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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(6): 755-762, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with upper digestive hemorrhage and primary and secondary endoscopic prophylaxis outcomes in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Methods: This observational and prospective study included 72 children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction who were followed from 2005 to 2017. Risk factors associated with upper digestive hemorrhage and the results of primary and secondary prophylaxis of these patients were evaluated. Results: Fifty patients (69.4%) had one or more episodes of bleeding during follow-up, with a median age at first hemorrhage of 4.81 years. The multivariate analysis showed that medium- to large-caliber esophageal varices were associated with an 18-fold risk of upper digestive hemorrhage (95% CI: 4.33-74.76; p < 0.0001). Primary prophylaxis was administered to 14 patients, with eradication in 85.7%; however, 14.3% of these patients had hemorrhages during the follow-up period and 41.7% had a relapse of varices. Secondary prophylaxis was administered to 41 patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 90.2% of patients. There were relapse and re-bleeding of esophageal varices in 45.9% and 34.1% of the children, respectively. Conclusion: Primary and secondary endoscopic prophylaxes showed high rates of esophageal varix eradication, but with significant relapses. Eradication of esophageal varices cannot definitively prevent recurrent upper digestive hemorrhage, since bleeding from alternate sites can occur. Medium- and large-caliber esophageal varices were associated with upper digestive hemorrhage in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate bleeding risk factors in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction.


Resumo Objetivos: Este estudo visou avaliar fatores associados à hemorragia digestiva alta e resultados da profilaxia endoscópica primária e secundária em crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta. Métodos: Este estudo observacional e prospectivo incluiu 72 crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta acompanhadas de 2005 a 2017. Os fatores de risco associados à hemorragia digestiva alta e os resultados da profilaxia primária e secundária desses pacientes foram avaliados. Resultados: Dos pacientes, 50 (69,4%) apresentaram ≥ 1 episódio de sangramento durante o acompanhamento, com idade média da primeira hemorragia de 4,81 anos. A análise multivariada mostrou que varizes esofágicas de médio a grande calibre estavam associadas a um risco 18 vezes maior de hemorragia digestiva alta (IC de 95% 4,33-74,76; p < 0,0001). Foi administrada profilaxia primária em 14 pacientes, com erradicação em 85,7%; contudo, 14,3% desses pacientes apresentaram hemorragias durante o período de acompanhamento e 41,7% apresentaram recidiva de varizes. Foi administrada profilaxia secundária em 41 pacientes. As varizes esofágicas foram erradicadas em 90,2% dos pacientes. Houve recidiva e novos sangramentos de varizes esofágicas em 45,9% e 34,1% das crianças, respectivamente. Conclusão: As profilaxias esofágicas primárias e secundárias apresentaram altas taxas de erradicação de varizes esofágicas, porém com recidivas significativas. A erradicação de varizes esofágicas não pode prevenir de forma definitiva a hemorragia digestiva alta recorrente, pois pode ocorrer sangramento de outros locais. Varizes esofágicas de médio e grande calibre estavam associadas à hemorragia digestiva alta em pacientes com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta. No melhor de nosso conhecimento, nosso estudo é o primeiro a avaliar os fatores de risco de sangramento em crianças com obstrução extra-hepática da veia porta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Endoscopy , Hypertension, Portal , Portal Vein , Sclerotherapy , Prospective Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control
2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1525, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy. Aim: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model. Method: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days. Results: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups. Conclusion: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.


RESUMO Racional: A hipertensão portal (HP), medida indiretamente através do gradiente pressórico da veia hepática >5 mmHg, tem como principal causa etiológica a cirrose. Possui como complicações a ascite, disfunção hepática, disfunção renal e varizes esofagogástricas, que caracterizam o quadro de gastropatia. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso do carvedilol como profilaxia primária no desenvolvimento da circulação colateral em ratos submetidos ao modelo de ligadura parcial de veia porta (LPVP). Método: Estudo experimental qualitativo e quantitativo no qual foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos (n=8): grupo I - cirrose + carvedilol (LPVP+C); grupo II - cirrose + veículo (LPVP); grupo III - controle + carvedilol (SO - sham-operated+C); grupo IV - controle + veículo (SO - sham-operated). Após transcorridos sete dias do procedimento cirúrgico, foi administrado carvedilol (10 mg/kg) e veículo (1mL) para os respectivos grupos por sete dias consecutivos. Resultados: A análise histológica não mostrou alteração hepática em nenhum grupo e diminuição de edema e vasodilatação no grupo LPVP+C. A avaliação laboratorial da função hepática não mostrou alteração com significância estatística entre os grupos. Conclusão: Carvedilol mostrou ser fármaco com efeito positivo no sangramento das varizes gástricas e sem efeitos adversos significantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/administration & dosage , Carvedilol/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 5-14, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003629

