Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 314
Filter
1.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 168-174, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences the appropriate function of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal dysbiosis may be associated with a higher risk of esophageal lesions, mainly due to changes in gastroesophageal motility patterns, elevation of intra-abdominal pressure, and increased frequency of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal microbiota in individuals with erosive esophagitis and in healthy individuals using metagenomics. METHODS: A total of 22 fecal samples from adults aged between 18 and 60 years were included. Eleven individuals had esophagitis (eight men and three women) and 11 were healthy controls (10 men and one woman). The individuals were instructed to collect and store fecal material into a tube containing guanidine solution. The DNA of the microbiota was extracted from each fecal samples and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform and the data were analyzed using the QIIME™ software version 1.8. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test and the ANOSIM non-parametric method based on distance matrix. RESULTS: The alpha-diversity and beta-diversity indices were similar between the two groups, without statistically significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference in the phylum level. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the abundance of the family Clostridiaceae (0.3% vs 2.0%, P=0.032) and in the genus Faecaliumbacterium (10.5% vs 4.5%, P=0.045) between healthy controls and esophagitis patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that reduced abundance of the genus Faecaliumbacterium and greater abundance of the family Clostridiaceae may be risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis. Intervention in the composition of the intestinal microbiota should be considered as an adjunct to current therapeutic strategies for this clinical condition.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das enfermidades mais comuns na prática clínica e possui fisiopatologia multifatorial. Disbiose da microbiota intestinal pode ter influência em mecanismos envolvidos nesta doença, como mudanças nos padrões motores gastrointestinais, elevação da pressão intra-abdominal e aumento da frequência de relaxamentos transitórios do esfíncter esofágico inferior. Contudo, a avaliação da microbiota intestinal, neste contexto, ainda é pouco documentada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a microbiota bacteriana intestinal, em indivíduos com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico erosivo e em indivíduos saudáveis, utilizando técnicas de metagenômica. MÉTODOS: Estudo incluiu amostras fecais de 22 adultos, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos: 11 com esofagite erosiva (oito homens e três mulheres) e 11 controles saudáveis (dez homens e uma mulher). Os pacientes foram orientados a coletar e armazenar o material fecal em tubo contendo solução de guanidina. O DNA da microbiota foi extraído das amostras de fezes e amplificação por PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores para a região V4 do gene 16S rRNA. Os amplicons foram seqüenciados usando a plataforma Ion PGM Torrent e os dados foram analisados usando o software QIIME™ versão 1.8 (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology). Análise de estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney e o teste ANOSIM, método não paramétrico baseado em matriz de distância. RESULTADOS: Os índices de alfa-diversidade e beta-diversidade foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos, sem diferença estatisticamente significante. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante no nível de filo, classe e ordem. Entretanto, observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na abundância da família Clostridiaceae (0,3% vs 2,0%, P=0,032) e no gênero Faecaliumbacterium (10,5% vs 4,5%, P=0,045) entre controles saudáveis e pacientes com DRGE erosiva, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que menor abundância do gênero Faecaliumbacterium e maior abundância da família Clostridiaceae, nos pacientes com DRGE, podem influenciar na fisiopatologia desta doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Esophagitis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Dysbiosis , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
6.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 22-28, Jan. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vibrio species display variable and plastic fitness strategies to survive and interact with multiple hosts, including marine aquaculture species that are severely affected by pathogenic Vibrios. The culturable Vibrio sp. strain ArtGut-C1, the focus of this study, provides new evidence of such phenotypic plasticity as it accumulates polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer with anti-pathogen activity, particularly in the marine larviculture phase. The strain was isolated from the gut of laboratory-reared Artemia individuals, the live diet and PHB carrier used in larviculture. Its main phenotypic properties, taxonomic status and genomic properties are reported based on the whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Vibrio sp. ArtGut-C1 yielded 72.6% PHB of cells' dry weight at 25 C. The genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) shows it is closely related to V. diabolicus (ANI: 88.6%). Its genome contains 5,236,997- bp with 44.8% GC content, 3,710 protein-coding sequences, 96 RNA, 9 PHB genes functionally related to PHB metabolic pathways, and several genes linked to competing and colonizing abilities. CONCLUSIONS: This culturable PHB-accumulating Vibrio strain shows high genomic and phenotypic variability. It may be used as a natural pathogen biocontrol in the marine hatchery and as a potential cell factory for PHB production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/microbiology , Vibrio/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism , Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Vibrio/isolation & purification , Vibrio/classification , Aquaculture , Probiotics , Crustacea/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biological Variation, Population
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of nuciferine on alleviating obesity based on modulating gut microbiota, ameliorating chronic inflammation, and improving gut permeability. In this study, the obese model mice were induced by high-fat diet and then randomly divided into model group, and nuciferine group; some other mice of the same week age were fed with normal diet as normal group. In the modeling process, the mice were administered intragastrically(ig) for 12 weeks. In the course of both modeling and treatment, the body weight and food intake of mice in each group were measured weekly. After modeling and treatment, the Lee's index, weight percentage of inguinal subcutaneous fat, and the level of blood lipid in each group were measured. The pathological changes of adipocytes were observed by HE staining to evaluate the efficacy of nuciferine treatment in obese model mice. 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis was conducted to study the changes in diversity and abundance of gut microbiota after nuciferine treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) were used to detect the levels of inflammatory factors interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and the expression of related genes in adipose tissue of mice in each group, so as to evaluate the effect of nuciferine on chronic inflammation of mice in obese model group. qPCR was used to detect the expression of occludin and tight junction protein 1(ZO-1)gene in colon tissure, so as to evaluate the effect of nuciferine on intestinal permeability of mice in obese group. Nuciferine decreased the body weight of obese mice, Lee's index, weight percentage of inguinal subcutaneous fat(P<0.05), and reduced the volume of adipocytes, decreased the level of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)(P<0.05) in serum, improved dysbacteriosis, increased the relative abundance of Alloprevotella, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus, lowered the relative abundance of Helicobac-ter, decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α genes in adipose tissue(P<0.01), decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum(P<0.05), and increased the expression of occludin and ZO-1 genes related to tight junction in colon tissue(P<0.01). Nuciferine could treat obesity through modulating gut microbiota, decreasing gut permeability and ameliorating inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aporphines , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves on the diversity of intestinal microflora in rats with diabetic kidney injury. Diabetic rats model was established by feeding high glucose and high fat diet and 5% glucose solution with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozocin(STZ). The rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, irbesartan control group, Huangkui Capsules control group, as well as low, middle and high dose groups of Sal-viae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves. After administration for 2 weeks, 16 S rRNA technique was used to analyze the diversity of intestinal microflora in the feces of each group. The results showed rats in the model group developed renal tubular epithelial vacuole degeneration and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal interstitium. A small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in each administration group. The kidney structure of rats in irbesartan group, Huangkui Capsules group, high-dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem water extract, as well as high dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem ethnol extract group was close to the normal group. The diversity and structure of intestinal flora in the model group were significantly different from those in the normal group. Each administration group improved the fecal flora diversity in rats with diabetic kidney injury to a certain extent, especially the high dose of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stems water extract. Different flora were found in feces of diabetic nephropathy model rats on class, order, family and genus levels. On families and genera levels, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Peptostreptococcaceae, Desulfovibrio, and SMB53 showed an upward trend in model group, but that of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Rikenella, Rumen fungi showed a downward trend. The administration groups can improve the relative abundance of the above intestinal flora in the model rats to a normal-like level. The results of this study provide a reference for resource utilization and further development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Rats , Salvia miltiorrhiza
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878927

