This study aimed to determine the antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) seed ethanolic extract in rats. We assessed the antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging on DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching activity, ferric reducing power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In the antiulcerogenic study, pre-treatment with Plantago ovata seeds ethanolic extract (POE) (400 mg/kg b.wt) significantly protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by decreasing the ulcer index value and preserving the integrity of the gastric mucosa. The oxidative stress status in the stomach tissues showed a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation during pre-treatment with POE. In conclusion, the POE protects against gastric ulcer due to its antioxidant potential and presence of bioactive molecules.
O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades antiulcerogênica e antioxidante das sementes de Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) em ratos. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado utilizando o método do sequestro do radical livre DPPH, autooxidação do ß-caroteno, poder redutor de ferro e atividade de sequestro do radical hidroxila. No estudo antiulcerogênico, o pré-tratamento com o extrato etanólico das sementes de Plantago ovata (POE) (400 mg/Kg b.wt) reduziu a úlcera gástrica induzida pelo etanol em ratos, diminuindo o valor do índice de úlcera e preservando a integridade da mucosa gástrica. O estudo do estresse oxidativo nos tecidos estomacais mostrou um aumento significativo dos níveis das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase, com uma diminuição significativa da peroxidação lipídica enquanto pré-tratamento com POE. Em conclusão, o POE protege contra úlcera gástrica devido aos seus potenciais antioxidantes e à presença de moléculas bioativas.
Subject(s)Rats , Plantago , Stomach Ulcer , Gastric Mucosa , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants
RESUMEN La información sobre la presentación y los factores predisponentes del síndrome de úlcera gástrica en mulas (SUGM) es escasa en comparación con el síndrome de úlcera gástrica en equinos (SUGE) y asnales. Debido a la naturaleza multifactorial de este síndrome, la helicobacteriosis ha sido estudiada en otras especies. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la presencia de Helicobacter spp. en mucosa gástrica de mulas a través de la prueba rápida de la ureasa (PRU) y de análisis histopatológico. Menos del 27% de las muestras reaccionaron a la PRU, con tiempos prolongados de reacción, y al Agar Urea (prueba de oro), con menor porcentaje de positividad. La histopatología reveló procesos inflamatorios crónicos, sin presencia de bacterias curvoespiraladas. Las PRU no fueron conclusivas en la determinación de Helicobacter spp., comportamiento similar reportado en equinos. Se requieren exámenes diagnósticos más específicos y procedimientos complementarios orientados a explorar por regiones del estómago en la consideración del número de muestras representativas.
ABSTRACT Information on the presentation and predisposing factors of Mule Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (MGUS) is scarce, compared to Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) and donkeys. Within the multifactorial nature of this syndrome, helicobacteriosis has been studied in other species. The objective of this work was to establish the presence of Helicobacter spp. in gastric mucosa of mules, through the rapid urease test (RUT) and histopathological analysis. Less than 27% of the samples reacted to RUTs, with prolonged reaction times, and Urea Agar (gold test), with a lower percentage of positivity. Histopathology revealed chronic inflammatory processes, without the presence of curved-spiral bacteria. The RUTs were not conclusive in the determination of Helicobacter spp., a similar behavior reported in horses. More specific diagnostic tests and complementary procedures are required to explore the regions of the stomach in consideration of the number of representative samples.
Subject(s)Stomach Ulcer , Ulcer , Urease , Helicobacter , Equidae , Horses , Syndrome , Bacteria , Gastric Mucosa , Methods
Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is an underdiagnosed disease in the pediatric population due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms and late clinical manifestations. Iron deficiency anemia has recently been identified as an early hematological manifestation, allowing an early diagnostic approach. We present the case of a Colombian teenager, with no history of autoimmunity, with refractory iron deficiency. He underwent extension studies; biopsies and serology compatible with autoimmune gastritis were documented, requiring parenteral iron in its evolution. This pathology is underdiagnosed in our context since early diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion to prevent associated complications.
