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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.


Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202851, dic. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518181

ABSTRACT

La leche humana es el estándar de oro para la nutrición del bebé y debe iniciarse en la primera hora de vida. La leche de vaca, de otros mamíferos o las bebidas vegetales no se deben ofrecer antes del año de vida. Sin embargo, algunos niños requieren, al menos en parte, de fórmulas infantiles. Aun con las sucesivas mejoras a lo largo de la historia mediante la incorporación de oliogosacáridos, probióticos, prebióticos, sinbióticos y postbióticos, las fórmulas infantiles siguen siendo perfectibles para reducir la brecha de salud entre los bebés amamantados y aquellos alimentados con fórmula. En este sentido, se espera que la complejidad de las fórmulas siga aumentando a medida que se conozca mejor cómo modular el desarrollo de la microbiota intestinal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión no sistemática del efecto de los diferentes escenarios lácteos sobre la microbiota intestinal.


Human milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition, and breastfeeding should be started within the first hour of life. Cow's milk, other mammalian milk, or plant-based beverages should not be offered before 1 year of age. However, some infants require, at least in part, infant formulas. Even with subsequent enhancements throughout history, with the addition of oligosaccharides, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics, infant formulas still have room for improvement in reducing the health gap between breastfed and formula-fed infants. In this regard, the complexity of infant formulas is expected to continue to increase as the knowledge of how to modulate the development of the gut microbiota is better understood. The objective of this study was to perform a non-systematic review of the effect of different milk scenarios on the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Milk Hypersensitivity , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Breast Feeding , Cattle , Infant Formula , Mammals , Milk, Human
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(3): 153-159, sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1519056

ABSTRACT

El consumo de probióticos, prebióticos y posbióticos, o su combinación, puede contribuir a mantener una microbiota intestinal saludable ya que permite la regulación de su disbiosis en el caso de algunas enfermedades o trastornos, principalmente en los trastornos gastrointestinales funcionales (TGIF). El microbioma intestinal es protagonista esencial en la fisiopatología de los TGIF a través de sus funciones metabólicas y nutricionales, el mantenimiento de la integridad de la mucosa intestinal y la regulación de la respuesta inmunitaria. Las investigaciones realizadas hasta la fecha indican que los probióticos, prebióticos y posbióticos pueden tener efectos inmunomoduladores directos y clínicamente relevantes. Existen pruebas del uso de esta familia de bióticos en individuos sanos para mejorar la salud general y aliviar los síntomas en una serie de enfermedades como los cólicos infantiles. La colonización y establecimiento de la microbiota comienza en el momento del nacimiento; los primeros 2-3 años de vida son fundamentales para el desarrollo de una comunidad microbiana abundante y diversa. Diversos estudios científicos realizados mediante técnicas tradicionales dependientes de cultivo y más recientemente por técnicas moleculares han observado diferencias en las poblaciones bacterianas de bebés sanos y aquellos que sufren TGIF, estos últimos caracterizados por un aumento de especies patógenas y una menor población de bifidobacterias y lactobacilos, en comparación con los primeros. En tal contexto, se considera que la microbiota intestinal como protagonista en el desarrollo de esos trastornos, entre ellos los cólicos infantiles, a través de sus funciones metabólicas, nutricionales, de mantenimiento de la integridad de la mucosa intestinal y regulación de la respuesta inmunitaria. Esto ha abierto la puerta al estudio de la utilización de prebióticos, probióticos y posbióticos en el tratamiento y/o prevención de los TGIF infantiles. El parto vaginal y de término así como la lactancia son fundamentales en la constitución de una microbiota saludable. Como herramientas de apoyo, existen estudios de eficacia que sustentan la administración de esta familia de bióticos, principalmente en los casos en que la lactancia no sea posible o esté limitada. (AU)


