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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 404-417, mayo 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397089

ABSTRACT

The objective of the work was to study the cytotoxic effect of ent-kaurene acid derivatives obtained from Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. Ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., After analysis by GC/MS, IR and NMR. Isolating: kaurenic acid (I), grandifloric acid (II), 15-α-hydroxy kaurenic acid (III), 15 α-acetoxy-kaur 16-en-19-oic acid (IV), Kaurenol (V); and by hemisynthesis: 15,16-epoxy-17-acetoxy-kauran 19-oic acid (VI), 15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (VIII), ester 2,3,4,6 -15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid acetyl α-D-pyranosyl tetra-tetra (VII). Cytotoxicity was tested in human cancer cell lines: uterus (HeLa), lung (A-549), breast (MCF-7), African green monkey kidney non-tumor line (Vero) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CMPS). Compound (I) was active against HeLa, A-549 and Vero. Compounds (II and VIII) showed moderate and good (IC50 ≤ 9 µM) cytotoxicity, respectively, against the five cell lines. Compound (V) showed moderate activity against A-549 and compound (VII), slight cytotoxicity against HeLa and A-549. Results that show the cytotoxic specificity of the isolated kaurenes and derivatives of Coespeletia moritzianaand their therapeutic potential.


El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el efecto citotóxico de derivados del ácido ent-kaureno obtenidos de Coespeletia moritziana (Sch. Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec., previo análisis mediante GC/MS, IR y RMN. Aislandose: ácido kaurénico(I), ácido grandiflorénico (II), ácido 15-α-hidroxi kaurénico(III), ácido 15 α-acetoxi-kaur 16-en-19-oico (IV), Kaurenol (V); y por hemisíntesis: ácido 15,16-epoxi-17-acetoxi-kauran 19-oico (VI), ácido15-oxo-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VIII), éster 2,3,4,6-tetra acetil α-D-piranosilo del ácido 15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oico (VII). La citotóxicidad fue ensayada en líneas celulares cancerosas humanas: útero (HeLa), pulmón(A-549), mama (MCF-7), línea no tumoral de riñón de mono verde africano (Vero) y células mononucleares humanas de sangre periférica (CMPS). El compuesto (I) resultó activo frente a HeLa, A-549 y Vero. Los compuestos (II y VIII), mostraron moderada y buena (IC50≤9µM) citotoxicidad respectivamente, frente a las cinco líneas celulares. El compuesto (V) presentó moderada actividad frente a A-549 y el (VII), leve citotoxicidad frente a HeLa y A-549. Resultados que evidencian la especificidad citotóxica de los kaurenos aislados y derivados de Coespeletia moritzianay su potencial terapéutico.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Diterpenes/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 323-342, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396881

ABSTRACT

Copaifera spp. essential oil (EOC) was extracted by hydrodistillation of Copaifera oleoresin (COR). The EOC was characterized by GC/MS and a novel EOC-loaded nanoemulsion was developed to enhance the EOC solubility and to evaluate its utility as antinflammatory. EOC contain 14 volatile compounds (including ß-caryophyllene: 51.52%) having a required HLB of 11. The Surfactant: EOC: Water ratio of 13:15:75 (%, w:w:w) produced the optimal formulation (particle size: 94.47 nm). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion presented a pseudoplastic/thixotropic behavior with excellent shelf stability for 6 months. The anti-inflammatory effect of the nanoemulsion was more potent than that of the EOC, and statistically equal to diclofenac (50 mg/kg). The EOC-loaded nanoemulsion showed no oral acute toxicity (in mice) at 2000 mg/kg; hence, it is considered a nontoxic product. The development of the EOC-loaded nanoemulsion added value to both the COR and the EOC by providinga suitable formulation that could be used as an anti-inflammatory product.