Resumen La gastritis autoinmune es una enfermedad subdiagnosticada en la población pediátrica. Lo anterior se debe a la ausencia de signos y síntomas específicos y manifestaciones clínicas tardías. Recientemente se ha identificado la anemia ferropénica como una manifestación hematológica precoz, lo que permite un enfoque diagnóstico temprano. Se presenta el caso de un adolescente colombiano, sin antecedentes de autoinmunidad, con ferropenia refractaria, en el que se realizaron estudios de extensión y se documentaron biopsias y serología compatible con gastritis autoinmune, con requerimiento de hierro parenteral en su evolución. Esta patología es subdiagnosticada en nuestro medio, ya que el diagnóstico temprano requiere un alto índice de sospecha, lo que permite la prevención de las complicaciones asociadas.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Adolescent , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Gastritis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Biopsy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Early Diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/pathology
Helicobacter pylori es un microrganismo que se considera que afecta al 50% de la población. Se realizó un estudio con diseño no experimental, correlacional y transversal, con el objetivo de determinar la asociación de los resultados de pruebas diagnósticas de infección por H. pylori a través de biopsia obtenida por endoscopía superior y prueba de antígeno de la superficie en mues-tras de heces en 100 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Centro Clínico Quirúrgico Ambulatorio (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Seguridad Social (IESS), en la ciudad de Guayaquil, Ecuador, durante 2019. La media de la edad en la muestra de estudio fue 37,5 años, con un predominio del género femenino (78%). El 65% de las pruebas de antígeno para la detección de H. pylori en heces resultaron negativas. Los repor-tes de las pruebas de antígeno en heces e histopatología permitieron apreciar diferencias entre estos, pero con predominio de las coincidencias en los diagnósticos positivos. Existió una asocia-ción estadísticamente significativa entre las lesiones inflamatorias de la mucosa gástrica producto de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la infección por H. pylori. Los resultados de las dos pruebas diag-nósticas tuvieron una correlación lineal positiva y débil con significación estadística.
Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism that affects 50% of the population worldwide. A study with a non-experimental, correlational, and cross-sectional design was carried out in order to determine the association of the results of diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection through biopsy obtained by upper endoscopy and surface antigen test in samples of feces in 100 patients. These ones were treated at the Gastroenterology Service of the Ambulatory Surgical Clinic Center (Hospital del Día) Efrén Jurado López of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS), in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador, during 2019. The mean age in the study sample was 37.5 years old, with a predominance of the female gender (78%). 65% of stool antigen tests for H. pyloriwere negative. The reports of the stool antigen test and histopathology allowed to appreciate differences between them, but with a predominance of the coincidences in the positive diagno-ses. There was a statistically significant association between the inflammatory lesions of the gastric mucosa because of chronic atrophic gastritis and the infection by H. pylori. The results of the two diagnostic tests had a positive and weak linear correlation with statistical significance
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Helicobacter pylori , Gastric Mucosa , Gastritis, Atrophic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gastritis , Infections
Objective To evaluate the gastric microbiome in patients with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) and investigate the influence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) on the gastric microbiome. Methods Gastric mucosa tissue samples were collected from 54 patients with CSG and IM, and the patients were classified into the following four groups based on the state of H. pylori infection and histology: H. pylori-negative CSG (n=24), H. pylori-positive CSG (n=14), H. pylori-negative IM (n=11), and H. pylori-positive IM (n=5). The gastric microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results H. pylori strongly influenced the bacterial abundance and diversity regardless of CSG and IM. In H. pylori-positive subjects, the bacterial abundance and diversity were significantly lower than in H. pylori-negative subjects. The H. pylori-negative groups had similar bacterial composition and bacterial abundance. The H. pylori-positive groups also had similar bacterial composition but different bacterial relative abundance. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella were richer in the I-HP group than in G-HP group, especially Neisseria (t=175.1, P<0.001). Conclusions The gastric microbial abundance and diversity are lower in H. pylori- infected patients regardless of CSG and IM. Compared to H. pylori-positive CSG group and H. pylori-positive IM, the relative abundance of Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella is higher in H. pylori-positive patients with IM than in H. pylori-positive patients with CSG, especially Neisseria.