The consumption of probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics, or a combination of them, can contribute to maintaining a healthy intestinal microbiota as it allows the regulation of its dysbiosis in the case of some diseases or disorders, mainly in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The gut microbiome is an essential player in the pathophysiology of FGIDs through its metabolic and nutritional functions, the maintenance of intestinal mucosal integrity, and the regulation of the immune response. Research results thus far indicate that probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics may have direct and clinically relevant immunomodulatory effects. There is evidence regarding the prescription of this family of biotics in healthy individuals to improve overall health and alleviate symptoms in many conditions like infantile colic. The colonization and microbiota establishment begins at birth; the first 2-3 years of life are critical for developing an abundant and diverse microbial community. Several scientific studies performed by traditional culture-dependent techniques and more recently by molecular techniques have observed differences in the bacterial populations of healthy infants and those suffering from FGIDs, the latter characterized by an increase in pathogenic species and a lower population of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, compared to the former. In this context, the intestinal microbiota plays a leading role in the onset of these disorders, including infantile colic, through its metabolic and nutritional functions, maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, and regulation of the immune response. That has opened the door to the study of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics usage in the treatment and or prevention of infantile FGIDs. Vaginal and term delivery and breastfeeding are fundamental in the constitution of a healthy microbiota. As supportive tools, there are efficacy studies that support the administration of this family of biotics, mainly in cases where lactation is not possible or is limited.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colic/microbiology , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Synbiotics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Lactation , Colic/diet therapy , Colic/physiopathology , Colic/prevention & control , Functional Food , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diet therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1520863

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A disbiose pode estar relacionada à hábitos alimentares ruins e alterações metabólicas que podem contribuir para o excesso de peso. Objetivo: Avaliar as escolhas alimentares que modulam a microbiota intestinal e a associação entre a saúde intestinal e o peso corporal de indivíduos adultos. Método: Estudo analítico, correlacional-descritivo e transversal realizado com 99 participantes, adultos, de ambos os sexos. Utilizou-se um Questionário Sociodemográfico e de Frequência Alimentar para coletar dados sociodemográficos, peso corporal, altura, frequência de consumo de alimentos fontes de prebióticos e probióticos e o Questionário de Rastreamento Metabólico (QRM), para investigar a saúde intestinal. O estudo ocorreu de forma online, via Google forms, sendo divulgado através das redes sociais (Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp). Realizou-se uma análise descritiva dos dados e para associação entre variáveis empregou-se o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson. Resultados: Do total de participantes, 74,7% eram mulheres. Quanto à classificação do Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC), 60,6% apresentaram eutrofia 24,2% sobrepeso e 9,1% algum grau de obesidade. Os alimentos fontes de probióticos e prebióticos mais consumidos foram queijo, iogurte, leites fermentados e banana, maçã, aveia, respectivamente. Porém, são alimentos que não fazem parte do consumo diário para a maioria dos participantes. Não houve diferença significativa entre a associação com IMC com sexo, escore final do QRM e somatório final dos sintomas gastrointestinais (p=0,76, p=0,29, p=0,70), respectivamente. Conclusão: Nota-se uma baixa frequência de consumo de alimentos que auxiliam na saúde intestinal. No entanto, não foi constatado que o peso corporal exerce influência na composição da microbiota intestinal.


Introducción: La disbiosis puede estar relacionada con malos hábitos alimentarios y alteraciones metabólicas que pueden contribuir al sobrepeso. Objetivo: Evaluar las elecciones alimentarias que modulan la microbiota intestinal y la asociación entre la salud intestinal y el peso corporal en personas adultas. Método: Estudio analítico, correlacional-descriptivo y transversal realizado con 99 personas participantes adultas de ambos sexos. Se utilizó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de frecuencia alimentaria para recoger datos sociodemográficos, peso corporal, altura, frecuencia de consumo de fuentes alimentarias de prebióticos y probióticos y el Cuestionario de Seguimiento Metabólico para investigar la salud intestinal. El estudio se realizó online, a través de formularios de Google, siendo difundido a través de redes sociales (Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los datos y para la asociación entre variables se empleó el test Chi-cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: Del total de participantes, el 74.7 % fueron mujeres. En cuanto a la clasificación del Índice de Masa Corporal, el 60.6 % eran personas eutróficas, el 24.2 % con sobrepeso y el 9.1% personas obesas. Los alimentos fuente de probióticos y prebióticos más consumidos fueron el queso, el yogur, las leches fermentadas, el plátano, la manzana y la avena. Sin embargo, se trata de alimentos que no forman parte del consumo diario de la mayoría de los participantes. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la asociación del Índice de Masa Corporal con el sexo, la puntuación final del Cuestionario de Seguimiento Metabólico y la suma final de síntomas gastrointestinales (p=0.76, p=0.29, p=0.70), respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se observa una baja frecuencia de consumo de alimentos que ayudan a la salud intestinal. Sin embargo, no se encontró que el peso corporal ejerza influencia sobre la composición de la microbiota intestinal.


Introduction: Dysbiosis may be related to poor eating habits and metabolic changes that can contribute to being overweight. Objective: To evaluate the food choices that modulate the gut microbiota and the association between gut health and body weight in adult individuals. Method: Analytical, correlational-descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted with 99 adult participants of both sexes. A Sociodemographic and Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, body weight, height, and frequency of consumption of food sources of prebiotics and probiotics; and the Metabolic Tracking Questionnaire was applied to investigate gut health. The study took place online, via Google Forms, and was disseminated through social media (Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp). A descriptive analysis of the data was performed and for association between variables, the Pearson's Chi-square test was used. Results: Of the total number of participants, 74.7% were women. As for the classification of Body Mass Index, 60.6% were eutrophic, 24.2% were overweight, and 9.1% were somewhat obese. The most consumed probiotic and prebiotic food sources were cheese, yogurt, fermented kinds of milk; and banana, apple, and oatmeal, respectively. However, these are foods that are not part of the daily consumption for most participants. There was no significant difference between the association of the Body Mass Index with the sex of the participants or the final Metabolic Tracking Questionnaire score and the final sum of gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.76, p=0.29, p=0.70). Conclusion: A low frequency of consumption of foods that aid intestinal health is noted. However, body weight was not found to influence the composition of the gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Brazil
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1018-1025, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985476

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the short-term effect of individual atmospheric PM2.5 exposure on the diversity, enterotype, and community structure of gut microbiome in healthy elderly people in Jinan, Shandong province. Methods: The present panel study recruited 76 healthy elderly people aged 60-69 years old in Dianliu Street, Lixia District, Jinan, Shandong Province, and followed them up five times from September 2018 to January 2019. The relevant information was collected by questionnaire, physical examination, precise monitoring of individual PM2.5 exposure, fecal sample collection and gut microbiome 16S rDNA sequencing. The Dirichlet multinomial mixtures (DMM) model was used to analyze the enterotype. Linear mixed effect model and generalized linear mixed effect model were used to analyze the effect of PM2.5 exposure on gut microbiome α diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices), enterotype and abundance of core species. Results: Each of the 76 subjects participated in at least two follow-up visits, resulting in a total of 352 person-visits. The age of 76 subjects was (65.0±2.8) years old with BMI (25.0±2.4) kg/m2. There were 38 males accounting for 50% of the subjects. People with an educational level of primary school or below accounted for 10.5% of the 76 subjects, and those with secondary school and junior college or above accounting for 71.1% and 18.4%. The individual PM2.5 exposure concentration of 76 subjects during the study period was (58.7±53.7) μg/m3. DMM model showed that the subjects could be divided into four enterotypes, which were mainly driven by Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. Linear mixed effects model showed that different lag periods of PM2.5 exposure were significantly associated with a lower gut α diversity index (FDR<0.05 after correction). Further analysis showed that PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with changes in the abundances of Firmicutes (Megamonas, Blautia, Streptococcus, etc.) and Bacteroidetes (Alistipes) (FDR<0.05 after correction). Conclusion: Short-term PM2.5 exposure is significantly associated with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity and changes in the abundance of several species of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the elderly. It is necessary to further explore the underlying mechanisms between PM2.5 exposure and the gut microbiome, so as to provide a scientific basis for promoting the intestinal health of the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Particulate Matter , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
9.
Singapore medical journal ; : 45-52, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969664

