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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5397-5403, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008737


Functional dyspepsia(FD) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disease characterized by recurrent and long-lasting symptoms that significantly impact the quality of life of patients. Currently, western medicine treatment has not made breakthrough progress and mainly relies on symptomatic therapies such as gastrointestinal motility agents, acid suppressants, antidepressants/anxiolytics, and psychotherapy. However, these treatments have limitations in terms of insufficient effectiveness and safety. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) possesses unique advantages in the treatment of FD. Through literature search in China and abroad, it has been found that the mechanisms of TCM in treating FD is associated with various signaling pathways, and research on these signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms has gradually become a focus. The main signaling pathways include the SCF/c-Kit signaling pathway, 5-HT signaling pathway, CRF signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, TRPV1 signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, and RhoA/ROCK2/MYPT1 signaling pathway. This series of signaling pathways can promote gastrointestinal motility, alleviate anxiety, accelerate gastric emptying, reduce visceral hypersensitivity, and improve duodenal micro-inflammation in the treatment of FD. This article reviewed the research on TCM's regulation of relevant signaling pathways in the treatment of FD, offering references and support for further targeted TCM research in the treatment of FD.

Humans , Dyspepsia/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality of Life , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 276-281, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935211


Objective: Systematically summarize the research progress of clinical trials of gastric cancer oncology drugs and the overview of marketed drugs in China from 2012 to 2021, providing data and decision-making evidence for relevant departments. Methods: Based on the registration database of the drug clinical trial registration and information disclosure platform of Food and Drug Administration of China and the data query system of domestic and imported drugs, the information on gastric cancer drug clinical trials, investigational drugs and marketed drugs from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021 was analyzed, and the differences between Chinese and foreign enterprises in terms of trial scope, trial phase, treatment lines and drug type, effect and mechanism studies were compared. Results: A total of 114 drug clinical trials related to gastric tumor were registered in China from 2012 to 2021, accounting for 3.7% (114/3 041) of all anticancer drug clinical trials in the same period, the registration number showed a significant growth rate after 2016 and reached its peak with 32 trials in 2020. Among them, 85 (74.6%, 85/114) trials were initiated by Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise. Compared with foreign pharmaceutical enterprise, Chinese pharmaceutical enterprise had higher rates of phase I trials (35.3% vs 6.9%, P=0.001), but the rate of international multicenter trials (11.9% vs 67.9%, P<0.001) was relatively low. There were 76 different drugs involved in relevant clinical trials, of which 65 (85.5%) were targeted drugs. For targeted drugs, HER2 is the most common one (14 types), followed by PD-1 and multi-target VEGER. In the past ten years, 3 of 4 marketed drugs for gastric cancer treatment were domestic and included in the national medical insurance directory. Conclusions: From 2012 to 2021, China has made some progress in drug research and development for gastric carcinoma. However, compared with the serious disease burden, it is still insufficient. Targeted strengthening of research and development of investment in many aspects of gastric cancer drugs, such as new target discovery, matured target excavating, combination drug development and early line therapy promotion, is the key work in the future, especially for domestic companies.

Humans , China , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Pharmaceutical Preparations , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 507-510, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142339


ABSTRACT Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of infliximab (IFX) has been recognized as an important strategy in the management of secondary loss of response to this agent, guiding clinical decision-making in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Although most of the data on the application of TDM for IFX refer to the maintenance phase of treatment, many studies have associated higher drug concentrations, specially in the induction phase, with achievement of important treatment targets, such as clinical remission and mucosal healing. This brief communication aims to summarize the literature on the use of TDM during induction phase of IFX and propose application of a simplified approach which can be useful into clinical practice, aiming better outcomes to IBD patients.

RESUMO A monitorização terapêutica dos níveis séricos (Therapeutic drug monitoring - TDM) de infliximabe (IFX) é uma estratégia reconhecida na tomada de decisão clínica frente a perda de resposta secundária a esta droga no manejo das doenças inflamatórias intestinais (DII). Embora a maioria dos dados sobre a aplicação dessa estratégia para IFX se refira à fase de manutenção do tratamento, muitos estudos associaram concentrações mais altas de IFX, especialmente na fase de indução, com o alcance de importantes alvos de tratamento, como remissão clínica e cicatrização da mucosa. Este artigo visa resumir as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de níveis séricos durante a fase de indução do IFX e propor a aplicação de uma abordagem simplificada que pode ser extremamente útil na prática clínica, visando melhores resultados para os pacientes.

Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Algorithms , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 491-497, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142345


BACKGROUND: Biological therapy and new drugs have revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Ideally, the choice of medication should be a shared decision with the patient, aiming at greater satisfaction, compliance, and consequently, favorable clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate patient's preferences in the choice of their therapy and the factors that influence this choice. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 101 outpatients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and no previous exposure to biological therapy. Patients' preferences were assessed through questions that addressed the preferred mode of administration (oral, subcutaneous, or intravenous) and the factors that determined the choice of medication (efficacy, medical indication, fear of medication, convenience, mode of application, and personal doctors' indication). RESULTS: The mean age was 43.6±13.5 years, 75.3% were female, and 81.2% were cases of ulcerative colitis. Regarding the mode of administration, the majority of patients preferred oral (87.1%), followed by intravenous (6.93%) and subcutaneous (5.94%) medications. The reasons were "I prefer to take it at home" (42.57%), "I have more freedom" (36.63%), "I don't like self-application" (29.70%), and "I believe it works better" (19.80%). Younger patients and patients in clinical disease activity preferred intravenous mode compared to the oral route (P<0.05). Doctor's opinion (98%) was an important factor associated with the medication choice. CONCLUSION: Oral route was the preferred mode of administration and most patients took their physician's opinion into account in their choice of medication.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A terapia biológica e os novos medicamentos revolucionaram o tratamento da doença inflamatória intestinal. A escolha do medicamento deve ser compartilhada com o paciente, visando maior satisfação, adesão e, consequentemente, desfecho clínico favorável. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as preferências do paciente na escolha de sua terapia e os fatores que influenciaram essa escolha. MÉTODOS: Este estudo transversal incluiu 101 pacientes ambulatoriais com doença de Crohn ou retocolite ulcerativa. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade ≥18 anos e nenhuma exposição prévia à terapia biológica. A preferência dos pacientes foi avaliada por meio de perguntas que abordaram o modo de administração preferido (oral, subcutâneo ou intravenoso) e os fatores que determinaram a escolha do medicamento (eficácia, indicação médica, medo da injeção, conveniência, modo de aplicação e opinião pessoal do médico). RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 43,6±13,5 anos, 75,3% eram mulheres e 81,2% eram portadores de retocolite ulcerativa. Em relação ao modo de administração, a maioria dos pacientes preferiu os medicamentos orais (87,1%), seguidos dos endovenosos (6,93%) e subcutâneos (5,94%). Os motivos foram "prefiro aplicar em casa" (42,57%), "tenho mais liberdade com essa medicação" (36,63%), "não gosto de autoaplicação" (29,70%) e "acredito que funcione melhor" (19,80%). Pacientes jovens e pacientes em atividade clínica preferiram a via intravenosa em comparação com a via oral (P<0,05). A opinião do médico (98%) foi um fator importante associado à escolha do medicamento. CONCLUSÃO: A via oral foi preferida e a maioria dos pacientes levou em consideração a opinião do seu médico na escolha do medicamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Patient Satisfaction , Patient Preference , Injections, Subcutaneous/statistics & numerical data , Biological Therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1566-1572, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143645


SUMMARY AIM: To compare the level of physical activity (PA), exercise capacity, and body composition before and after infliximab-induced clinical remission in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study evaluated 44 adult outpatients with active CD before infliximab administration and 24 weeks after infliximab therapy. The patients were evaluated for PA in daily life, exercise capacity, muscle strength, and body composition. RESULTS: 38 (86.4%) patients achieved infliximab-induced remission at 24 weeks and presented an increment in the number of steps taken of 1092 (7440±2980 vs. 6348±3177, respectively; p=0.006). The inactive time was reduced when compared to the baseline value (454.2±106.3 vs. 427.9±97.8, respectively; p=0.033). There was no difference in the distance walked before and after infliximab therapy, while there was an increase in the fat mass index in responders to infliximab compared to the baseline (19.1±7.6 vs. 14.9±5.8; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab-induced remission was shown to be effective for increasing physical activity by improving the number of steps and reducing inactive time. The maintenance of clinical remission associated with incentives to regular PA may contribute to making these patients reach an ideal level of PA.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível de atividade física (AF), capacidade de exercício e composição corporal antes e após remissão clínica induzida por infliximabe em pacientes com doença de Crohn (DC). MÉTODOS: Neste estudo longitudinal prospectivo, foram envolvidos 44 pacientes ambulatoriais adultos com DC ativa avaliados antes e depois de 24 semanas de terapia com infliximabe. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à AF, capacidade de exercício, força muscular e composição corporal. RESULTADOS: 38(86,4%) pacientes alcançaram remissão induzida por infliximabe em 24 semanas e apresentaram aumento no número de passos de 1092 (7440±2980 vs. 6348±3177, respectivamente; p=0,006). O tempo de inatividade foi reduzido quando comparado ao basal (454,2±106,3 vs. 427,9±97,8, respectivamente; p=0,033). Não houve diferença na distância percorrida antes e após a terapia com infliximabe, enquanto houve aumento no índice de massa gorda nos respondedores ao infliximabe em comparação ao basal (19,1±7,6 vs. 14,9±5,8; p=0,001). CONCLUSÕES: A remissão induzida pelo infliximabe mostrou-se eficaz no aumento da atividade física, melhorando o número de passos e reduzindo o tempo inativo. A manutenção da remissão clínica associada a incentivos à AF regular pode contribuir para que esses pacientes atinjam um nível ideal de AF.

Humans , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Exercise , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Infliximab/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 251-254, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098899


Resumen: Introducción: La hemorragia digestiva por hipertensión portal, sin alternativa de tratamiento endos- cópico o quirúrgico por localizaciones ectópicas, no identificadas del sitio de sangrado o caracterís ticas anatómicas, constituye un desafío terapéutico en Pediatría. El tratamiento habitual incluye la infusión de octreótido endovenoso. En los últimos años, la presentación de octreótido de liberación prolongada (OCT-LAR) para administración mensual intramuscular, resulta una alternativa tera péutica atractiva. Objetivo: Reportar el caso de un lactante con hemorragia digestiva por hiperten sión portal que recibió tratamiento exitoso con OCT-LAR. Caso Clínico: Paciente de 8 meses de vida, con malformación de vena porta extrahepática y episodios reiterados de sangrados digestivos con re querimientos transfusionales e infusiones de octréotido, sin posibilidad de tratamiento endoscópico o quirúrgico. Indicamos OCT-LAR intramuscular mensualmente. Después de diez meses de iniciado el tratamiento, el paciente no repitió sangrados digestivos y no presentó efectos adversos relacionados a la medicación. Conclusión: Consideramos que el reporte de este caso puede resultar de utilidad al presentar una nueva alternativa para el tratamiento de pacientes pediátricos con sangrado digestivo por hipertensión portal sin posibilidades terapéuticas convencionales.

Abstract: Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to portal hypertension (PHT), without endoscopic or surgical treatment options due to an ectopic or unidentified bleeding site or the patient's anatomic characteristics, is challenging in pediatric hepatology. The usual treatment in these cases includes intravenous Octreotide. Recently, the availability of long-acting release Octreo tide (OCT-LAR) for monthly intramuscular administration has become an interesting therapeutic alternative. Objective: To report the case of an infant with UGIB due to PHT who was successfully treated with OCT-LAR. Clinical Case: Eight-month-old patient with repeated episodes of UGIB due to extrahepatic portal vein malformation, requiring blood transfusions, and intravenous octreotide infusions. As neither endoscopic nor surgical treatment were feasible, we decided to start IM OCT- LAR monthly. After ten months of treatment, the patient did not present bleeding episodes. No medication-related events were observed. Conclusion: We consider that this report could help in the management of similar pediatric patients with UGIB due to PHT without conventional therapeutic possibilities.

Humans , Male , Infant , Gastrointestinal Agents/administration & dosage , Octreotide/administration & dosage , Duodenal Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations , Duodenal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Injections, Intramuscular
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 40(1): 22-28, ene.-mar 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144632


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta al tratamiento con anti-TNFs en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Materiales y métodos: Estudio prospectivo observacional realizado en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara, de enero 2015 a agosto 2018. Resultados: Se evaluó 31 pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal que recibían terapia de mantenimiento con Infliximab. Doce (38,7%) pacientes (3 con colitis ulcerativa y 9 con enfermedad de Crohn) presentaron pérdida de respuesta a partir de los 6 meses del inicio de la fase de mantenimiento: 2 entre 6-12 meses, 4 entre 12-18 meses y 6 entre 18-24 meses. Como primera medida se duplicó la dosis (10 mg/kg) a los 12 pacientes, obteniendo respuesta en 6 (50%) luego de 12 semanas. De los 6 pacientes restantes, 4 cambiaron a Adalimumab, 1 paciente presentó cáncer de colon y 1 paciente presentó anafilaxia y sarcoidosis. De los pacientes que recibieron Adalimumab, 3 presentaron recidiva endoscópica (75%) a partir de los 6 meses y 1 no respondió a la terapia de inducción y fue sometido a colectomía (25%). Conclusiones: Aproximadamente un tercio de nuestros pacientes presentó pérdida de respuesta a terapia de mantenimiento con Infliximab. El escalamiento de dosis como rescate tuvo éxito en la mitad de los pacientes. El cambio a Adalimumab en pacientes con pérdida de respuesta a un primer fármaco anti-TNF no parece ser efectivo.

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the response to treatment with anti-TNFs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Materials and methods: Prospective observational study conducted in the Gastroenterology service of the Guillermo Almenara National Hospital, from January 2015 to August 2018. Results: 31 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who received maintenance therapy with Infliximab were evaluated. Twelve (38.7%) patients (3 with ulcerative colitis and 9 with Crohn's disease) presented loss of response after 6 months of the beginning of the maintenance phase: 2 between 6-12 months, 4 between 12-18 months and 6 between 1824 months. As a first step, the dose was doubled (10 mg/kg) to the 12 patients, obtaining a response in 6 (50%) after 12 weeks. Of the remaining 6 patients, 4 switched to Adalimumab, 1 patient presented colon cancer and 1 patient presented anaphylaxis and sarcoidosis. Of the patients who received Adalimumab, 3 had endoscopic recurrence (75%) after 6 months and 1 did not respond to induction therapy and was subjected to colectomy (25%). Conclusions: Approximately one third of our patients presented loss of response to maintenance therapy with Infliximab. The dose escalation as a rescue therapy was successful in half of the patients. The change to Adalimumab in patients with loss of response to a first anti-TNF drug does not seem to be effective.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Maintenance Chemotherapy/methods , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Peru , Recurrence , Drug Administration Schedule , Prospective Studies , Treatment Failure , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(3): 312-317, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038718


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is scarce data regarding efficacy and safety of vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel diseases in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To describe the first observational real-world experience with vedolizumab in Latin American inflammatory bowel diseases patients. METHODS: Retrospective observational multicentric study of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) who used vedolizumab at any phase of their treatment. Clinical remission and response (according to Harvey-Bradshaw index for CD and Mayo score for UC), mucosal healing, need for surgery and adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients were included (52 with CD and 38 with UC), the majority with previous exposure to anti-TNF agents (88.46% in CD and 76.31% in UC). In CD (as observed analysis) remission rates at weeks 12, 26 and 52 were 42.89% (21/49), 61.9% (26/42) and 46.15% (12/26), respectively. In UC, remission rates at weeks 12, 26 and 52 were 28.94% (11/38), 36.66% (11/30) and 41.17% (7/17). Mucosal healing rates were 36.11% in CD and 43.4% in UC. During the study period, 7/52 CD patients underwent major abdominal surgery and 4/38 UC patients needed colectomy. CONCLUSION: Vedolizumab was effective in induction and maintenance of clinical response and remission in CD and UC, with no new safety signs.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há escassez de dados sobre a eficácia e segurança do vedolizumabe nas doenças inflamatórias intestinais na América Latina. OBJETIVO: Descrever a primeira experiência observacional de mundo real com vedolizumabe em pacientes latino-americanos com doenças inflamatórias intestinais. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo multicêntrico observacional de pacientes com doença de Crohn (DC) e retocolite ulcerativa inespecífica (RCUI) que utilizaram vedolizumabe em qualquer fase de seu tratamento. Foram avaliadas a remissão e resposta clínicas (de acordo com o índice de Harvey-Bradshaw para DC e escore de Mayo para RCUI), cicatrização da mucosa, necessidade de cirurgia e eventos adversos. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 90 pacientes (52 com DC e 38 com RCUI), a maioria com exposição prévia a agentes anti-TNF (88,46% na DC e 76,31% na RCUI). Na DC (em análise conforme observado), as taxas de remissão nas semanas 12, 26 e 52 foram 42,89% (21/49), 61,9% (26/42) e 46,15% (12/26), respectivamente. Na RCUI, as taxas de remissão nas semanas 12, 26 e 52 foram de 28,94% (11/38), 36,66% (11/30) e 41,17% (7/17). As taxas de cicatrização da mucosa foram 36,11% na DC e 43,4% na RCUI. Durante o período do estudo, 7/52 pacientes com DC foram submetidos a cirurgia abdominal maior e 4/38 pacientes com RCUI necessitaram de colectomia. CONCLUSÃO: O vedolizumabe foi eficaz na indução e manutenção da resposta e remissão clínicas em população refratária na DC e RCUI, com perfil de segurança favorável.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(1): 41-46, jan.-mar. 2019. tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026187


A doença de Crohn se caracteriza como uma doença inflamatória, que acomete qualquer porção do trato gastrintestinal, resultante da desrregulação imunológica, gerenciada por fatores endógenos e exógenos. As formas de abordagem terapêutica da doença variam conforme sua apresentação clínica e gravidade, bem como o impacto na qualidade de vida do portador. A terapia biológica vem se tornando uma das principais classes utilizadas no contexto desta enfermidade, mas não está claro quando deve ser iniciada ou em que momento a própria doença deve ser considerada moderada ou grave. Sua forma de apresentação multiforme dificulta a classificação dos pacientes nestes grupos. Neste trabalho, foi realizada revisão de literatura sobre a introdução de terapia biológica como tratamento da doença inflamatória intestinal em curso. (AU)

Crohn's Disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease that can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by immune dysregulation, managed by endogenous and exogenous factors. The forms of therapeutic approach of the disease vary significantly according to its clinical presentation and severity, as well as to the impact on patient's quality of life. Biologic therapy has become one of the main classes used in the context of this disease; however, when it should be initiated or at what time the disease itself should be considered moderate or severe is not clear. Its multiform presentation makes it difficult to classify patients in these groups. In this work, a literature review was carried out about the introduction of the biologic therapy as a treatment of the ongoing inflammatory bowel disease. (AU)

Humans , Biological Therapy , Crohn Disease/therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/physiopathology , Crohn Disease/history , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Integrins/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Social Determinants of Health , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Decision Making, Shared , Disinformation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
Clinics ; 74: e824, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001838


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quantitative serum level of infliximab (IFX) as well as the detection of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATIs) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). METHOD: Forty patients with CD under treatment at a tertiary center in southeastern Brazil were evaluated. Their use of infliximab was continuous and regular. We analyzed and compared the differences in the IFX and ATI levels between the patients with active CD (CDA) and those with CD in remission (CDR). RESULTS: There was no difference in the IFX level between the CDA and CDR groups (p>0.05). Eighty percent of all patients had IFX levels above the therapeutic concentration (6-10 μg/mL). Two (9%) of the 22 patients with active disease and four (22.2%) of the 18 patients in remission had undetectable levels of IFX. Four (66.6%) of the six patients with undetectable levels of IFX had positive ATI levels; three of these patients were in remission, and one had active disease. In addition, the other two patients with undetectable levels of IFX presented ATI levels close to positivity (2.7 and 2.8 AU/ml). None of the patients with therapeutic or supratherapeutic IFX levels had positive ATI levels. CONCLUSIONS: The undetectable levels of IFX correlated with the detection of ATIs, which was independent of disease activity. Immunogenicity was not the main factor for the loss of response to IFX in our study, and the majority of patients in both groups (CDA and CDR) had supratherapeutic levels of IFX.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/blood , Crohn Disease/blood , Drug Monitoring , Infliximab/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Therapy, Combination , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(supl.1): 2-12, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973914


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal secretagogues have been tested for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The class-effect of these type of drugs has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of intestinal secretagogues for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: A computer-based search of papers from 1966 to September 2017 was performed. Search strategy consisted of the following MESH terms: intestinal secretagogues OR linaclotide OR lubiprostone OR plecanatide OR tenapanor OR chloride channel AND chronic constipation OR irritable bowel syndrome. Data were extracted as intention-to-treat analyses. A random-effects model was used to give a more conservative estimate of the effect of individual therapies, allowing for any heterogeneity among studies. Outcome measures were described as Relative Risk of achieving an improvement in the symptom under consideration. RESULTS: Database Search yielded 520 bibliographic citations: 16 trials were included for analysis, which enrolled 7658 patients. Twelve trials assessed the efficacy of intestinal secretagogues for chronic constipation. These were better than placebo at achieving an increase in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week [RR 1.87 (1.24-2.83)], at achieving three or more spontaneous bowel movements per week [RR 1.56 (1.31-1.85)] and at inducing spontaneous bowel movement after medication intake [RR 1.49 (1.07-2.06)]. Similar results were observed when assessing the efficacy of intestinal secretagogues on constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome based on the results of six trials. CONCLUSION: Intestinal secretagogues are useful and safe therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of constipation-related syndromes.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os secretagogos intestinais têm sido testados para o tratamento da constipação crônica e síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante. O efeito classe desses tipos de drogas ainda não foi estudado. OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia e a segurança de secretagogos intestinais para o tratamento da constipação crônica e síndrome do intestino irritável de constipação predominante. MÉTODOS: Realizada pesquisa baseada em banco de dados de trabalhos publicados entre 1966 e setembro de 2017. A estratégia de pesquisa consistia dos seguintes termos MeSH: secretagogos intestinais OU linaclotide OU lubiprostona OU plecanatide OU tenapanor OU canal de cloro E constipação crônica OU síndrome do intestino irritável. Os dados foram extraídos como análises de intenção de tratar. Um modelo de efeitos aleatórios foi usado para dar uma estimativa mais conservadora do efeito das terapias individuais, permitindo a qualquer heterogeneidade entre os estudos. Os desfechos foram descritos como risco relativo de alcançar uma melhoria no sintoma em consideração. RESULTADOS: A busca no banco de dados rendeu 520 citações bibliográficas: 16 ensaios foram incluídos para análise, que incluiu 7658 pacientes. Doze trabalhos avaliaram a eficácia de secretagogos intestinais para constipação crônica. Estes foram melhores do que placebo, alcançando um aumento no número de evacuações completas espontâneas por semana [RR 1,87 (1,24-2,83)], para a aquisição de três ou mais evacuações espontâneas por semana [RR 1,56 (1,31-1,85)] e na indução espontânea do movimento intestinal após a ingestão de medicação [RR 1,49 (1,07-2,06)]. Resultados semelhantes foram observados ao avaliar a eficácia de secretagogos intestinais na síndrome do intestino irritável de constipação predominante com base em resultados de seis ensaios. CONCLUSÃO: Os secretagogos intestinais são alternativas terapêuticas úteis e seguras para o tratamento de síndromes relacionadas à constipação.

Humans , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Constipation/drug therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Secretagogues/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Chronic Disease , Constipation/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Secretagogues/adverse effects
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1241-1251, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985697


Background: Primary non-response and secondary loss of response (LOR) are significant problems of biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in IBD patients receiving these drugs can improve outcomes. Aim: To measure serum infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI) in patients with IBD post-induction phase and during maintenance therapy assessing the clinical course of IBD. Patients and Methods: Prospective study of IBD patients receiving infliximab between July 2016-May 2017. Group-A included patients who received induction therapy while Group-B included patients who were in maintenance therapy. TDM was performed in serum samples collected at weeks-14 and 30 in Group-A and before the infliximab maintenance dose in Group-B. Clinical scores, fecal calprotectin and endoscopic score were also evaluated. Results: Of 14 patients in Group-A, 57% achieved endoscopic response. Median serum infliximab concentrations at week-14 and 30 were 2.65 AU/mL (0.23-32.58) and 2.3 AU/mL (0.3-16.8), respectively. Patients with mucosal healing had non-significantly higher median infliximab concentrations at week- 14, as compared to week 30 (median 3.2 vs 2.2 AU/ml, respectively, p 0.6). ATI >10 ug/mL were found in one and seven patients at week-14 and 30, respectively. At 52 weeks of follow-up, four patients (31%) had LOR. Group-B included 36 patients, 33% had LOR. Median serum concentrations of infliximab were 1.4 AU/mL (0.27-7.03). No significant differences in serum infliximab concentration were observed between patients in remission and those with inflammatory activity. Seventeen patients had ATI >10 ug/mL. Conclusions: Clinical algorithms using TDM might help to optimize the pharmacological therapy of IBD.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Gastrointestinal Agents/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Crohn Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Infliximab/blood
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 721-736, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009396


Current guideline developed by the Chinese Society of Hepatology on the management of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis is grounded on the published evidences and panelists' consensus. This guideline presents recommendations for diagnosis and management of covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy, and underline the importance of screening minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver diseases. In addition, it also stresses that early identification and timely treatments are the means to know the prognosis. The principles of treatment are primary and secondary prevention, prompt removal of the cause, and recovery of acute neuropsychiatric abnormalities to baseline status.