Subject(s)Gastric Mucosa/microbiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Humans , Metaplasia , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms
This study aims to identify the active components and the mechanism of Jingqi Yukui Capsules(JQYK) in the treatment of gastric ulcer based on network pharmacology, and verify some key targets and signaling pathways through animal experiment. To be specific, first, the active components and targets of JQYK were retrieved from a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN-TCM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP), and the targets of gastric ulcer from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) with the search term "gastric ulcer". The common targets of the two were the potential targets of the prescription for the treatment of the di-sease. Then, protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of key targets were constructed based on STRING and Cytoscape 3.7.2, followed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment by matescape database and pathway visualization by Omicshare. For the animal experiment, the improved method of Okabe was used to induce gastric ulcer in rats, and the model rats were classified into the model group, JQYK high-dose(JQYK-H), medium-dose(JQYK-M), and low-dose(JQYK-L) groups, Anweiyang Capsules(WYA) group, and Rabeprazole Sodium Enteric Capsules(RBPZ) group. Normal rats were included in the blank group. Rats in the blank group and model group were given distilled water and those in the administration groups received corresponding drugs. Then gastric ulcer healing in rats was observed. The changes of the gastric histomorphology in rats were evaluated based on hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the content of inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) in rat gastric tissue was detected with Coomassie brilliant blue method. The mRNA and protein levels of some proteins in rat gastric tissue were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) and Western blot(WB) to further validate some key targets and signaling pathways. A total of 206 active components and 535 targets of JQYK, 1 305 targets of gastric ulcer, and 166 common targets of the disease and the drug were yielded. According to PPI analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, multiple key targets, such as interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1(MAPK1), MAPK3, and MAPK14, as well as nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and leukocyte transendothelial migration in the top 20 key signaling pathways were closely related to inflammation. The key protein p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway were selected for further verification by animal experiment. The gastric ulcer in the JQYK-H group recovered nearly to the level in the blank group, with significant decrease in the content of iNOS in rat gastric tissue and significant reduction in the mRNA and phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK and the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB p65 in rat gastric tissue. The results indicated that JQYK can inhibit the phosphorylation of the key protein p38 MAPK and the expression of NF-κB p65 in the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby exerting the anti-inflammatory effect and effectively improving the quality of gastric ulcer healing in rats. Thus, the animal experiment result verifies some predictions of network pharmacology.
Subject(s)Animal Experimentation , Animals , Capsules , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Humans , Network Pharmacology , Rats , Stomach Ulcer/genetics
SUMMARY: The mucous substances of the stomach in mammals are important not only for the protection of the gastric epithelium from the acid environment and grinding actions, but it facilitates some other functions of the stomach such as antibacterial, antimetastatic, and immunological roles. The goal of the study is to highlight the distribution of mucin-secreting cells in the gastric mucosa in domestic rabbits, including the type of mucus synthesized. The gastric samples collected from ten individual rabbits were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and underwent later standard paraffin tissue sample processing, which included dehydration, clarification, and embedding in paraffin. The tissue sections were eventually stained histochemically by PAS reaction and by Alcian blue method (pH 2.5) for neutral and acidic mucins detection, respectively. The quantification of mucins in the cytoplasm of mucus-secreting cells was performed by grading the gastric tissue samples from negative (-) to intensely positive (++). The mucus elaboration was observed in all the regions of the stomach (i.e., cardial, fundic, and pyloric regions), but only for the neutral mucin. The acidic mucin synthesis occurred only in the secretory units of the gastric glands from the cardial region in the stomach. Pyloric glands synthesized the largest amounts of neutral mucins, followed by moderate amounts elaborated by cardial glands, while the fundic region does not synthesize it at all. The description of new microscopic features of the stomach in rabbits is fundamental not only for comprehending species-related physiological features but gastric pathological processes.
RESUMEN: Las sustancias mucosas del estómago en los mamíferos son importantes no solo para la protección del epitelio gástrico del ambiente ácido y las acciones de trituración, sino que facilitan además otras funciones del estómago, como son las funciones antibacterianas, antimetastásicas e inmunológicas. El objetivo del estudio fue resaltar la distribución de las células secretoras de mucina en la mucosa gástrica de conejos domésticos, incluido el tipo de moco sintetizado. Las muestras gástricas recolectadas de diez conejos se fijaron en formalina tamponada al 10 % y se sometieron a un procesamiento que incluyó deshidratación, clarificación e inclusión en parafina. Las secciones de tejido finalmente se tiñeron histoquímicamente mediante la reacción de PAS y el método del azul de Alcian (pH 2,5) para la detección de mucinas neutras y ácidas, respectivamente. La cuantificación de mucinas en el citoplasma de las células secretoras de moco se realizó clasificando las muestras de tejido gástrico desde negativas (-) hasta intensamente positivas (++). La elaboración de moco se observó en todas las regiones del estómago (es decir, cardias, fúndica y pilórica), pero solo para la mucina neutra. La síntesis de mucina ácida ocurrió solo en las unidades secretoras de las glándulas gástricas de la región correspondiente al cardias del estómago. Las glándulas pilóricas sintetizaron la mayor cantidad de mucinas neutras, seguidas de cantidades moderadas elaboradas por las glándulas cardiales, mientras que la región fúndica no las sintetizó en abso- luto. La descripción de nuevas características microscópicas del estómago en conejos es fundamental no solo para comprender las características fisiológicas relacionadas con las especies sino también para entender los procesos patológicos gástricos.
