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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-9, 01/jan./2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411337

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: evidenciar as relações e a existência do agravamento do Transtorno do Espectro Autista devido à disbiose intestinal. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada segundo a pergunta norteadora: Existe comprovação científica entre a relação do TEA e disbiose intestinal que favoreça a melhora na prática clínica e indicações de possíveis respostas? Buscou-se por artigos publicados entre janeiro de 2016 e janeiro de 2021, nas bases de dados: PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, GOOGLE ACADÊMICO. Foram utilizados os descritores (DeCS): "Transtorno do Espectro Autista"; "Microbiota gastrointestinal"; "Disbiose", associados pelo operador booleano "E". Foram incluidos artigos de revisões bibliográficas, completos, originais, limitados aos idiomas inglês e português brasileiro, publicados nos últimos cinco anos, e que, após leitura do resumo, estivessem dentro do escopo da revisão. Resultados: Foram identificados 52 manuscritos e, após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram considerados 11 artigos que evidenciam o agravamento do TEA por fatores intrínsecos à microbiota intestinal. Conclusão: existe importante influência causal do eixo bidirecional cérebro-intestino-microbiota na etiologia e exacerbaçao das manifestações clínicas do Transtorno do Espectro Autista devido à disbiose intestinal e aos fatores gastrointestinais de origem idiopática.


Objectives: to highlight the relationships and the existence of Autistic Spectrum Disorder aggravation due to intestinal dysbiosis. Methods: integrative review conducted according to the guiding question: Is there scientific evidence of the relationship between ASD and intestinal dysbiosis that favors improvement in clinical practice and indications of possible answers? We searched for articles published between January 2016 and January 2021 in databases: PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and GOOGLE ACADEMIC. The following descriptors (DeCS) were used: "Autistic Spectrum Disorder"; "Gastrointestinal microbiota"; "Dysbiosis", associated with the Boolean operator "AND". We included literature review articles, complete, original, limited to English and Brazilian Portuguese languages, published in the last five years, and which, after reading the abstract, were within the scope of the review. Results: 52 manuscripts were identified, and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were considered that show the worsening of ASD due to factors intrinsic to the intestinal microbiota. Conclusion: there is an important causal influence of the bidirectional brain-gut-microbiota axis in the etiology and exacerbation of clinical manifestations of Autism Spectrum Disorder due to intestinal dysbiosis and gastrointestinal factors of idiopathic origin.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Alkalies , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , LILACS , Literature
4.
Rev. méd. Paraná ; 80(1): 1-6, jan. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381067

ABSTRACT

A obesidade tem causa multifatorial que atinge atualmente mais da metade da população brasileira. Mais recentemente, a microbiota intestinal foi considerada um fator que contribui para essa condição. Os objetivos deste estudo foram revisar a influência da microbiota intestinal na obesidade e no processo inflamatório, e analisar os efeitos da utilização dos pré e probióticos. Foi realizada revisão sistemática sobre o assunto. Dos mais de 27.000 artigos, apenas 16 respeitaram os critérios de inclusão. Em conclusão, o desequilíbrio da microbiota aparece como fator favorável ao desenvolvimento da obesidade e do quadro inflamatório decorrente dela. Tanto o uso de prebióticos quanto probióticos são recursos válidos no tratamento da obesidade, porém os primeiros parecem proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida.


Obesity has a multifactorial etiological condition that involves more than half of the Brazilian population. More recently, the intestinal microbiota was considered a factor that contributes to this condition. The aims of this study were to review the intestinal microbiota influence in the obesity and in the inflammatory response, and to analyze the effects of using prebiotic and probiotic medications. A systematic review was firstly done. More than 27,000 articles were found, but only 16 contained the proper criteria. In conclusion, the microbiota imbalance seems to increase the obesity development and its inflammatory aspects. Both the use of pre and probiotics are good options in the obesity treatment, though the first ones seem to enhance bettere quality of life.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Transit , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity , Inflammation
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(2): 100-108, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1381416

