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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(2)mayo.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1252327

ABSTRACT

La gastroenteritis causada por rotavirus constituye un importante problema de salud mundial, por lo que se recomienda incluir la vacunación contra el rotavirus en los programas de inmunización. Para evaluar el impacto de una futura introducción en Cuba de una vacuna contra este patógeno, resulta necesario crear una línea de base pre-vacunación de la carga de la gastroenteritis causada por este virus. Entre noviembre 2017 a abril 2018 se implementó en el Hospital Pediátrico de Centro Habana un sistema de vigilancia para la gastroenteritis causada por rotavirus. Se establecieron las definiciones para las categorías de caso sospechoso, probable y confirmado. Por cada niño captado se recogió una muestra de heces que se analizó con tiras rápidas y se confirmó la presencia de rotavirus por ELISA. Para determinar la severidad de la enfermedad se utilizó la escala de Vesikari. Los resultados fueron expresados en cifras absolutas y relativas, el análisis se realizó a través de la prueba de chi-cuadrado. Del total de ingresos por enfermedad diarreica aguda, el 26 por ciento cumplió los criterios de inclusión y el 46 por ciento resultó confirmado como rotavirus. El hacinamiento en el hogar y asistir al círculo infantil se comportaron como factores de riesgo. El servicio de gastroenterología absorbió la mayor carga de ingresos hospitalarios por esta causa. Los resultados mostrados validan la funcionalidad del sistema de vigilancia implementado y brindan nuevas evidencias sobre la carga de la enfermedad y la utilización de los servicios de un hospital pediátrico cubano, debido a la gastroenteritis provocada por rotavirus, lo que justifica la introducción de la vacuna(AU)


Gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus is a major global health problem, therefore it is recommended that vaccination against rotavirus be included in immunization programs. To evaluate the impact of a future introduction in Cuba of a vaccine against this pathogen, it is necessary to have a pre-vaccination baseline of the burden of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Between November 2017 and April 2018, a surveillance system for gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus was implemented in the Paediatric Hospital of Centro Habana. Definitions were established for the categories of suspected, probable and confirmed cases. For each captured child, stool samples were collected, analyzed with rapid strips and confirmated by ELISA. To determine the severity of the disease, the Vesikari score was used. The results were expressed in absolute and relative figures; the analysis was performed through chi-square. Of the total admissions for acute diarrheal disease, 26 percent met the inclusion criteria and 46 percent were confirmed for rotavirus. Overcrowding at home and attending a day care center were risk factors. The gastroenterology service absorbed the greatest burden of hospital admissions for this cause. The results shown validate the role of the implemented surveillance system and provide new evidence on the burden of disease and use of services for rotavirus gastroenteritis in a cuban pediatric hospital(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Rotavirus Vaccines , Diarrhea/etiology , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Cuba , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(1, cont.): e2410, jan-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1283536

ABSTRACT

As bactérias do gênero Salmonella são um dos principais problemas na produção animal e, consequentemente, na produção de alimentos. Elas são causadoras principalmente de gastroenterites, com alguns serovares podendo resultar na morte do animal ou indivíduo afetado. Órgãos governamentais em todo o mundo determinam condições mínimas de segurança alimentar, exigindo a ausência de Salmonella nos alimentos, sendo exigida análise de no mínimo 25 gramas de amostragem a cada lote. Dessa forma, seu controle na produção animal também é necessário, devido à grande prevalência existente. Dentre as várias estratégias de controle apresentadas, destaca-se o uso de sobrenadantes livres de células (SLC) produzidos por bactérias lácticas, com grande número de pesquisas in vitro. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste artigo é revisar os avanços recentes no uso de SLC contra Salmonella. Ao final do trabalho, pode-se observar que os SLC têm grande potencial para utilização na produção animal, embora ainda seja necessária uma completa caracterização da sua ação in vivo.(AU)


Bacteria of the Salmonella genus are one of the main problems in animal production and, consequently, in food production. They mainly cause gastroenteritis, with some serovars that can result in the death of the affected animal or individual. Government agencies around the world determine minimum conditions for food safety, requiring the absence of Salmonella in foods, requiring analysis of at least 25 grams of sampling for each batch. Thus, its control in animal production is also necessary, due to the high prevalence that exists. Among the various control strategies presented, the use of cell-free supernatants (CFS) produced by lactic acid bacteria stands out, with a large number of in vitro research. In this context, the purpose of this article is to review recent advances in the use of CFS against Salmonella. At the end of the research, it can be seen that CFS have great potential for use in animal production, although a complete characterization of their in vivo action is still needed.(AU)