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Phellinus igniarius in lowering uric acid and changing the gut microbiome in hyperuricemia rats. A total of 36 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model control group, positive drug control group, and high-dose, middle-dose and low-dose P. igniarius ethanol extract groups, with 6 rats in each group. Hyperuricemia rats were established by D-fructose combined with oteracil potassium(OAPS). One week later, the positive control group was given allopurinol 50 mg·kg~(-1) intragastrically, and P. igniarius ethanol extract groups were treated with 30, 60 and 90 mg·kg~(-1) drugs for 14 consecutive days. Body weight, blood glucose and serum uric acid(SUA) were monitored every week. After the model rats were administered with the ethanol extracts of P. igniarius by gavage for two weeks, the activities of creatinine, BUN, xanthine oxidase(XOD) and adenosine deaminase(ADA) were detected. The right kidney was taken to analyze the histological and morphological changes and the degree of damage to main organs of the extract of P. igniarius. The 16 S rDNA gene sequence technique was used to analyze the guts microbiota composition in feces. The results indicated that ethanol extract of P. igniarius could significantly lower the SUA level(P<0.01), while inhibiting the activities of XOD and ADA(P<0.05, P<0.01). Histological examination showed that the allopurine group showed slight renal tubular dilation and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the normal group, with no significant difference between the P. igniarius ethanol extract groups and the normal group. The 16 S sequencing results showed that the composition of gut microbiota has changed in each group. Therefore, ethanol extracts of P. igniarius may reduce the level of SUA in rats by inhibiting the activities of XOD and ADA, with a certain effect on the composition of gut microbiota.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hyperuricemia , Phellinus , Plant Extracts , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Uric Acid
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878904