ABSTRACT

Las investigaciones realizadas durante el último siglo relacionadas con la descripción de la Microbiota Intestinal (MI) sugieren una relación concreta entre su composición y la salud del huésped. Su desregulación denominada disbiosis intestinal ha sido asociada a distintos tipos de enfermedades gastrointestinales, metabólicas, oncológicas e incluso psiquiátricas. Destacan numerosos reportes que han informado la condición de disbiosis en la obesidad, tanto en modelos animales como humanos de distintos grupos etarios y regiones del mundo. A su vez, la composición del microbioma también ha logrado asociarse a las diferentes comorbilidades de la obesidad, postulando que la MI posee influencia en la disfunción del tejido adiposo (TA), entendiendo que corresponde al principal modulador de la patogénesis de la obesidad. Sin embargo, aún no es posible establecer una explicación mecanicista plausible. Actualmente, la utilización de tecnologías multiómicas, junto con la evaluación de variables fisiológicas, nos podrían proporcionar una mejor comprensión a la incógnita planteada. Frente a esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar los últimos avances en la comprensión de la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en el TA y su contribución a los mecanismos relacionados con la patogénesis de la obesidad. Entre los principales mecanismos identificados, la evidencia reporta nexos fisiológicos entre la composición de la MI y la modulación de inflamación, permeabilidad intestinal y adipogénesis. Las vías implicadas derivan de la influencia de la disbiosis intestinal en el accionar de ácidos grasos de cadena corta, claudinas, macrófagos, oligosacáridos, entre otros. Los mecanismos implicados, principalmente estudiados en modelos animales, deberían ser considerados para su evaluación en próximos estudios longitudinales y experimentales en humanos con el fin de obtener una mayor comprensión sobre la implicancia de cada mecanismo en la patogenia global de la obesidad(AU)


The investigations carried out during the last century related to the description of the Gut Microbiota (GM) suggest a concrete relationship between its composition and the health of the host. Its deregulation called intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with different types of gastrointestinal, metabolic, oncological and even psychiatric diseases. Numerous reports that have described the condition of dysbiosis in obesity stand out, both in animal and human models of different age groups and regions of the world. In turn, the composition of the microbiome has also been associated with the different comorbidities of obesity, postulating that MI has an influence on adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, understanding that it corresponds to the main modulator of the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not yet possible to establish a plausible mechanistic explanation. Currently, the use of multi-omics technologies, together with the evaluation of physiological variables, could provide us with a better understanding of the question raised. In view of this, this review aims to review the latest advances in understanding the influence of the intestinal microbiota on AT and its contribution to the mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of obesity. Among the main mechanisms identified, the evidence reports physiological links between the composition of GM and the modulation of inflammation, intestinal permeability and adipogenesis. The pathways involved derive from the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on the action of short-chain fatty acids, claudins, macrophages, oligosaccharides, among others. The mechanisms involved, mainly studied in animal models, should be considered for evaluation in future longitudinal and experimental studies in humans in order to obtain a better understanding of the implication of each mechanism in the global pathogenesis of obesity(AU)


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Obesity/pathology , Energy Metabolism , Adipogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases
6.
Rev. cuba. med ; 61(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408981

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La disbiosis conocida como la alteración de la relación simbiótica entre la microbiota intestinal y el huésped están implicados en la patogenia de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión documental sobre los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que relacionan los metabolitos bioactivos generados por la disbiosis intestinal con el desarrollo y progresión de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Métodos: Se utilizó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico y se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Cumed y Hinari desde septiembre 2020 hasta el mes de marzo 2021. Las palabras clave utilizadas para esta revisión fueron:microbioma, microbiota intestinal, disbiosis, aterosclerosis, enfermedad cardiovascular y sus equivalentes en inglés, según el descriptor de Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS). Se consideraron artículos originales, de revisión, revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis posteriores al año 2015. Se revisaron un total de 73 artículos. Desarrollo: Las relaciones fisiopatológicas entre la disbiosis intestinal y las enfermedades cardiovasculares son complejas, ya que se influyen mutuamente a través de los sus toxinas endógenas (metabolitos bioactivos), el sistema circulatorio, las respuestas inmunitarias y los cambios metabólicos. Las investigaciones futuras deberían centrarse en dilucidar los actores moleculares subyacentes e identificar si las vías que interconectan la disbiosis intestinal con la ECA son causales, correlacionales o consecuentes. Conclusiones: La evidencia acumulada sostiene que la disbiosis de la microbiota intestinal está involucrada en la síntesis de metabolitos proaterogénicos los cuales modulan los mecanismos implicados en la fisiopatología de la ECA(AU)


