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1.
Clinics ; 75: e1588, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101089

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The number of bariatric procedures has significantly increased in Brazil, especially in the public Unified Health System. The present study describes health outcomes and medication use in obese patients treated in a major hospital that performs publicly funded surgery in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective, single center study was conducted to collect real-world evidence of health outcomes and medication use in 247 obese patients (female, 82.2%) who underwent open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Changes in weight and body mass index (BMI), presence of apnea, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and medication use (hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia) were assessed preoperatively and up to 24 months postoperatively. The mean cost of medications was calculated for the 12-month preoperative and 24-month postoperative periods. RESULTS: During the surgery, the mean age of patients was 43.42 years (standard deviation [SD], 10.9 years), and mean BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 (SD, 6.7 kg/m2). At 24 months, significant declines were noted in weight (mean, -37.6 kg), BMI (mean, -14.3 kg/m2); presence of T2D, hypertension, and apnea (-29.6%, -50.6%, and -20.9%, respectively); and number of patients using medications (-66.67% for diabetes, -41.86% for hypertension, and -55.26% for dyslipidemia). The mean cost of medications (total costs for all medications) decreased by >50% in 12-24 postoperative months compared to that in 12 preoperative months. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass successfully reduced weight, BMI, and comorbidities and medication use and cost at 24 months in Brazilian patients treated in the public Unified Health System.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass/methods , Laparoscopy , Bariatric Surgery , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Brazil , Weight Loss , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/complications , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy
2.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(6): 598-603, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042613

ABSTRACT

Varias publicaciones informan un aumento en la tasa de enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) después de la gastrectomía vertical tubular (GVT) o en manga a pesar que no existe aún consenso al respecto. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar nuestra propia experiencia y de la literatura respecto a los aspectos clínicos de la enfermedad por ERGE después de la gastrectomía vertical tubular. Del análisis de nuestros resultados y de los datos de la literatura, los estudios que evalúan la prevalencia de la enfermedad de reflujo gastroesofágico posoperatorio muestran que la GVT puede provocar síntomas de ERGE de novo o empeoramiento de la ERGE preexistente.


Several publications report an increase in the rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after surgery, although there is still no consensus on this. The aim of this article is to show our own experience and literature regarding the clinical aspects of GERD disease after tubular vertical gastrectomy. From the analysis of our results and data from the literature, studies evaluating the prevalence of postoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease show that GVT can cause symptoms of de novo GERD or worsening of pre-existing GERD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/etiology , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Gastrectomy/methods , Barrett Esophagus/etiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Esophagitis/etiology , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hernia, Hiatal/etiology
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(supl.1): 85-91, Nov. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973910