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by elevated systemic arterial blood pressure, which may be accompanied by functional or organic damage of heart, brain, kidney and other organs. The pathogenesis and development of hypertension are affected by genetic, environmental, epigenetic, intestinal microbiota and other factors. They are the result of multiple factors that promote the change of blood pressure level and vascular resistance. G protein coupled receptors(GPCRs) are the largest and most diverse superfamily of transmembrane receptors that transmit signals across cell membranes and mediate a large number of cellular responses required by human physiology. A variety of GPCRs are involved in the control of blood pressure and the maintenance of normal function of cardiovascular system. Hypertension contributes to the damages of heart, brain, kidney, intestine and other organs. Many GPCRs are expressed in various organs to regulate blood pressure. Although many GPCRs have been used as therapeutic targets for hypertension, their efficacy has not been fully studied. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the role of GPCRs in blood pressure regulation and its distribution in target organs. The relationship between GPCRs related to intestinal microorganisms and blood pressure is emphasized. It is proposed that traditional Chinese medicine may be a new way to treat hypertension by regulating the related GPCRs via intestinal microbial metabolites.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , GTP-Binding Proteins , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 301-311, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878563

ABSTRACT

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global epidemic disease caused by hepatitis B virus that can lead to hepatic failure, even liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The occurrence and development of CHB are closely related to the changes in the gut microbiota communities. To explore the relationship between the structure of gut microbiota and liver biochemical indicators, 14 CHB patients (the CHB group) and 11 healthy people (the CN group) were randomly enrolled in this study. Our results demonstrate that CHB caused changes in the gut microbiota communities and biochemical indicators, such as alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and gamma glutamyl transferase. Furthermore, CHB induced imbalance of the gut microbiota. Prevotella, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium eligens group, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA were associated with the critical biochemical indicators and liver injury, suggesting a new approach to CHB treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteroides , Eubacterium , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Xiajuxu" (ST 39) on intestinal flora and Toll-like receptors-4 (TLR4) in brain and intestinal tissue in rats with stress gastric ulcer (SGU), and to explore the possible mechanism of acupuncture for SGU.@*METHODS@#Thirty-one male SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group (@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the gastric mucosal damage index was significantly increased in the model group (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Xiajuxu" (ST 39) could alleviate SGU in rats, and its mechanism may be related to increasing the diversity of intestinal flora, promoting the disorder of intestinal flora to normal, and reducing the overexpression of TLR4 in brain and intestinal tissues.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Animals , Brain , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stomach Ulcer/therapy , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of ginger-separated moxibustion on fatigue state and intestinal flora in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).@*METHODS@#A total of 62 patients with CFS were randomly divided into an observation group (31 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (31 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with normal diet and moderate exercise; on the basis of the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with ginger-separated moxibustion at Zhongwan (CV 12), Shenque (CV 8) and Guanyuan (CV 4), 30 min each time, once every other day, three times a week. Both groups were intervened for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, the fatigue scale-14 (FS-14) was used to observe the improvement of fatigue state, and 16S rRNA detection technology was used to detect the distribution of intestinal flora.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the FS-14 score was reduced after treatment in the observation group (@*CONCLUSION@#The ginger-separated moxibustion could significantly improve the fatigue state in CFS patients, which may be related to the regulation of intestinal flora structure and the repair of intestinal barrier.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ginger , Humans , Moxibustion , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
14.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3446, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289770