El aceite esencial (EOC) fue extraído por hidrodestilación de oleoresina de Copaifera spp. El EOC fue caracterizado químicamente por GC/MS. Se formuló una nanoemulsión con EOC para mejorar la solubilidad del EOC y evaluar su utilidad como antiinflamatorio. El EOC contiene 14 compuestos volátiles (incluido el ß-cariofileno: 51,52%) con un HLB requerido de 11. La relación Tensioactivo: EOC: Agua de 13:15:75 (%, p:p:p) produjo la formulación óptima (tamaño de partícula: 94,47 nm).. La nanoemulsión cargada con EOC presentó un comportamiento pseudoplástico/tixotrópico con una excelente estabilidad en almacenamiento durante 6 meses. El efecto antiinflamatorio de la nanoemulsión fue más potente que el del EOC y estadísticamente igual al diclofenaco (50 mg/kg). La nanoemulsión cargada con COE no mostró toxicidad aguda oral (en ratones) a 2000 mg/kg; por lo tanto, se considera un producto no tóxico. El desarrollo de la nanoemulsión cargada con EOC agregó valor tanto al COR como al EOC al proporcionar una formulación adecuada que podría usarse como un producto antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Emulsions/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 207-214, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395229

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the main constituent, the predominant class and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Pimenta dioica and the pattern of the major constituent against larvae in the third stage of Aedes aegypti. For this reason, we extracted the oil by hydrodistillation, identified its components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and calculated the lethal concentration (LC50) of the larvicidal activity using the Reed-Muench method. The results show that the oil consists mainly of eugenol, in which the phenylpropanoid class predominated and the lethal concentration, LC50, was 38.86 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.25 µg mL-1, while the eugenol standard presented LC5079.75 µg mL-1at a confidence level of 2.10 µg mL-1. Given the facts, we conclude that the oil is more active than the standard and that it has the potential to replace chemical larvicides.


En este estudio, investigamos el constituyente principal, la clase predominante y la actividad biológica del aceite esencial extraído de las hojas de Pimenta dioica y el patrón del constituyente principal contra las larvas en la tercera etapa de Aedes aegypti. Por este motivo, extrajimos el aceite por hidrodestilación, identificamos sus componentes mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) y calculamos la concentración letal (CL50) de la actividad larvicida mediante el método Reed-Muench. Los resultados muestran que el aceite está constituido principalmente por eugenol, en el que predominó la clase fenilpropanoide y la concentración letal, CL50, fue de 38,86 µg.mL-1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,25 µg.mL-1, mientras que el estándar de eugenol presentó CL50 79,75 µg.mL -1 a un nivel de confianza de 2,10 µg.mL-1. Dados los hechos, concluimos que el aceite es más activo que el estándar y que tiene el potencial de reemplazar los larvicidas químicos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Pimenta/chemistry , Larvicides , Biological Assay , Biological Products , Eugenol/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 51-65, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372343

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence indicates that plant antioxidants activity can treat or help to prevent the development of various diseases. One species with great potential as an antioxidant is Curcuma longa. However, different extraction techniquescan influence isolated chemical compounds. This study investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two rhizome extracts of C. longa: hydroethanolic, obtained by exhaustion (HECLex); and dried by a spray dryer (HECLsd). The phytochemical composition was evaluated by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total phenolic compounds and soil analyses were performed. The main components of HECLex were ar-turmerone, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone, and ß-sesquiphellandrene. The main components of HECLsd were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 2, 3-bis([trimethylsilyl]oxy) propyl ester, verrucarol, and 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. HECLsd had significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant capacity compared with HECLex. In conclusion, processes of the preparation of C. longarhizomes alter the chemical components and consequently their biological activity.


