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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878950

ABSTRACT

The network pharmacology and molecular docking methods were used to explore the mechanism of Jinweitai Capsules in the treatment of acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and chronic colitis. The chemical components of herbs in Jinweitai Capsules were collected through TCMSP, CNKI and PubMed. Target prediction was performed through PubChem and SwissTargetPrediction databases; genes relating to acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, chronic colitis were collected from OMIM database; potential targets of Jinweitai Capsules for relevant gastrointestinal diseases were obtained by Venny analysis; DAVID database was used to perform GO and KEGG enrichment analysis; protein interactions were obtained by STRING database and visua-lized by Cytoscape; AutoDockVina was used for molecular docking of AKT1, EGFR, PTPN11 and its reverse-selected chemical components. Potential mechanisms of Jinweitai Capsules in treating relevant gastrointestinal diseases were clarified according to the results of the docking. The results showed 86 potential active ingredients of Jinweitai Capsules and 268 potential targets for treatment of acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and chronic colitis. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that 20 pathways relating to acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and chronic colitis mainly involved calcium signaling pathway and chemokine signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed a good binding activity between AKT1, EGFR, PTPN11 and its reverse screening chemical components. Jinweitai Capsules may exert an effect in the treatment of acute and chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and chronic colitis by acting on AKT1, EGFR, PTPN11 and other targets in 15 signal pathways relating to cell inflammation and immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Medicine , Molecular Docking Simulation
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e015819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092688

ABSTRACT

Abstract An evaluation was made of the effect of anthelmintic treatments on the performance of Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves before and after weaning. To this end, the calves were divided into three groups: (1) treated monthly with a low efficacy anthelmintic drug, ivermectin; (2) treated monthly with a highly effective anthelmintic drug, albendazole; and (3) untreated control group. All the groups in this experiment showed an average fecal egg count of less than 400 eggs per gram (EPG), and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. The blood variables were within the normal range and no calf presented anemia. In most of the samplings, mean EPGs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the group treated with albendazole. The calves received dietary supplementation before and after weaning, which enabled them to gain weight in every month of the experiment and reach a body weight of about 250 kg on the last sampling date, before turning one year old. The anthelmintic treatments did not affect body weight gain, leading to the conclusion that, when fed with suitable dietary supplements, Simmental X Nellore crossbred calves are not affected by gastrointestinal nematode parasites acquired by grazing.


Resumo O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos anti-helmínticos no desempenho de bezerros Simental x Nelore antes e após o desmame. Os bezerros foram alocados em três grupos: (1) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmínticos de baixa eficácia, ivermectina; (2) tratado mensalmente com anti-helmíntico de alta eficácia, albendazol e (3) controle não tratado. A média das contagens de ovos de nematoides durante o experimento foi inferior a 400 ovos por grama (OPG) em todos os grupos sem manifestação clínica de gastroenterite parasitária. As variáveis ​​sanguíneas mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de normalidade e nenhum bezerro apresentou anemia. Na maioria das coletas, as médias de OPG foram significativamente inferiores (P<0,05) no grupo tratado com albendazol. Os bezerros receberam suplementação antes e depois do desmame, o que lhes permitiu ganhar peso em todos os meses do experimento, atingindo peso corporal em torno de 250 kg, ao final do experimento, antes de completarem um ano de idade. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos anti-helmínticos no ganho em peso, o que permitiu concluir que bezerros Nelore x Simental não são afetados pelo parasitismo por nematoides gastrintestinais sob condições de pastejo, quando devidamente suplementados com concentrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cattle , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5314, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the prevalence of use of drugs to treat gastrointestinal disorders, according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics of the Brazilian population. Methods This is a population-based survey that interviewed individuals residing in cities of the five regions in Brazil. The study sample was composed of 32,348 individuals aged 20 or more years. The profile of use of drugs for gastrointestinal disorders was evaluated considering the variables sex, age, healthcare plan, region, and number of chronic diseases. We also analyzed the frequency of individuals who declared using other drugs, besides those already employed for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, the estimated frequencies of the drug classes used were determined. Results The prevalence of use of drugs for gastrointestinal disorders in Brazil was 6.9% (95% confidence interval − 6.4-7.6), higher in females, among persons aged over 60 years, in those who had a private healthcare insurance, and presented with two or more chronic diseases. It was noted that 42.9% of the aged who used drugs for gastrointestinal disorders were also on polypharmacy. As to the classes of drugs, 82% corresponded to drugs for the food tract and metabolism, particularly proton pumps inhibitors. Conclusion The use of drugs for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders was significant among women and elderly. In this age group, consumption may be linked to gastric protection due to polypharmacy. This study is an unprecedented opportunity to observe the self-reported consumption profile of these drugs in Brazil and, therefore, could subsidize strategies to promote their rational use.


RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a prevalência de utilização de medicamentos para o tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais, segundo características demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde da população brasileira. Métodos Trata-se de inquérito de base populacional, que entrevistou indivíduos residentes em municípios das cinco regiões do Brasil. A amostra deste estudo foi composta por 32.348 indivíduos de 20 anos ou mais de idade. Foi avaliado o perfil de utilização de medicamentos para distúrbios gastrintestinais entre as variáveis sexo, idade, plano de saúde, região e número de doenças crônicas. Analisou-se a frequência de indivíduos que declararam utilizar outros medicamentos, além daqueles já utilizados para tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais. Além disso, foram estimadas as frequências das classes medicamentosas utilizadas. Resultados A prevalência de utilização de medicamentos para distúrbios gastrintestinais no Brasil foi de 6,9% (intervalo de confiança de 95% − 6,4-7,6), sendo maior no sexo feminino, entre pessoas acima de 60 anos de idade, naqueles que possuíam plano privado de saúde e tinham duas ou mais doenças crônicas. Observou-se que 42,9% dos idosos que utilizaram medicamentos para distúrbios gastrintestinais também eram polimedicados. Em relação às classes medicamentosas, 82% correspondiam a medicamentos para o trato alimentar e metabolismo, destacando os inibidores da bomba de prótons. Conclusão A utilização de medicamentos para tratamento de distúrbios gastrintestinais foi significativa entre mulheres e idosos. Nesta faixa etária, o consumo pode estar vinculado à proteção gástrica causada por polimedicação. Este estudo representa oportunidade inédita para observar o perfil de consumo autorreferido desses medicamentos no Brasil e pode, portanto, subsidiar estratégias para promoção de seu uso racional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Essential/therapeutic use , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Cities , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Prescription Drugs/supply & distribution , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 59-67, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990816

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this work was to identify, critically assess, and summarize available data from primary research about the anthelmintic resistance of injectable macrocyclic lactones in cattle. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Intervals. Of the 1504 abstracts screened for eligibility, 80 were deemed relevant for full publication review. Thirteen publications were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed for systematic bias. Only five studies were included in the quantitative analysis because they showed a low risk of producing biased results in all the parameters. The forest plot indicated four studies that discuss anthelmintic resistance (P<0.05), while only one study did not discuss anthelmintic resistance (P<0.05). The pooled estimate showed 0.59 (95% Confidence intervals: 0.08, 0.47) times higher odds for studies that report anthelmintic resistance than for studies reporting efficacious anthelmintic treatment, with significant and substantially low heterogeneity (I2=25%). Anthelmintic resistance to injectable macrocyclic lactones is a reality. There are need to improve methodological reporting in studies, which is a problem for investigations that involves systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA).


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, avaliar criticamente e resumir os dados disponíveis da literatura primária sobre resistência anti-helmíntica a lactonas macrocíclicas injetáveis em bovinos. Uma meta-análise foi realizada para estimar o "Odds Ratio" e Intervalos de Confiança (95%). Dos 1504 resumos selecionados para elegibilidade, 80 foram considerados relevantes para a revisão completa da publicação. Treze publicações foram incluídas na síntese qualitativa, as quais foram avaliadas quanto ao viés sistemático. Apenas cinco estudos foram incluídos na análise quantitativa porque apresentaram um baixo risco de produzir resultados tendenciosos em todos os parâmetros. O gráfico de floresta indicou quatro estudos que apresentaram resistência anti-helmíntica (P <0,05), enquanto um não apresentou (P <0,05). A estimativa combinada mostrou uma maior probabilidade de publicações de estudos que relatam resistência anti-helmíntica no valor de 0,59 (95%: 0,8, 0,47) do que estudos relatando tratamento anti-helmíntico eficaz. Os dados apresentaram baixa heterogeneidade (I2 = 25%). A resistência anti-helmíntica a lactonas macrocíclicas é uma realidade. Há a necessidade de melhorar a metodologia dos estudos, pois é um problema para os trabalhos que envolvem revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises (RS-MA).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Drug Resistance , Lactams, Macrocyclic/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Nematode Infections/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
5.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(2): 61-68, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116833

ABSTRACT

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most widely used types of drugs in clinical practice, designed to treat highly prevalent pathologies in the clinical activity of gastroenterology. Despite having precise and approved indications, reports have described a use beyond the established indications, such as management of various symptoms of the digestive tract or associated with polypharmacy, considering that their indication could be questionable in a significant percentage of individuals on prolonged treatment with PPI. In recent years, several basic, clinical and epidemiological studies have warned of possible adverse events associated with the use of PPIs that have generated concern in physicians and patients, and an impact on the public opinion due to the wide use of these drugs among the population. The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the available evidence regarding adverse events associated with the use of PPIs, in addition to providing some recommendations for clinical practice