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a clinical condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is the main pathophysiological mechanism of GERD. Symptoms and complications can be related to the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, oral cavity, larynx and/or the lung. Symptoms and other possible manifestations of GERD are heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, non-cardiac chest pain, chronic cough, chronic laryngitis, asthma and dental erosions. The proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is the first-choice drug and the most commonly medication used for the treatment of GERD. The most widespread definition of Refractory GERD is the clinical condition that presents symptoms with partial or absent response to twice-daily PPI therapy. Persistence of symptoms occurs in 25% to 42% of patients who use PPI once-daily and in 10% to 20% who use PPI twice-daily. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to describe a review of the current literature, highlighting the causes, diagnostic aspects and therapeutic approach of the cases with suspected reflux symptoms and unresponsive to PPI. CONCLUSION: Initially, the management of PPI refractoriness consists in correcting low adherence to PPI therapy, adjusting the PPI dosage and emphasizing the recommendations on lifestyle modification change, avoiding food and activities that trigger symptoms. PPI decreases the number of episodes of acid reflux; however, the number of "non-acid" reflux increases and the patient continues to have reflux despite PPI. In this way, it is possible to greatly reduce greatly the occurrence of symptoms, especially those dependent on the acidity of the refluxed material. Response to PPI therapy can be evaluated through clinical, endoscopic, and reflux monitoring parameters. In the persistence of the symptoms and/or complications, other causes of Refractory GERD should be suspected. Then, diagnostic investigation must be initiated, which is supported by clinical parameters and complementary exams such as upper digestive endoscopy, esophageal manometry and ambulatory reflux monitoring (esophageal pH monitoring or esophageal impedance-pH monitoring). Causes of refractoriness to PPI therapy may be due to the true Refractory GERD, or even to other non-reflux diseases, which can generate symptoms similar to GERD. There are several causes contributing to PPI refractoriness, such as inappropriate use of the drug (lack of patient adherence to PPI therapy, inadequate dosage of PPI), residual acid reflux due to inadequate acid suppression, nocturnal acid escape, "non-acid" reflux, rapid metabolism of PPI, slow gastric emptying, and misdiagnosis of GERD. This is a common cause of failure of the clinical treatment and, in this case, the problem is not the treatment but the diagnosis. Causes of misdiagnosis of GERD are functional heartburn, achalasia, megaesophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, other types of esophagitis, and other causes. The diagnosis and treatment are specific to each of these causes of refractoriness to clinical therapy with PPI.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é a condição clínica que se desenvolve quando o refluxo do conteúdo gástrico provoca sintomas incômodos e/ou complicações. O relaxamento transitório do esfíncter inferior do esôfago é o principal mecanismo fisiopatológico da DRGE. Os sintomas e complicações podem estar relacionados ao refluxo do conteúdo gástrico para o esôfago, cavidade oral, laringe e/ou pulmão. Os sintomas e outras possíveis manifestações da DRGE são pirose, regurgitação, disfagia, dor torácica não-cardíaca, tosse crônica, laringite crônica, asma e erosões dentárias. O inibidor da bomba de prótons (IBP) é o medicamento de primeira escolha e o mais comumente utilizado para o tratamento da DRGE. A definição mais difundida de DRGE Refratária é a condição clínica que apresenta sintomas com resposta parcial ou ausente ao tratamento com IBP duas vezes ao dia. A persistência dos sintomas ocorre em 25% a 42% dos pacientes que utilizam IBP uma vez ao dia e em 10% a 20% dos que utilizam IBP duas vezes ao dia. OBJETIVO: O objetivo é apresentar uma revisão da literatura atual, salientando as causas, aspectos diagnósticos e abordagem terapêutica dos casos com sintomas suspeitos de refluxo e não responsivos ao IBP. CONCLUSÃO - Inicialmente, o manejo da refratariedade ao IBP consiste em corrigir a baixa aderência à terapia com IBP, ajustar a dosagem do IBP e reforçar as recomendações sobre modificação do estilo de vida, evitando alimentos e atividades que desencadeiem os sintomas. O IBP diminui o número de episódios de refluxo ácido, no entanto o número de refluxos "não-ácidos" aumenta e o paciente continua apresentando refluxo apesar do IBP. Desta forma, é possível reduzir consideravelmente a ocorrência de sintomas, especialmente aqueles dependentes da acidez do material refluído. A resposta à terapia com IBP pode ser avaliada através de parâmetros clínicos, endoscópicos e de monitorização do refluxo. Na persistência dos sintomas, outras causas de DRGE Refratária devem ser suspeitadas. Em seguida, deve ser iniciada a investigação diagnóstica, que é apoiada por parâmetros clínicos e exames complementares, como endoscopia digestiva alta, manometria esofágica e monitorização ambulatorial do refluxo (pHmetria esofágica ou impedancio-pHmetria esofágica). As causas de refratariedade à terapia com IBP podem ser devidas à DRGE Refratária verdadeira ou mesmo a outras doenças não relacionadas ao refluxo, que podem gerar sintomas semelhantes à DRGE. Existem várias causas de refratariedade ao IBP, como uso inadequado da droga (falta de aderência do paciente à terapia com IBP, dosagem inadequada de IBP), refluxo ácido residual devido à supressão ácida inadequada, escape ácido noturno, refluxo "não-ácido", metabolismo rápido do IBP, esvaziamento gástrico lento e diagnóstico equivocado de DRGE. Este representa uma causa frequente de insucesso do tratamento clínico e neste caso, o problema não é o tratamento, mas sim o diagnóstico. As causas de diagnóstico equivocado da DRGE são pirose funcional, acalásia, megaesôfago, esofagite eosinofílica, outros tipos de esofagite e outras causas. O diagnóstico e o tratamento são específicos para cada uma dessas causas de refratariedade ao tratamento clínico com IBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Treatment Failure , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Symptom Assessment
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(3): 296-305, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endoscopic antireflux treatments for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are still evolving, and most of the published studies address symptom relief in the short-term. Objective - We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis focused on evaluating the efficacy of the different endoscopic procedures. METHODS: Search was restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on MedLine, Cochrane, SciELO, and EMBASE for patients with chronic GERD (>6 months), over 18 years old and available follow up of at least 3 months. The main outcome was to evaluate the efficacy of the different endoscopic treatments compared to sham, pharmacological or surgical treatment. Efficacy was measured by different subjective and objective outcomes. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 16 RCT, totaling 1085 patients. The efficacy of endoscopic treatments compared to sham and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) treatment showed a significant difference up to 6 months in favor of endoscopy with no heterogeneity (P<0.00001) (I2: 0%). The subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant difference up to 6 months in favor of endoscopy: endoscopy vs PPI (P<0.00001) (I2: 39%). Endoscopy vs sham (P<0.00001) (I2: 0%). Most subjective and objective outcomes were statistically significant in favor of endoscopy up to 6 and 12 months follow up. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis shows a good short-term efficacy in favor of endoscopic procedures when comparing them to a sham and pharmacological or surgical treatment. Data on long-term follow up is lacking and this should be explored in future studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os tratamentos endoscópicos para a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) ainda estão em evolução e a maioria dos estudos publicados abordam o alívio dos sintomas em curto prazo. OBJETIVO: Pretendemos realizar uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise focada na avaliação da eficácia dos diferentes procedimentos endoscópicos. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi restrita a ensaios clínicos randomizados em MedLine, Cochrane, SciELO e EMBASE para pacientes com DRGE crônica (>6 meses), com mais de 18 anos e acompanhamento disponível por pelo menos 3 meses. O principal desfecho foi avaliar a eficácia dos diferentes tratamentos endoscópicos em comparação com o tratamento sham, farmacológico ou cirúrgico. A eficácia foi medida por diferentes resultados subjetivos e objetivos. RESULTADOS: Analisamos dados de 16 ensaios clínicos randomizados, totalizando 1085 pacientes. A eficácia dos tratamentos endoscópicos em comparação com o tratamento com sham e inibidores da bomba de prótons mostrou uma diferença significativa até 6 meses a favor da endoscopia sem heterogeneidade (P<0,00001) (I2: 0%). A análise do subgrupo mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa até 6 meses a favor da endoscopia: endoscopia vs inibidores da bomba de prótons (P<0,00001) (I2: 39%). Endoscopia vs sham (P<0,00001) (I2: 0%). A maioria dos resultados subjetivos e objetivos foram estatisticamente significativos em favor da endoscopia até 6 e 12 meses de acompanhamento. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão sistemática e meta-análise mostrou uma boa eficácia a curto prazo em favor dos procedimentos endoscópicos ao compará-los a tratamento sham, farmacológico ou cirúrgico. Não existem dados sobre o acompanhamento a longo prazo e isso deve ser explorado em estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Placebos , Time Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
5.
Medwave ; 18(2): e7179, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-912090