ABSTRACT

Microbiome is associated with a wide range of diseases. The gut microbiome is also a dynamic reflection of health status, which can be modified, thus representing great potential to exploit the mechanisms that influence human physiology. Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in gut microbiome studies, which has been enabled by the rapidly evolving high-throughput sequencing methods (i.e. 16S rRNA sequencing and shotgun sequencing). As the emerging technologies for microbiome research continue to evolve (i.e. metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, culturomics, synthetic biology), microbiome research has moved beyond phylogenetic descriptions and towards mechanistic analyses. In this review, we highlight different approaches to study the microbiome, in particular, the current limitations and future promise of these techniques. This review aims to provide clinicians with a framework for studying the microbiome, as well as to accelerate the adoption of these techniques in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Health Status
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3602-3611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981491

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis(RA), a chronic autoimmune disease, is featured by persistent joint inflammation. The development of RA is associated with the disturbance of endogenous metabolites and intestinal microbiota. Gardeniae Fructus(GF), one of the commonly used medicinal food in China, is usually prescribed for the prevention and treatment of jaundice, inflammation, ache, fever, and skin ulcers. GF exerts an effect on ameliorating RA, the mechanism of which remains to be studied. In this study, ultra-perfor-mance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS)-based serum non-target metabolomics and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing were employed to elucidate the mechanism of GF in ameliorating RA induced by complete Freund's adjuvant in rats. The results showed that GF alleviated the pathological conditions in adjuvant arthritis(AA) rats. The low-and high-dose GF lo-wered the serum levels of interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-1β, and prostaglandin E2 in the rats(P<0.05, P<0.01). Pathways involved in metabolomics were mainly α-linolenic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the Streptococcus, Facklamia, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Kosakonia were the critical gut microorganisms for GF to treat AA in rats. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the three differential metabolites PE-NMe[18:1(9Z)/20:0], PC[20:1(11Z)/18:3(6Z,9Z,12Z)], and PC[20:0/18:4(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)] were correlated with the differential bacteria. In conclusion, GF may ameliorate RA by regulating the composition of intestinal microbiota, α-linolenic acid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. The findings provide new ideas and data for elucidating the mechanism of GF in relieving RA.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Gardenia , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , alpha-Linolenic Acid , Metabolomics/methods , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Inflammation , Glycerophospholipids
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 964-969, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether gut microbiota disturbance after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) contributes to the development of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND).@*METHODS@#Fecal samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with PND after CPB to prepare suspensions of fecal bacteria, which were transplanted into the colorectum of two groups of pseudo-germ-free adult male SD rats (group NP and group P, respectively), with the rats without transplantation as the control group (n=10). The feces of the rats were collected for macrogenomic sequencing analysis, and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured with ELISA. The expression levels of GFAP and p-Tau protein in the hippocampus of the rats were detected using Western blotting, and the cognitive function changes of the rats were assessed with Morris water maze test.@*RESULTS@#In all the 3 groups, macrogenomic sequencing analysis showed clustering and clear partitions of the gut microbiota after the transplantation. The relative abundances of Klebsiella in the control group (P < 0.005), Akkermansia in group P (P < 0.005) and Bacteroides in group NP (P < 0.005) were significantly increased after the transplantation. Compared with those in the control group, the rats in group NP and group P showed significantly decreased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and lowered expression levels of GFAP and p-Tau proteins (all P < 0.05). Escape platform crossings and swimming duration in the interest quadrant increased significantly in group NP (P < 0.05), but the increase was not statistically significant in group N. Compared with those in group P, the rats in group NP had significantly lower serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and protein expressions of GFAP and p-Tau (all P < 0.05) with better performance in water maze test (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients receiving CPB, disturbances in gut mirobiota contributes to the development of PND possibly in relation with inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Interleukin-6 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Neurocognitive Disorders
12.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417500