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze scientific evidence regarding the relationship between the type of birth and the microbiota acquired by newborns. Method: this integrative review addresses the role of the type of delivery on newborns' microbial colonization. A search was conducted in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed and Virtual Health Library databases using the descriptors provided by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Science Descriptors (DeCS). Results: infants born vaginally presented a greater concentration of Bacteroides, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus in the first days of life and more significant microbial variability in the following weeks. The microbiome of infants born via C-section is similar to the maternal skin and the hospital setting and less diverse, mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium. Conclusion: the maternal vaginal microbiota provides newborns with a greater variety of colonizing microorganisms responsible for boosting and preparing the immune system. Vaginal birth is the ideal birth route, and C-sections should only be performed when there are medical indications.


Objective: analisar as evidências científicas existentes na literatura sobre a relação da via de nascimento com a microbiota adquirida pelo recém-nascido. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa sobre a influência da via de nascimento na colonização microbiótica no recém-nascido. Foi realizada uma busca na literatura por meio das bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/ PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, tendo como estratégia de busca a seleção de artigos baseados nos descritores desenvolvidos com Medical Subject Headings (termos MeSH) ou Descritores em Ciência da Saúde (DeCS). Resultados: os recém-nascidos por via vaginal apresentam nos primeiros dias de vida maior concentração de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias e Lactobacillus e, com o passar das semanas, mostram maior variabilidade microbiótica. Os recém-nascidos por cesárea apresentam microbioma semelhante ao da pele materna e do ambiente hospitalar e possuem menor diversidade, sendo, principalmente, constituído de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus e Clostridium. Conclusão: a microbiota vaginal materna dispõe de uma maior variedade de microrganismos colonizadores, os quais são responsáveis por auxiliar na capacitação e melhor adequação ao sistema imunológico do recém-nato. Evidencia-se que o parto vaginal é a via ideal, ou seja, a cesariana deve ser realizada apenas quando existem indicações reais.


Objetivo: analizar las evidencias científicas existentes en la literatura sobre la relación de la vía de nacimiento con la microbiota adquirida por el recién nacido. Método: se trata de una revisión integradora sobre la influencia de la vía de nacimiento en la colonización de la microbiota en el recién nacido. Fue realizada una búsqueda en la literatura en las bases de datos Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online/PubMed y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, teniendo como estrategia de búsqueda la selección de artículos basados en los descriptores desarrollados en el Medical Subject Headings (términos MeSH) o Descriptores en Ciencia de la Salud (DeCS). Resultados: los recién nacidos por vía vaginal presentan, en los primeros días de vida, mayor concentración de Bacteroides, Bifidobacterias y Lactobacillus; y, con el pasar de las semanas muestran mayor variabilidad de la microbiota. Los recién nacidos por cesárea presentan microbioma semejante a la piel materna y al ambiente hospitalario, poseyendo menor diversidad y siendo principalmente constituida de Staphylococcus, Streptococcus y Clostridium. Conclusión: la microbiota vaginal materna proporciona al neonato una mayor variedad de microorganismos colonizadores que son responsables por auxiliar en la capacitación y mejor adecuación de su sistema inmunológico. Se evidencia que el parto vaginal es la vía ideal y que la cesárea debe ser realizada apenas cuando existen indicaciones reales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteroides , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Parturition , Microbiota , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
15.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31105, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291252