Humans , Consensus , Disease Management , Gastroenterology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatic Encephalopathy/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 328-332, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888224


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Infliximab and adalimumab are considered effective drugs in the management of Crohn's disease. However, due to significant immunossupression, they can cause important adverse events, mostly infections. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify and describe adverse events derived from adalimumab and infliximab use in Crohn's disease patients, and to compare the safety profile between these two agents. METHODS: This was an observational, single-center, longitudinal, retrospective study with Crohn's disease patients under infliximab or adalimumab therapy. Variables analyzed: demographic characteristics (including the Montreal classification), type of agent used, concomitant immunomodulators, presence and types of adverse events observed. Patients were allocated in two groups (infliximab and adalimumab) and had their adverse events accessed and subsequently compared. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients were included (68 in infliximab and 62 in adalimumab groups, respectively). The groups were fully homogeneous in all baseline characteristics, with a median follow-up of 47.21±36.52 months in the infliximab group and 47.79±35.09 in the adalimumab group (P=0.512). Adverse events were found in 43/68 (63.2%) and 40/62 (64.5%) in each group, respectively (P=0.879). There were no differences between the groups regarding infections (P=0.094) or treatment interruption (P=0.091). There were higher rates of infusion reactions in the infliximab group (P=0.016). Cephalea and injection site reactions were more prevalent in adalimumab patients. CONCLUSION: Adverse events were found in approximately two thirds of Crohn's disease patients under anti-TNF therapy, and there were no significant differences between infliximab or adalimumab.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: A utilização de inibidores do fator de necrose tumoral (TNF) alfa no manejo da doença de Crohn é cada vez mais frequente. Tanto o infliximabe quanto o adalimumabe são considerados medicamentos efetivos no controle da doença. Entretanto, por serem potentes imunossupressores, podem causar efeitos adversos importantes, principalmente infecções. OBJETIVO: O objetivo primário deste estudo foi analisar a presença de efeitos adversos dos anti-TNFs em portadores de doença de Crohn, comparando-se infliximabe e adalimumabe e individualizando-se o perfil de segurança de cada droga. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, longitudinal e retrospectivo, que incluiu portadores de doença de Crohn com uso de infliximabe ou adalimumabe de uma coorte de pacientes tratados em um único centro. Analisou-se características demográficas (incluindo-se a classificação de Montreal), tipo de agente utilizado, presença e tipo dos eventos adversos observados, entre outras variáveis. Os pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos (infliximabe e adalimumabe) e tiveram os efeitos adversos anotados e posteriormente comparados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 130 pacientes foram incluídos (68 com infliximabe e 62 com adalimumabe). Os grupos foram homogêneos em todas as variáveis analisadas, com tempo de seguimento médio de 47,21±36,52 meses no grupo infliximabe e 47,79±35,09 no grupo adalimumabe (P=0,512). Efeitos adversos foram encontrados em 43/68 (63,2%) e 40/62 (64,5%) nos dois grupos, respectivamente (P=0,879). Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a infecções (P=0,094) ou interrupção do tratamento (P=0,091). Houve maiores índices de reações infusionais no grupo infliximabe (P=0,016). Cefaleia e reações no local das injeções foram mais frequentes no grupo adalimumabe. CONCLUSÃO: Efeitos adversos foram encontrados em cerca de dois terços dos pacientes com doença de Crohn em uso de anti-TNF, não havendo maiores diferenças em relação ao uso de infliximabe ou adalimumabe.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Adalimumab/adverse effects , Infliximab/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(4): 333-337, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888216