Las bacterias del género Salmonella son uno de los principales problemas en la producción animal y, en consecuencia, en la producción de alimentos. Son principalmente la causa de gastroenteritis, con algunos serovares que pueden resultar en la muerte del animal o individuo afectado. Las agencias gubernamentales de todo el mundo determinan las condiciones mínimas para la seguridad alimentaria, lo que requiere la ausencia de Salmonella en los alimentos, lo que requiere el análisis de al menos 25 gramos de muestreo para cada lote. Por tanto, su control en la producción animal también es necesario, debido a la alta prevalencia que existe. Entre las diversas estrategias de control presentadas, destaca el uso de sobrenadantes libres de células (SLC) producidos por bacterias del ácido láctico, con un gran número de investigaciones in vitro. En este contexto, el propósito de este artículo es revisar los avances recientes en el uso de SLC contra Salmonella. Al final del trabajo, se puede ver que los SLC tienen un gran potencial para su uso en la producción animal, aunque aún se necesita una caracterización completa de su acción in vivo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Disaster Prevention and Mitigation , Fermentation , Gastroenteritis , Death , Serogroup
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877519

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidence for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Vaccines , Vaccination
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877510

ABSTRACT

Group A rotavirus (RV) is one of the major pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis and death in children under 5 years old in China. RV vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE). This consensus is developed by reviewing RV related literatures, RV disease data in China, World Health Organization(WHO) position paper on RV vaccines and expert discussion. This consensus aims to provide professional staff with scientific information on rotavirus vaccine use, and evidences for developing the immunization strategy of childhood RVGE in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06800, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279542

ABSTRACT

Diseases of the bovine digestive system make up an important group of diseases, often being responsible for significant economic losses in the livestock sector. The current work aimed to carry out a retrospective study of the diseases of the digestive system in cattle diagnosed at the "Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns", "Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco", from January 1999 to December 2018. In this period, a total of 9,343 cattle were admitted to the CBG-UFRPE, of which 2,238 (24.0%) were diagnosed with diseases of the digestive system. In two decades, the total number of cattle admitted annually by the institution almost doubled as well as the number of cases of digestive diseases. The diseases categorized as mechanical/motor were the most prevalent (33.6%), followed by fermentative (28.4%), gastroenteritis (16.0%), esophageal diseases (9.7%), and diseases of the oral cavity (4.5%). Lesions of the rectum and anus, congenital alterations, and other digestive diseases showed relative frequencies below 4%. Traumatic reticulitis and its sequelae (14.5%) are the most prevalent disorders, followed by simple indigestion (10.1%), esophageal and intestinal obstructive disorders (9.0%), non-specific gastroenteritis (8.6%), displaced abomasum (RDA and LDA) (5.5%), and frothy bloat, ruminal lactic acidosis, and impaction of the forestomach and abomasum, which represented approximately 5% each. In general, these diseases presented a lethality rate of 46.0%, with emphasis on mechanical/motor diseases with a lethality rate of 73.8%. In general, diseases were more prevalent in females, crossbreeds, aged over 24 months, and raised in a semi-intensive system. Diseases of the digestive system increased over the years studied, representing a considerable portion of the diseases that affect cattle raised in this region, which makes up the main milk basin in the State of Pernambuco, confirming its economic and social impact in the region.(AU)


As enfermidades do sistema digestório dos bovinos compõem importante grupo de doenças frequentemente responsáveis por perdas econômicas significativas no setor pecuário. Este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar um estudo retrospectivo das enfermidades do sistema digestório dos bovinos diagnosticadas na Clínica de Bovinos de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, no período de janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2018. Neste período foi atendido um total de 9.343 bovinos dos quais 2.238 (24,0%) foram diagnosticados com enfermidades do sistema digestório. Em duas décadas, o número total de bovinos atendidos anualmente pela instituição quase dobrou, assim como o número de casos de doenças digestivas. As enfermidades categorizadas como de natureza mecânica/motora foram as mais prevalentes (33,6%), seguidas das fermentativas (28,4%), das gastroenterites (16,0%), das enfermidades esofágicas (9,7%) e das enfermidades da cavidade oral (4,5%). As lesões do reto e ânus, as alterações congênitas e outras enfermidades digestórias apresentaram frequências relativas inferiores a 4%. As reticulites traumáticas e suas sequelas (14,5%) destacaram-se como as doenças mais prevalentes, seguidas das indigestões simples (10,1%), dos transtornos obstrutivos esofágicos e intestinais (9,0%), das gastroenterites inespecíficas (8,6%), dos deslocamentos de abomaso (DAD e DAE) (5,5%) e do timpanismo espumoso, acidose láctica ruminal e compactações dos pré-estômagos e abomaso, que representaram aproximadamente 5% cada. No geral estas enfermidades apresentaram taxa de letalidade de 46,0%, com destaque para as enfermidades de natureza mecânica/motora cuja letalidade foi de 73,8%. De maneira geral as enfermidades foram mais prevalentes em fêmeas mestiças, com idade superior a 24 meses, criadas em sistema semi-intensivo. As enfermidades do sistema digestório, crescentes ao longo dos anos estudados, representaram parcela considerável das doenças que acometem os bovinos criados na região que compõe a principal bacia leiteira do Estado de Pernambuco, ratificando seu impacto econômico e social para a região.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Seasons , Retrospective Studies , Digestive System , Livestock , Gastroenteritis , Universities
7.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342393