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A cesárea é realizada em condições maternas e/ou fetais que impeçam o nascimento via vaginal. Devido ao risco de complicações infecciosas, o procedimento é precedido de antibioticoprofilaxia, o que pode provocar a seleção de cepas multirresistentes e alterar a flora nativa do indivíduo. O colostro é um fator determinante para a colonização do trato digestivo por ser fonte probiótica, além de apresentar papel importante na modulação do sistema imunológico e desenvolvimento do neonato. Objetivo: Este estudo visa avaliar possíveis interferências da antibioticoprofilaxia realizada previamente à cesárea na flora materna. Métodos: Selecionou-se 140 lactantes após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, divididas em grupos estudo (realizaram parto cesáreo com antibioticoprofilaxia) e controle (realizaram parto vaginal sem antibioticoprofilaxia) para coleta das amostras ­ colostro e esfregaço areolar ­ com intuito de realizar a análise microbiológica das mesmas no Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Resultados: 94 lactantes pertencem ao grupo estudo e 46 ao controle. O microrganismo mais prevalente em todas as amostras foi a Candida sp. Ao se discriminar os grupos, a mesma também apresentou maior prevalência, seguida de Enterococcus sp. Em relação à detecção de Staphylococcus aureus pelo esfregaço mamilar, ele foi encontrado em 24 amostras do grupo controle e em 34 do grupo estudo. Na análise comparativa da prevalência de microrganismos entre os grupos, não se observou diferença estatisticamente relevante. Conclusão: A antibioticoprofilaxia peri-operatória mostrou-se segura em não alterar a composição da flora materna. Entretanto, mais estudos sobre o tema devem ser realizados.


Introduction: The C-section is performed under maternal and / or fetal conditions that prevent vaginal birth. Because of the infectious complications, the procedure is preceded by antibiotic prophylaxis, which can cause the selection of multidrug-resistant strains and shift the individual's native flora. Colostrum is a determining factor for colonization of the digestive tract being a probiotic source, along with playing an important role in the modulation of the immune system and development of the newborn. Objective: This study aims to assess possible interferences of antibiotic prophylaxis performed prior to cesarean section on maternal flora. Methods: 140 lactating women were selected after applying the exclusion criteria, divided into study groups (94 lactating women who underwent cesarean delivery with antibiotic prophylaxis) and control groups (46 lactating women who underwent vaginal delivery without antibiotic prophylaxis) for sample collection - colostrum and areolar swab - therefore perform the microbiological analysis at the Laboratório de Microbiologia da Faculdade de Medicina de Barbacena. Results: The most prevalent microorganism in all samples was Candida sp. Discriminating the groups, it also had the highest prevalence, followed by Enterococcus sp. Regarding the detection of Staphylococcus aureus by the areolar swab, it was found in 24 samples from the control group and 34 from the study group. In the comparative analysis of prevalence of microorganisms, between the groups, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis proved to be safe not changing the composition of the maternal flora. However, further studies on the subject should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Microbiological Techniques , Colostrum , Infant , Staphylococcus aureus , Candida , Cesarean Section , Flora , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Parturition , Postpartum Period , Enterobacteriaceae , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
16.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 504-514, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342267