Subject(s)Animals , Rabbits , Stomach , Gastric Mucosa/metabolism , Mucins/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of very well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (VWDA) of the stomach. Methods: The clinicopathological data of 12 cases of VWDA of the stomach were collected retrospectively at the People's Liberation Army Joint Logistics Support Force 989 Hospital (formerly 152 Hospital), Pingdingshan, China, from January 2013 to May 2021. The histological characteristics and immunophenotypes were observed and analyzed with review of current literature. Results: There were 8 males and 4 females with a median age of 63 years (range 47 to 80 years). The tumor involved in the upper part of the stomach in 6 cases, the middle part in 2 cases, and the lower part in 4 cases. The median diameter of the tumors was 17 mm (range 5-65 mm). The tumor cells were similar to absorbent cells, Paneth cells, foveolar epithelial cells, and goblet cells. The cells were arranged in a single layer, and the nuclei were slightly enlarged and located at the base. The nuclei were fusiform to slightly irregular, with loss of nuclear polarity. Early tubular VWDA was found in 9 cases, and the tumor glands were similar to intestinal metaplasia. In two cases the tumors infiltrated into the submucosa. The lesions in the mucosa and submucosa showed the glands with cystic expansion, bending, branching, spiky and abortive growth pattern. One case of early papillary tubular VWDA was confined to the mucosal layer and composed of foveolar-type epithelial cells. There were two cases of advanced papillary tubular VWDA, which consisted of foveolar-type epithelial, pyloric glands, or mucinous neck cells and were associated with intra-lymphatic cancer embolus and lymph node metastases. Background mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were observed in all cases. Immunohistochemical staining showed intestinal type VWDA in 1 case, mixed gastrointestinal type VWDA in 9 cases, and gastric type VWDA in 2 cases. The Ki-67 proliferation index of 8 cases limited to the mucosa was 40%-70%, 2 cases of infiltration into the submucosa and 2 cases of advanced carcinoma was 10%-25%. All the tumors showed a wild type of p53 protein expression pattern and negative HER2. Adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia was diagnosed on preoperative biopsy in 5 cases, and chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia in 7 cases. The median follow-up time was 28 months (range 12-72 months). No recurrence was found in the 10 patients with early cancer. Of the two patients with advanced carcinoma, one patient had lung metastases and the other died. Conclusions: Gastric VWDA is a rare low-grade malignancy with structural features of highly differentiated adenocarcinoma and extremely low cytological atypia. The diagnostic value of structural abnormality is significantly greater than cytological atypia. The invasive growth of irregular glands in the deep mucosa and submucosa is reliable evidence for diagnosis. The diagnosis of intramucosal VWDA is challenging and very difficult in some biopsy specimens.
Subject(s)Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
Mucins,a family of heavily glycosylated proteins,present mainly in epithelial cells.They function as essential barriers for epithelium and play important roles in cellular physiological processes.Aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins in gastric epithelium occur at pathological conditions,such as Helicobacter pylori infection,chronic atrophic gastritis,intestinal metastasis,dysplasia,and gastric cancer.This review addresses the major roles played by mucins and associated O-glycan structures in normal gastric epithelium.Further,we expound the alterations of expression patterns and glycan signatures of mucins at those pathological conditions.
Subject(s)Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Glycosylation , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Helicobacter pylori/metabolism , Humans , Mucins/metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
BACKGROUND@#Endoscopic resection bleeding (ERB) classification was proposed by the authors' team to evaluate the severity of intraoperative bleeding (IB) during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). This study aimed to evaluate the application of ERB classification and to analyze the risk factors of major IB (MIB) and postoperative bleeding (PB) associated with ESD for gastric neoplastic lesions.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively enrolled a total of 1334 patients who underwent ESD between November 2006 and September 2019 at The First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. All patients were divided into the non-MIB group (including ERB-0, ERB-controlled 1 [ERB-c1], and ERB-c2) and the MIB group (including ERB-c3 and ERB-uncontrolled [ERB-unc]) according to the ERB classification. Risk factors of major MIB and risk factors of PB were analyzed using a logistic regression model.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1334 patients, 773 (57.95%) had ERB-0, 477 (35.76%) had ERB-c1, 77 (5.77%) had ERB-c2, 7 (0.52%) had ERB-c3, and no patients had ERB-unc. The rate of PB in patients with IB classifications of ERB-0, ERB-c1, ERB-c2, and ERB-c3 were 2.20% (17/773), 3.35% (16/477), 9.09% (7/77), and 2/7, respectively. In multivariate analysis, proximal location (odds ratio [OR]: 1.488; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045-3.645; P = 0.047) was the only significant risk factor of MIB. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR: 7.844; 95% CI: 1.637-37.583; P = 0.010) and MIB (ERB-c3) (OR: 13.932; 95% CI: 2.585-74.794; P = 0.002) were independent risk factors of PB.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Proximal location of lesions was a significant risk factor of MIB. Additionally, CKD and MIB (ERB-c3) were independent risk factors of PB. More attention should be paid to these high-risk patients for MIB and PB.
Subject(s)Endoscopic Mucosal Resection/adverse effects , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroscopy , Humans , Postoperative Hemorrhage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
La gastritis es una enfermedad con una alta morbilidad a nivel mundial, el principal factor de riesgo es la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, histopatológica y endoscópicas en una población con gastritis crónica. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo, retrospectivo, se incluyeron 49 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta externa del área de gastroenterología, de 18 a 65 años, a quienes se realizó el estudio histopatológico y endoscópico en el Servicio de Gastroenterología en el Hospital General Quevedo, de Los Ríos-Ecuador, durante septiembre 2017 septiembre 2018. Resultados: Se observó predominio del género masculino (65%); en mayores de 40 años (55%), la epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal, 39% y 35% respectivamente, fueron los síntomas más frecuentes, La positividad para Helicobacter pylori, alcanzó el 86%, y la lesión no erosiva un 73%, existió mayor presencia de la forma no atrófica (84%) sobre la atrófica. Conclusiones: La gastritis crónica predominó en el grupo etario mayor a 40 años y de género masculino, siendo los factores de riesgo de mayor prevalencia la infección por Helicobacter pylori y los asociados al consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, mala alimentación, alcohol y tabaco, los síntomas como epigastralgía y la sensación de acidez estomacal fueron los más frecuentes. El hallazgo endoscópico fue mayor para las formas no erosivas, y de acuerdo a la histopatología la gastritis no atrófica antral moderada fue la más frecuente(AU)
Gastritis is a disease with high morbidity worldwide, the main risk factor is Helicobacter pylori infection. Objective: To describe the clinical, histopathological and endoscopic characteristics in a population with chronic gastritis. Material and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was carried out, including 49 patients who attended the outpatient consultation of the gastroenterology area, aged 18 to 65 years, who underwent a histopathological and endoscopic study in the Gastroenterology Service at the Quevedo General Hospital, Los Ríos-Ecuador, during September 2017 - September 2018. Results: A predominance of the male gender was observed (65%); In people over 40 years of age (55%), epigastralgia and the sensation of heartburn, 39% and 35% spectively, were the most frequent symptoms, the positivity for Helicobacter pylori, reached 86%, and the non-erosive lesion 73 %, there was a greater presence of the non-atrophic form (84%) over the atrophic one. Conclusions: Chronic gastritis predominated in the age group over 40 years of age and male, the most prevalent risk factors being Helicobacter pylori infection and those associated with the consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, poor diet, alcohol and tobacco. symptoms such as epigastric pain and the sensation of heartburn were the most frequent. The endoscopic finding was greater for non-erosive forms, and according to histopathology, moderate antral non-atrophic gastritis was the most frequent(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Dyspepsia/etiology , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Gastritis/physiopathology , Peptic Ulcer , Signs and Symptoms , Biopsy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Acidity , Gastroenterology
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Prex2 protein is a member of the Rac family proteins that belongs to small G proteins with a critical role in cell migration, cell proliferation, and apoptosis through its effects on PI3K cell signaling pathway and phosphatase activity of PTEN protein. The effect of PREX2 gene expression has been shown in some cancer cells. A survey of PREX2 gene expression in gastric antral epithelial cells of gastric cancer patients with Helicobacter pylori various genotypes infection can conduct to better understanding H. pylori infection's carcinogenesis. METHODS: In a case-control study, PREX2 gene expression was evaluated in gastric antral biopsy samples on four groups of patients referred to Sanandaj hospitals, including gastritis with (n=23) and without (n=27) H. pylori infection and gastric cancer with (n=21) and without (n=32) H. pylori infection. Each gastric biopsy sample's total RNA was extracted and cDNA synthesized by using Kits (Takara Company). The PREX2 gene expression was measured using the relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR method and ΔΔCt formula. RESULTS: The PREX2 gene expression increased in gastric antral biopsy samples of gastritis and gastric cancer patients with H. pylori infection (case groups) than patients without H. pylori infection (control groups) 2.38 and 2.27 times, respectively. The patients with H. pylori vacA s1m1 and sabB genotypes infection showed a significant increase of PREX2 gene expression in gastric cancer antral epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: H. pylori vacA s1m1 and sabB genotypes have the positive correlations with PREX2 gene expression in gastric antral epithelial cells of gastritis and gastric cancer patients.
RESUMO CONTEXTO: A proteína Prex2 é membro das proteínas da família Rac que pertencem a pequenas proteínas G com um papel crítico na migração celular, na proliferação celular e na apoptose através de seus efeitos na via de sinalização celular PI3K e atividade fosfatase da proteína PTEN. O efeito da expressão genética PREX2 tem sido mostrada em algumas células cancerosas. Um levantamento da expressão genética PREX2 em células epiteliais antrais gástricas de pacientes infectados com vários genótipos de Helicobacter pylori pode conduzir a um melhor entendimento da carcinogênese da infecção por H. pylori. MÉTODOS: Em estudo de caso-controle, a expressão genética PREX2 foi avaliada em amostras de biópsia antral gástrica em quatro grupos de pacientes encaminhados aos hospitais de Sanandaj, incluindo gastrite com (n=23) e sem (n=27) infecção por H. pylori e de câncer gástrico com (n=21) e sem (n=32) infecção por H. pylori. O RNA total de cada amostra de biópsia gástrica foi extraído e cDNA sintetizado por meio de kits (Takara Company). A expressão genética PREX2 foi medida utilizando-se o método RT-PCR em tempo real quantitativo relativo e a fórmula ΔΔCt. RESULTADOS: A expressão genética PREX2 aumentou em amostras de biópsia antral gástrica de pacientes com gastrite e câncer gástrico com infecção por H. pylori (grupos de casos) em relação aos sem infecção por H. pylori (grupos de controle) 2,38 e 2,27 vezes, respectivamente. Os pacientes com infecção por genótipos H. pylori vacA s1m1 e sabB apresentaram um aumento significativo da expressão genética PREX2 em células epiteliais antrais de câncer gástrico. CONCLUSÃO: Os genótipos H. pylori vacA s1m1 e sabB têm correlações positivas com a expressão genética PREX2 em células epiteliais antrais gástricas de pacientes com câncer gástrico e gastrites.
Subject(s)Humans , Helicobacter Infections , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors/genetics , Gastritis/genetics , Gastritis/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Gastric Mucosa
Abstract We present a rare case of hypertrophic gastropathy associated with protein loss. A 35-year-old man was hospitalized for bowel habit changes, abdominal pain, generalized edema and symptomatic anemia. Pertinent laboratory findings included iron deficiency anemia (Hb 6.7g/dl, ferritin 5 ng/ml) and marked hypoalbuminemia (albumin 2.5 g/dl). Endoscopic biopsy samples of giant gastric folds observed along the greater gastric curvature revealed foveolar hyperplasia and significant parietal cell loss. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed gastric parietal thickening with preserved architecture and normal gastric wall layers. Menetrier disease was diagnosed and the patient treated with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits ligand binding of trans forming growth factor alpha (TGFa), preventing gastric mucosa cell proliferation. After twelve months of treatment, the patient referred symptoms improvement, and gastric biopsy levels of the proliferation marker protein Ki-67 had decreased.
Resumen Presentamos un caso infrecuente de gastropatía hipertrófica asociada a pérdida de proteínas. Un hombre de 35 años fue hos pitalizado por cambios en los hábitos intestinales, dolor abdominal, edema generalizado y anemia sintomática. Los hallazgos de laboratorio pertinentes incluyeron anemia ferropénica (Hb 6.7 g/dl, ferritina 5 ng/ml) e hipoal buminemia marcada (albúmina 2.5 g/dl). Las muestras de biopsia endoscópica de pliegues gástricos gigantes observados a lo largo de la curvatura mayor gástrica revelaron hiperplasia foveolar y pérdida significativa de células parietales. La ecografía endoscópica mostró engrosamiento parietal gástrico con arquitectura conservada y capas de pared gástrica normales. Se diagnosticó enfermedad de Menetrier y se trató al paciente con cetuximab, un anticuerpo monoclonal que inhibe la unión del ligando del factor de crecimiento transformante alfa (TGFa), evitando la proliferación de células de la mucosa gástrica. Después de doce meses de tratamiento, el paciente refirió mejoría de los síntomas y los niveles de la proteína marcadora de proliferación Ki-67 en biopsia gástrica habían disminuido.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Adult , Gastritis, Hypertrophic/diagnosis , Gastritis, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Biopsy , Gastroscopy , Gastric Mucosa , Antibodies, Monoclonal
Resumen Introducción: Los adenomas vellosos son lesiones del tubo digestivo con tendencia alta a la malignidad. Su ubicación en parches de mucosa gástrica ectópica en el esófago cervical determina una presentación atípica de interés tanto clínico como patológico. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de adenoma velloso en la mucosa gástrica ectópica del esófago cervical. Métodos: Describir el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de adenoma velloso y realizar una revisión de la literatura disponible hasta el momento. Resultados: Se identificó mediante un estudio histopatológico un adenoma tubulovelloso con displasia de bajo grado, cuya ubicación endoscópica era un parche de mucosa ectópica gástrica en el esófago cervical. Conclusiones: La ubicación de los adenomas vellosos en el esófago cervical puede predisponer al desarrollo de lesiones neoplásicas. La evaluación detallada de este segmento, con técnicas como la cromoendoscopia digital de alta definición, permiten la detección temprana de estas lesiones y su oportuna intervención.
Abstract Introduction: Villous adenomas are lesions of the digestive tract with a high tendency to malignancy. Its location in ectopic gastric mucosa patches in the cervical esophagus is an atypical presentation of clinical and pathological interest. Objective: To present a case of villous adenoma in ectopic gastric mucosa of the cervical esophagus. Methods: A case study of a patient with a diagnosis of villous adenoma is presented, as well as a review of the current literature. Results: A tubulovillous adenoma with low-grade dysplasia was identified by histopathological study. Its endoscopic location was a gastric ectopic mucosa patch in the cervical esophagus. Conclusions: The location of villous adenomas in the cervical esophagus may predispose to the development of neoplastic lesions. Detailed evaluation of this segment using techniques, such as high-definition digital chromoendoscopy, would allow for early detection and treatment of these lesions.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Adult , Adenoma, Villous , Esophagus , Gastric Mucosa , Gastrointestinal Tract , Literature
The present study was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanisms and effective components of Polygonum hydropiper in ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions. The ethanol extract was purified on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and eluted with 60% ethanol and was then injected into the HPLC system for quantitative analysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with P. hydropiper extract (PHLE; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days and then absolute ethanol was administered to induce gastric mucosal damage. One hour after ethanol ingestion, the rats were euthanized and stomach samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Antioxidant enzymes and anti-inflammatory cytokines were quantified. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 assays. The proportion of total flavonoids in the final extract of P. hydropiper was 50.05%, which contained three major bioactive flavonoid constituents, including rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. PHLE significantly increased cell viability and effectively protected human gastric epithelial cells-1 against alcohol-induced damage in vitro. PHLE pretreatment attenuated gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner in rats, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in gastric tissue. Pretreatment with PHLE also reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in gastric tissue by downregulating the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B. PHLE exerted protective effects against gastric injury through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Flavonoids might be the main effective components of P. hydropiper against gastric mucosal injury.
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Polygonum , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ethanol/toxicity , Gastric Mucosa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces an intense inflammatory response, mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and its membrane receptor (IL-6R), which activates important signaling pathways in the development of gastric disease and cancer. We investigated the gene and protein expression of IL-6 and IL-6R and the influence of polymorphisms rs1800795, rs1800796, and rs1800797 on its gene expression together with H. pylori infection. Furthermore, an in-silico analysis was performed to support our results. Gastric biopsies were obtained from patients with gastric symptoms and patients with gastric cancer (GC) and were divided into groups (Control, Gastritis, and Cancer). H. pylori was detected by PCR. Real-time-qPCR was employed to determine gene expression, and western blot assay was used to analyze protein expression levels. PCR-RFLP was used to characterize IL-6 polymorphisms. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and GEO2R to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). H. pylori was detected in 43.3% of the samples. Statistically significant differences were found for IL-6 (P=0.0001) and IL-6R (P=0.0005) genes among the three groups, regardless of the presence of H. pylori. Among patients with H. pylori infection, the IL-6 and IL-6R gene and protein expressions were significantly increased, highlighting IL-6 gene overexpression in patients with GC. No statistically significant differences were found for the rs1800795, rs1800796, and rs1800797 polymorphisms compared to IL-6 gene expression. The results indicated that the IL-6 polymorphisms do not influence its expression, but IL-6 and IL-6R expression seems to be altered by the presence of H. pylori.