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los inhibidores de la bomba de protones son la terapia médica más efectiva para la enfermedad de reflujo gastroesofágico, pero su inicio de acción puede ser lento. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la literatura referida a la eficacia del omeprazol y bicarbonato de sodio en la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de la literatura desde el año 2000. Se revisaron los manuscritos relativos a la efectividad del tratamiento de la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico. Se extrajo la información relevante, la cual fue subsecuentemente analizada con estadística descriptiva. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó información de cuatro estudios. Dos estudios compararon la eficacia de omeprazol y bicarbonato de sodio versus omeprazol, y un estudio comparó la eficacia de la dosis diaria matutina con la nocturna. El otro estudio comparó omeprazol más bicarbonato de sodio y alginato versus omeprazol. No hubo diferencia entre omeprazol con bicarbonato de sodio y omeprazol. Sin embargo, hubo una tendencia hacia una respuesta más sostenida y una mayor proporción de alivio total sostenido por 30 minutos con omeprazol y bicarbonato de sodio. CONCLUSIÓN: La terapia con omeprazol y bicarbonato de sodio no es más efectiva que el omeprazol en el tratamiento de la enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico. Sin embargo, la información sugiere que puede tener una respuesta más sostenida y un alivio total de mayor duración.


BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow. OBJECTIVES: To assess the available literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate in gastroesophageal reflux patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted. A systematic literature search starting from 2000. Reviewed manuscripts concerning the effectiveness of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease were reviewed and the data were extracted. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: This review included information of four studies. Two trials compared the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate versus omeprazole. One study compared the efficacy of once-daily morning or nighttime dosing. And another study compared omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate/alginate versus omeprazole. In total, there was no difference between omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and omeprazole. However, there is a trend towards more sustained response and a greater proportion of patients with sustained total relief by 30 minutes with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate. CONCLUSION: Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate therapy is not more effective than omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, data obtained suggest that it can have a more sustained response and sustained total relief.


Subject(s)
Humans , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Sodium Bicarbonate/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Treatment Outcome , Drug Combinations
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 271-280, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888225

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists are two of the most commonly prescribed drug classes for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their efficacy is controversial. Many patients are treated with these drugs for atypical manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux, even that causal relation is not proven. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease through a systematic review. METHODS: A systematic review was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The search was limited to studies published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. There was no limitation regarding date of publication. Studies were considered eligible if they were randomized-controlled trials, evaluating proton pump inhibitors and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Studies published only as abstracts, studies evaluating only non-clinical outcomes and studies exclusively comparing different doses of the same drug were excluded. Data extraction was performed by independent investigators. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO platform (CRD42016040156). RESULTS: After analyzing 735 retrieved references, 23 studies (1598 randomized patients) were included in the systematic review. Eight studies demonstrated that both proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists were effective against typical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and that there was no evidence of benefit in combining the latter to the former or in routinely prescribing long-term maintenance treatments. Three studies evaluated the effect of treatments on children with asthma, and neither proton pump inhibitors nor histamine H2 receptor antagonists proved to be significantly better than placebo. One study compared different combinations of omeprazole, bethanechol and placebo for the treatment of children with cough, and there is no clear definition on the best strategy. Another study demonstrated that omeprazole performed better than ranitidine for the treatment of extraesophageal reflux manifestations. Ten studies failed to demonstrate significant benefits of proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of unspecific manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux in infants. CONCLUSION: Proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2 receptor antagonists may be used to treat children with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but not to treat asthma or unspecific symptoms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Inibidores de bomba de prótons e antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina são duas das mais comumente prescritas classes de medicações para a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica, mas sua eficácia é controversa. Muitos pacientes são tratados com essas drogas por manifestações atípicas atribuídas ao refluxo gastroesofágico, mesmo que uma relação causal não esteja comprovada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os inibidores da bomba de prótons e os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina na doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica através de uma revisão sistemática. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática, utilizando as bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A pesquisa foi limitada a estudos publicados em inglês, português e espanhol. Não houve limitação quanto à data de publicação. Os estudos foram considerados elegíveis se fossem ensaios controlados randomizados que avaliassem inibidores da bomba de prótons e/ou antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina para o tratamento da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico pediátrica. Estudos publicados apenas como resumos, estudos que não avaliassem desfechos clinicamente relevantes e estudos que comparassem exclusivamente diferentes doses do mesmo fármaco foram excluídos. A extração de dados foi realizada por pesquisadores independentes. O protocolo do estudo foi registrado na plataforma PROSPERO (CRD42016040156). RESULTADOS: Após a análise das 735 referências identificadas, 23 estudos (1598 pacientes randomizados) foram incluídos na revisão sistemática. Oito estudos demonstraram que tanto os inibidores da bomba de prótons como os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina eram eficazes contra as manifestações típicas da doença de refluxo gastroesofágico e que não havia evidências de benefício na combinação dessas classes de drogas ou na prescrição rotineira de tratamentos de manutenção de longo prazo. Três estudos avaliaram o efeito dos tratamentos em crianças com asma e, nem os inibidores da bomba de prótons, nem os antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina se mostraram significativamente melhores do que o placebo. Um estudo comparou diferentes combinações de omeprazol, betanecol e placebo para o tratamento de crianças com tosse, e não há uma definição clara sobre a melhor estratégia terapêutica. Outro estudo demonstrou que o omeprazol apresentou melhor desempenho do que a ranitidina para o tratamento de manifestações extraesofágicas da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. Dez estudos não tiveram sucesso em demonstrar benefícios significativos dos inibidores da bomba de prótons ou dos antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina para o tratamento de manifestações inespecíficas atribuídas ao refluxo gastroesofágico em crianças menores de 1 ano de idade. CONCLUSÃO: Inibidores da bomba de prótons ou antagonistas dos receptores H2 da histamina podem ser utilizados para tratar crianças com doença de refluxo gastroesofágico, mas não para tratar asma ou sintomas inespecíficos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histamine H2 Antagonists/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Histamine H2 Antagonists/adverse effects
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(3): 356-363, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889259

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still a controversial issue in literature. Objective: A systematic review of the association between these two diseases in adult patients. Methods: Systematic review in PubMed and Cochrane Database with articles published between 1951 and 2015. We included all articles that specifically studied the relationship between CRS and GERD. Results: Of the 436 articles found, only 12 met the inclusion criteria. Eight cross-sectional articles suggest a relation between CRS and GERD, especially on CRS that is refractory to clinical or surgical treatment. However, the groups are small and methodologies are different. Four other longitudinal studies have assessed the effect of treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the improvement of symptoms of CRS, but the results were conflicting. Conclusions: There seems to be relative prevalence of reflux with intractable CRS. There is still a lack of controlled studies with a significant number of patients to confirm this hypothesis. Few studies specifically assess the impact of treatment of reflux on symptom improvement in patients with CRS.


Resumo Introdução: A relação entre a Doença do Refluxo Gastroesofágico (DRGE) e a Rinossinusite Crônica (RSC) ainda é tema de controvérsia em literatura. Objetivo: Revisão sistemática sobre a associação entre essas duas doenças em pacientes adultos. Método: Revisão sistemática no Pubmed e Cochrane Database com os artigos publicados entre 1951 e 2015. Foram incluídos todos os artigos que estudassem especificamente a relação entre RSC e DRGE. Resultados: Dos 436 artigos encontrados, apenas 12 satisfaziam os critérios de inclusão. Oito artigos transversais sugerem relação da RSC com a DRGE, especialmente sobre a RSC refratária a tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico prévio. No entanto, os grupos são pequenos e as metodologias são muito diferentes. Outros quatro estudos longitudinais avaliaram o efeito do tratamento com Inibidores de Bomba de Prótons (IBP) sobre a melhora a dos sintomas de RSC, porém os resultados foram discordantes. Conclusões: Parece haver relação de prevalência de refluxo e RSC de difícil controle. Ainda faltam estudos controlados com um número expressivo de pacientes para que se confirme essa hipótese. São escassos os estudos que avaliem especificamente o impacto do tratamento de refluxo na melhora dos sintomas em pacientes com RSC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sinusitis/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Rhinitis/complications , Sinusitis/physiopathology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/physiopathology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Rhinitis/physiopathology , Chronic Disease
8.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 29(3): 131-134, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796949

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Surgical treatment of GERD by Nissen fundoplication is effective and safe, providing good results in the control of the disease. However, some authors have questioned the efficacy of this procedure and few studies on the long-term outcomes are available in the literature, especially in Brazil. Aim: To evaluate patients operated for gastro-esophageal reflux disease, for at least 10 years, by Nissen fundoplication. Methods: Thirty-two patients were interviewed and underwent upper digestive endoscopy, esophageal manometry, 24 h pH monitoring and barium esophagogram, before and after Nissen fundoplication. Results: Most patients were asymptomatic, satisfied with the result of surgery (87.5%) 10 years after operation, due to better symptom control compared with preoperative and, would do it again (84.38%). However, 62.5% were in use of some type of anti-reflux drugs. The manometry revealed lower esophageal sphincter with a mean pressure of 11.7 cm H2O and an average length of 2.85 cm. The average DeMeester index in pH monitoring was 11.47. The endoscopy revealed that most patients had a normal result (58.06%) or mild esophagitis (35.48%). Barium swallow revealed mild esophageal dilatation in 25,80% and hiatal hernia in 12.9% of cases. Conclusion: After at least a decade, most patients were satisfied with the operation, asymptomatic or had milder symptoms of GERD, being better and with easier control, compared to the preoperative period. Nevertheless, a considerable percentage still employed anti-reflux medications.


RESUMO Racional: O tratamento cirúrgico para DRGE empregando a fundoplicatura à Nissen é eficaz e seguro, oferecendo bons resultados no controle da doença. Entretanto, alguns autores têm questionado quanto a sua eficácia, e poucos estudos com avaliação tardia destes doentes são encontrados na literatura, sobretudo no Brasil. Objetivo: Avaliar pacientes operados por doença do refluxo gastroesofágico há pelo menos 10 anos, pela técnica de Nissen. Métodos: Trinta e dois pacientes foram entrevistados e submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta, manometria esofágica, pHmetria prolongada de 24h e esofagograma baritado, antes e após a fundoplicatura à Nissen. Resultados: A maioria estava assintomático 10 anos após a operação e satisfeitos com o resultado dela (87,5%) e a fariam novamente (84,38%), devido melhor controle sintomático com medicação, em comparação com o período pré-operatório. Entretanto, 62,5% empregavam algum tipo de medicação anti-refluxo. Quanto aos exames, a manometria revelou extensão média de 2,85 cm de esfíncter esofágico inferior, com pressão média de 11,7 cm de H2O. O índice médio de DeMeester na pHmetria foi de 11,47. Na endoscopia a maior parte dos pacientes apresentou exame normal (58,06%), ou esofagite leve (35,48%). O esofagograma revelou discreta dilatação esofágica em 25,80% e hérnia hiatal em 12,9% dos casos. Conclusão: Após no mínimo uma década, a maioria dos doentes estava satisfeita com a operação, assintomática ou apresentava sintomatologia mais branda da DRGE que era de melhor e mais fácil controle, comparado ao período pré-operatório. Porcentagem não desprezível ainda empregava medicações para refluxo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Fundoplication , Time Factors , Remission Induction , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Patient Satisfaction
9.
J. bras. med ; 103(2)jan - 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774683

ABSTRACT

Os inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBPs) são os fármacos mais utilizados no tratamento da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE). Apesar de não reduzirem expressivamente o número de episódios de refluxo, propiciam mudança significativa na acidez. Isso quer dizer que continua havendo refluxo, porém os episódios são menos ácidos. Dessa forma consegue-se reduzir bastante os sintomas, sobretudo as queixas dependentes da acidez do material refluído.


Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most common medicine to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although they don?t expressively reduce the amount of reflux episodes, it allows significantly changes in acidity. It means that reflux still exist, however, the episodes are less acid. As a result, symptoms can be reduced, mainly complaints due to acidity of the refluxed material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , GABA-B Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease, with eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus. A minority of EoE patients respond well to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy alone, and that condition is labelled PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). The prevalence of PPI-REE among EoE cases is unknown. We aimed to identify clinical manifestations of PPI-REE, and the proportion of PPI-REE among all EoE cases. METHODS: We reviewed pathology of the 4,075 patients who underwent esophageal biopsy at an institution from March 2003 to July 2015. EoE was diagnosed based on esophageal symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophagus, with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. We collected endoscopic and pathologic findings, and clinical features for these patients. RESULTS: Thirteen (0.3%) patients were diagnosed with EoE. Clinical manifestations were dysphagia (30.8%), foreign body sensation (23.1%), regurgitation (23.1%), cough (15.4%), heartburn (15.4%), nausea (7.7%), dyspepsia (7.7%). The endoscopic findings noted were polypoid lesion (23.1%), whitish plaque or exudate (23.1%), linear furrow (7.7%), concentric ring (7.7%), nodularity (7.7%), erosion (7.7%), and normal (30.8%). Of these patients, five had a favorable course with PPI as monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of EoE among all patients undergoing endoscopic biopsy was 0.3%. Of those, PPI-REE comprised 38%. Most of the endoscopic findings were atypical or normal when compared to the typical findings in EoE. In conclusion, patients who present with symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction need esophageal biopsy, regardless of the endoscopic findings. Moreover, patients diagnosed with EoE need to be treated first with PPI alone.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Esophagus/pathology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157697

ABSTRACT

Prokinetics are commonly used for Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of cinitapride Extended-Release (ER) tablets versus conventional cinitapride Immediate-Release (IR) tablets for the treatment of FD and GERD. Materials and Methods: Patients with FD and GERD received either cinitapride ER 3 mg tablets OD or cinitapride IR 1 mg tablets TID for 4 weeks in this randomized, multicentre study. Change in the mean intensity score of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (overall and individual) at the end of the study and at each weekly follow up visit as compared to baseline, patients with complete resolution of GI symptoms, patients with > 50% reduction from baseline in overall intensity score, rescue medication use and overall efficacy were recorded. The safety variables were reported adverse events (AEs), laboratory parameters, electrocardiogram, and overall tolerability. Unpaired t test, chi square test or Fisher’s exact test were used for analysis. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Total 218 patients were enrolled Cinitapride ER tablets were non-inferior (non-inferiority margin -2.5) to cinitapride IR tablets for the change in the mean overall GI symptom intensity score at the end of the study as compared to the baseline (treatment difference - 0.2 (95% CI: -2.2, 1.7)); also, no significant difference was found for other efficacy variables (p > 0.05). Eight AEs of mild-to-moderate intensity were reported. There was also no difference in the overall tolerability between the study groups (p = 0.875). Conclusions : Both the study treatments were comparable in terms of safety and efficacy for the treatment of FD and GERD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Benzamides/administration & dosage , Benzamides/analogs & derivatives , Benzamides/pharmacokinetics , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations , Dosage Forms , Dyspepsia/drug therapy , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Solubility , Tablets
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118741

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Genotype , Heartburn , Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 35(6): 614-621, nov.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-696705

ABSTRACT

El hipo persistente (singultus) es aquel que se presenta en forma de un ataque prolongado o ataques recurrentes durante un tiempo determinado, generalmente más de 48 horas, suele resolverse sin tratamiento farmacológico, pero puede ser necesario administrarlo y plantear su estudio etiológico. Esta entidad infrecuente se presenta en un hombre de 63 años, con historia de singultus desde hace tres años, que aparece fundamentalmente posterior a la ingestión de alimentos y persiste durante varios minutos u horas, todos los días. Las causas del singultus pueden ser gastrointestinales (reflujo gastroesofágico, hernia del hiato, esofagitis, úlcera gástrica, pancreatitis, carcinoma esofágico, masas hepáticas, ascitis, cirugía abdominal), neurológicas, vasculares, torácicas, metabólicas, tóxicas, fármacos y otras. Se le realiza interrogatorio y examen físico minucioso, electrocardiograma, rayos X de tórax y abdomen, analítica sanguínea, ultrasonido abdominal, Endoscopia superior, tomografía de tórax y abdomen, además de Manometría esofágica y la prueba terapéutica con omeprazol, diagnosticándose una enfermedad de reflujo gastroesofágico. Se pone tratamiento basado en medidas populares, y medicamentos del síntoma fundamental con cloropromacina (tabletas de 25mg): 1 tableta cada 8 horas, obteniendo mejoría ostensible del mismo, hasta el momento en que se diagnóstica la causa etiológica, donde se pone tratamiento específico de la enfermedad de reflujo gastroesofágico con omeprazol (20mg): 1 Cápsula cada 12 horas y domperidona, obteniendo la desaparición del síntoma que causó la consulta inicial del paciente.


The persistent hiccup (singultus) is the one that shows up as a prolonged attack or recurrent attacks during a determinant period of time, generally, more than 48 hours. It uses to resolve without a pharmacological treatment, but it could be necessary a treatment and posing its etiological study. This infrequent entity is presented in a man, aged 63 years, with a history for three years, appearing mainly after the food intake and persisting for several minutes or hours, every day. The singultus’s causes may be gastrointestinal (gastro-esophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, esophagitis, gastric ulcer, pancreatitis, esophageal carcinoma, hepatica masses, ascites, abdominal surgery), neurological, vascular, thoracic, metabolic, toxic, medicine, and others. We performed a questioning and a meticulous physical examination, an electrocardiogram, thorax and abdominal X-rays, blood analyses, abdominal ultrasound, superior endoscopy, thoracic and abdominal tomography, in addition to esophageal manometry and the therapeutic test with Omeprazol, diagnosing a gastro-esophageal reflux disease. We prescribed a treatment based on popular measures, and medication for the main symptom with chlorpromazine (25 mg tablets): 1 tablet each 8 hours, achieving a clear improvement of the symptom until the moment when the etiological cause was diagnosed and a specific treatment for the gastro-esophageal reflux disease was ordered with omeprazole (20 mg): 1 capsule each 12 hours and domperidona, reaching the disappearance of the symptom that caused the patient´s initial consultation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hiccup/etiology , Hiccup/drug therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Case Reports
16.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 49(4): 296-301, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660310

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition which develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Its pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment have frequently been analyzed but it is interesting to review some aspects of the GERD refractory patients to the proton pump inhibitors treatment. The treatment encompasses behavioral measures and pharmacological therapy. The majority of the patients respond well to proton pump inhibitors treatment but 20%-42% of them may not do so well. Patients who are unresponsible to 4-8 weeks' treatment with proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole-Mg) might have so-called refractory GERD. RESULTS: In some cases the patients are not real refractory because either they do not have GERD or the disease was not correctly treated, but the term refractory is still employed. Although debatable, the Brazilian GERD Consensus based upon evidences recommends as first step in the diagnosis, the upper digestive endoscopy to exclude the diagnosis of peptic ulcer and cancer and in some cases identify the presence of esophageal mucosa erosions. CONCLUSIONS: The main causes of the so-called refractory GERD are: (1) functional heartburn; (2) low levels of adherence to proton pump inhibitors treatment; (3) inadequate proton pump inhibitors dosage; (4) wrong diagnosis; (5) co-morbidities and pill-induced esophagitis; (6) genotypic differences; (7) nonacid gastroesophageal reflux; (8) autoimmune skin diseases; (9) eosinophilic esophagitis.


CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é a condição que se desenvolve quando o refluxo do conteúdo gástrico provoca sintomas incômodos e/ou complicações. A fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da enfermidade têm sido convenientemente estudados, mas é interessante revisar alguns aspectos dos pacientes que são aparentemente refratários, ou seja, não respondem satisfatoriamente ao tratamento com os inibidores da bomba protônica, o que ocorre em 20%-42% dos casos. Aqueles, portanto, que não apresentam resposta terapêutica a um ciclo de 4 a 8 semanas de tratamento com os inibidores da bomba protônica (omeprazol, pantoprazol, rabeprazol, lansoprazol, esomeprazol, pantoprazol-Mg) podem constituir a denominada "DRGE refratária". RESULTADOS: É importante comentar que em alguns casos os pacientes não são realmente refratários ao tratamento, mas podem efetivamente não ter o diagnóstico de DRGE ou até mesmo não terem sido corretamente tratados. Quanto ao estabelecimento diagnóstico, o Consenso Brasileiro da DRGE baseado em evidências sugere a realização da endoscopia digestiva alta como primeiro passo, com o propósito de excluir a presença de úlcera péptica e câncer, além de identificar erosões na mucosa esofágica quando presentes. CONCLUSÕES: As principais causas de DRGE refratária são: (1) pirose funcional; (2) baixos níveis de aderência ao tratamento com os inibidores da bomba protônica; (3) dosagem inadequada dos inibidores da bomba protônica; (4) erro diagnóstico; (5) presença de comorbidades e esofagite induzida por comprimidos; (6) diferenças genotípicas; (7) refluxo gastroesofágico não-ácido; (8) doenças autoimunes de pele; (9) esofagite eosinofílica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastroesophageal Reflux/etiology , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Diagnostic Errors , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Medication Adherence , Treatment Failure
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 49(1): 56-63, Jan.-Mar. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622562

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Helicobacter pylori has been associated with worsening of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication in GERD patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial performing symptom evaluation, endoscopy, histology, manometry and esophageal pH testing on GERD patients. Patients infected with H. pylori were randomized to: 1) eradication treatment plus proton pump inhibitors treatment, or 2) proton pump inhibitors alone. Patients not infected constituted a negative control group. After 3 months, patients were re-evaluated by symptom assessment, endoscopy, histology and manometry. RESULTS: GERD treatment resulted in significantly higher lower esophageal sphincter pressure, as measured by mean expiratory pressure, in H. pylori negative patients. There was significantly lower proportion of hypotensive waves and significantly higher proportion of normotensive waves in non-eradicated patients. All symptom scores were significantly reduced in the post-treatment period compared to baseline, to values that were similar among the three groups, in the post-treatment period. In the post-treatment period, erosive esophagitis was significantly less frequent on those not eradicated. CONCLUSION: Manometric, clinical and endoscopic data showed no benefit in eradicating H. pylori in GERD. Our data supports the hypothesis that H. pylori eradication does not influence GERD.


CONTEXTO: Existem trabalhos associando a erradicação do Helicobacter pylori à piora da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE). OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da erradicação do H. pylori em pacientes com DRGE. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado, controlado em que se avaliaram clínica, endoscopia digestiva alta, histologia, manometria e pHmetria de pacientes com DRGE. Pacientes infectados pelo H. pylori foram randomizados para: 1) erradicação da infecção seguida de tratamento com inibidor de bomba protônica, ou 2) tratamento com inibidor de bomba protônica apenas. Os não-infectados constituíram grupo-controle negativo. Após 3 meses, os pacientes foram reavaliados. RESULTADOS: A pressão do esfíncter inferior do esôfago, medida pela pressão expiratória máxima, foi significativamente maior em pacientes H. pylori negativos. Houve redução significativa na proporção de ondas hipotensivas e aumento significativo na proporção de ondas normotensivas nos pacientes que permaneceram Helicobacter pylori positivos. Todos os escores de sintomas foram reduzidos significativamente em comparação ao período inicial, para valores semelhantes, entre os três grupos, no pós-tratamento. Esofagite erosiva foi significativamente menos frequente no período pós-tratamento no grupo não-erradicado. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados manométricos, clínicos e endoscópicos não mostram benefício em se erradicar a infecção em pacientes com DRGE. Este estudo apoia a hipótese de que a erradicação do H. pylori não influencia a DRGE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastritis/drug therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Proton Pump Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Gastritis/complications , Gastritis/microbiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Manometry , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2011 Aug; 65(8) 355-359
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145629

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) disease is on the rise in South Asian countries. Though there are reports of GER prevalence amongst various ethnic populations there are fewer reports on its prevalence in different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: To study the prevalence of GER amongst hospital personnel at the tertiary referral hospital in south India. Results: Of the 1468 hospital personnel, the overall prevalence of GER was 28.5%. It was highest amongst the clerical staff (31.3%) and least among nursing students (3%). Eighty five percent of the symptomatic GER personnel were young; those below the age of 35 years had symptoms for less than 6 months while those above 55 years had symptoms for more than 6 months. Combination of reflux symptoms with ulcer or dysmotility type dyspepsia was the dominant type amongst all cadres. The nursing staff (62.5%) preferred antacids whereas the doctors (63%) preferred PPI. Conclusion: GER prevalence is not uncommon amongst the hospital personnel. It is significantly more common amongst doctors, clerical staff and housekeepers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antacids/therapeutic use , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Nurses , Personnel, Hospital , Prevalence
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