ABSTRACT

The burden of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders (GIDD) remains high in Nigeria and varies across regions. This study wa s therefore designed to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders over a period of 5-years from January 2014 to December 2018 in Akure South of Ondo state, Nigeria. Descriptive retrospective study was employed and the medical records of all patients diagnosed for GIDD in the two selected health facilities were reviewed within the study period. In total, 12,323 medical records of patients with GIDD were included in this study. The prevalence of GIDD were 44.9% in the year 2014 with the lowest prevalence of 6.7% occurring in the year 2018. Over the 5-years period, lower GIDD cases were 91% compared to upper GIDD that was 9%. Peptic ulcer had the highest prevalence (55%) of lower GIDD followed by gastroenteritis (30%). Hiatal hernia had the highest prevalence (84%) for upper GIDD followed by dyspepsia (11%) and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (5%). Over a 5-year period, the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease and disorders in Akure south in this study shows that lower GIDD is more prevalent in the study area with peptic ulcer as the most predominant GIDD among the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastroenteritis , Hernia
8.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1366932

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rotavirus A (RVA) is a leading cause of acute infant gastroenteritis in Mozambique, responsible for approximately 13,000 annual infant deaths in peri-urban and other areas. Aim: the present review aimed summarize the most relevant and recent literature regarding RVA infection in Mozambique. Methods: the documents were obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, Scinapse, Scilit, and Microsoft Academicto find the leading scientific publications related to Mozambique's RVA.Findings: The search allowed us to find 20 peer-reviewed journal articles, three official reports, eight abstracts from national conferences, one thesis, and other documents to supplement the information. Rotavirus frequency ranged between 24 to 42.4%, 34.8% attributable to Mozambique. Most data are hospital-based from Maputo, Sofala, Zambézia, and Nampula provinces. Nampula province shows the highest number of cases. Thus, there might be some bias on the geographical distribution of the virus. The prevalence is high in children less than one year. Regarding the control, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) introduced a monovalent vaccine in September 2015 (Rotarix), which positively impacted the reduction of RVA cases. After vaccine introduction, a high diversity of RVA genotypes was observed, with the predominance ofG1P[8] and the emergence of G9P[4],G9P[6], G3P[4]. However, only the whole genome sequence can confirm if it is due to the natural genotypes fluctuation. RVA infection was detected in swine, and a recent analysis reported an RVA strain from children clustered with different animal strains.Conclusion: The scarceyethighly reliable research resourcesallowed scientists to detect RVA G1P[8] and other genotypes, potential animal reservoirs, and to find that RVA is more prevalent during the transition dry-rainy season, and thevirus becomes more frequent when children approach the 11thmonth, to then decline as they age.It is essential to develop studies providing a broad view of RVA reservoirs as part of the strategy to control its dissemination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rotavirus Infections , Disease Management , Diarrhea, Infantile , Gastroenteritis , Epidemiology , Rotavirus
9.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20200354, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1280697

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe and analyze the influence of human rotavirus vaccine on hospitalizations for gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age, in Brazil, 2001 to 2018 (pre- and post-vaccination period). Method: this is a retrospective, descriptive ecological study, combining the description of a time series from 2001 to 2018 and collected in the months August 2019 to Janaury 2020. The data were obtained from a secondary source. To analyze the effect of different variables, multiple models of mathematical evaluations were used (accumulated growth rate, geometric growth rate; standard deviation, mean, variance and simple linear regression). The level of significance was set at 5% (p <0.05). Results: there was a reduction in hospitalizations related to gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old, when comparing the pre- and post-vaccination periods. This reduction occurred in all Brazilian regions. Conclusion: after the implementation of human rotavirus vaccine, there was a significant reduction in hospitalizations of children under 5 years.