La evidencia epidemiológica indica que la actividad de los antioxidantes de las plantas pueden tratar o ayudar a prevenir el desarrollo de diversas enfermedades. Una especie con gran potencial como antioxidante es Curcuma longa. Sin embargo, diferentes técnicas de extracción pueden influir en los compuestos químicos aislados. Este estudio investigó la composición química y la actividad antioxidante de dos extractos de rizoma de C. longa: hidroetanólico, obtenido por agotamiento (HECLex); y se seca con un secador por pulverización (HECLsd). La composición fitoquímica se evaluó mediante GC/MS. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante ensayos DPPH y FRAP. Se realizaron análisis de suelos y compuestos fenólicos totales. Los componentes principales de HECLex fueron ar-turmerona, γ-curcumene, α-turmerone y ß-sesquiphellandrene. Los componentes principales de HECLsd fueron ácido 9,12,15-octadecatrienoico, éster 2,3-bis ([trimetilsilil] oxi) propílico, verrucarol y éter 1-monolinoleoilglicerol trimetilsilil. HECLsd tenía niveles significativamente más altos de compuestos fenólicos y mayor capacidad antioxidante en comparación con HECLex. En conclusión, los procesos de preparación de los rizomas de C. longa alteran los componentes químicos y consecuentemente su actividad biológica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Curcuma/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Diarylheptanoids/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Free Radicals , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants/chemistry
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 123-130, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372547

ABSTRACT

The genus Fuchsia is generally used in herbal preparations to treat conditions caused by microorganisms. Based on the popular use of this type of plants, the objective of this study was to obtain sequential extracts of increasing polarity from the branches of Fuchsia lycioides by maceration at room temperature and by the Soxhlet method at 60ºC, to later evaluate the antifungal capacity of the extracts against different clinical isolates of the Candida genus. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong anti-fungal activity, selectively inhibiting C. albicans strains with MIC and CMF values of 10 and 15 µg/mL, respectively; comparable with the drug itraconazole®. The analysis of the extract by GC-MS showed a high concentration of terpenoids (mainly phytol) and phenylpropanoids (mainly cinnamic acid), possibly responsible for the antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of F. lycioides.


El género Fuchsia se usa generalmente en preparaciones de hierbas para tratar afecciones provocadas por microorganismos. En base al uso popular de este tipo de plantas, el objetivo de este estudio fue obtener los extractos secuenciales de polaridad creciente de las ramas de Fuchsia lycioides por maceración a temperatura ambiente y por el método Soxhlet a 60ºC, para luego evaluar la capacidad antifúngica de los extractos frente a diferentes aislados clínicos del genero Candida. El extracto de acetato de etilo exhibió una fuerte actividad antifúngica inhibiendo en forma selectiva las cepas de C. albicans con valores de CMI y de CMF de 10 y 15 µg/mL, respectivamente; comparables con el fármaco itraconazol®. El análisis del extracto por CG-EM mostró una alta concentración de terpenoides (principalmente fitol) y fenilpropanoides (principalmente ácido cinámico), posibles responsables de la actividad antifúngica del extracto de acetato de etilo de F. lycioides.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Onagraceae/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Phenylpropionates/analysis , Temperature , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 74 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391022

ABSTRACT

Mesmo reduzida e fragmentada, o vasto bioma da Mata Atlântica abriga milhares de plantas. Como destaque, tem-se as espécies frutíferas, aos quais podem ser atribuídas um importante valor para a segurança alimentar, nutricional e sociocultural. Entre elas, têm-se a cereja-do-rio grande (Eugenia involucrata DC.) e a grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), caracterizadas pela polpa de sabor doce-acidulado, sendo muito apreciadas e utilizadas tanto in natura, quanto no preparo de doces, xaropes, licores e geleias. Uma das características determinantes para o sucesso e aceitação destes frutos pelo consumidor, são os atributos de qualidade sensorial. As propriedades aromáticas dos frutos dependem da potência individual dos voláteis e a concentração de cada um, bem como a combinação com outros compostos. Todavia, apesar do grande potencial de mercado, devido às características nutricionais, fitoterápicas, potencial funcional e ao sabor exótico, os plantios existentes destas são oriundos de multiplicação por sementes, resultando em plantas desuniformes quanto as características de produção e qualidade. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar metabólitos voláteis que confiram características sensoriais desejáveis aos frutos. Auxiliando na identificação de plantas que produzem frutos com voláteis de interesse para o sabor, o que permitirá a clonagem e propagação de plantas com homogeneidade na produção. Os compostos voláteis foram analisados em triplicata, de acordo com o método de microextração em fase sólida (SPME, do inglês Solid Phase Microextraction). Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de frutos das diversas regiões se diferenciaram quanto a composição dos metabolitos voláteis, bem como na abundância destes compostos. Observou-se também uma variação de composição entre as árvores da mesma região demonstrando tal irregularidade ocasionada pela propagação por sementes. A maioria de compostos voláteis produzidos foram identificados como terpenos, sendo estes já conhecidos pela importância no flavor em frutos. Desta forma, conhecer o aroma fornecerá um conjunto de dados que são subsídios para outros pesquisadores trabalharem em suas diversas áreas buscando características necessárias para o sucesso da comercialização, ocasionando no incentivo ao cultivo e valorização da riqueza nacional, no âmbito das espécies frutíferas, com vistas à proteção ambiental e em defesa da biodiversidade brasileira