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O paciente crítico corre risco de desenvolver úlceras de estresse do trato gastrintestinal. Antiácidos e antiulcerosos de diferentes classes são frequentemente prescritos para reduzir a incidência de hemorragia gastrintestinal clinicamente significativa associada à úlcera de estresse. No entanto, o uso indiscriminado deste tipo de profilaxia em todos os pacientes admitidos a unidades de terapia intensiva não só não se justifica, como tem potenciais efeitos adversos e implicações de custo. As presentes diretrizes da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos resume a evidência atual e fornece seis afirmações clínicas e um algoritmo com o objetivo de fornecer uma política padronizada para prescrição de profilaxia da úlcera estresse em unidades de terapia intensiva.


ABSTRACT Critically ill patients are at risk of developing stress ulcers in the upper digestive tract. Agents that suppress gastric acid are commonly prescribed to reduce the incidence of clinically important stress ulcer-related gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the indiscriminate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis in all patients admitted to the intensive care unit is not warranted and can have potential adverse clinical effects and cost implications. The present guidelines from the Sociedade Portuguesa de Cuidados Intensivos summarizes the current evidence and gives six clinical statements and an algorithm aiming to provide a standardized prescribing policy for the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis in the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Stress, Physiological , Algorithms , Critical Illness , Critical Care/methods , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 170-174, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950518

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is an endemic health problem affecting about four million people. The hepatosplenic form of the disease is characterized by periportal hepatic fibrosis, pre-sinusoidal portal hypertension and splenomegaly. Liver function is preserved, being varices bleeding the main complication of the disease. The surgical treatment used in the majority of centers for the prevention of rebleeding is esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy. Most authors reported better results with the association of surgical and postoperative endoscopic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the intra operative portal pressure decrease and esophageal varices behavior and rebleeding rates in patients submitted to surgical and postoperative endoscopic treatment after long-term follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective study of 36 patients with schistosomiasis with, at least, one previous bleeding from esophageal varices rupture submitted to esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy, added to endoscopic varices postoperative treatment was performed. Patients were stratified according to the intra operative portal pressure decrease in two groups: reduction below and above 30%. Long-term varices presence, size and bleeding recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: Regarding varices behavior, no significant influence was observed in both groups of portal pressure fall. Regarding bleeding recurrence, despite three times more frequent in the group with lower portal pressure fall, no significant difference was observed. All patients were submitted to postoperative endoscopic treatment. CONCLUSION: Esophageal varices banding, rather than portal pressure decrease, seems to be the main responsible factor for good results after combination of two therapies (surgery and endoscopy) for patients with portal hypertension due to schistosomiasis; further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A esquistossomose é um problema de saúde pública endêmico, afetando cerca de quatro milhões de pessoas. A forma hepato-esplênica da doença é caracterizada por fibrose peri-portal, hipertensão pré-sinusoidal e esplenomegalia. A função hepática está preservada, sendo o sangramento por varizes a principal complicação da afecção. O tratamento cirúrgico usado pela maioria dos serviços para prevenção do ressangramento é a desconexão ázigo-portal e esplenectomia. Muitos autores reportaram melhores resultados com a associação do tratamento cirúrgico e o tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a queda da pressão portal intraoperatória com o comportamento das varizes esofagianas e as taxas de ressangramento em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico e endoscópico pós-operatório após seguimento de longo prazo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 36 pacientes esquistossomóticos com pelo menos um episódio de sangramento prévio por ruptura de varizes esofagianas, submetidos a desconexão ázigo-portal e esplenectomia, associada a tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório das varizes. Os pacientes foram divididos de acordo com a queda da pressão portal intraoperatória em dois grupos: redução menor e maior que 30%. Foram avaliadas a presença de tamanho das varizes a longo prazo e a recorrência do sangramento. RESULTADOS: Levando-se em conta o comportamento das varizes, não foi observada influência significativa em ambos os grupos de queda de pressão portal. Com relação ao ressangramento das varizes, embora três vezes mais frequente no grupo com menor queda de pressão portal, não foi observada diferença estatística. Todos pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A ligadura elástica das varizes esofagianas, mais do que a queda da pressão portal, parece ser o principal fator responsável pelos bons resultados após a combinação das duas terapias (cirúrgica e endoscópica) para pacientes com hipertensão portal devido à esquistossomose. Estudos futuros serão necessário para confirmar esta hipótese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Schistosomiasis/surgery , Splenectomy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Portal Pressure/physiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Preoperative Period , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/surgery , Middle Aged
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 54(1): 21-26, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with portal hypertension and there are few studies involving secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents with esophageal varices. METHODS This is a prospective analysis of 85 patients less than 18 years of age with or without cirrhosis, with portal hypertension. Participants underwent endoscopic secondary prophylaxis with sclerotherapy or band ligation. Eradication of varices, incidence of rebleeding, number of endoscopic sessions required for eradication, incidence of developing gastric fundus varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy were evaluated. RESULTS Band ligation was performed in 34 (40%) patients and sclerotherapy in 51 (60%) patients. Esophageal varices were eradicated in 81.2%, after a median of four endoscopic sessions. Varices relapsed in 38 (55.1%) patients. Thirty-six (42.3%) patients experienced rebleeding, and it was more prevalent in the group that received sclerotherapy. Gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy developed in 38.7% and 57.9% of patients, respectively. Patients undergoing band ligation showed lower rebleeding rates (26.5% vs 52.9%) and fewer sessions required for eradication of esophageal varices (3.5 vs 5). CONCLUSION Secondary prophylaxis was effective in eradicating esophageal varices and controlling new upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes due to the rupture of esophageal varices. Band ligation seems that resulted in lower rebleeding rates and fewer sessions required to eradicate varices than did sclerotherapy.