RESUMEN Objetivos: describir y analizar la influencia de la vacuna contra el rotavirus humano en las hospitalizaciones por gastroenteritis en niños menores de 5 años, en Brasil, 2001 a 2018 (período pre y posvacunación). Método: se trata de un estudio ecológico descriptivo, retrospectivo, que combina la descripción de la serie temporal de 2001 a 2018 y recogidos en los meses de 2019 a enero de 2020. Los datos se obtuvieron de una fuente secundaria. Para analizar el efecto de diferentes variables se utilizaron múltiples modelos de evaluaciones matemáticas (tasa de crecimiento acumulada, tasa de crecimiento geométrico; desviación estándar, media, varianza y regresión lineal simple). Se consideró el nivel de significancia del 5% (p<0,05). Resultados: hubo una reducción de las hospitalizaciones por gastroenteritis en menores de 5 años, al comparar los periodos pre y posvacunación. Esta reducción ocurrió en todas las regiones brasileñas. Conclusión: luego de la implementación de la vacuna contra el rotavirus humano, hubo una reducción significativa en las hospitalizaciones de niños menores de 5 años.


RESUMO Objetivos: descrever e analisar a influência da vacina contra o rotavírus humano nas hospitalizações por gastroenterite em crianças menores de 5 anos, no Brasil, 2001 a 2018 (período pré e pós-vacinal). Método: trata-se de um estudo ecológico retrospectivo, descritivo, combinando a descrição das séries temporais do período de 2001 a 2018. Os dados foram obtidos de fonte secundária e coletados nos meses de agosto de 2019 a janeiro de 2020. Para análise do efeito de diferentes variáveis, utilizaram-se múltiplos modelos de avaliações matemáticas (taxa de crescimento acumulado, taxa de crescimento geométrico; desvio padrão, média, variância e regressão linear simples). Considerou-se o nível de significância de 5% (p<0,05). Resultados: houve redução das hospitalizações relacionadas à gastroenterites em crianças menores de 5 anos, quando comparados os períodos pré e pós-vacinal. Essa redução ocorreu em todas as regiões brasileiras. Conclusão: após a implementação da vacina contra o rotavírus humano, houve expressiva redução das hospitalizações de crianças menores de 5 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Rotavirus Infections , Vaccines , Child , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of children with acute gastroenteritis who were admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to December 2019. A total of 1 458 stool samples were collected from the children, and viral RNA was extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used for gene amplification, sequencing, and genotype identification of the VP1 region of capsid protein in norovirus.@*RESULTS@#Among the 1 458 stool samples, 158 (10.8%) were positive for norovirus. There was no significant difference in the positive detection rate of norovirus between different years (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the major epidemic strain in the children with norovirus gastroenteritis from 2017 to 2019. Although norovirus infection can exist throughout the year, August to October is the peak period. During this period, norovirus surveillance and key population protection are strengthened to help prevent and control norovirus diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Child , Feces , Female , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(7): 2883-2890, Jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133089

ABSTRACT

Resumo As internações por condições sensíveis à Atenção Primária à Saúde (ICSAP) representam importante indicador do cuidado em saúde. Objetivou-se analisar a tendência temporal das internações por condições sensíveis a APS em menores de 1 ano, considerando os subcomponentes etários dos neonatos e pós-neonatos, no Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, de série temporal. Foram calculadas as taxas de ICSAP em menores de 1 ano e nos subgrupos neonatal e pós-neonatal. O modelo de análise linear generalizado de Prais-Winsten e o cálculo da Annual Percente Change (APC) foram utilizados para avaliar a tendência temporal. Os resultados mostraram que as gastroenterites infecciosas representaram a causa mais importante de ICSAP nos menores de 1 ano. Nos neonatos, a sífilis congênita e outras infecções congênitas foram as responsáveis pela maior proporção de internações, enquanto nos pós-neonatos as gastroenterites tiveram maior magnitude. Constatou-se aumento nas taxas de hospitalização dos neonatos e diminuição nas taxas tanto no grupo pós-neonatal quanto no conjunto de menores de 1 ano. As diferenças nas tendências dessas taxas de hospitalizações podem refletir a influência de determinantes específicos no risco de internar em cada um dos subcomponentes etários.