Introduction: Dysbiosis is known as the alteration of the symbiotic relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the host is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Objective: To carry out a documentary review on the pathophysiological mechanisms that relate the bioactive metabolites generated by intestinal dysbiosis with the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods: The Google Scholar search engine was used and free access articles were consulted in Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Cumed and Hinari databases from September 2020 to March 2021. The keywords used for this review were microbiome, gut microbiota, dysbiosis, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and their English equivalents, according to the Health Sciences (DeCS) descriptor. Original articles, review articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses after 2015 were considered. A total of 73 articles were reviewed. Findings: The pathophysiological relationships between intestinal dysbiosis and cardiovascular diseases are complex, since they influence each other through their endogenous toxins (bioactive metabolites), the circulatory system, immune responses and metabolic changes. Future research should focus on elucidating the underlying molecular players and on identifying whether the pathways that interconnect gut dysbiosis with ACE are causal, correlational, or consequential. Conclusions: The accumulated evidence supports that the dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota is involved in the synthesis of proatherogenic metabolites which modulate the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ACE(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 192-207, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms underlying these disorders include a constellation of structural, infectious, immunological, metabolic, and genetic etiologies. Advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiome is dynamic and plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and several diseases. The enteric microbiome acts as a key mediator in neuronal signaling via metabolic, neuroimmune, and neuroendocrine pathways. Objective: In this review, we aim to present and discuss the most current knowledge regarding the putative influence of the gut microbiome in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: We examined some of the preclinical and clinical evidence and therapeutic strategies associated with the manipulation of the gut microbiome. Results: targeted taxa were described and grouped from major studies to each disease. Conclusions: Understanding the complexity of these ecological interactions and their association with susceptibility and progression of acute and chronic disorders could lead to novel diagnostic biomarkers based on molecular targets. Moreover, research on the microbiome can also improve some emerging treatment choices, such as fecal transplantation, personalized probiotics, and dietary interventions, which could be used to reduce the impact of specific neuropsychiatric disorders. We expect that this knowledge will help physicians caring for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos são uma importante causa de morte e invalidez no mundo. Os mecanismos subjacentes a esses transtornos incluem uma constelação de etiologias estruturais, infecciosas, imunológicas, metabólicas e genéticas. Avanços nas técnicas de sequenciamento do DNA têm demonstrado que a composição do microbioma entérico é dinâmica e desempenha um papel fundamental não apenas na homeostase do hospedeiro, mas também em várias doenças. O microbioma entérico atua como mediador na sinalização das vias metabólica, neuroimune e neuroendócrina. Objetivo: Apresentar os estudos mais recentes sobre a possível influência do microbioma intestinal nas diversas doenças neuropsiquiátricas e discutir tanto os resultados quanto a eficácia dos tratamentos que envolvem a manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Métodos: foram examinadas algumas das evidências pré-clínicas e clínicas e estratégias terapêuticas associadas à manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Resultados: os táxons-alvo foram descritos e agrupados a partir dos principais estudos para cada doença. Conclusões: Entender a fundo a complexidade das interações ecológicas no intestino e sua associação com a suscetibilidade a certas doenças agudas e crônicas pode levar ao desenvolvimento de novos biomarcadores diagnósticos com base em alvos moleculares. Além disso, o estudo do microbioma intestinal pode auxiliar na otimização de tratamentos não farmacológicos emergentes, tais como o transplante de microbiota fecal, o uso de probióticos e intervenções nutricionais personalizadas. Dessa forma, terapias alternativas poderiam ser usadas para reduzir o impacto dos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na saúde pública. Esperamos que esse conhecimento seja útil para médicos que cuidam de pacientes com diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology
8.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 43-49, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354457

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia va en aumento, y se ha convertido en una de las principales consultas. Una posible causa es la disbiosis del microbioma intestinal, relacionada con estados inflamatorios aumentados. Debido a la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de vida, y el impacto en lo económico y en lo educativo, surgen los probióticos como tratamiento adyuvante, por lo que se pretende determinar la asociación del uso de Bifidobacterium en menores de 5 años con la modulación de la respuesta inmune en enfermedades alérgicas. El microbioma intestinal inicia su desarrollo y maduración desde la gestación, continúa en el nacimiento y termina hasta los 3 años, influenciado por factores maternos, neonatales y ambientales. La disbiosis intestinal generada por estos factores reduce la proporción de bifidobacterias, lo cual se relaciona con estados proinflamatorios. En consecuencia, estudios del uso de Bifidobacterium en niños con enfermedades alérgicas ha evidenciado mejora de síntomas y calidad de vida. Los probióticos favorecen un microbioma intestinal saludable, asociado a un estado antiinflamatorio, debido a la regulación en el balance celular Th1/Th2/T reguladoras y células asesinas naturales. Esta modulación en la respuesta inmune permite mejor control de síntomas, calidad de vida y menor incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia


The incidence of allergic diseases in childhood is increasing, and has become one of the main queries. One possible cause is dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, related to increased inflammatory states. Due to the need to improve the quality of life, and the economic and educational impact, probiotics emerge as adjuvant treatment, so it is intended to determine the association of the use of Bifidobacterium in children under 5 years with the modulation of the immune response in allergic diseases. The intestinal microbiome begins its development and maturation from gestation, continues at birth and ends up to 3 years, influenced by maternal, neonatal and environmental factors. The intestinal dysbiosis generated by these factors reduces the proportion of bifidobacteria, which is related to proinflammatory states. Consequently, studies of the use of Bifidobacterium in children with allergic diseases have shown improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Probiotics favor a healthy intestinal microbiome, associated with an anti-inflammatory state, due to the regulation of the regulatory Th1/Th2/T cell balance and natural killer cells. This modulation in the immune response allows better control of symptoms, quality of life and lower incidence of allergic diseases in childhood


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Disease , Probiotics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Immunity
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943050

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota have been validated to play a pivotal role in metabolic regulation. As the most effective treatment for obesity and related comorbidities, bariatric surgery has been shown to result in significant alterations to the gut microbiota. Literature have recently suggested temporal and spatial features of alterations to the intestinal bacteria following bariatric surgery, which is possibly attributed to the gut adaptation to the surgical modification on the gastrointestinal tract. More importantly, the gut microbiota have been appreciated as a critical contributor to the metabolic improvements following bariatric surgery. Although not fully elucidated, the underlying mechanisms are associated with the molecular pathways mediating the crosstalk between gut microbiota and host . On the other hand, change of the gut microbiota has been found to be related to the prognosis of patients receiving bariatric surgery. Some studies even point out negative effects of the gut microbiota on certain surgical complications . In this review, we summarize the characteristics of alterations to the gut microbiota following bariatric surgery as well as its relevant impacts to better understand the role of gut microbiota in bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Obesity/surgery , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of oral exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on the composition and structure of human gut microbiota.@*METHODS@#The particle size, shape, crystal shape and degree of agglomeration in ultrapure water of TiO2 NPs were characterized. The in vitro human digestive tract microecological simulation system was established by simulating the fluid environment and physical conditions of stomach, small intestine and colon, and the stability of the simulation system was evaluated. The bacterial communities were extracted from human feces and cultured stably in the simulated system. They were exposed to 0, 20, 100 and 500 mg/L TiO2 NPs, respectively, and the bacterial fluids were collected after 24 h of exposure. The effect of TiO2 NPs on the composition and structure of human gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing technology. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to screen differential bacteria, and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database for functional prediction.@*RESULTS@#The spherical and anatase TiO2 NPs were (25.12±5.64) nm in particle size, while in ultra-pure water hydrated particle size was (609.43±60.35) nm and Zeta potential was (-8.33±0.22) mV. The in vitro digestive tract microecology simulation system reached a relatively stable state after 24 hours, and the counts of Enterococci, Enterobacte-rium, and Lactobacillus reached (1.6±0.85)×107, (5.6±0.82)×107 and (2.7±1.32)×107, respectively. 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that compared with the control group, the number and evenness of gut microbiota were not significantly affected at phylum, class, order, family and genus levels in TiO2 NPs groups (20, 100 and 500 mg/L). The relative abundance of some species was significantly changed, and a total of 42 different bacteria were screened between the TiO2 NPs groups (20, 100 and 500 mg/L) and the control group [linear discriminant analysis(LDA) score>3], represented by Enterobacter, Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae and Clostridium. Further predictive analysis of gut microbiota function showed that TiO2 NPs might affect oxidative phosphorylation, energy meta-bolism, phosphonate and phosphonate metabolism, and methane metabolism (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In human digestive tract microecological simulation system, TiO2 NPs could significantly change the composition and structure of human gut microbiota, represented by Enterobacter and probiotics, and may further affect a variety of metabolism and function of the body.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Nanoparticles , Organophosphonates/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Titanium/pharmacology , Water/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939910