Los inhibidores de bomba de protones (IBP) son fármacos ampliamente usados en la práctica clínica, destinados a tratar patologías altamente prevalentes en la actividad clínica de gastroenterología. Pese a contar con indicaciones precisas y aprobadas, reportes han descrito un uso más allá de las indicaciones establecidas, como manejo de diversos síntomas del tracto digestivo o asociado a polifarmacia, considerándose que su indicación podría ser cuestionable en un porcentaje importante de individuos en tratamiento prolongado con IBP. En los últimos años, diversos estudios básicos, clínicos y epidemiológicos han alertado sobre posibles eventos adversos asociados al uso de IBP que han generado preocupación en tratantes y pacientes, además de impactar en la opinión pública por la amplia distribución del uso de estos fármacos en la población. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar críticamente la evidencia disponible respecto a los eventos adversos asociados al uso de IBP, además de entregar algunas recomendaciones para la práctica clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy
7.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 315-322, Feb-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the perception of psychosocial factors and mental workload of nurses who work in intensive care units. It is hypothesised that nurses in these units could perceive psychosocial risks, manifesting in a high mental work load. The psychosocial dimension related to the position's cognitive demands is hypothesised to mostly explain mental work load. METHOD: Quantitative study, with a descriptive, cross-sectional, and comparative design. A total of 91% of the intensive care unit populations of three Chilean hospitals was surveyed, corresponding to 111 nurses. The instruments utilised included (A) a biosociodemographic history questionnaire; (b) the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and (c) the Mental Work Load Subjective Scale (ESCAM, in Spanish). RESULTS: In total, 64% and 57% of participants perceived high levels of exposure to the psychosocial risks Psychosocial demands and Double shift, respectively. In addition, a medium-high level of overall mental load was observed. Positive and significant correlations between some of the SUSESO-ISTAS 21 and ESCAM dimensions were obtained. Using a regression analysis, it was determined that three dimensions of the psychosocial risk questionnaire helped to explain 38% of the overall mental load. CONCLUSION: Intensive care unit nurses felt that inadequate psychosocial factors and mental work overload existed in several of the tested dimensions. .


OBJETIVO: analisar a percepção de fatores psicossociais e a carga mental de trabalho de enfermeiros que trabalham em unidades de terapia intensiva. A hipótese é que os enfermeiros dessas unidades podem perceber os riscos psicossociais e manifestar uma alta carga mental de trabalho. Além disso, a dimensão psicossocial relacionada às demandas cognitivas do cargo explicaria a maior parte da carga mental de trabalho. MÉTODO: estudo quantitativo, com delineamento descritivo, transversal e comparativo. Foi examinada 91% da população das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva de três hospitais chilenos, correspondente a 111 enfermeiros. Os instrumentos utilizados incluíram (a) um questionário do histórico biossociodemográfico; (b) o questionário SUSESO-ISTAS 21; e (c) a Escala Subjetiva de Carga Mental de Trabalho (ESCAM). RESULTADOS: no total, 64% e 57% dos participantes perceberam um alto nível de exposição aos riscos psicossociais Demanda psicológica e Jornada dupla, respectivamente. Além disso, foi observado um nível de médio para alto de carga mental global. Foram obtidas correlações positivas e significativas entre algumas das dimensões do SUSESO-ISTAS 21 e do ESCAM. Utilizando uma análise de regressão, determinou-se que três dimensões do questionário de risco psicossocial ajudaram a explicar 38% da carga mental total. CONCLUSÃO: os enfermeiros das unidades de terapia intensiva percebem os fatores psicossociais e a sobrecarga mental de trabalho em várias de suas dimensões. .