The Atlantic Forest harbors thousands of plants despite of its reduced and fragmented character. It is important to highlight the fruit species which hold attributed and important value for food and socio-cultural security. Among them, there are the big cherry (Eugenia involucrata DC.) And the grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), fruit with sweet-acidulated flavor, which is much appreciated and used in the preparation of sweets, syrups, liqueurs, and jellies. One of the determining characteristics for the success and acceptance of these fruits by the consumer are the attributes of sensorial quality. The aromatic properties of the fruits depend on the individual potency of the volatiles and the concentration in each one of them, as well as the combination with other compounds. Despite of the great market potential due to the nutritional, phytotherapic and exotic flavor characteristics, the existing plantations of these fruits are originated from seed multiplication, resulting on uneven plants in terms of production and quality characteristics. In this sense, the presented work below was aimed to identify volatile metabolites that confer desirable sensorial characteristics to the fruits. The volatile compounds were analyzed in triplicate according to the Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) method. The results showed that the fruit groups from different regions differed in terms of the composition of volatile metabolites, as well as in the abundance of these compounds. There was also a variation of composition among the trees of the same region which demonstrated such heterogeneity caused by seed propagation. Most volatile compounds produced were identified as terpenes which are known for playing an important role in the flavor of fruits. In this way, by knowing the aroma, a set of data will be provided and used as an allowance for other researchers who are working in the various areas related to the pursue of the necessary characteristics for the commercial success, resulting on the motivation to cultivate and value the forest


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/anatomy & histology , Volatile Organic Compounds , Eugenia/anatomy & histology , Fruit/adverse effects , Plants/adverse effects , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Odorants/analysis
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 74 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396025

ABSTRACT

Mesmo reduzida e fragmentada, o vasto bioma da Mata Atlântica abriga milhares de plantas. Como destaque, tem-se as espécies frutíferas, aos quais podem ser atribuídas um importante valor para a segurança alimentar, nutricional e sociocultural. Entre elas, têm-se a cereja-do-rio grande (Eugenia involucrata DC.) e a grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), caracterizadas pela polpa de sabor doce-acidulado, sendo muito apreciadas e utilizadas tanto in natura, quanto no preparo de doces, xaropes, licores e geleias. Uma das características determinantes para o sucesso e aceitação destes frutos pelo consumidor, são os atributos de qualidade sensorial. As propriedades aromáticas dos frutos dependem da potência individual dos voláteis e a concentração de cada um, bem como a combinação com outros compostos. Todavia, apesar do grande potencial de mercado, devido às características nutricionais, fitoterápicas, potencial funcional e ao sabor exótico, os plantios existentes destas são oriundos de multiplicação por sementes, resultando em plantas desuniformes quanto as características de produção e qualidade. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar metabólitos voláteis que confiram características sensoriais desejáveis aos frutos. Auxiliando na identificação de plantas que produzem frutos com voláteis de interesse para o sabor, o que permitirá a clonagem e propagação de plantas com homogeneidade na produção. Os compostos voláteis foram analisados em triplicata, de acordo com o método de microextração em fase sólida (SPME, do inglês Solid Phase Microextraction). Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de frutos das diversas regiões se diferenciaram quanto a composição dos metabolitos voláteis, bem como na abundância destes compostos. Observou-se também uma variação de composição entre as árvores da mesma região demonstrando tal irregularidade ocasionada pela propagação por sementes. A maioria de compostos voláteis produzidos foram identificados como terpenos, sendo estes já conhecidos pela importância no flavor em frutos. Desta forma, conhecer o aroma fornecerá um conjunto de dados que são subsídios para outros pesquisadores trabalharem em suas diversas áreas buscando características necessárias para o sucesso da comercialização, ocasionando no incentivo ao cultivo e valorização da riqueza nacional, no âmbito das espécies frutíferas, com vistas à proteção ambiental e em defesa da biodiversidade brasileira


