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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 192-207, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms underlying these disorders include a constellation of structural, infectious, immunological, metabolic, and genetic etiologies. Advances in next-generation sequencing techniques have demonstrated that the composition of the enteric microbiome is dynamic and plays a pivotal role in host homeostasis and several diseases. The enteric microbiome acts as a key mediator in neuronal signaling via metabolic, neuroimmune, and neuroendocrine pathways. Objective: In this review, we aim to present and discuss the most current knowledge regarding the putative influence of the gut microbiome in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: We examined some of the preclinical and clinical evidence and therapeutic strategies associated with the manipulation of the gut microbiome. Results: targeted taxa were described and grouped from major studies to each disease. Conclusions: Understanding the complexity of these ecological interactions and their association with susceptibility and progression of acute and chronic disorders could lead to novel diagnostic biomarkers based on molecular targets. Moreover, research on the microbiome can also improve some emerging treatment choices, such as fecal transplantation, personalized probiotics, and dietary interventions, which could be used to reduce the impact of specific neuropsychiatric disorders. We expect that this knowledge will help physicians caring for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos são uma importante causa de morte e invalidez no mundo. Os mecanismos subjacentes a esses transtornos incluem uma constelação de etiologias estruturais, infecciosas, imunológicas, metabólicas e genéticas. Avanços nas técnicas de sequenciamento do DNA têm demonstrado que a composição do microbioma entérico é dinâmica e desempenha um papel fundamental não apenas na homeostase do hospedeiro, mas também em várias doenças. O microbioma entérico atua como mediador na sinalização das vias metabólica, neuroimune e neuroendócrina. Objetivo: Apresentar os estudos mais recentes sobre a possível influência do microbioma intestinal nas diversas doenças neuropsiquiátricas e discutir tanto os resultados quanto a eficácia dos tratamentos que envolvem a manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Métodos: foram examinadas algumas das evidências pré-clínicas e clínicas e estratégias terapêuticas associadas à manipulação do microbioma intestinal. Resultados: os táxons-alvo foram descritos e agrupados a partir dos principais estudos para cada doença. Conclusões: Entender a fundo a complexidade das interações ecológicas no intestino e sua associação com a suscetibilidade a certas doenças agudas e crônicas pode levar ao desenvolvimento de novos biomarcadores diagnósticos com base em alvos moleculares. Além disso, o estudo do microbioma intestinal pode auxiliar na otimização de tratamentos não farmacológicos emergentes, tais como o transplante de microbiota fecal, o uso de probióticos e intervenções nutricionais personalizadas. Dessa forma, terapias alternativas poderiam ser usadas para reduzir o impacto dos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos na saúde pública. Esperamos que esse conhecimento seja útil para médicos que cuidam de pacientes com diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 201-208, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279102

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha afectado a todas las dimensiones de la atención en salud, entre ellas el aseguramiento de la lactancia materna exclusiva y su promoción. El riesgo de contagio y las consecuencias de la pandemia han provocado preocupación entre las futuras madres o las que se ya encuentran lactando debido al riesgo de una posible transmisión del virus a través de la leche materna. Aunque aún no se ha detectado el coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) activo en la leche materna. El miedo al contagio ha favorecido las políticas de aislamiento madre-hijo. Hasta el momento no existe evidencia de transmisión vertical y el riesgo de transmisión horizontal en el lactante es similar al de la población general. En lactantes con COVID-19 la lactancia materna incluso puede cambiar favorablemente el curso clínico de la enfermedad.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health attention in all dimensions, one of them, the exclusive breastfeeding assurance and her promotion. The high risk of contagion and the pandemic consequences have raised a number of concerns in future mothers or those who are breastfeeding because of the risk of a possible transmission of the virus through breast milk. Although SARS-CoV2 has no evidence of being active on breast milk, the fear of contagion has favored mother-child isolation policies. At this point, there are no evidence of vertical transmission and the risk of horizontal transmission in the infant is similar to the general population. Breastfeeding in newborn with COVID-19, can even favorably change the clinical course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk, Human/cytology , Milk, Human/metabolism , Milk, Human/chemistry , Time Factors , Colostrum/metabolism , Colostrum/chemistry , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Milk, Human/virology
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2020-2031,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139292