OBJETIVO: analizar la percepción de Factores psicosociales y Carga mental de trabajo de enfermeras/os que laboran en Unidades Críticas. Se hipotetiza que los/as enfermeros/as de estas unidades pudieran percibir riesgos psicosociales; Mostrarán una Carga mental de trabajo alta; y la dimensión psicosocial relacionada con exigencias cognitivas del puesto explicará en mayor medida la Carga Mental. MÉTODO: estudio cuantitativo, de diseño descriptivo, transversal y comparativo. Se censó el 91% de la población de Unidades Críticas de tres hospitales chilenos, correspondiente a 111 enfermeras/os. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: (a) Cuestionario de antecedentes biosociodemográficos; (b) Cuestionario SUSESO-ISTAS 21; y (c) Escala Subjetiva de Carga Mental de Trabajo (ESCAM). RESULTADOS: el 64% y el 57% de los/as participantes perciben un alto nivel de exposición a los riesgos psicosociales Demandas psicológicas y Doble presencia, respectivamente. Además, se obtiene un nivel de Carga mental global media-alta. Se obtuvo correlaciones positivas y significativas entre algunas dimensiones de SUSESO-ISTAS 21 y ESCAM, y mediante un análisis de regresión se obtuvo que tres dimensiones del cuestionario de riesgos psicosociales contribuyen a explicar un 38% de la Carga mental global. CONCLUSIÓN: las/os enfermeras/os de unidades críticas, perciben factores psicosociales inadecuados y sobrecarga mental de trabajo, en varias de sus dimensiones. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Mastocytosis, Systemic/diagnosis , Octreotide/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Mast Cells/immunology , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/pathology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(1): 82-89, Jan-Feb/2015.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-742012

ABSTRACT

AIM: qualitative study, which aimed to identify the barriers that influence nursing care practices related to the sexuality of women with gynecological and breast cancer. METHODS: the study was conducted with 16 professionals of the nursing area (nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants) from two sectors of a university hospital situated in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data was collected using semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews. All the interviews were recorded and the participants' responses were identified and categorized using Content Analysis. RESULTS: three major themes were identified. These are as follows: 1) barriers related to the biomedical model; 2) barriers related to institutional dynamics and 3) barriers related to the social interpretations of sexuality. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study showed that the systematized inclusion of this issue in nursing care routines requires changes in the health paradigm and in the work dynamic, as well as reflection on the personal values and social interpretations related to the topic. A major challenge is to divest sexuality of the taboos and prejudices which accompany it, as well as to contribute to the nursing team being more aware of the difficulties faced by women with gynaecological and breast cancer. .


OBJETIVO: estudo qualitativo cujo objetivo é identificar as barreiras que influenciam as práticas de enfermagem relacionadas à sexualidade no cuidado de mulheres com câncer de mama e ginecológico. MÉTODO: o estudo foi conduzido com 16 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem (enfermeiras, técnicas de enfermagem e auxiliares de enfermagem) de dois setores de um hospital universitário situado no estado de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados em entrevista individual semiestruturada em profundidade. Todas as entrevistas foram gravadas e as respostas dos participantes agrupadas em categorias por meio da Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS: três temas principais foram identificados: 1) barreiras relacionadas ao modelo biomédico; 2) barreiras relacionadas à dinâmica institucional e 3) barreiras relacionadas à interpretação social da sexualidade. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados deste estudo revelam que a inclusão da temática de forma sistematizada nas rotinas do cuidado de enfermagem exige mudanças no paradigma de saúde e na dinâmica do trabalho, além de reflexões sobre valores pessoais e interpretações sociais relativas ao tema. Um grande desafio consiste em destituir a sexualidade dos tabus e preconceitos que a acompanham, bem como contribuir para que a equipe de enfermagem seja mais consciente das dificuldades enfrentadas pelas mulheres com câncer ginecológico e mamário. .


OBJETIVO: estudio cualitativo que tuvo como objetivo identificar las barreras que influencian las prácticas de enfermería relacionadas a la sexualidad en el cuidado de mujeres con cáncer de mama y ginecológico. MÉTODO: estudio conducido con 16 profesionales del equipo de enfermería (enfermeras, técnicas de enfermería y auxiliares de enfermería) de dos sectores de un hospital universitario situado en el estado de Sao Paulo. Los datos fueron recolectados utilizando la entrevista individual semiestructurada en profundidad. Todas las entrevistas fueron grabadas y las respuestas de los participantes fueron agrupadas en categorías por medio del Análisis de Contenido. RESULTADOS: tres temas principales fueron identificados: 1) barreras relacionadas al modelo biomédico; 2) barreras relacionadas a la dinámica institucional; y 3) barreras relacionadas a la interpretación social de la sexualidad. CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados de este estudio revelan que la inclusión de la temática de forma sistematizada en las rutinas del cuidado de enfermería exige realizar cambios en el paradigma de la salud y en la dinámica del trabajo, además es necesario reflexionar sobre los valores personales e interpretaciones sociales relativas al tema. El gran desafío consiste en destituir a la sexualidad de los tabús y prejuicios que la acompañan, así como contribuir para que el equipo de enfermería sea más consciente de las dificultades enfrentadas por las mujeres que tienen cáncer ginecológico y de mama. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Disease Models, Animal
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 89(4): 381-387, ju.-ago. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-684137