Abstract Primary care-sensitive condition hospitalizations (PCSCH) are an essential health care indicator. This ecological, time-series study aimed to analyze the time trend of PCSCH in children under the age of 1 in Brazil, considering the age subcomponents of newborns and post-newborns. The PCSCH rates were calculated for infants under the age of 1 and in the neonatal and postneonatal subgroups. The Prais-Winsten generalized linear analysis model and the Annual Percent Change (APC) calculation were used to evaluate the time trend. The results showed that infectious gastroenteritis represented the most important cause of hospitalizations due PCSCH in children under the age of 1. Congenital syphilis and other congenital infections accounted for the highest proportion of hospitalizations in newborns, whereas gastroenteritis prevailed in post-newborns. An increase in newborn hospitalization rates and a decrease in hospitalization rates in both the postneonatal group and the group of children under the age of 1. Differences in trends in these hospitalization rates may reflect the influence of specific determinants on the risk of hospitalization in each age subcomponent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(3): 244-251, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126116

ABSTRACT

Resumen Campylobacter spp. es considerado el primer agente etiológico de diarrea en países desarrollados, y el segundo o tercero en países en vías de desarrollo. La elevada incidencia de gastroenteritis por Campylobacter spp. y sus posibles secuelas post-infección (artritis reactiva, el síndrome de Miller-Fisher o el síndrome de Guillain-Barré) le confieren gran importancia desde el punto de vista socio-económico. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo no existe diagnóstico microbiológico rutinario de este patógeno. En Chile, la campilobacteriosis es notificable desde 1983. Sin embargo, la falta de diagnóstico rutinario por parte de los laboratorios clínicos ha dificultado conocer la verdadera prevalencia de este patógeno, tanto en infecciones intestinales como extra-intestinales. Además, a pesar que la campilobacteriosis es una enfermedad zoonótica, el diagnóstico de este patógeno no está considerado dentro del Reglamento Sanitario de los Alimentos de Chile. Todo esto se traduce en una falta de conocimiento sobre la epidemiología de la enfermedad por Campylobacter spp en Chile. Por lo tanto, es objetivo de esta revisión analizar la situación de la campilobacteriosis en las últimas dos décadas en Chile y determinar cuáles son los desafíos que quedan para lograr un diagnóstico y vigilancia efectivos en el país.


Abstract Campylobacter spp. is considered as the first etiologic agent of diarrhea in developed countries and the second or third in developing countries. The high incidence of Campylobacter gastroenteritis and its possible post-infection sequelae (reactive arthritis, Miller-Fisher syndrome or Guillain-Barré syndrome) give it great importance from the socioeconomic point of view. However, in most developing countries there is no routine microbial diagnosis of this pathogen. In Chile, campylobacteriosis is notifiable since 1983. However, the lack of routine diagnosis by clinical laboratories has made it difficult to know the true prevalence of this pathogen in both intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. In addition, although campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, the diagnosis of this pathogen is not considered within the Chilean Food Sanitary Regulations. All this results in a lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp disease in Chile. Therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze the situation of campylobacteriosis in the last two decades in Chile and to determine the challenges that remain to achieve an effective microbial diagnosis and epidemiologic surveillance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Campylobacter Infections/diagnosis , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Chile/epidemiology , Diarrhea
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 546-555, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146419

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter spp. is an emerging pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and the consumption of dairy food can characterize sources of infection. We aimed to verify the viability and a presence of transcripts associated with characteristics of virulence and adaptation of C. jejuni isolated from Minas Frescal cheeses, produced with contaminated milk and stored under refrigeration for up to ten days. The samples were analyzed for bioindicators, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidity, moisture and sodium chloride. Campylobacter spp. recovered were evaluated for the production of transcripts of: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 and sodB. The results were correlated with the viability of C. jejuni and changes in their transcriptome. Storage at lowtemperatures reduced C. jejuni from the first to the fourth day. The variations in humidity, pH and acidity influenced the decreasing of C. jejuni. There was a reduction in transcripts' production of the four genes, more pronounced on the fourth day, indicating the inability of the microorganism to perform its metabolic activities, due to the conditions of injury. Despite the presence of mechanisms of virulence and adaptation, C. jejuni could not remain viable four days after production. However, consumption of fresh cheese contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni can be a source of infection when consumed up to four days after production.