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the effects of 17 ß-estradiol replacements on the fecal microbiota in spayed cats. Individual samples of fresh feces were collected and stored at -80° C. Sequencing of the V3/V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene was used, and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio was lower in the group receiving estrogen replacement compared to the SHAM group (P = 0,005). Jaccard index (P = 0.123) and Yue & Clayton index (P = 0.094) did not reveal alpha and beta diversity differences. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LefSe) identified Firmicutes and MegasPhaera as the biomarkers for the SHAM group, and Burkholderiales, Betaproteobacteria, Sutterellaceae, Suterella, Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria unclassified and Collinsella for the group receiving estrogen replacement.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi observar os efeitos da reposição de 17 ß-estradiol na microbiota fecal de gatas castradas. Amostras individuais de fezes frescas foram colhidas e armazenadas a -80°C. Foi realizado o sequenciamento das regiões V3/V4 do gene 16S rRNA e a análise bioinformática. A razão Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes foi menor no grupo que recebeu reposição estrogênica em comparação ao grupo SHAM (P = 0,005). O índice de Jaccard (P = 0,123) e o índice de Yue & Clayton (P = 0,094) não revelaram diferenças na alfa e beta diversidade. A análise discriminatória linear de tamanho do efeito (LefSe) identificou Firmicutes e Megasphaera como biomarcadores para o grupo SHAM, e Burkholderiales, Betaproteobacteria, Sutterellaceae, Suterella, Proteobacteria, Proteobacteria não classificada e Collinsella para o grupo que recebeu reposição estrogênica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/veterinary
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-14, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468843

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice [...].


O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus [...].


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Mice , /etiology , /prevention & control , /veterinary , Dysbiosis/veterinary , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2792-2802, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981382

ABSTRACT

Genkwa Fols, Kansui Radix, and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix in Shizao Decoction(SZD) are toxic to intestinal tract. Jujubae Fructus in this prescription can alleviate the toxicity, but the mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the mechanism. To be specific, 40 normal Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were classified into the normal group, high-dose and low-dose SZD groups, and high-dose and low-dose SZD without Jujubae Fructus(SZD-JF) groups. The SZD groups were given(ig) SZD, while SZD-JF groups received the decoction without Jujubae Fructus. The variation of body weight and spleen index were recorded. The patho-logical changes of intestinal tissue were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The content of malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in intestinal tissue were measured to evaluate the intestinal injury. Fresh feces of rats were collected to detect intestinal flora structure by 16S ribosomal RNA gene(16S rDNA) sequencing technology. The content of fecal short chain fatty acids and fecal metabolites was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer ultra-fast liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer(UFLC-Q-TOF-MS), separately. Spearman's correlation analysis was employed to analyze the differential bacteria genera and differential metabolites. RESULTS:: showed that high-dose and low-dose SZD-JF groups had high content of MDA in intestinal tissue, low GSH content and SOD activity, short intestinal villi(P<0.05), low diversity and abundance of intestinal flora, variation in the intestinal flora structure, and low content of short chain fatty acids(P<0.05) compared with the normal group. Compared with high-dose and low-dose SZD-JF groups, high-dose and low-dose SZD groups displayed low content of MDA in intestinal tissue, high GSH content and SOD activity, recovery of the length of intestinal villi, increased abundance and diversity of intestinal flora, alleviation of dysbacteria, and recovery of the content of short chain fatty acids(P<0.05). According to the variation of intestinal flora and fecal metabolites after the addition of Jujubae Fructus, 6 differential bacterial genera(Lactobacillus, Butyricimonas, Clostridia_UCG-014, Prevotella, Escherichia-Shigella, Alistipes),4 differential short chain fatty acids(such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid) and 18 differential metabolites(such as urolithin A, lithocholic acid, and creatinine) were screened out. Beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus were in positive correlation with butyric acid and urolithin A(P<0.05). The pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia-Shigella were in negative correlation with propionic acid and urolithin A(P<0.05). In summary, SZD-JF caused obvious intestinal injury to normal rats, which could lead to intestinal flora disorder. The addition of Jujubae Fructus can alleviate the disorder and relieve the injury by regulating intestinal flora and the metabolites. This study discusses the effect of Jujubae Fructus in relieving the intestinal injury caused by SZD and the mechanism from the perspective of intestinal flora-host metabolism, which is expected to serve as a reference for clinical application of this prescription.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Propionates/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Fatty Acids, Volatile/pharmacology , Butyrates/pharmacology
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1390-1400, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980949