RESUMO CONTEXTO Os episódios de sangramento das varizes esofágicas são a principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos com hipertensão porta e poucos são os estudos envolvendo a profilaxia secundária em crianças e adolescentes. OBJETIVO Avaliar a eficácia da profilaxia endoscópica secundária na prevenção de hemorragia digestiva alta em crianças e adolescentes com varizes de esôfago. MÉTODOS Estudo prospectivo com 85 pacientes menores de 18 anos com hipertensão porta, cirróticos e não cirróticos. A profilaxia secundária endoscópica foi realizada através de ligadura elástica ou escleroterapia. Foram avaliadas erradicação de varizes, incidência de ressangramento, número de sessões endoscópicas necessárias para a erradicação, incidência de surgimento de varizes gástricas e da gastropatia da hipertensão porta. RESULTADOS Ligadura elástica foi realizada em 34 (40%) pacientes e escleroterapia em 51 (60%). As varizes de esôfago foram erradicadas em 81,2% após mediana de quatro sessões endoscópicas. Foi observada recidiva de varizes de esôfago em 38 (55,1%) pacientes. Ressangramento por ruptura de varizes de esôfago ocorreu em 36 (42,3%) pacientes e foi mais prevalente no grupo submetido à escleroterapia. O surgimento de varizes gástricas e gastropatia da hipertensão porta ocorreram em 38,7% e 57,9% respectivamente. Os pacientes submetidos à ligadura elástica apresentaram taxas menores de ressangramento (26,5% vs 52,9%) e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago (3,5 vs 5). CONCLUSÃO A profilaxia secundária endoscópica mostrou-se eficaz para erradicação de varizes de esôfago e evitar novos episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta secundária à ruptura de varizes de esôfago. A ligadura elástica endoscópica provavelmente apresenta menores taxas de ressangramento e número menor de sessões necessárias para erradicação das varizes de esôfago, quando comparada à escleroterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Esophagoscopy , Secondary Prevention , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Recurrence , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Sclerotherapy , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ligation
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 53(4): 257-261, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The efficacy of nonselective β-blocker and endoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic variceal ligation, as primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic adults was demonstrated by numerous controlled trials, but in pediatric population, few are the number of studies. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the primary prophylaxis with β-blocker in cirrhotic children and adolescents with portal hypertension. Methods This is a cohort study encompassing 26 cirrhotic patients. β-blocker prophylaxis was performed with propranolol. When contraindicated the use of β-blocker, or if side effects presents, the patients were referred to endoscopic therapy with band ligation. Patients were evaluated by endoscopy, and those who had varicose veins of medium and large caliber or reddish spots, regardless of the caliber of varices, received primary prophylaxis. Results Of the 26 patients evaluated, 9 (34.6%) had contraindications to the use of propranolol and were referred for endoscopic prophylaxis. Six (35.3%) of the 17 patients who received β-blocker (propranolol), had bled after a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. β-blockage dosage varied from 1 mg/kg/day to 3.1 mg/kg/day and seven (41.2%) patients had the propranolol suspended due to fail of the β-blockage or adverse effects, such as drowsiness, bronchospasm and hypotension. Patients who received endoscopic prophylaxis (elastic bandage) had no bleeding during the follow-up period. Conclusion All of the patients that had upper gastroinstestinal bleeding in this study were under propranolol prophylaxis. The use of propranolol showed a high number of contraindications and side effects, requiring referral to endoscopic prophylaxis. The endoscopic prophylaxis was effective in reducing episodes of bleeding.


RESUMO Contexto A eficácia dos beta-bloqueadores e de procedimentos endoscópicos como a ligadura elástica endoscópica para profilaxia primária de ruptura de varizes de esôfago em adultos cirróticos já foram demonstrados por inúmeros ensaios clínicos na população adulta, porém poucos são os estudos envolvendo a faixa etária pediátrica. Objetivo Avaliar a profilaxia primária com β-bloqueador em crianças e adolescentes cirróticos com hipertensão porta. Métodos Estudo de coorte envolvendo 26 pacientes cirróticos. O propranolol foi o β-bloqueador utilizado para a profilaxia. Quando contraindicado o uso de β-bloqueador, ou se efeitos colaterais presentes, os pacientes eram encaminhados para profilaxia endoscópica com ligadura elástica. Os pacientes foram avaliados por endoscopia, e naqueles que foram observadas varizes de médio e/ou grosso calibre ou presença de manchas avermelhadas nas varizes, independentemente do calibre das varizes, a profilaxia primária foi indicada. Resultados Dos 26 pacientes avaliados, 9 (34,6%) tinham contraindicações para o uso de propranolol e foram encaminhados para a profilaxia endoscópica. Seis (35,3%) dos 17 pacientes que receberam β-bloqueador (propranolol) apresentaram sangramento após mediana de tempo de acompanhamento de 1,9 anos. A dose de β-bloqueio variou de 1 mg/kg/dia a 3,1mg/kg/dia e em sete (41,2%) pacientes o propranolol foi suspenso por falha em atingir β-bloqueio ou presença de efeitos adversos, tais como sonolência, broncoespasmo e hipotensão. No grupo de pacientes que receberam a profilaxia endoscópica (ligadura elástica) não foi observado nenhum episódio de hemorragia digestiva alta durante o período de acompanhamento. Conclusão Todos os pacientes que apresentaram hemorragia digestiva alta no presente estudo estavam recebendo profilaxia com propranolol. Foi observado, ainda, elevado número de contraindicações e efeitos colaterais, com consequente encaminhamento para profilaxia endoscópica. A profilaxia endoscópica foi eficaz na redução de episódios de hemorragia digestiva alta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Primary Prevention/methods , Propranolol/administration & dosage , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Contraindications , Ligation/methods
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 879-885, jul. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794001

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a paucity of good quality research about the diagnosis of esophageal varices and the prophylaxis and treatment of variceal bleeding in pediatric patients with portal hypertension There is little consensus and practically no evidence-based approach about the management of these patients. Aim: To describe the behavior and preferences of pediatric gastroenterologists in Chile in the management of portal hypertension in children. Material and Methods: An online survey was sent to Chilean pediatric gastroenterologists, with questions evaluating the physicians’ approaches to screening of esophageal varices in children with portal hypertension, and their preferred methods of prophylaxis and initial management of variceal bleeding. Results: Thirty five of 69 contacted physicians answered the survey (51%). Twenty nine pediatric gastroenterologists (83%) screen for esophageal varices in patients with clinical evidence of portal hypertension, and 12 (34%) in every patient with chronic liver disease. Twenty eight respondents (80%) use primary prophylaxis, mainly beta blockers. Octreotide, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopy are the most common practices in the initial management of an esophageal varix bleed. The methods mostly used as secondary prophylaxis are band ligation and beta blockers. In the case of recurrent hemorrhage, besides band ligation, management with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) and hepatic transplantation are more likely. Conclusions: Even though most pediatric gastroenterologists in this survey are inclined to offer endoscopic screening of esophageal varices and prophylaxis to patients with portal hypertension, this is not a universal behavior. There are different approaches mainly in the election of secondary prophylaxis and the initial management of variceal bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/therapy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/therapy , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control
12.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(3): 197-199, July-Sept. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762816