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In such pathologies, there is an increased production of alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Patients, in whom the conventional immunosuppressant treatment fails, require the use of immunobiological therapy, such as anti-TNF-α, a monoclonal antibody. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-α drug, a chimerical immunoglobulin, with a murine component, which is responsible for the generation of immunogenicity against the drug and formation of anti-TNF-α antibodies. The presence of anti-drug antibodies may be responsible for adverse events and reduction of the drug's effectiveness. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases undergoing therapy with biological medication, such as infliximab, can relapse overtime and this may not be translated into clinical symptoms. Thus, there is a need for a method to evaluate the efficacy of the drug, through the measurement of serum infliximab levels, as well as antibodies research. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure serum infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases post-induction phase and during maintenance therapy, and describe the therapeutic modifications that took place based on the serum levels results. METHODS: It was a retrospective study, that included forty-five patients, with a total of 63 samples of infliximab measurement. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients had an adequate infliximab serum level, 31 had subtherapeutic levels and 11 had supratherapeutic levels. Seven patients had their medication suspended due to therapeutic failure or high levels of antibodies to infliximab. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, only a third of the patients had adequate infliximab levels and 36% presented with subtherapeutic levels at the end of the induction phase. Therapy optimization occurred based in about 46% of the samples results, demonstrating the importance of having this tool to help the clinical handling of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases ongoing biologic therapy.

RESUMO CONTEÚDO: Doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa são doenças inflamatórias intestinais crônicas. Nelas, ocorre aumento da produção de fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α). Pacientes que falham no tratamento convencional imunossupressor, requerem uso de terapia imunobio­lógica, que são anticorpos monoclonais, principalmente os anti-TNF-α. O infliximabe é uma droga anti-TNF-α, uma imunoglobulina quimérica, com componente murino. Este é responsável pela imunogenicidade da droga e a formação de anticorpos. Presença de anticorpos antidroga pode ser responsável pelos eventos adversos e redução da eficácia da droga. Pacientes com doenças inflamatórias intestinais, em terapia imunossupressora com medicação biológica como o infliximabe, podem ter recaída da doença e muitas vezes isso não se relaciona com a sintomatologia do paciente. Por isso há a necessidade de um método de avaliação do efeito da droga como a dosagem do nivel sérico do infliximabe, bem como da pesquisa de anticorpos. OBJETIVO: O estudo tem como objetivo conhecer os níveis séricos do infliximabe e dos anticorpos anti-infliximabe em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal em terapia de manutenção ou pós-indução e descrever as condutas terapêuticas que foram modificadas em função dos níveis séricos de infliximabe e anticorpos para infliximabe. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo restrospectivo, com análise da dosagem dos níveis séricos de infliximabe e anticorpos para Infliximabe. Foram incluídos 45 pacientes, num total de 63 coletas de dosagem de infliximabe. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um paciente estavam com o nível sérico de infliximabe adequado, níveis subterapêuticos em 31 pacientes e níveis supraterapêuticos em 11 pacientes. Sete pacientes tiveram a medicação suspensa por falha terapêutica ou altos níveis de anticorpos para infliximabe. CONCLUSÃO: Apenas um terço dos pacientes apresentavam níveis adequados de infliximabe e 36% dos pacientes apresentavam níveis subterapêuticos ao término da indução. Em cerca de 46% das amostras a conduta adotada se baseou nos níveis de infliximabe e anticorpos para infliximabe demonstrando a importância de se ter esta ferramenta para auxílio no manejo clínico dos pacientes portadores de doenças inflamatórias intestinais em terapia biológica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/blood , Colitis, Ulcerative/blood , Crohn Disease/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Infliximab/blood , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 1083-1088, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902589


Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early recognition, hospitalization and adequate treatment. Currently, the use of infliximab in ulcerative colitis (UC) is recommended in the case of severe disease refractory to corticosteroids, once that superimposed bacterial or viral infections (such as cytomegalovirus or Clostridium difficile) have been excluded. However, conventional weight-based regimens of infliximab might be insufficient for patients with ASUC. Accelerated infliximab induction regimen may increase its serum concentration levels and efficacy by reducing early colectomy rates in these patients. We report a 34 year old female presenting with an ASUC. She was initially treated with hydrocortisone 300 mg/day and mesalazine enemas 4 g/day with an unfavorable clinical response. At the fifth day of therapy, an accelerated induction therapy with infliximab was started in doses of 10 mg/kg at weeks 0, 1 and 4. After the second dose, there was a favorable response with reduction of abdominal pain, stool frequency and hematochezia. She was discharged with prednisone and azathioprine. After a year of starting infliximab, the patient remains in clinical remission.

Humans , Female , Adult , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Colonoscopy , Treatment Outcome , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Feces