ABSTRACT

Background: Over time, herbal plants and their various components have been major sources of therapeutic medicine for man. A comparative study was carried out to determine the phytochemical components and antibacterial activities of the different crude extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Vitellaria paradoxa roots on four enteric bacteria; Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Methodology: Root samples of E. heterophylla and V. paradoxa were collected, washed, air dried and processed to fine powder in the microbiology laboratory of Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Crude extract of the root samples was done by the cold maceration technique using four solvents (chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water). Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was done using previously described technique, and in vitro antibacterial activities of different concentrations of the extracts (50-200 mg/ml) and a standard antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) were tested on four enteric bacteria (S. typhi, S. flexneri, E. coli, P. vulgaris) by the agar diffusion test. In vivo antibacterial activities of the two plants were also tested by daily oral administration of 2000 mg/kg bodyweight (for 7 days) of each extract on inbred mice infected through intraperitoneal inoculation of an infective dose of each of the four enteric bacteria. Data were computed as mean ± standard error and analysed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.4. Associations between variables were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA), with p < 0.05 considered as significant value. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of both plants revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins but V. paradoxa contain more carbohydrates and starch, and less phlobatannins, compared to E. heterophylla. In vitro assay showed dose-dependent antibacterial activity of the methanol, aqueous and chloroform (but not petroleum ether) extracts of the two plant roots. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the different extracts of V. paradoxica extracts were significantly higher (higher mean diameters of inhibition zones) than those of E. heterophylla (p<0.05), and methanol extracts gave the highest antibacterial effects. However, the root extract of E. heterophylla gave a higher antibacterial activity with the in vivo assay on inbred mice than V. paradoxa, and methanol extracts of the two plant extracts gave the highest in vivo activity, followed by aqueous extract and least activity was obtained with the chloroform extract. Conclusion: Crude extracts of E. heterophylla and V. paradoxa roots produce antibacterial activity against enteric Gram-negative bacteria pathogens involved in diarrhoea illnesses. Further researches should be directed towards isolation and characterization of the active compounds in the crude extracts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Euphorbia heterodoxa , Phytochemicals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Nigeria
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 381-398, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142348

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Over the last years, there is growing evidence that microorganisms are involved in the maintenance of our health and are related to various diseases, both intestinal and extraintestinal. Changes in the gut microbiota appears to be a key element in the pathogenesis of hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea. In 2019, the Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) in cooperation with the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter Pylori and Microbiota (NBEHPM), and Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology (FBG) sponsored a joint meeting on gut microbiota and the use of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in gastrointestinal and liver diseases. This paper summarizes the proceedings of the aforementioned meeting. It is intended to provide practical information about this topic, addressing the latest discoveries and indicating areas for future studies.


RESUMO Nos últimos anos, um volume crescente de evidências indica que os microrganismos estão envolvidos na manutenção da saúde humana e também estão relacionados a várias doenças, tanto intestinais quanto extraintestinais. Alterações na microbiota intestinal parecem ser um elemento chave na patogênese de doenças hepáticas e gastrointestinais, incluindo doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica, doença hepática alcoólica, cirrose hepática, doenças inflamatórias intestinais, síndrome do intestino irritável e diarreia associada ao Clostridium difficile. Em 2019, a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia (SBH) em colaboração com o Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori e Microbiota (NBEHPM) e a Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia (FBG) realizaram um encontro exclusivamente voltado para a discussão sobre microbiota e uso de prebióticos, probióticos e simbióticos em doenças hepáticas e gastrointestinais. Este texto resume os principais pontos discutidos durante o evento, e tem a intenção de fornecer informações práticas sobre o assunto, abordando as descobertas mais recentes e indicando áreas para estudos futuros.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter pylori , Probiotics , Digestive System Diseases , Synbiotics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastroenterology , Brazil , Congresses as Topic , Prebiotics
18.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 105-116, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129064