Subject(s)Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Gastritis/genetics , Interleukin-8 , Gastric Mucosa
Abstract Slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) associate with health benefits when present in the diet. This study aimed to evaluate ready-to-eat corn and cassava flours regarding their commercial presentation (dry or flaked), composition and in vitro digestibility of starch. Sixteen samples from Southern Brazil were procured in the market: eight dry cassava flours, six biju-type (flaked) corn flours and two biju-type cassava flours. Dry cassava flours had higher L* and lower b* values, and higher RS, relative crystallinity and viscosity peak values. Dry cassava flour partially preserves granular starch, as its processing involves lower drying temperatures and lower moisture of the pressed pulp. Dry cassava flours that had higher b* values also had higher rapidly digestible starch (RDS) levels, since higher temperatures are required in their production. Both biju-type flours showed the highest RDS values and no RS due to processing with elevated temperature and high moisture of the pressed pulp. In this study starch digestibility from the flours depended on processing, with minor influence of the raw material, fiber content and granulometry. The whiter and the smaller the granulometry of the dry cassava flours, the better they showed as potentially health benefiting.
Subject(s)Humans , Flour Industry , Gastric Mucosa , Resistant Starch/analysis , Brazil , Manihot , Zea mays
BACKGROUND@#With the wide application of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric neoplasms, metachronous gastric neoplasms (MGN) have gradually become a concern. This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of MGN and evaluate the treatment and follow-up outcomes of MGN patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 814 patients were retrospectively enrolled. All these patients were treated by ESD for early gastric cancer or gastric dysplasia between November 2006 and September 2019 at The First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. The risk factors for MGN were analyzed using Cox hazard proportional model. Moreover, the cumulative incidence, the correlation of initial lesions and MGN lesions, and the treatment and follow-up outcomes of MGN patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 4.5% (37/814) of patients had MGN after curative ESD. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year cumulative incidences of MGN were 3.5%, 5.1%, and 6.9%, respectively, and ultimately reaching a plateau of 11.3% at 99 months after ESD. There was no significant correlation between initial lesions and MGN lesions in terms of gross type (P = 0.178), location (long axis: P = 0.470; short axis: P = 0.125), and histological type (P = 0.832). Cox multivariable analysis found that initial multiplicity was the only independent risk factor of MGN (hazard ratio: 4.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.0-9.4, P < 0.001). Seventy-three percent of patients with MGN were treated by endoscopic resection. During follow-up, two patients with MGN died of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. The disease-specific survival rate was significantly lower in patients with MGN than that in patients without MGN (94.6% vs. 99.6%, P = 0.006).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The MGN rate gradually increased with follow-up time within 99 months after curative gastric ESD. Thus, regular and long-term surveillance endoscopy may be helpful, especially for patients with initial multiple neoplasms.
Subject(s)Endoscopic Mucosal Resection , Gastric Mucosa/surgery , Humans , Neoplasms, Second Primary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Gastric cancer(GC), one of the most common malignancies worldwide, seriously threatens human health due to its high morbidity and mortality. Precancerous lesion of gastric cancer(PLGC) is a critical stage for preventing the occurrence of gastric cancer, and PLGC therapy has frequently been investigated in clinical research. Exploring the proper animal modeling methods is necessary since animal experiment acts as the main avenue of the research on GC treatment. At present, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine(MNNG) serves as a common chemical inducer for the rat model of GC and PLGC. In this study, MNNG-based methods for modeling PLGC rats in related papers were summarized, and the applications and effects of these methods were demonstrated by examples. Additionally, the advantages, disadvantages, and precautions of various modeling methods were briefly reviewed, and the experience of this research group in exploring modeling methods was shared. This study is expected to provide a reference for the establishment of MNNG-induced PLGC animal model, and a model support for the following studies on PLGC.
Subject(s)Animals , Gastric Mucosa , Methylnitronitrosoguanidine/toxicity , Precancerous Conditions/chemically induced , Rats , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy
OBJECTIVES@#To study the risk factors for complications after endoscopic therapy for upper gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs).@*METHODS@#Retrospective analysis was performed on 184 patients in the Department of Gastroenterology in the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University after therapeutic endoscopy [endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR), endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE), and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER)] for the upper gastrointestinal SELs from 2014-09-01 to 2019-09-30. The clinic data were collected and risk factors for postoperative complications were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 184 patients, 22 patients were in the complication group (including 3 cases of delayed bleeding, 2 cases of delayed perforation, and 17 cases of electrocoagulation syndrome) and 162 patients were in the non-complication group. There was no significant difference between the complication group and the non-complication group in gender, age over 70 year, basic diseases, lesion location, lesion invasion layers, pathological results, endoscopic therapy, and preventive closure of wounds (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#For the patients with upper gastrointestinal SELs after endoscopic minimally invasive therapy with the lesion diameter over 40 mm and the operative time over 120 minutes, it needs to highly alert to the occurrence of postoperative complications.