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de SBID em crianças tratadas com omeprazol e testar se os probióticos influenciam essa incidência. MÉTODOS: Um ensaio duplo-cego controlado por placebo foi realizado em 70 crianças tratadas oralmente, durante 4 semanas, com 20 mg de omeprazol por dia. Desses, 36 indivíduos receberam diária e simultaneamente Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (1,9 x 10(9) cfu) e Lactobacillus acidophillus R0052 (0,1 x 10(9) cfu) (grupo probiótico), enquanto 34 receberam placebo (grupo placebo). O diagnóstico de SBID teve como base o desenvolvimento de sintomas sugestivos em combinação com um teste respiratório com glicose positivo. RESULTADOS: Após um mês de tratamento com IBP, 30% (21/70) apresentaram um teste respiratório positivo sugerindo SBID; desses, 62% foram sintomáticos. Cinco crianças desenvolveram sintomas parecidos com os de SBID, mas apresentaram um teste respiratório negativo; 44 (63%) não apresentavam sintomas e tiveram teste respiratório negativo. Não houve diferença na incidência de testes respiratórios positivos no grupo probiótico em comparação ao grupo placebo (33% em comparação a 26,5%; p: 0,13). CONCLUSÕES: Como houve sintomas sugestivos de SBID em 26% das crianças tratadas com IBP e o teste respiratório com glicose deu resultados anormais em 72% delas, esse efeito colateral deve ser levado em consideração com mais frequência. O probiótico testado não reduziu o risco de desenvolver SBID.


OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the incidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) in children treated with omeprazole, and to test whether probiotics influence the incidence. METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 70 children treated orally during four weeks with 20 mg omeprazole per day. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (1.9 x 10(9) cfu) and Lactobacillus acidophillus R0052 (0.1 x 10(9) cfu) were simultaneously given daily to 36 subjects (probiotic group), while 34 subjects received placebo (placebo group). The diagnosis of SBBO was based on the development of suggestive symptoms, in combination with a positive glucose breath test. RESULTS: After one month of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, 30% (21/70) had a positive breath test suggesting SBBO; of these 62% were symptomatic. Five children developed SBBO-like symptoms, but had a negative breath test; and 44 (63%) were symptom free and had a negative breath test. There was no difference in the incidence of positive breath tests in the probiotic versus the placebo group (33% vs 26.5%; p = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Since symptoms suggesting SBBO developed in 26% of PPI-treated children, and since the glucose breath test was abnormal in 72% of these, this side-effect should be more frequently considered. The probiotic tested did not decrease the risk to develop SBBO.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Intestine, Small/microbiology , Omeprazole/adverse effects , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Breath Tests , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Diarrhea/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Placebos , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(1): 86-90, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-669540

ABSTRACT

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g) com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ) ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 ), fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz.


Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g) aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz (1 and 2 g Kg-1) or ranitidine (60 mg Kg-1), a drug with known gastroprotective action, blocking histamine H2-receptors. After one hour of treatments, all animals received indomethacin by the intraperitoneal route. Results demonstrated that the aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz has gastroprotective action; at 1g kg-1 it inhibited 45.49% of the indomethacin-induced ulcer index, while at 2g Kg-1 it inhibited 49.50%. Several mechanisms of actions are suggested to be involved in the gastroprotective action of this plant, besides the possible participation of prostaglandins in this effect. Further studies using different gastric ulcer-induction models are needed to better evaluate the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gastritis/physiopathology , Kalanchoe/physiology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Gastrointestinal Agents , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Plant Components, Aerial , Plants, Medicinal/classification
11.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 21(2): 230-233, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-570013

ABSTRACT

El sistema gastrointestinal debe ser considerado parte de la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), tanto por su rol en la patogénesis de la enfermedad como por ser blanco de infecciones en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad (bajo 200 linfocitos CD4/ul). A nivel orofaríngeo y esofágico la infección predominante es candidiasis, en caso de descartarse o no responder a tratamiento, el estudio con endoscopía digestiva alta y biopsia será lo más atingente para guiar el tratamiento. A nivel gástrico, las manifestaciones infecciosas son más infrecuentes y habitualmente encontradas durante el estudio endoscópico. El intestino delgado y grueso pueden sufrir lesiones focales asociadas a distintas infecciones, pero la manifestación más habitual será diarrea, ésta debe ser objeto de estudio etiológico no invasivo con cultivos para enteropatógenos, leucocitos fecales y coproparasitológico. Es recomendable también el estudio con toxina de Clostridium difficile, y en pacientes muy avanzadas (bajo 50 CD4 por ul), realizar tinción ácido alcohol resistente modificada en deposiciones y estudio de Microsporidia con tinción tricrómica. Si los síntomas persisten y el estudio es negativo, se debe realizar colonoscopía y biopsia. Si no se encuentra causa, debe considerarse la posibilidad de una enteropatía asociada a VIH. Varios agentes etiológicos descritos en distintos segmentos tienen tratamiento específico, pero la terapia antirretroviral es lo que logra erradicar el cuadro en la mayoría de los casos. No obstante, las reacciones adversas digestivas asociadas a terapia antirretroviral constituyen un diagnóstico diferencial de las infecciones gastrointestinales.


Gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, both for its participation in the pathogenesis of the disease as for being affected by different infections at late stages of disease (under 200 CD4/ul). In oropharinx and esophagus, candidiasis is the most common infection. If it is discarded or does not improve with appropriate treatment, endoscopic study and biopsy is the most adequate approach to guide the treatment. In the stomach, infections are not so important and frequently found during endoscopic studies. Small and large bowel can be the target of different focal infections, but diarrhea will be the most common clinical picture. Diarrhea must be assessed with stool leukocyte examination, stool cultures for enteric bacterial pathogens, examination for ova and parasites. Assay for Clostridium difficile toxin is recommended and, in patients under 50 CD4/ul, modified acid-fast stain and special trichrome staining may be useful. In patients with persistent symptoms and negative non-invasive study, endoscopic and hystologic studies must be performed, if not any cause is identified; HIV-associated enteropathy has to be considered. Some etiologies have specific therapy, but antiretroviral therapy is the most effective treatment in most cases. Nonetheless, gastrointestinal side effects of antiretroviral therapy are now part of differential diagnosis of intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/complications , Bacterial Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Mycoses/complications , Virus Diseases/complications
12.
RBM rev. bras. med ; 67(1/2)jan.-fev. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545210

ABSTRACT

Probióticos contendo Saccharomyces boulardii têm sido utilizados no tratamento de diarreias de etiologias diversas, incluindo infecciosa e inflamatória. Os mecanismos de ação e efeitos benéficos desses microrganismos no controle do quadro diarreico consistem na redução da hipersecreção de água e eletrólitos, estimulação da atividade de dissacaridases dos enterócitos, produção de aminopeptidases, secreção de IgA, atividade antitoxina, antiinflamatória, metabólica, e antimicrobiana. Tais propriedades biológicas desses microrganismos não patogênicos permitem a sua utilização no tratamento de doenças gastrintestinais endêmicas especialmente em países em desenvolvimento como gastroenterites por rotavírus, diarreia dos viajantes, além de doenças inflamatórias intestinais como a doença de Crohn e colite ulcerativa. Os objetivos dessa revisão consistem em discutir os aspectos significativos e a aplicabilidade do uso de Saccharomyces boulardii no tratamento das diarreias agudas e o racional para a dose de ataque na fase aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antidiarrheals/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Saccharomyces , Saccharomyces/virology , Probiotics/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 26(2): 114-125, abr. 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518470

ABSTRACT

The available clinical experience with tigecycline is analyzed under the perspective of a systematic review of the literature, so in the already approved indications as in those off label indications reported in the recent literature. The safety profile is checked in the above mentioned clinical trials. The available information allows supporting tigecycline efficiency in the managing of complicated skin and soft tissues infections, complicated intrabdominales infections and community acquired pneumonias. Its usefulness is insinuated in addition in the managing infection by pathogen with high-level of resistance to antimicrobial. Nevertheless it is needed of major evidence in the matter and of a very sensible policy of use in the healthcare institution setting.


Se analiza, bajo la perspectiva de una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica, la experiencia clínica con tigeciclina en las indicaciones ya aprobadas por las entidades reguladoras y en aquellas indicaciones off label reportadas en la literatura médica reciente. Se revisa el perfil de seguridad y tolerabilidad en dichos ensayos clínicos. La información disponible permite avalar su eficacia en el manejo de de infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos complejas, infecciones intrabdominales complicadas y neumonías adquiridas en la comunidad. Se insinúa además su utilidad en el manejo de infecciones por patógenos con alto nivel de resistencia a antimicrobianos. Sin embargo, se requiere de mayor evidencia al respecto y de una muy sensata política de uso en el medio hospitalario.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Soft Tissue Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Clinical Trials as Topic , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Minocycline/adverse effects , Minocycline/therapeutic use
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 84(2): 160-165, Mar.-Apr. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-480602

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Avaliar furazolidona, tetraciclina e omeprazol como tratamento de primeira linha para Helicobacter pylori em crianças com sintomas digestivos. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico aberto, prospectivo e consecutivo. O estudo incluiu pacientes acima de 8 anos com dispepsia funcional, dor abdominal funcional, anormalidades histológicas graves (metaplasia intestinal, atrofia gástrica ou linfoma do tecido linfóide associado às mucosas) ou úlcera péptica. A presença de H. pylori foi definida com base em exame histológico e teste da urease. O regime medicamentoso consistiu de um tratamento de 7 dias com omeprazol, tetraciclina (ou doxiciclina) e furazolidona duas vezes por dia. A erradicação foi avaliada através de endoscopia digestiva alta 2 meses após o tratamento (exame histológico e teste da urease). Avaliações clínicas posteriores foram realizadas 7 dias e 2 meses após o tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 36 pacientes (21 meninas/15 meninos). A idade variou de 8 a 19 anos (média de 12,94+2,89 anos). Na análise por intenção de tratar (n = 36), a taxa de erradicação foi de 83,3 por cento (IC95 por cento 77,1-89,5), ao passo que na análise por protocolo (n = 29), foi de 89,7 por cento (IC95 por cento 84,6-94,7). A adesão foi melhor quando se utilizou doxiciclina, mas as taxas de sucesso foram semelhantes para as duas tetraciclinas. Não houve nenhuma variável associada à falha no tratamento. Foram relatados efeitos colaterais em 17 pacientes (47,2 por cento), principalmente dor abdominal (11/30,5 por cento), náusea (sete/19,4 por cento) e vômitos (cinco/13,9 por cento). CONCLUSÃO: A terapia tripla com furazolidona e tetraciclina é uma alternativa de baixo custo para o tratamento da infecção pelo H. pylori.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate furazolidone, tetracycline and omeprazole as first line therapy for Helicobacter pylori in children with digestive symptoms. METHODS: Prospective and consecutive open trial. The study included patients older than 8 years old with functional dyspepsia, functional abdominal pain, severe histological abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) or peptic ulcer. H. pylori status was defined based both upon histology and rapid urease test. Drug regimen was a 7-day course of omeprazol, tetracycline (or doxycycline) and furazolidone twice daily. Eradication was assessed by upper endoscopy 2 months after treatment (histology and rapid urease test). Further clinical evaluation was done 7 days and 2 months after treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (21 female/15 male) were included. Age ranged from 8 to 19 years (mean 12.94+2.89 years). On intention-to-treat analysis (n = 36), eradication rate was 83.3 percent (95 percentCI 77.1-89.5) whereas in per-protocol analysis (n = 29), it was 89.7 percent (95 percentCI 84.6-94.7). Compliance was better when doxycycline was used, but the success rates were similar for the two tetracyclines. There was no variable associated with treatment failure. Side effects were reported in 17 patients (47.2 percent), mainly abdominal pain (11/30.5 percent), nausea (seven/19.4 percent) and vomiting (five/13.9 percent). CONCLUSION: Triple therapy with furazolidone and tetracycline is a low-cost alternative regimen to treat H. pylori infection.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Ulcer Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Anti-Ulcer Agents/economics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Furazolidone/economics , Furazolidone/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Omeprazole/economics , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Tetracycline/economics , Tetracycline/therapeutic use
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-19690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: While evaluating the effectiveness of drugs used for the prophylaxis of acid aspiration of gastric contents, the impact of duodeno-gastric reflux on gastric contents has not been studied earlier. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of preanaesthetic oral administration of sodium rabeprazole on pH and volume of gastric contents in adult patients undergoing elective surgery by excluding cases contaminated with duodeno-gastric refluxate. METHODS: The patients in group C (control) in the triple blind placebo controlled trial received placebo while group S sodium rabeprazole 20 mg orally at 2100 h, a night before elective surgery. Next day, gastric contents were aspirated with a large bore, multi-orifices gastric tube passed through an endotracheal tube placed blindly in oesophagus after tracheal intubation and analyzed for the presence of bile salts, pH and volume. The pH and volume of gastric contents were the primary and duodeno-gastric reflux secondary outcome measures of the study. RESULTS: The pH and volume of group S-2 were 3.97+/-1.78 and 9.48+/-8.39 ml respectively compared with 1.90+/-0.47 and 19.60+/-18.56 ml of group C-2. Sodium rabeprazole, after excluding contaminated cases with duodeno-gastric refluxate, significantly increased the pH (P<0.001), decreased the volume of gastric contents (P<0.005) and the proportion of the patients (30.76 vs 2.63%) considered at risk compared with placebo (P<0.001) according to the criteria defined (pH < 2.5 and volume > 25 ml). Thirty nine samples (33.33%) out of 117 were contaminated with duodenal contents. Duodenogastric reflux significantly (P<0.001) affected pH and volume of gastric in both groups C-1 vs C-2 and S-1 vs S-2. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Sodium rabeprazole 20 mg given orally a night before surgery provided adequate prophylaxis for acid aspiration syndrome at the time of induction of anaesthesia and duodeno-gastric reflux significantly affected both the pH and volume of gastric contents.