Campylobacter spp. é um patógeno emergente que causa gastroenterite em seres humanos e o consumo de produtos lácteos pode caracterizar fontes de infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade e a presença de transcritos associadas a características de virulência e adaptação de C. jejuniisoladas de queijos frescos, produzidos com leite contaminado e mantidos refrigeradas por dez dias. Foram analisados bioindicadores, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidez, umidade e cloreto de sódio. Campylobacter spp. recuperados foram avaliados quanto à produção dos transcritos: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 e sodB. Os resultados foram correlacionados com a viabilidade de C. jejuni e alterações no transcriptoma. O armazenamento em baixas temperaturas reduziu C. jejuni do primeiro ao quarto dia. As variações na umidade, pH e acidez influenciaram a queda de C. jejuni. Houve uma redução na produção de transcritos dos quatro genes, mais pronunciada no quarto dia, indicando a incapacidade do micro-organismo em realizar suas atividades metabólicas, devido às condições de injúria. Apesar da presença de mecanismos de virulência e adaptação, C. jejuni não permaneceu viável quatro dias após a produção. Porém, o consumo de queijo fresco contaminado com Campylobacter jejunipode ser uma fonte de infecção quando consumido até quatro dias após a produção.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Cheese , Campylobacter jejuni , Virulence , Dairy Products , Gastroenteritis , Infections , Noxae
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 93-101, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088929

ABSTRACT

Vomiting and diarrhea are two important clinical signs that can cause significant electrolytic and acid-base imbalances. The purposes of this study were to characterize hydric, electrolytic and acid-base disorders presented by puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and to compare the traditional and quantitative approaches to acid-base status interpretation. Sixty-one animals with a history of vomiting and/or diarrhea were used in this study and the following tests were performed: complete blood count, total plasma protein concentration and hemogasometry. Mean, standard deviation and Kappa values were calculated. The imbalances characterized by both approaches were: 42 (69%) animals without imbalance, 17 (28%) with metabolic alkalosis and 2 (3%) with metabolic acidosis by the traditional approach and 17 (28%) dogs without imbalance, 26 (43%) with metabolic alkalosis and 18 (29%) with metabolic acidosis by the quantitative approach. The agreement calculated between two approaches coincide in 28 cases, with a moderate Kappa value equivalent to 0.459. The most found imbalances were metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and mild dehydration. Most of acid-base disturbances were not identified by the traditional approach, whereas by the quantitative approach, they were easily determined. Thus quantitative approach proved to be superior in identification of possible acid-base imbalances.(AU)


Vômito e diarreia são dois sinais clínicos importantes, que podem causar desequilíbrios eletrolíticos e ácido-base importantes. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar os desequilíbrios hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base apresentados por filhotes de cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica e comparar as abordagens de interpretação do equilíbrio ácido-base tradicional e quantitativa. Sessenta e um animais com histórico de vômito e/ou diarreia foram utilizados neste estudo, e os seguintes testes foram realizados: hemograma, concentração de proteína total plasmática e hemogasometria. Média, desvio-padrão e valor de Kappa foram calculados. Os desequilíbrios caracterizados pelas duas abordagens foram: 42 (69%) animais sem desequilíbrio, 17 (28%) com alcalose metabólica e dois (3%) com acidose metabólica, pela abordagem tradicional, e 17 (28%) cães sem desequilíbrio, 26 (43%) com alcalose metabólica e 18 (29%) com acidose metabólica, pela abordagem quantitativa. A concordância calculada entre as duas abordagens coincidiu em 28 casos, com um valor de Kappa moderado, equivalente a 0,459. Os desequilíbrios mais encontrados foram alcalose metabólica, hipocalemia e desidratação leve. A maioria dos distúrbios não foram identificados pela abordagem tradicional, enquanto, pela abordagem quantitativa, foram facilmente determinados. Portanto, a abordagem quantitativa provou-se superior na identificação de possíveis desequilíbrios ácido-base.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Acid-Base Imbalance/veterinary , Dehydration/veterinary , Electrolytes/analysis , Gastroenteritis/veterinary
16.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(2)2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100644

ABSTRACT

Gastroenteric viruses are important pathogens related to cases of acute gastroenteritis, affecting millions of people worldwide with a major impact on children under five in developing countries. The introduction of metagenomic approach techniques in the 2000s has allowed the description of new viruses, among them Salivirus, which has been associated worldwide with cases of diarrhea. This study aimed to detect salivirus in raw sewage samples from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) collected between June 2013 and May 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifty-two samples collected weekly were tested by using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Salivirus genome was detected in 71.1% (37/52) of the samples, with viral concentration ranging from 7.56 x 104 to 7.20 x 106 genomic copies per liter. Higher viral loads were detected in the summer and fall of 2014, although these data were not sufficient to infer seasonality for this virus. The high prevalence of salivirus in sewage samples highlights the importance of viral research in wastewater to generate data on salivirus circulation, increasing understanding regarding its dissemination in the population.