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic exposure-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal flora increases the risk of developing allergic rhinitis. Hence, regulating the balance of intestinal flora may be useful for preventing and treating allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Dendrobium nobile (Shihu) exhibits anti-inflammatory and immune activities. Hence, in this study, we investigated the mechanism via which Shihu may improve allergic rhinitis. Mouse models of allergic rhinitis with intestinal flora dysbiosis (Model-D, antibiotics induce intestinal flora dysbiosis with ovalbumin-induced allergy) and normal intestinal flora with allergic rhinitis (Model-N, ovalbumin-induced allergy) were established. The effect of Shihu on intestinal flora and inflammation caused during allergic rhinitis were analyzed. Allergic symptoms, infiltration of hematoxylin and eosin in the lungs and nose, and the release of various factors [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] in the lungs were evaluated. The results indicate that intestinal flora dysbiosis exacerbated lung and nose inflammation in allergic rhinitis. However, treatment with the Shihu extract effectively reversed these symptoms. Besides, the Shihu extract inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and increased the level of Forkhead box protein in the lungs. Additionally, the Shihu extract reversed intestinal flora dysbiosis at the phylum and genus levels and improved regulator T cell differentiation. Furthermore, in the Model-D group, the Shihu extract inhibited the decrease in the diversity and abundance of the intestinal flora. Screening was performed to determine which intestinal flora was positively correlated with Treg differentiation using Spearman's correlation analysis. In conclusion, we showed that Shihu extract restored the balance in intestinal flora and ameliorated inflammation in the lungs of allergic rhinitis mice and predicted a therapeutic new approach using Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines/metabolism , Dendrobium , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Dysbiosis/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Pneumonia , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939850

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify whether periodontitis induces gut microbiota dysbiosis via invasion by salivary microbes. First, faecal and salivary samples were collected from periodontally healthy participants (PH group, n = 16) and patients with severe periodontitis (SP group, n = 21) and analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Significant differences were observed in both the faecal and salivary microbiota between the PH and SP groups. Notably, more saliva-sourced microbes were observed in the faecal samples of the SP group. Then, the remaining salivary microbes were transplanted into C57BL6/J mice (the C-PH group and the C-SP group), and it was found that the composition of the gut microbiota of the C-SP group was significantly different from that of the C-PH group, with Porphyromonadaceae and Fusobacterium being significantly enriched in the C-SP group. In the colon, the C-SP group showed significantly reduced crypt depth and zonula occludens-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tight junction proteins were significantly higher in the C-SP group. To further investigate whether salivary bacteria could persist in the intestine, the salivary microbiota was stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and transplanted into mice. We found that salivary microbes from both the PH group and the SP group could persist in the gut for at least 24 h. Thus, our data demonstrate that periodontitis may induce gut microbiota dysbiosis through the influx of salivary microbes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microbiota , Periodontitis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939590