Subject(s)
2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Placebos , Risk , Sodium/administration & dosage , Stomach/drug effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Time Factors
17.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 18(3): 286-298, jul.-sept. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-515854

ABSTRACT

Medication of gastrointestinal disorders in the pregnancy, as well as of other pathological conditions, represent an important challenge for gastroenterologist and obstetrician. Several new medications has been developed in the last year and an adequate knowledge about the risks and benefits of different drugs involved in the treatment of these patients is very important. Classification of the drugs used in gastrointestinal diseases as well the available evidence of the effects these drugs during pregnancy is analyzed.


El tratamiento de las enfermedades gastrointestinales en el embarazo, así como otras condiciones patológicas, representa un importante desafió para los gastroenterólogos y obstetras. Nuevos medicamentos han sido desarrollados en el último tiempo y un adecuado conocimiento sobre los riesgos y beneficios de las diferentes drogas involucradas en el tratamiento de estas pacientes es muy importante. La clasificación de las drogas usadas en las enfermedades gastrointestinales, así como la evidencia disponible de los efectos de estos medicamentos durante el embarazo es analizada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Histamine H2 Antagonists , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antidiarrheals/therapeutic use , Proton Pumps/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications/chemically induced , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Peptic Ulcer/drug therapy
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82672

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers cause obstruction of the GI tract including biliary tree. In advanced GI cancer, endoscopic stent insertion is the treatment of choice. However, the current stent allows only mechanical palliation of obstructed GI tract and has no anti-tumor effect. The primary role of a drug eluting stent (DES) in gastrointestinal malignancy is that it decreases the tumor re-growth and sustains the stent patency. This might not be as impressive as the effect of a vascular DES which decreases the incidence of restenosis and thus increases the survival rate of the patient. However, in terms of improving the quality of life of the patient, maintaining the stent patency is one of the most important task of GI doctors. With an advanced technology in stent production, Korea would be able to play an active role in the field of DES especially with more advanced anti-tumor effect. Moreover, advances in this type of drug delivery system will enable the development of local treatment of GI malignancy using endoscopy.


Subject(s)
Drug-Eluting Stents , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Polyurethanes/chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199149

ABSTRACT

Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing multisystem disease characterized by oral ulceration, genital ulceration and ocular lesions. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare, often difficult to treat and associated with a high mortality rate. We treated a 47-year-old Korean man with BD who had a recurrent intestinal ulcer with tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody (infliximab); he initially underwent right hemicolectomy due to uncontrolled intestinal bleeding. For patients with intestinal BD who fail to respond to conventional treatment, infliximab may be a safe and effective new therapeutic option.


Subject(s)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Remission Induction , Middle Aged , Male , Humans , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Colectomy , Behcet Syndrome/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
20.
West Indian med. j ; 53(6): 400-405, Dec. 2004.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410094

ABSTRACT

The interference in the metabolism of a drug by another drug, food or other foreign chemical is commonly observed and often leads to clinically significant adverse drug reactions. In Jamaica, there is an extensive use of natural products as medicines, although there is little information on whether natural medicines are used along with prescription medicines, which might increase the likelihood of drug adversities. This current pilot survey was initiated to gain information on the prevalence of such polypharmacy practices. Two concurrent surveys were carried out in Kingston (an urban parish) and Clarendon (a rural parish) in 743 patients above age 14 years with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and gastrointestinal disorders of persons who visited health centres and pharmacies. Patrons visiting these places at various times of the day were informed of the nature of the questionnaire and willing participants with the above disease conditions and who were on prescription medicines were included in the survey. The results indicated that 80 of the respondents reported combining natural products in their treatment along with prescription medicines, with only 13 of those patients informing their physicians of such practices. Such polypharmacy practices were independent of the type of disease among both males and females and was statistically most prevalent (p < 0.001) in the 47-57-year age group. There was a significant association (p < 0.001) between such treatment practices and place of residence with 92 of the rural community engaging in polypharmacy but 70 of the urban did likewise. Therefore, being aware of the prevalence of multiple therapy practices would be especially useful when designing a pharmaco-vigilance system


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Self Medication , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Herb-Drug Interactions , Hypertension/drug therapy , Polypharmacy , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Community Health Centers , Phytotherapy/adverse effects , Health Care Surveys , Pharmacies , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Pilot Projects , Surveys and Questionnaires
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