ABSTRACT

The intestinal mucus layer is a barrier that separates intestinal contents and epithelial cells, as well as acts as the "mucus layer-soil" for intestinal flora adhesion and colonization. Its structural and functional integrity is crucial to human health. Intestinal mucus is regulated by factors such as diet, living habits, hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and intestinal flora. The mucus layer's thickness, viscosity, porosity, growth rate, and glycosylation status affect the structure of the gut flora colonized on it. The interaction between "mucus layer-soil" and "gut bacteria-seed" is an important factor leading to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and wash microbial transplantation are efficient methods for managing NAFLD, but their long-term efficacy is poor. FMT is focused on achieving the goal of treating diseases by enhancing the "gut bacteria-seed". However, a lack of effective repair and management of the "mucus layer-soil" may be a reason why "seeds" cannot be well colonized and grow in the host gut, as the thinning and destruction of the "mucus layer-soil" is an early symptom of NAFLD. This review summarizes the existing correlation between intestinal mucus and gut microbiota, as well as the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and proposes a new perspective that "mucus layer-soil" restoration combined with "gut bacteria-seed" FMT may be one of the most effective future strategies for enhancing the long-term efficacy of NAFLD treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Bacteria , Liver/pathology
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1261-1277, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980808

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, it has become increasingly recognized that a balanced gut microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of the host. Numerous clinical and preclinical studies have shown that changes in gut microbiota composition are associated with a variety of neurological diseases, e.g., Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and myasthenia gravis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are complex and remain unclear. Behavioral phenotypes can be transmitted from humans to animals through gut microbiota transplantation, indicating that the gut microbiota may be an important regulator of neurological diseases. However, further research is required to determine whether animal-based findings can be extended to humans and to elucidate the relevant potential mechanisms by which the gut microbiota regulates neurological diseases. Such investigations may aid in the development of new microbiota-based strategies for diagnosis and treatment and improve the clinical management of neurological disorders. In this review, we describe the dysbiosis of gut microbiota and the corresponding mechanisms in common neurological diseases, and discuss the potential roles that the intestinal microbiome may play in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Nervous System Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Microbiota , Brain
17.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 509-516, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture combined with infantile tuina on intestinal flora and its efficacy in children with tic disorders (TD), and to explore its mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 15 children with TD were recruited as an observation group and 10 healthy children as a healthy control group. Regulating spleen and stomach acupuncture combined with infantile tuina were received in the observation group. First, acupuncture was applied to Zhongwan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Guanyuan (CV 4), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), etc., and then abdominal massage and other tuina techniques were applied, once a day, 6 times a week, 2 weeks as a course of treatment, a total of 2 courses of treatment were required. No intervention was given in the healthy control group. In the observation group, Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) score and TCM syndrome score were compared before treatment and after 1 and 2 courses of treatment. 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to detect the intestinal flora in the healthy control group and before and after treatment in the observation group.@*RESULTS@#After 1 and 2 courses of treatment, the scores of YGTSS and TCM syndrome in the observation group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and indexes of Chao1, Sobs, Ace and Shannon were decreased in the observation group before treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with before treatment, the number of OTU and indexes of Chao1, Sobs, Ace and Shannon were increased in the observation group after treatment (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the observation group before treatment was decreased (P<0.001), while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides and Erysipelatoclostridium was increased (P<0.001, P<0.05). Compared with before treatment, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in the observation group was decreased (P<0.001) after treatment, while the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with infantile tuina based on the principle of regulating spleen and stomach could effectively improve TD symptoms in children, which may be related to regulating the diversity of intestinal flora, increasing beneficial bacteria, maintaining intestinal microecological balance, and playing a role in improving neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Acupuncture Therapy , Spleen , Tic Disorders
18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 113-124, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971556