The Atlantic Forest harbors thousands of plants despite of its reduced and fragmented character. It is important to highlight the fruit species which hold attributed and important value for food and socio-cultural security. Among them, there are the big cherry (Eugenia involucrata DC.) And the grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), fruit with sweet-acidulated flavor, which is much appreciated and used in the preparation of sweets, syrups, liqueurs, and jellies. One of the determining characteristics for the success and acceptance of these fruits by the consumer are the attributes of sensorial quality. The aromatic properties of the fruits depend on the individual potency of the volatiles and the concentration in each one of them, as well as the combination with other compounds. Despite of the great market potential due to the nutritional, phytotherapic and exotic flavor characteristics, the existing plantations of these fruits are originated from seed multiplication, resulting on uneven plants in terms of production and quality characteristics. In this sense, the presented work below was aimed to identify volatile metabolites that confer desirable sensorial characteristics to the fruits. The volatile compounds were analyzed in triplicate according to the Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) method. The results showed that the fruit groups from different regions differed in terms of the composition of volatile metabolites, as well as in the abundance of these compounds. There was also a variation of composition among the trees of the same region which demonstrated such heterogeneity caused by seed propagation. Most volatile compounds produced were identified as terpenes which are known for playing an important role in the flavor of fruits. In this way, by knowing the aroma, a set of data will be provided and used as an allowance for other researchers who are working in the various areas related to the pursue of the necessary characteristics for the commercial success, resulting on the motivation to cultivate and value the forest


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae/classification , Volatile Organic Compounds/adverse effects , Eugenia , Fruit/classification , Plants , World Health Organization , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Biodiversity , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Odorants
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20464, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403751

ABSTRACT

Abstract Papaveraceae is one of the prominent alkaloid-containing families, and plants of the genus Glaucium (Papaveraceae) are known for their bioactive alkaloids. Glaucium species have been used in traditional medicine in Turkey as an analgesic, narcotic, sedative, and antitussive. In this study, it was planned to evaluate the inhibitory activity of an alkaloidal extract of Glaucium corniculatum subsp. refractum on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), as well as exploring the chemical profile of the plant by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The AChE, BuChE and POP inhibition activities of the alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum were determined spectrophotometrically. A rapid GC-MS method was used to identify alkaloids that could be responsible for these inhibition activities. In total, eleven alkaloids were identified in the alkaloid extract of the plant by GC-MS. Allocyptopine (52.92%) and protopine (25.38%) were found as the major constituents. The alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum showed potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC50:1.25 µg/mL) and BuChE inhibitory activity (IC50: 7.02 µg/mL). The extract also showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on POP with an IC50 value of 123.69 µg/mL. This study presents the first GC-MS investigation and POP inhibitory activity of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Papaveraceae/metabolism , Plant Extracts/agonists , Alkaloids/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Traditional
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the volatile constituents and their contents in the roots of 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica and analyze the chemical relationship among the plants of A. dahurica.@*METHODS@#The essential oil was extracted from the roots of 5 cultivated plants of Angelica dahurica and one wild A. dahurica by water steam distillation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to separate and identify all the volatile oil components in the extracts, and their relative contents were calculated with area normalization method. We also conducted clustering analysis and principal component analysis of the volatile oil components.@*RESULTS@#We identified a total of 81 compounds from the roots of the 6 plants of Angelica dahurica, including 27 in Chuanbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 34 in Hangbaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Hangbaizhi'), 24 in Qibaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv. 'Qibaizhi'), 32 in Yubaizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), 28 in Bobahizhi (Angelica dahurica cv.'Qibaizhi'), and 34 in Xinganbaizhi (Angelica dahuirca). These compounds included, in the order of their relative contents (from high to low), alkanes, olefins, esters, organic acids and alcohols. Among the common components found in the roots of all the plants of A. dahurica, nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid were identified as the volatile oil components that showed the highest relative contents. Clustering analysis of the volatile oil components showed that wild Angelica dahurica (Xing'anbaizhi) and the 5 cultivated Angelica dahurica (Chuanbaizhi, Hangbaizhi, Qibaizhi, Yubaizhi, Bobaizhi) could be divided into two groups, and the cultivated Angelica dahurica could be divided into two subgroups: Chuanbaizhi, Yubaizhi and Hangbahizhi were clustered in one subgroup, and Qibaizhi and Bobaizhi in another. The results of principal component analysis was consistent with those of clustering analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The main volatile oil components and their contents vary among the 6 plants of A. dahurica. Nonylcyclopropane, cyclododecane and hexadecanoic acid are the most abundant volatile oil components in all the plants of A. dahurica, which can be divided into two clusters.


Subject(s)
Angelica/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939920

ABSTRACT

Achyranthes bidentata Blume is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine with the effects of nourishing the liver and kidneys and strengthening muscles and bones. In this work, a rapid and simple strategy was developed for characterizing phytoecdysteroids by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with liner ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in the negative mode. As a result, 47 phytoecdysteroids were unambiguously or tentatively characterized. Among them, seven known compounds were identified according to the reference standards along with molecular formula, retention time and fragmentation patterns, while others were mostly potential new compounds. Through targeted isolation, the structures of three new compounds were determined by NMR spectra, which were consistent with LC-MS characterization. The present study provides an efficient method to deeply characterize phytoecdysteroids.


Subject(s)
Achyranthes/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935746

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) in urine samples by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methods: Automatic headspace sampling technique was adopted to optimize the headspace conditions (headspace bottle heating temperature and equilibration time) and gas chromatographic conditions. A total of 5 ml samples were taken and added with 3.0 g ammonium sulfate into a 20 ml headspace bottle. After heated at 60 ℃ for 30 mins, gas from the upper part of headspace bottle was injected into gas chromatography with an injection volume of 100 μl. The target was separated by HP-5MS UI (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm) capillary column and then detected by mass spectrometry detector. The retention time and external standard method were used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of MIBK in samples, respectively. Results: The standard curve of MIBK showed significant linearity between 20.0-1 000.0 μg/L. The standard curve was y=62.9x-652.5, and the correlation coefficient r=0.9998. The detection limit of MIBK was 5.0 μg/L and the quantification limit of MIBK was 16.0 μg/L. The average recovery rate was 95.3%~100.2% at three spiked concentrations of low (50.0 μg/L) , medium (200.0 μg/L) and high (500.0 μg/L) . The intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.7%~3.8% (n=6) and 1.2%~4.0% (n=6) respectively. This method was stable for the determination of MIBK, and the urine could be kept 14 d at -20 ℃ without significantly loss. Conclusion: This method is proved to be simple, practical and highly sensitive. It can satisfy the request for the determination of urine samples of workers exposed to MIBK.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Methyl n-Butyl Ketone
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928070