ABSTRACT

Background:Schistosomiasis is endemic problem in Brazil affecting about three to four million people, and digestive hemorrhage caused by esophageal varices rupture is the main complication of the disease. Surgical treatment has become a therapeutic option, especially for secondary prophylaxis after at least one episode of bleeding. The surgical technique used by the vast majority of surgeons for the prevention of rebleeding is esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy. Although with good postoperative results, rebleeding rate is significant, showing the need to follow-up endoscopy in all patients.Aim:To evaluate long-term results of patients submitted to esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy and postoperative endoscopic treatment regarding esophageal varices caliber and rebleeding rates.Methods:A retrospective study of 12 patients underwent esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy followed for more than five years.Results: All patients showed varices size reduction, and no patient had postoperative bleeding recurrence.Conclusion:Esophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy decreased significantly the esophageal variceal size when associated with endoscopic follow-up, being effective for bleeding recurrence prophylaxis.


Racional:A esquistossomose acomete três a quatro milhões de pessoas no Brasil, sendo a hemorragia digestiva por ruptura das varizes esofágicas a principal complicação da doença. O tratamento cirúrgico é empregado como profilaxia secundária em pacientes com história de hemorragia prévia. A cirurgia mais utilizada é a desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia, técnica com bons resultados, porém com índice de recidiva hemorrágica considerável, fazendo necessário o seguimento endoscópico destes pacientes.Objetivo:Analisar a evolução tardia dos pacientes no que se refere à recidiva hemorrágica e ao comportamento das varizes esofágicas quando submetidos à desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia e tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório.Método:Foram avaliados retrospectivamente 12 pacientes submetidos à desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia com acompanhamento endoscópico pós-operatório maior de cinco anos.Resultados:Todos tiveram redução significativa do calibre das varizes e nenhum paciente apresentou sangramento pós-operatório.Conclusão:A desconexão ázigo-portal mais esplenectomia diminuiu significativamente o calibre das varizes esofágicas quando associada ao tratamento endoscópico pós-operatório. Este tratamento foi efetivo para a profilaxia da recidiva hemorrágica.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Esophagoscopy , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Esophagus/blood supply , Esophagus/surgery , Gastroscopy , Splenectomy , Schistosomiasis/surgery , Stomach/blood supply , Stomach/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
West Indian med. j ; 62(2): 135-139, Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent concerns have been raised about the potential for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to blunt the efficacy of clopidogrel. We observed the effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin with or without omeprazole in patients with carotid stenoses after they received placement of carotid stents. METHODS: Sixty-four consecutive patients treated with percutaneous carotid artery stenting (CAS) comprised the sample. All enrolled patients underwent the C13 urea breath test (C13 UBT) before CAS. Patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and a history of peptic ulcer were assigned dual antiplatelet combination with omeprazole. Others received dual antiplatelet without omeprazole. Transcranial Doppler and ultrasonography were performed to assess the middle cerebral artery and carotid artery in follow-up at three months and six months. RESULTS: Eight patients had gastrointestinal bleeding; the event rate was 22.6% without omeprazole and 3.8% with omeprazole. The rate of gastrointestinal bleeding was reduced with omeprazole as compared without omeprazole (p = 0.026, p < 0.05). The two groups did not differ significantly in the rate of instent restenosis and thrombus through transcranial Doppler and ultrasonography. CONCLUSION: Among patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, prophylactic use of omeprazole reduced the rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There was no apparent interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole in patients with carotid artery stenting.


ANTECEDENTES: Recientemente se han expresado preocupaciones acerca de la posibilidad de que los inhibidores de la bomba de protones (IBP) para debilitar la eficacia del clopidogrel. Observamos el efecto del clopidogrel más aspirina con o sin omeprazol en pacientes con estenosis de la arteria carótida después de que recibieran la colocación de stents carotídeos. MÉTODOS: Sesenta y cuatro pacientes consecutivos tratados con stent percutáneo de la arteria carótida (SAC) fueron seleccionados para formar la muestra. A todos los pacientes inscritos se les realizó la prueba de aliento con urea C13 (C13 UBT) antes de CAS. A pacientes con infección por Helicobacter pylori y antecedentes de úlcera péptica les fue asignada una combinación antiplaquetaria dual con omeprazol. Otros recibieron tratamiento antiplaquetario dual sin omeprazol. Se realizaron una prueba Transcranial Doppler y una ultrasonografía a fin de evaluar la arteria cerebral media y la arteria carótida en seguimientos a los tres meses y a los seis meses. RESULTADOS: Ocho pacientes tuvieron hemorragia gastrointerstinal; la tasa de eventos fue 22.6% sin omeprazol y 3.8% con omeprazol. La tasa de hemorragia gastrointerstinal se redujo con omeprazol en comparación con la obtenida sin omeprazol (p = 0,026, p < 0.05). Los dos grupos no difirieron significativamente con respecto a la tasa de restenosis en stent y trombos a través de la prueba Transcranial Doppler y la ultrasonografía. CONCLUSIÓN: Entre los pacientes que reciben terapia antiplaquetaria dual, el uso profiláctico de omeprazol redujo la tasa de hemorragia gastrointestinal superior. No hubo interacción ostensible entre el clopidogrel y el omeprazol en pacientes con stent de la arteria carótida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Angiography , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Stents , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28742

ABSTRACT

There are indirect evidences to suggest that 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) develop from adenomatous polyps and that, on average, it takes 10 years for a small polyp to transform into invasive CRC. In multiple cohort studies, colonoscopic polypectomy has been shown to significantly reduce the expected incidence of CRC by 76% to 90%. Colonoscopic polypectomy is performed frequently in primary, secondary and tertiary and medical centers in Korea. However, there are no evidence-based, procedural guidelines for the appropriate performance of this procedure, including the technical aspects. For the guideline presented here, Pubmed, Medline, and Cochrane Library literature searches were performed. When little or no data from well-designed prospective trials were available, an emphasis was placed on the results from large series and reports from recognized experts. Thus, these guidelines for colonoscopic polypectomy are based on a critical review of the available data as well as expert consensus. Further controlled clinical studies are needed to clarify aspects of this statement, and revision may be necessary as new data become available. This guideline is intended to be an educational device to provide information that may assist endoscopists in providing care to patients. This guideline is not a rule and should not be construed as a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment. Clinical decisions for any particular case involve a complex analysis of the patient's condition and the available courses of action.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Colonic Polyps/pathology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Republic of Korea , Surgical Instruments , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 82(5): 381-387, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612166

ABSTRACT

Children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis frequently develop portal hypertension. The main complication of the portal hypertension are the development of esophageal varices who are at risk of variceal bleeding, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Guidelines for adults with portal hypertension recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy to identify those with varices that may benefit from prophylactic therapy, however there are no consensus in the pediatric age. This revision includes the incidence, diagnostic and the evidence for primary prophylactic treatment of the esophageal varices in children.


Pacientes pediátricos con daño hepático crónico o con trombosis de la vena porta frecuentemente desarrollan hipertensión portal. La principal complicación de la hipertensión portal es el desarrollo de várices esofágicas que conlleva riesgo de hemorragia variceal, la cual se asocia a significativa morbimortalidad. Las guías clínicas para adultos recomiendan realizar, en pacientes cirróticos, una endoscopia como screening para el diagnóstico de várices esofágicas y su tratamiento profiláctico, sin embargo, en pacientes pediátricos no existe consenso. En esta revisión se actualiza la incidencia, diagnóstico y evidencia del tratamiento profiláctico primario de várices esofágicas en pediatría.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hepatic Insufficiency/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnosis , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology
18.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 21(5): 757-763, sept. 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999302

ABSTRACT

Cirrosis hepática es una enfermedad prevalente en el mundo. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento debe ser dominio de todo médico general e internista. En los últimos años han ocurrido notables avances en el diagnóstico, fisiopatología, tratamiento y en la identificación de factores pronósticos de cirrosis y de sus complicaciones mayores. Particular atención ha existido en desarrollar medidas preventivas de sus complicaciones como por ejemplo: hemorragia por várices esofágicas, peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, síndrome hepatorrenal. Estas medidas preventivas han influido de forma muy favorable en el pronóstico de los pacientes cirróticos. En este artículo se discuten las diversas estrategias preventivas que han demostrado su efectividad en cirrosis hepática


Liver cirrhosis is a prevalent disease around the world. Its diagnosis and treatment must be in the knowledge of every general physicians and internist.Over the last years, there have been notorious advances in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, treatment and the identification of prognosis factors for cirrhosis major complications.There has been particular attention to the development of preventive measures for its complications, such as variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome. These preventive measures have had a favorable influence on the prognosis of cirrhotic patients. This article discusses several preventive strategies that have proven its effectiveness in hepatic cirrhosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritonitis/prevention & control , Hepatorenal Syndrome/prevention & control , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Peritonitis/microbiology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Ascitic Fluid/microbiology , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/complications , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/etiology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/ethnology , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Liver Cirrhosis/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 8(4)jul.-ago. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-555458

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sangramento gastrintestinal agudo é uma condição comum que, geralmente, demanda admissão em unidades de emergência, além de representar também complicação frequente naqueles pacientes previamente internados em unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI). A hemorragia digestiva alta (HDA) possui incidência anual de 50 a 150 para cada 100.000 habitantes, ocorrendo duas vezes mais em homens e aumenta com a idade; a hemorragia digestiva baixa (HDB) apresenta incidência de 20,5 a 27 para cada 100.000 habitantes e a úlcera por estresse é clinicamente evidente em 15% dos casos sem profilaxia e em 1,5% a 8% daqueles com profilaxia. Neste cenário, este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar os métodos profiláticos primários e secundários utilizados nos sangramentos gastrintestinais em Medicina de urgência, bem como suas indicações atuais baseadas em evidências. CONTEÚDO: Revisão narrativa com período delimitado entre os anos de 1970 a 2010, com busca de artigos disponíveis e resumos em bases de dados como Scielo, LILACS, Medline, Pubmed, Sumsearch, National Guideline Clearinghouse, assim como livros relacionados à área de Medicina intensiva e emergência. CONCLUSÃO: No manuseio das úlceras por estresse são utilizados os antagonistas do receptor H2 (AR2H) como método de escolha, seguidos do sucralfato, antiácidos e inibidores da bomba de prótons (IBP). Nos sangramentos gastrintestinais utilizam-se preferencialmente os IBP e nas roturas de varizes esofágicas, escleroterapia e ligaduras elásticas. Nestes casos, o ressangramento pode ser prevenido com betabloqueadores e nitrato.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common condition that usually requires admission to the emergency room and also represents a complication in patients previously hospitalized in intensive care units (ICU). The upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) has an annual incidence of 50-150 per 100,000 inhabitants, occurring twice as often in men and increases with age, the lower gastrointestinal bleeding presents incidence from 20.5 to 27 per 100,000 and the stress ulcer is clinically evident in 15% of cases without prophylaxis and 1.5% to 8% of those with prophylaxis. In this scenario, this paper had as objective to present the primary and secondary prophylactic methods to control gastrointestinal bleedings in Emergency Medicine, as well as your indications based on the best actual evidences. CONTENTS: Narrative bounded between the years 1970 to 2010, with search articles and abstracts available on databases such as Scielo, LILACS, Medline, Pubmed, Sumsearch, National Guideline Clearinghouse, as well as books related to area of critical care medicine and emergency. CONCLUSION: In the management of stress ulcers are used H2 receptor antagonists (AR2H) as a method of choice, followed by sucralfate, antacids and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In gastrointestinal bleeding are used preferentially IBPs and in ruptures of esophageal varices, sclerotherapy and elastic bandages. In these cases, rebleeding can be prevented with beta-blockers and nitrates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Proton Pump Inhibitors
20.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2009; 19 (5): 283-286
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91660

ABSTRACT

To compare the efficacy of propranolol, propranolol with nitrate, band ligation, and band ligation with propranolol and nitrate for the prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding. A prospective randomized trial. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from November 2003 to July 2005. One hundred and sixty cirrhotic patients with esophageal variceal bleeding were randomized to four treatment groups [propranolol, propranolol plus isosorbide mononitrate, band ligation, band ligation plus propranolol and nitrate] with 40 patients in each group. Patients were followed for 6 months after the enrolment of last patient. Primary end points were recurrence of esophageal variceal bleeding and death. Treatment complications were noted. Four treatment groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Esophageal variceal rebleeding occurred in 22% patients in band ligation plus drugs group, 26% patients in drug combination group, 31% patients in banding group and 38% patients in propranolol group [p=0.41]. Difference in mortality rates was also not significant. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in prevention of esophageal variceal rebleeding


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Propranolol , Isosorbide , Ligation , Endoscopy , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Treatment Outcome , Recurrence , Mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination
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