Subject(s)
Sewage , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology
17.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(2): 94-97, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292399

ABSTRACT

Eosinophil-associated diseases constitute a group of pathologies where eosinophils play an important role. Among them, eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare entity. Few demographic data exist in the literature, with an estimated prevalence of 28-30/100,000. The symptoms presented by patients mainly depend on the affected segment of the gastrointestinal tract and the layer infiltrated by eosinophils. We report a 22-year-old male patient with a one-month history of diarrhea, with mucus and occasionally hematic striae. Initial laboratory tests showed leukocytosis with eosinophilia, and imaging studies showed extensive involvement of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by diffuse concentric parietal thickening and submucosal edema associated with ascites. Upper endoscopy and biopsy confirmed the presence of foci of infiltration by eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and a lactose and wheat free diet, with a favorable evolution, without relapse after stopping corticosteroid treatment.


Las enfermedades asociadas a eosinófilos constituyen un grupo de patologías en que el aumento de los eosinófilos presenta un rol fundamental, encontrándose entre ellas la gastroenteritis eosinofílica, entidad poco frecuente. En la literatura existen pocos datos demográficos, con una prevalencia estimada entre 28-30 /100.000 habitantes. Los síntomas dependen principalmente del segmento afectado del tracto gastrointestinal y de la capa de la pared infiltrada por eosinófilos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 22 años con cuadro de diarrea de un mes de evolución, asociado a mucosidad y ocasionalmente estrías hemáticas. El estudio de laboratorio inicial mostró leucocitosis con eosinofilia, realizándose estudios de imágenes que demuestran extenso compromiso del tubo digestivo caracterizado por engrosamiento parietal difuso concéntrico y edema submucoso del estómago como también de asas de intestino delgado, asociado a ascitis. La endoscopia digestiva alta y biopsia confirmaron la presencia de focos de infiltración por eosinófilos. El paciente fue tratado con corticoides y dieta con restricción de lactosa y trigo, con evolución favorable, sin recaída tras la suspensión del tratamiento corticoidal


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Eosinophilia/diagnostic imaging , Gastroenteritis/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eosinophilia/pathology , Gastroenteritis/pathology
18.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(4): e002076, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141348

ABSTRACT

Sobre la base de una viñeta clínica de un niño con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, el autor de este artículo realiza una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia que avala el uso de ondansetrón para tratar sus vómitos, práctica bastante común en instituciones con acceso a este fármaco en sus centrales de emergencia. Luego de dicha búsqueda, el autor concluye que en niños con gastroenteritis aguda sin deshidratación, la administración de ondansetrón no reduce la necesidad de hidratación intravenosa ni la frecuencia ni la severidad de los vómitos. (AU)


Based on a clinical vignette of a child with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the author of this article performs a literature search to review the evidence supporting the use of ondansetron to treat his vomiting, a fairly common practice in institutions with access to this drug in their emergency rooms. After this search, the author concludes that in children with acute gastroenteritis without dehydration, the administration of ondansetron does not reduce the need for intravenous hydration or the frequency or severity of vomiting. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Gastroenteritis/drug therapy , Vomiting/prevention & control , Vomiting/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Dehydration/prevention & control , Dehydration/therapy , Diarrhea , Fluid Therapy/methods , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/diet therapy
19.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 90(6): 624-631, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058193

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El objetivo de este trabajo es describir factores de riesgo de reconsulta en pacientes con diagnóstico de gastroenteritis aguda, identificables en su primera visita a Urgencias. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio casos-control, incluye pacientes entre 0-16 años que consultan en Urgencias de un hospital terciario durante 4 años. Se define caso el episodio de Urgencias con diagnóstico de gastroenteritis que reconsulta durante las 72 h posteriores. Se seleccionó un control por cada caso, siendo este el primer paciente que consultó tras cada caso con el mismo diagnóstico y que no reconsultó posteriormente. Se estudiaron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas e intervenciones diagnóstico-terapéuticas llevadas a cabo durante la primera visita, realizándose análisis uni y multivariable del riesgo de reconsulta utilizando modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Los diagnósticos de gastroenteritis supusieron el 5,3% de todas las visitas a urgencias. 745 pacientes (6,2%) reconsultaron en las siguientes 72 h. En el análisis multivariado se encontró asociación entre la reconsulta con cada año de aumento de edad (OR 0,94; IC 95%: 0,91-0,97), ausencia de vacunación de rotavirus (OR 1,47; IC 95%: 1,11-1,95), no valoración previa en atención primaria (OR 1,55; IC 95%: 1,09-2,19), mayor número de deposiciones en las últimas 24 h (OR 1,06; IC 95% 1,02-1,10) y recogida de coprocultivo en Urgencias (OR 1,54; IC 95%: 1,05-2,24). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes de menor edad con elevada frecuencia de deposiciones son especialmente susceptibles de volver a consultar en los servicios de Urgencias. La vacunación frente a rotavirus podría disminuir las reconsultas. Ninguna de las actuaciones diagnóstico-terapéuticas realizadas parece disminuir el número de revisitas a Urgencias.


INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to describe risk factors for reconsultation in patients with an acute gastroenteritis diagnosis, identifiable in their first visit to the Emergency Department. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Case-control study, including patients aged between 0-16 years who consulted in the Emer gency Department (ED) of a tertiary hospital for 4 years. The case is defined as the episode with a gastroenteritis diagnosis that reconsulted within 72 hours. A control was selected for each case, which was the first patient to consult after each case with the same diagnosis and not reconsulted later. Epidemiological and clinical variables, and diagnostic-therapeutic interventions carried out during the first visit were studied. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the reconsultation risk were per formed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Gastroenteritis diagnoses accounted for 5.3% of all ED visits. 745 patients (6.2%) reconsulted within 72 hours. Multivariate analysis found association between reconsultation with each year of increasing age (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97), absence of rotavirus vaccination (OR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.11-1.95), no prior assessment in primary care (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.19), increased stool output in the last 24 hours (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), and stool collection in the ED (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.24). CONCLUSIONS: Younger patients with an increased stool output are especially susceptible to return to the ED for consultation. Rotavirus vaccination could reduce reconsultation. None of the diagnostic-therapeutic actions carried out seems to reduce the number of visits to the ED.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Retreatment/statistics & numerical data , Gastroenteritis/diagnosis , Gastroenteritis/therapy
20.
Rev. MED ; 27(2): 63-72, jul.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115229

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los antieméticos son usados frecuentemente por diversas áreas de la medicina, aunque existe una tendencia a subestimar sus efectos adversos neurológicos. El objetivo del presente estudio de revisión fue revisar la literatura sobre la fisiología, farmacología, factores predisponentes, clínica y manejo del extrapiramidalismo por antieméticos. Se realizó una búsqueda en la literatura de artículos de revistas científicas, libros y trabajos de grado. Se utilizaron los buscadores Medline, LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, Current contents y Google Scholar con las siguientes palabras claves: deshidratación, gastroenteritis, vómitos, antieméticos, distonía, dopamina, hipertermia, citocromo, meto-clopramida y domperidona. Se obtuvieron 252 artículos, de los cuales 50 fueron considerados aptos para la revisión. A partir del análisis, se concluyó que el uso de antieméticos es de uso frecuente por medicina general y especialidades como anestesiología y pediatría, por lo cual un conocimiento sobre los efectos extrapiramidales permitirá un diagnóstico y manejo temprano.


Abstract: Antiemetics are frequently used by various areas of medicine, although there is a tendency to underestimate their neurological adverse effects. This paper aims to review the literature on the physiology, pharmacology, predisposing factors, clinical picture, and management of the extrapyramidal side effects of antiemetics. Scientific journal articles, books, and dissertations were searched. The search engines Medline, LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents, and Google Scholar were used with the following keywords: dehydration, gastroenteritis, vomit, antiemetics, dystonia, dopamine, hyperthermia, cytochrome, metoclopramide, and domperidone. Two hundred and fifty-two articles were obtained, 50 of which were considered suitable for review. From the analysis, it was concluded that antiemetics are often used by general medicine and specialties such as anesthesiology and pediatrics; therefore, knowledge of the extrapyramidal effects will allow early diagnosis and treatment.


Resumo: Os antieméticos são frequentemente usados por diversas áreas da medicina, embora possamos constatar uma tendência a subestimar seus efeitos adversos neurológicos. O objetivo do presente estudo é revisar a literatura sobre a fisiologia, a farmacologia, os fatores predisponentes, a clínica e o tratamento de reações extrapiramidais causadas por antieméticos. Foi realizada uma busca na literatura por artigos de revistas científicas, livros e monografias. Os mecanismos de busca Medline, LILACS, PubMed, EMBASE, Current contents e Google Scholar foram utilizados com as seguintes palavras-chave: desidratação, gastroenterite, vómito, antieméticos, distonia, dopamina, hipertermia, citocromo, metoclopramida e domperidona. Foram encontrados 252 artigos, dos quais 50 foram considerados aptos para a revisão. A partir da análise, concluiu-se que os antieméticos são frequentemente utilizados pela medicina geral e especialidades, como anestesiologia e pediatria, portanto, o conhecimento dos efeitos extrapiramidais possibilitará um diagnóstico e tratamento precoces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Basal Ganglia Diseases , Pediatrics , Pharmacology , Gastroenteritis , Antiemetics
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