ABSTRACT

The way sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is perceived has undergone drastic changes in recent decades. For a long time, PD was considered a brain disease characterized by motor disturbances; however, the identification of several risk factors and the hypothesis that PD has a gastrointestinal onset have shed additional light. Today, after recognition of prodromal non-motor symptoms and the pathological processes driving their evolution, there is a greater understanding of the involvement of other organ systems. For this reason, PD is increasingly seen as a multiorgan and multisystemic pathology that arises from the interaction of susceptible genetic factors with a challenging environment during aging-related decline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Risk Factors , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Prodromal Symptoms , alpha-Synuclein
19.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 155-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) modulating the gut microbiome and trimethylamine oxide (TAMO) to exert cardioprotective effects.@*METHODS@#Ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery was performed in rats to induce heart failure (HF). Except for the sham-operation group (n=10), 36 operation-induced models were randomized into 3 groups using a random number table (n=12 in each group): the model group, the BYHWD group (15.02 g/kg BYHWD), and the positive group (4.99 g/kg metoprolol succinate). After 4-week treatment (once daily by gavage), echocardiography was applied to evaluate the cardiac function and the Tei index (the ratio of ventricular isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) and isovolumic diastolic time (IVRT) to ejection time (ET)) was calculated; hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was observed to characterize the pathology of the myocardium and small intestinal villi. D-lactic acid was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of occludin, claudin-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1) were detected by Western blot. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) sequencing was used to explore the changes in the intestinal flora. TMAO was detected via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).@*RESULTS@#In the echocardiography, the Tei index was considerably lower in the positive and BYHWD groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). Besides, BYHWD improved the pathology of myocardium and small intestine of HF rats and lowered the D-lactic acid content in the serum, when compared with the model group (P<0.05). BYHWD also improved the expression of occludin and claudin-1 (P<0.05); in the gut microbiota analysis, BYHWD slowed down modifications in the structure distribution of gut microbiota and regulated the diversity of intestinal flora in HF rats. The content of TMAO in the serum was significantly lowered by BYWHT compared with the model group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BYHWD may delay progression of HF by enhancing the intestinal barrier structure, and regulating intestinal flora and TAMO.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Chromatography, Liquid , Claudin-1 , Occludin , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Heart Failure
20.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 124-132, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the gut microbiota in newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-2 and the association between the gut microbiota and the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy.@*METHODS@#Fresh fecal samples were collected from nineteen newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with CKD stages 1-2 and fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Fecal bacterial DNA was extracted and microbiota composition were characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) high-throughput sequencing for the V3-V4 region. The Illumina Miseq platform was used to analyze the results of 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing of fecal flora. At the same time, the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy patients were collected to investigate the association between the gut microbiota and the clinical risk factors.@*RESULTS@#(1) At the phylum level, the abundance of Bacteroidetes was significantly reduced (P=0.046), and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased (P=0.001). At the genus level, the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Bifidobacte-rium, Dorea and others were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The abundance of Lachnospira, Coprococcus_2 and Sutterella was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). (2) There was no significant difference in the abundance of gut microbiota between the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients and the healthy control group (P>0.05), but there were differences in the structure of the gut microbiota between the two groups. The results of LEfSe analysis showed that there were 16 differential bacteria in the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients and healthy controls. Among them, the abundance of the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients was increased in Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteria, Escherichia-Shigella, etc. The healthy control group was increased in Bacteroidetes and Lachnospira. (3) The result of redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with serum IgA levels, 24-hour urinary protein levels and the presence of hypertension. Lachnoclostridium was positively correlated with the presence of hypertension. Escherichia-Shigella was positively correlated with urine red blood cells account. Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with the proliferation of capillaries. Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with cell/fibrocytic crescents. Ruminococcus_2 was positively correlated with mesangial cell proliferation, glomerular segmental sclerosis and renal tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis.@*CONCLUSION@#The gut microbiota in the newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy patients with CKD stages 1-2 is different from that of the healthy controls. Most importantly, some gut bacteria are related to the clinical risk factors of IgA nephropathy. Further research is needed to understand the potential role of these bacteria in IgA nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Bacteria/genetics , Risk Factors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
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