ABSTRACT

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar las contribuciones de la biotecnología, en relación con el tratamiento, diagnóstico y la monitorización de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y sus comorbilidades más frecuentes, especialmente la anemia. En relación con los tratamientos, enfocamos el desarrollo de productos biofarmacéuticos como los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis (ESA), que fueron los primeros biofármacos utilizados para el tratamiento de la anemia asociada a la ERC; analizamos sus características y utilización actual después de varios años de experiencia clínica, así como también otras alternativas en desarrollo. Revisamos distintos tipos de bioterapias, la utilización de las células estromales mesenquimales de médula ósea (MSC) y tratamientos alternativos con modificaciones dietarias, que se basan en la asociación entre la microbiota intestinal de los pacientes renales crónicos y sus condiciones fisiopatológicas. Finalmente, en relación con el diagnóstico y monitorización, nos referimos al estudio y validación de biomarcadores diagnósticos, predictivos y terapéuticos que han permitido optimizar los resultados clínicos en este tipo de pacientes. (AU)


The aim of this work is to review the contributions of biotechnology, in relation to the treatment, diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its most frequent comorbidities, especially anemia. Regarding the treatment, we focus on the development of biopharmaceutical products such as erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), which were the first biopharmaceuticals used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We analyzed their characteristics and their current use after several years of clinical experience, as well as other alternatives in development. We also review different types of biotherapies, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and alternative treatments with dietary modifications, which are based on the association between the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney patients and their pathophysiological conditions. Finally, in relation to diagnosis and monitoring, we refer to the study and validation of diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers that have made clinical results possible to be optimized in this type of patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Therapy/trends , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Biotechnology , Biomarkers , Erythropoietin/deficiency , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/rehabilitation , Prebiotics/classification , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/pharmacology , Hematinics/pharmacokinetics , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/drug therapy
19.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 859-878, set. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134074

ABSTRACT

Resumo Em 1958, Eiseman e colaboradores publicaram o primeiro artigo científico relatando o uso de transplante de microbiota fecal para tratar casos graves de colite pseudomembranosa. A relevância desse trabalho inovador só foi reconhecida em 1990. A literatura acadêmica sobre o tema caracteriza-se por sucessivas reconstruções. Sugerimos que tais reconstruções foram orientadas por questões de atribuição de prioridade de descoberta científica nos termos propostos por Merton. A retomada do uso de transplantes de microbiota fecal é interpretada como processo de gênese de um fato científico, conforme Fleck: ocorre a mudança de um estilo de pensamento baseado no uso de antibióticos no tratamento de doenças infecciosas para outro que considera as relações ecológicas entre hospedeiros, vetores e agentes etiológicos de doenças.


Abstract In 1958, Eiseman and contributors published the first scientific paper reporting the use of fecal microbiota transplant for treating pseudomembranous colitis. The relevance of this innovative paper was only acknowledged in 1990. The academic literature on the theme is characterized by a narrative that has undergone successive revisions. We suggest that such revisions were based on claims of priority of scientific discoveries, as described by Merton. The revival of fecal microbiota transplants is interpreted as a process of genesis of a scientific fact, as defined by Fleck: there is a switch from a thought style based on the use of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases to another that accepts the ecological relations between hosts, vectors and parasites.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/history , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/history , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Historiography
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): 278-285, agosto 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118510

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años, las evidencias han demostrado la importancia de la microbiota intestinal en la salud del individuo. La dinámica de la colonización temprana y el establecimiento de una comunidad abundante y diversa de microorganismos saludables, a partir de un parto vaginal y lactancia materna, resultan fundamentales en la conformación de una matriz inmunológica saludable. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir las evidencias disponibles sobre el desarrollo de la microbiota en el primer año de vida y el actual potencial que ofrece el uso de prebióticos, probióticos, simbióticos y posbióticos durante esta etapa esencial de la vida


In recent years, the evidence has demonstrated the relevance of the gut microbiota in an individual's health. The dynamics of an early colonization and the establishment of a community of plenty, diverse, and healthy microorganisms from a vaginal delivery and breastfeeding are critical for the development of a healthy immune matrix. The objective of this review is to describe the available evidence on microbiota development in the first year of life and the current possibilities offered by prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, and postbiotics during such critical stage of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Breast Feeding , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Synbiotics , Microbiota
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL