances were analyzed by headspace sampling-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC-MS) metabolomics technique and hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) chemometrics method. This study was to analyze differential volatile components in resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearance and metabolic pathways. The results of partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) and HCA analysis indicated that there was little difference in volatile components between fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample, however, the volatile components in the two samples compared with whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample had a large metabolic difference. Twenty differential metabolites were screened by VIP and P values of PLS-DA. The content of these differential metabolites was significantly higher in whole body resin-containing sample and resin-secreting aggregated sample than in fiber-rich sample and hollow cork cambium sample. Sixteen significant metabolic pathways were obtained through enrichment analysis(P<0.05), mainly involved in terpenoids biosynthesis and phenylpropanoid metabolism. This result provided a reference for further study of resin formation mechanism of resin-containing drugs in Dracaena from different appearances. At the same time, it also provided a reference for establishing a multi-index quality evaluation system.

Cluster Analysis , Discriminant Analysis , Dracaena , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Resins, Plant
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828375


Licorice is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. In clinic, raw licorice and honey-fried licorice are used in medicines, with the main effects in clearing away heat and detoxifying, moistening lungs and removing phlegm. Honey-fried licorice has effects in nourishing the spleen and stomach and replenishing Qi and pulse. Because traditional Chinese medicine exerts the effects through multiple components and multiple targets, the index components used in the quality evaluation of licorice are often difficult to reflect their real quality. In addition, most of studies for the quality standards have shown that honey-fried licorice are the same as licorice, with a lack of quality evaluation standards that can demonstrate their processing characteristics. The quality of medicine is directly related to its clinical efficacy, so it is necessary to establish a more effective quality control method. Licorice has a beany smell, which is one of the main quality identification characteristics. In this study, by taking advantage of the odor characteristics, a headspace-gas chromatography-ion migration mass spectrometry technology was used to establish a quality evaluation method. A total of 76 volatile components were identified. Through the dynamic principal component analysis, 7 kinds of volatile substances in raw licorice and 13 kinds of volatile substances in honey-fried licorice were statistically obtained, and could be taken as index components for the quality evaluation of raw and honey-fried licorice, respectively. This study could help realize the combination and unification of modern detection and traditional quality evaluation methods, and make a more realistic evaluation for the quality of licorice.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Glycyrrhiza , Honey , Ion Mobility Spectrometry , Volatile Organic Compounds
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827932


Artemisiae Argyi Folium, the dried leaves of Artemisia argyi, has been widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicines for a long time. Qiai is one of the top-geoherb of Artemisiae Argyi Folium. Qiai contains various bioactive constituents, such as volatile oils, phenolic acids, flavonoids and terpenoids. Phytochemical studies demonstrated that volatile compounds are the main bioactive constituents in Qiai. Try to investigate dynamic changes of volatile components of Qiai from different harvest time and explore the optimum harvest time of Qiai, in this study, the contents of total volatile oils in Qiai collected from five different harvest time were analyzed by steam distillation method. The results showed that the contents of volatile oils of Qiai were higher in the third harvest time(around the Dragon Boat Festival), which is basically consistent with the traditional harvest time. Furthermore, a sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was established for qualitative analysis of volatile compounds in Qiai, and a total of thirty volatile compounds were identified. Chemometrics methods including principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminate analysis(OPLS-DA) were applied to explore chemical markers and dynamic changes of volatile components in Qiai from different harvest time, and the results indicated that there were obvious differences in the relative contents of volatile compounds of Qiai samples from different harvest time. Eight volatile compounds, including α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, D-camphor, trans-carveol, α-copaene, isobornylisobutyrate, humulene, and caryophyllene oxide were selected as potential chemical markers. Among the eight chemical markers, the relative contents of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, α-copaene and caryophyllene oxide were higher in the third harvest period(around the Dragon Boat Festival), which is consistent with the contents of total volatile oils. The present study could provide the basis for investigating the optimum harvest time of Qiai, and might be useful for the quality control of this herbal medicine.

Artemisia , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878792


Based on GC-MS metabolomics and biochemical index analysis, the mechanism of bone mass loss in osteoporosis and the evaluation of anti-osteoporosis in Eucommiae Cortex were studied. The OVX rats model was established by bilateral ovariectomized. The routine indexes such as BMC, BMD, BGP and TRAP5 b were determined. The GC-MS technique was used to analyze the metabolism profile of serum samples between the control group, model group and medicine group, and multiple statistical analysis methods including principal component analysis(PCA), partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis(PLS-LDA) and subwindow rearrangement analysis(SPA) were used to screen and identify biomarkers. Five metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, docosahexaenoic acid and glucose. Except for the significant increase of tryptophan in serum of OVX rats, the other four metabolites were significantly decreased. Moreover, the five biomarkers of the medicine group had a trend of returning to rats in control group. The significantly altered metabolite levels indicated that Eucommiae Cortex may relieve the symptoms of osteoporosis by regulating amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress.

Animals , Biomarkers , Bone Density , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Rats
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2779-2790, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878529


Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids, and affect the development of various diseases by regulating intestinal flora structure and modulating immunity and metabolism. It is therefore important to quantitatively detect bile acids. Current analytical methods are still immature due to constituent complexity, structural heterogeneity and bioactive variability of bile acids. Detection of individual bile acids is of significance for pharmacological research, clinical diagnosis and disease prevention. Advances have been made in bile acid analysis from multiple sources including serum, bile, urine and feces, although several limitations still exist for bile acid quantification. Here we review research progress in conventional bile acid assays, including spectrophotometry, thin-layer chromatography, liquid/gas chromatography and liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, we emphasize the development of bile acid biosensors that may have promising prospects.

Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Biosensing Techniques , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338


PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.

Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1848-1852, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879982


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in expiratory air components of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and assess the feasibility of VOCs for the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of APL.@*METHODS@#The VOCs exhaled from the patients with APL and healthy volunteers should be analyzed with SPME-GC/MS, and compared between newly-diagnosed group, relapse group, remission group, and healthy group with Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Dunn-Bonferroni test.@*RESULTS@#Dimethyl sulfide, toluene, and dodecane obtained of newly-diagnosed APL patients were significantly higher, while ethanol, n-hexanal, and benzaldehyde were significantly lower than those of healthy people (P<0.05). Compared with the newly-diagnosed group, dimethylsulfide, toluene, and dodecane of the remission group significantly decreased, while ethanol, n-hexanal, and benzaldehyde significantly increased (P<0.05), which was just opposite from the relapse group.@*CONCLUSION@#Dimethyl sulfide, toluene, dodecane, ethanol, n-hexanal, and benzaldehyde can be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis assessment of APL patients.

Exhalation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Granulocyte Precursor Cells , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283651


This study presents analyses on the chemistry, biology, pharmacology and chromatography of essential oils extracted from three species of the Ocotea genus: O. minor, O. ceanothifolia and O. leucoxylon. Leaves and stems, as well as the bark of O. minor, were processed using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Seven essential oils were obtained and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS, and their chemical compositions were determined. Assays of cytotoxicity, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, as well as tyrosinase and elastase inhibition were performed. In total, 25 constituents were identified, the principal being sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol caryophyllene and its oxide. The oils did not present cytotoxicity using a hemolytic model, but also did not show antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Essential oil from stems of O. ceanothifolia, rich in spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide, demonstrated the capacity to inhibit 49.08% of tyrosinase activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. This research contributes to the chemical profile analysis of the three species of Ocoteathrough chemical investigations and biological activity, which are reported for the first time here in this study.

Este trabajo realiza un estudio químico, biológico, farmacológico y cromatográfico de aceites esenciales extraídos de tres especies del género Ocotea: O. minor, O. ceanothifoliay O. leucoxylon. Las hojas y tallos, así como la corteza de O. minor, se procesaron utilizando un aparato Clevenger modificado. Se obtuvieron siete aceites esenciales y se analizaron usando GC-FID y GC-MS, y se determinaron sus composiciones químicas. Se realizaron ensayos de citotoxicidad, actividad antioxidante y de atrapamiento de radicales libres, así como inhibición de tirosinasa y elastasa. En total, se identificaron 25 componentes, siendo los principales sesquiterpenos, como el spathulenol cariofileno y su óxido. Los aceites no presentaron citotoxicidad en un modelo hemolítico y tampoco mostraron actividad antioxidante en el ensayo con DPPH. El aceite esencial de tallos de O. ceanothifolia, rico en espatulenol y óxido de cariofileno, mostró capacidad para inhibir el 49.08% de la actividad de tirosinasa a una concentración de 100 µg/mL. Esta investigación contribuye al análisis del perfil químico de las tres especies de Ocotea a través de investigaciones químicas y actividad biológica la cual se informan por primera vez.

Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ocotea/chemistry , Oxides/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Lauraceae/chemistry , Cosmetic Industry , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18499, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285512


Lignosus rhinocerotis (tiger milk mushroom) is widely used by the indigenous people of Malaysia as a traditional remedy. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of L. rhinocerotis extract on brain microglial cells (BV2). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) scavenging assays, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP, DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging capacities of the TE3 fraction were 420.77 mg FE/g, 58.01%, and 7%, respectively. The cytotoxic activity was determined by MTS assay. The in vitro model of anti-neuroinflammatory property was evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 cells. The TE3 fraction showed a significant NO reduction at 1 to 100 µg/mL. The TE3 fraction down-regulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) genes while it upregulated heme oxygenase (HO-1) and NADPH quinone acceptor oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) genes. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription was also activated. The chemical component of the active fraction (TE3) was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Overall, the BV2 in vitro model anti-neuroinflammatory activity of L. rhinocerotis may be caused by the lipid constituents identified in the fraction

In Vitro Techniques/methods , Cells/classification , Agaricales/classification , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipids/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190213, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132272


Abstract This study aims to find the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield. For the HD technique is evaluated the best ratio between plant mass and water volume and for SFE and SD the pressure condition was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the similarity between the composition of the essential oil in different pressures and extraction methods. The experimental extraction curve was plotted and three different mathematical models were used to fit the data for SD and SFE methods, obtaining the relevant mass transfer parameters. The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being α-zingiberene the main component with different contents (from 11.9 to 28.9%). The best condition for the SFE was 100 bar, 40 °C (0.0508 goil/gplant) with 19.34% of α-zingiberene; for the SD, 3 bar (133 °C) (0.00616 goil/gplant) with 28.9% of α-zingiberene; and HD, the volume of 750 mL (0.006988 goil/gplant) with 15.70% of α-zingiberene, all measured on a dry basis.

Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Ginger/chemistry , Distillation , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Models, Theoretical