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We investigated changes in the intestinal flora of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).@*Methods@#Between September 2019 and November 2019, stool samples from 14 children with MPP from The Fourth Hospital of Baotou city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, were collected and divided into general treatment (AF) and probiotic (AFY) groups, according to the treatment of "combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus cereus tablets live". High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing was used to identify intestinal flora.@*Results@#Intestinal flora abundance and diversity in children with MPP were decreased. Both Shannon and Simpson indices were lower in the AF group when compared with healthy controls ( P < 0.05). When compared with healthy controls, the proportion of Enterorhabdus was lower in the AF group, while the proportion of Lachnoclostridium was higher ( P < 0.05). The proportion of Bifidobacteria and Akkermansia was lower in the AFY group but Enterococcus, Lachnoclostridium, Roseburia, and Erysipelatoclostridium proportions were higher. The proportion of Escherichia coli- Shigella in the AFY group after treatment was decreased ( P < 0.05).@*Conclusions@#The intestinal flora of children with MPP is disturbed, manifested as decreased abundance and diversity, and decreased Bifidobacteria. Our probiotic mixture partly improved intestinal flora disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA, Ribosomal , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Technology
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 443-460, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939579

ABSTRACT

The mammalian internal circadian clock system has been evolved to adapt to the diurnal changes in the internal and external environment of the organism to regulate diverse physiological functions, such as the sleep-wake cycle and feeding rhythm, thereby coordinating the rhythmic changes of energy demand and nutrition supply in each diurnal cycle. The circadian clock regulates glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hormones secretion in diverse tissues and organs, including the liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, heart, and vessels. As a special "organ" of the host, the gut microbiota, together with the intestinal microenvironment (tissues, cells, and metabolites) in a co-evolutionary process, constitutes a micro-ecosystem and plays an important role in the process of nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestine of the host. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicates that the compositions, quantities, colonization, and functional activities of the gut microbiota exhibit significant circadian variations, which are closely related to the changes of various physiological functions under the regulation of host circadian clock system. In addition, several studies have shown that the gut microbiota can produce many important metabolites such as the short-chain fatty acids through the degradation of indigestive dietary fibers. A portion of gut microbiota-derived metabolites can regulate the circadian clock system and metabolism of the host. This article mainly discusses the interaction between the host circadian clock system and the gut microbiota, and highlights its influence on energy metabolism of the host, providing a novel clues and thought for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Circadian Clocks/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Ecosystem , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Lipid Metabolism/physiology , Mammals
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 227-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935999

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of Modified Sijunzi Decoction on the diversity of intestinal microflora of in severe scald rabbits based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) high-throughput sequencing. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. Ninety Japanese big-ear rabbits regardless gender, aged 6 to 8 months, were randomly divided into normal control group, scald alone group, scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group, with 18 rabbits in each group. The rabbits in normal control group were free to eat and drink, and the rabbits in scald alone group, scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group were intragastrically administered normal saline, 0.2 g/mL Modified Sijunzi Decoction, 1.0 g/mL Modified Sijunzi Decoction, and 5.0 g/mL Modified Sijunzi Decoction, respectively for 7 days after sustaining full-thickness scalding of 30% total body surface area. On the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in each group were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the number of samples in each group at each time point was 6. According to the above experimental results, another 9 rabbits were selected and divided into normal control group, scald alone group and scald+medium-dose group, with 3 rabbits in each group. The grouping and treatment methods of rabbits in each group were the same as before. On the 7th day after grouping, the V3, V4 region of 16S rRNA of ileum mucosa of rabbits in three groups were sequenced by high-throughput sequencing technology. The number of quality bacteria was counted by QIME software. The classifications of phylum, class, order, family and genus of microflora were analyzed by RDP Classifier software. The α diversity (Ace, Chao1, Simpson, and Shannon indexes) and β diversity were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology, and the number of experiment samples in each group was 3. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis for variance of factorial design, SNK test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: Compared with that in normal control group, the levels of TNF-α of ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group, scald+low-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping and scald+medium-dose group on the 1st and 3rd day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.01), the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group, scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group and scald+high-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group, scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with that in scald alone group, the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping, and scald+medium-dose group on the 1st day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping and scald+medium-dose group on the 1st day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+low-dose group on the 7th day after grouping and scald+medium-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping and scald+high-dose group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that in scald+low-dose group, the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in medium-dose scald alone group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping and in high-dose scald alone group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in medium-dose scald alone group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping and in high-dose scald alone group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+medium-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping and in scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that in scald medium-dose group, the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+high-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+high-dose group on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with that on the 1st day after grouping, the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping and in normal control group on the 3rd day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group both on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in both scald+low-dose group and scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping and scald+medium-dose group both on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+high-dose group on the 3rd and 7th day after grouping and in scald+medium-dose group on the 7th day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the level of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+medium-dose group on the 7th day after grouping was significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the level of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group on the 7th day after grouping was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with that on the 3rd day after grouping, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in normal control group, scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping were all significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01); and the levels of TNF-α in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald+low-dose group, scald+medium-dose group, and scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping were all significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the levels of IL-1β in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits both in scald+medium-dose group and scald+high-dose group on the 7th day after grouping were significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the levels of IL-10 in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits in scald alone group on the 7th day after grouping was significantly decreased (P<0.01). On the 7th day after grouping, the high-quality sequences obtained from the microflora in ileum mucosa of rabbits in normal control group, scald alone group, and scald+medium-dose group were 96 023, 107 365, and 95 921, respectively. At the classification level of phylum, class, order, family, and genus of the microflora in ileum mucosa of rabbits in three groups were all Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, Clostridium and Bacteroidetes, Clostridium and Bacteroidetes, Rumenobacteriaceae and Clostridium and Bacteroideaceae, Clostridium and Bacteroidetes and rumen bacteria mainly, while the percentage of microflora in each group was different. There were no significant differences in Ace, Chao1, Simpson, Shannon indices (P>0.05), and no obvious difference in β diversity of microflora in ileal mucosa tissue of rabbits among three groups. Conclusions: After severe scalding, the inflammatory response of rabbit ileal mucosa tissue is obvious and increased in a time-dependent manner. Modified Sijunzi Decoction can reduce inflammation with optimal therapeutic concentration of 1.0 g/mL. The technology of high-throughput sequencing can reflect the structural composition of the intestinal microflora accurately. The ileal microflora of the severe scald rabbit can be regulated by the administration of Modified Sijunzi Decoction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Burns/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rabbits
17.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 452-456, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935966

ABSTRACT

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated condition associated with chronic fibroinflammatory lesions that can affect nearly any organ. IgG4-related hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases are IgG4-RD involving the hepatobiliary and pancreatic system, which is characterized with elevated serum IgG4 concentrations, large numbers of IgG4 positive lymphoplasma cells infiltration in affected organs, storiform fibrosis, and imaging changes of organ morphology. Due to the lack of reliable biomarkers, histopathology is still an important basis for diagnosis. The pathogenesis of IgG4-related hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases has not been clarified. This review focuses on the recent advances in intestinal microecology-immunology, host genetics-immunity and recurrence monitoring of IgG4-related hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Pancreatic Diseases
18.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 523-528, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935896

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that, along with dietary, genetic and environmental factors, gut microbiota plays a role in the progress of colorectal cancer. Dysbiosis of oral flora in patients with periodontitis affects the composition of microbial community in the gut, impairs gut barrier function, and induces a proinflammatory microenvironment, all of which contribute to the progression of colorectal cancer. In view of the influences by microbiota dysbiosis, this article reviews the role of periodontitis in affecting the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Microbiota , Periodontitis/complications , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935751

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of lead exposure on the neurobehavior and gut microbiota community structure in mice. Methods: In August 2019, 64 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (0 ppm) , low lead exposure group (20 mg/l) , medium lead exposure group (100 mg/l) and high lead exposure group (500 mg/l) . During the experiment, they were free to eat and drink. The drinking water of the lead exposure group was mixed with lead acetate, and sodium acetate was added in the control group. After 10 weeks of exposure, the Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of each group of mice, and then they were sacrificed for sampling. ICP-MS was used to detect lead content in whole blood and brain tissue. ELISA was used to determine the level of IL-1β in mouse serum. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect the structural diversity of the intestinal flora in feces, and then the correlation between the flora and behavior indicators was analyzed. Results: In the Morris water maze experiment, compared with the control group, there was no significant difference in the body weight and swimming speed of the mice in the lead exposure groups. The escape latency of the mice in the 100 mg/l and 500 mg/l dose groups was prolonged, and the number of platform crossings decreased (P<0.05) ; meanwhile, the staying time of the mice in the 500 mg/l Pb-treated group in the target quadrant was lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the blood lead content of the mice in each lead exposure group was significantly increased, and the brain lead content of mice in the 500 mg/l dose group was significantly elevated (P<0.05) . The serum IL-1β levels of mice in each lead exposure group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05) . At the phylum level, the relative abundance of the Proteobacteria phylum in all of Pb-treated groups was significantly increased (P<0.05) ; at the genus level, Allobaculum, Desulfovibrio, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Turicibacter and Ureaplasma were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Among them. The relative abundance of Desuffaoibrio, Turici bacter, and Ureaplasma was negatively correlated with the residence time of mice in the quadrant of the platform (r=-0.32, -0.29, -0.44, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lead exposure induced learning and memory impairments in mice, which may be related to the disturbance of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lead/toxicity , Maze Learning , Memory Disorders , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 101-107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935651

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the composition of intestinal microflora prior to onset of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight preterm infants. Methods: This was a multicenter prospective nested case-control study. A total of 46 very low birth weight preterm infants (birth weight <1 500 g and gestional age <35 weeks) within 24 h of life admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Children's Hospital of Soochow University and Suzhou Municipal Hospital from April 20 to November 20, 2018 were enrolled. Baseline clinical data and fecal samples of these infants were collected. The subsequent sampling time points were 1st, 4th and 7th day in the first week of life then once per week consecutively. The endpoint of sampling was NEC occurrence, patient discharge or the 8th week post-discharge, whichever came first. Fecal samples were analyzed by 16 S rDNA high-throughput nucleotide sequencing. The control cases were infants without NEC who were matched to the NEC cases with a ratio of 1∶1. The operational taxonomic units (OTU), sequence number and shannon diversity index of the fecal samples were analyzed. Continuous variables were compared with t-test or non-parametric test, and χ2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. Results: There were 23 patients in each group. The gestational age was (29.4±1.8) weeks in NEC group and (29.9±1.6) weeks in control group, including 13 males (57%) and 11 males (48%) in each group, respectively. Species abundance showed that the Firmicutes in both groups decreased temporarily at 7 days of age and then increased with age in control group, but not in NEC group, the Proteobacteria in both groups increased at 7 days of age and then decreased in control group, but kept increasing in NEC group. Regarding the other levels of taxonomy, compared with that of the control group, the NEC group had lower abundance of Proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae at 7 days of age, while higer abundance of Faecalibacterium at 14 days of age, meanwhile, lower Clostridium and Streptococcus at 21 days of age, lower Firmicutes, Clostridia and Clostridium perfringens and higher Proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria at 28 days of age, these differences were all statistically significant (U=43.00, 43.00, 45.00, 80.00, 74.00, 76.00, 19.00, 8.00, 36.00, 25.00, 25.00,all P<0.05). The shannon index of NEC group was both lower than that of the controls at 21 days of age (2.4 (1.4, 3.0) vs. 3.1 (2.6, 4.0), U=67.00, P=0.027) and 28 days of age (2.4 (1.4, 2.8) vs. 3.9 (3.3, 4.2), U=12.00, P=0.001). Conclusions: The intestinal microflora profile of very low birth weight preterm infants has already changed prior to NEC development. The emergence of differential flora and the reduction of microflora diversity may facilitate early identification and prevention of NEC.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , Case-Control Studies , Child , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Male , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies
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