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, is prone to diseases and insect pests in the growth process, which are primarily prevented and treated by pesticides. However, due to the lack of standardization in the types, frequencies, and doses of pesticides, pesticide residues have become the main exogenous pollutants of P. ginseng. To explore the risk of pesticide residues in P. ginseng, this paper summarized and analyzed the common pesticide residues in P. ginseng, detection techniques, and pesticide residue limit stan-dards based on the published literature in recent years. The results revealed that the main pesticide residues in P. ginseng were organochlorine pesticides, such as tetrachloronitrobenzene, pentachloronitrobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene, and the detection techniques were dominated by gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC), or those combined with mass spectrometry(MS). Because of the long half-life and difficulty in degradation, organochlorine pesticides have become the main factor affecting the export of P. ginseng. It is worth mentioning that P. ginseng has been classified as food in Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and other countries, and the standards of pesticide residues and limits are stricter than those in China. The quality and safety of P. ginseng are prerequisites for the efficacy of Chinese medicine and the development of traditional Chinese medicine. The formulation of scientific and effective standards for pesticide application and limits would promote the high-quality development of the P. ginseng industry.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/analysis , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927976

ABSTRACT

A UHPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap MS method was used to analyze the chemical constituents of the classical prescription Qianghuo Shengshi Standard Decoction(QHSS). UHPL conditions were as follows: Waters~(TM) UPLC~(TM) HSS T3 C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) and mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution. Mass spectrometry data of QHSS, each herb extract, and negative sample were collected in both positive and negative ion modes. The chemical constituents of QHSS were identified or tentatively identified based on the accurate molecular weight, retention time, MS fragmentation, comparison with reference substances, and literature reports. A total of 141 compounds were identified, including 18 amino acids, oligosaccharides, oligopeptides, and their derivatives, 19 phenolic acids, 44 coumarins, 18 flavonoids and chromones, 13 saponins, 17 phthalides, and 12 other components. This study comprehensively characterized the chemical constituents of QHSS, laying an experimental basis for the in-depth research on the material basis and quality control of QHSS.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Mass Spectrometry , Quality Control
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927967

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in the volatile oil of Syringa oblata were identified using GC-MS and NIST database. TCMSP and SwissTargetPrediction were employed to predict the potential targets of the active components in S. oblata. Through Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), GeneCards, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG), we screened out the targets related to the prevention or treatment of angina pectoris by the volatile oil of S. oblata, and then used DAVID 6.8 to annotate the gene ontology(GO) terms and KEGG pathways. The "active components-targets-pathways" network was constructed in Cytoscape 3.6.0, and the key active components and targets of S. oblata were verified by Discovery Studio 2016. Forty-six chemical constituents were identified from the volatile oil of S. oblata; 198 potential targets of the active components and 1 138 targets associated with angina pectoris were predicted. A total of 71 common targets were shared by the active components and the disease, including cytochrome P450 19 A1(CYP19 A1) and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2(PTGS2). The KEGG pathways involved include PPAR, JAK-STAT, TNF, Toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. The active components in the volatile oil of S. oblata may play anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis roles. This study provides a reliable clue for further explanation of the effective components and the functioning mechanism of S. oblata in the treatment of angina pectoris.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Syringa
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927950

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CX) is known as an effective fraction. In order to seek a suitable method for processing CX and its decoction pieces, this study selected 16 volatile components as indices to investigate how different processing methods such as washing/without washing, sun-drying, baking, oven-drying and far-infrared drying at different temperatures affected the quality of CX and its decoction pieces(fresh CX was partially dried, cut into pieces, and then dried) by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), cluster analysis, principal component analysis and comprehensive weighted scoring. The results showed that the rapid washing before processing did not deteriorate the volatile components of CX. Considering the practical condition of production area, oven-drying was believed to be more suitable than sun-drying, baking, and far-infrared drying. The CX decoction pieces with a thickness of 0.3-0.4 cm were recommended to be oven-dried at 50 ℃. The integrated processing(partial drying, cutting into pieces, and drying) did not cause a significant loss of volatile components. For the fresh CX, the oven-drying at 60 ℃ is preferred. The temperature should not exceed 60 ℃, and drying below 60 ℃ will prolong the processing time, which will produce an unfavorable effect on volatile components. This study has provided the scientific evidence for field processing of CX, which is conducive to realizing the normalization and standardization of CX processing in the production area and stabilizing the quality of CX and its decoction pieces.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927911

ABSTRACT

Forsythiae Fructus is the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa and the volatile compounds are its main bioactive components. According to the different harvest periods, F. suspensa can be divided into Qingqiao(mature F. suspensa) and Laoqiao(ripe F. suspensa). To investigate dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples collected at different periods, the present study extracted and analyzed the total volatile oils in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples(four harvest periods for Qingqiao and two for Laoqiao) by steam distillation method. The results indicated that the content of volatile oils in F. suspensa samples at different harvest periods was significantly different. The content of volatile oils in Qingqiao samples(except those harvested in the first period) was higher than that of Laoqiao, and the content of volatile oils in both Qingqiao and Laoqiao increased with the harvest period. Furthermore, volatile compounds in F. suspensa were qualitatively analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), and 28 volatile compounds were identified. Chemometrics analyses including principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were further applied to explore differential markers and dynamic changes of volatile components in Qingqiao and Laoqiao samples at different harvest periods. Finally, four volatile compounds, including α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, and 4-terpenol were selected as potential differential markers. The relative content of α-pinene and 4-terpenol was consistent with that of total volatile oils in the changing trend.


Subject(s)
Chemometrics , Forsythia , Fruit , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(6): 575-597, nov. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369745

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the antibacterial potential of Euphorbia hirtawhole plant extracts, honey and conventional antibiotics and their synergistic effects against selected multidrug resistant and typed bacterial strains associated with otitis media. E. hirtawhole plant extract was purified using column chromatography technique. The antibacterial assays of extracts were done using standard microbiological procedures. Protein, sodium and potassium ion leakage of the synergistic mixtures was determined using flame-photometry. At 100 mg/ml, acetone extracts presented highest inhibition against S. aureus (NCTC 6571) with 32 ± 0.83 mm zone of inhibition. The fractional inhibitory concentration indices displayed higher synergism in combination of plant extract, honey and ciprofloxacin against P. mirabilisat 0.02 compared to drug combination synergy standard (≤ 0.5). This work revealed augmentation of ciprofloxacin potency when combined with purified E. hirta acetone extract and honey and implies their high potential in the treatment of multidrug resistant infectionof otitis media.


Este estudio investigó el potencial antibacteriano de extractos de plantas enteras de Euphorbia hirta, miel y antibióticos convencionales y sus efectos sinérgicos contra cepas bacterianas seleccionadas multirresistentes y tipificadas asociadas con la otitis media. El extracto de la planta entera de E. hirtase purificó usando la técnica de cromatografía en columna. Los ensayos antibacterianos de extractos se realizaron utilizando procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. La fuga de iones de proteínas, sodio y potasio de las mezclas sinérgicas se determinó mediante fotometría de llama. A 100 mg/ml, los extractos de acetona presentaron la mayor inhibición contra S. aureus (NCTC 6571) con una zona de inhibición de 32 ± 0,83 mm. Los índices de concentración inhibitoria fraccional mostraron un mayor sinergismo en combinación de extracto de planta, miel y ciprofloxacina contra P. mirabilisa 0,02 en comparación con el estándar de sinergia de combinación de fármacos (≤ 0,5). Este trabajo reveló un aumento de la potencia de la ciprofloxacina cuando se combina con extracto de acetona purificado de E. hirtay miel e implica sualto potencial en el tratamiento de infecciones de otitis media resistentes a múltiples fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Euphorbia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Proteus mirabilis/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Flame Emission Photometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Synergism , Glycosides/analysis , Honey , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 503-514, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369017

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
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