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La microbiota se refiere al conjunto de todos los de microorganismos que se localizan de manera normal en distintos sitios de los cuerpos de los seres vivos pluricelulares, tales como el cuerpo humano. Las modificaciones del eje intestino-hígado se ha convertido en la actualidad en un grave problema científico al haberse encontrado en diversas investigaciones, que esta microbiota está relacionada con el daño hepático con independencia de la causa de la lesión hepática. Se realizó una revisión sistemática sobre las implicaciones demamicrobiota intestinal en las enfermedades hepáticas. Se realizó una revisión de artículos científicos publicados entre 2012 y 2018 en diversas bases de datos en línea. Se presenta el conocimiento existente hasta el momento sobre la microbiota intestinal en pacientes portadores de enfermedades hepáticas, con hincapié en las hepatitis C y la cirrosis hepática. La composición de microbiota de intestino estuvo asociada con el perfil inflamatorio y marcadores de fibrosis hepática, las que mejoraron con el tratamiento de antivirales de acción directa aunque las medidas de permeabilidad intestinal e inflamación permanecían inalteradas. Se reporta mejoría de los pacientes portadores de hepatitis viral tipo C, con antivirales de acción directa la cual estuvo asociada con modificaciones de la microbiota intestinal, que se correlacionó con mejoría en la fibrosis e inflamación hepática, los avances en este campo abren nuevas perspectivas en la biomedicina (AU).


SUMMARY Microbiota refers to the whole of microorganisms located in a normal way in different places of the bodies of pluricelular living beings, like the human body. The modifications of the axis intestine-liver have become a serious scientific problem, because in different researches researchers have found that this microbiota is related to hepatic damage depending on the cause of this hepatic lesion. To carry out a systematic review on the implication of intestinal macrobiota in liver diseases. The scientific articles published in the period 2012-2018 in different databases on line were reviewed. A total of 26 bibliographic sources were used, original articles and reviews. The authors present knowledge existent up to the moment on intestinal microbiota in patients who have liver diseases, making emphasis on hepatitis C and hepatic cirrhosis. The composition of the intestine microbiota was associated to an inflammatory and markers of hepatic fibrosis that improved with the treatment of direct action antivirals although the measures of intestinal permeability and inflammation remained inalterably. It is reported an improvement of patients carriers of viral hepatitis type C with the use direct action retrovirals, what was linked to modifications in the intestinal microbiota, and correlated to an improvement of fibrosis and liver inflammation; the advances obtained in this field open new perspectives in biomedicine (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Liver Diseases/classification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Patients , Chronic Disease/classification , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e1063, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126756

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se actualiza la relación del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro con enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas, en particular en trastornos del comportamiento en la infancia y adultos postulados en años recientes. Objetivo: Analizar la participación del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro con alteraciones del comportamiento humano, con preferencia en la infancia y el papel de la disbiosis como factor determinante. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones sobre el tema en español e inglés en bases de datos de PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO y Latindex desde el 2015 hasta el 30 septiembre de 2019. Resultados: Se actualizaron los criterios sobre el papel del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro, posibles vías de acción y asociación con disbiosis y otros factores, desencadenados por alteración de la microbiota intestinal y su influencia en los trastornos del comportamiento mental, representados por el espectro autista, hipoactividad/ hiperexcitabilidad, ansiedad y depresión. Consideraciones finales: Los conocimientos alcanzados en el último decenio en estudios experimentales en ratones y la aplicación de sus resultados en humanos, sobre el papel del eje bidireccional microbiota-intestino-cerebro y sus relaciones con el equilibrio y desequilibrio de la microbiota intestinal, argumentan la posible participación del eje referido en el neurodesarrollo, afectación cerebral y neuromodulación y en especial en trastornos de conducta, como el espectro autista y otras afecciones analizadas(AU)


Introduction: The microbiota-gut-brain axis´ relation with neurological and psychiatric diseases is updated, in particular in behavioral disorders in children and adults postulated in recent years. Objective: To analyze the participation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in alterations of human behavior, with a preference in childhood and the role of dysbiosis as a determining factor. Methods: It was reviewed the literature on the subject in Spanish and English in databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO and Latindex from 2015 until September 30, 2019. Results: The criteria were updated on the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, possible ways of action and association with dysbiosis and other factors triggered by alteration of the intestinal microbiota and its influence on mental behavior disorders represented by the autism spectrum, hypoactivity/ hyperexcitability, anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Knowledge achieved in the last decade in experimental studies in mice and the application of their results in humans, the role of the microbiota-gut-brain bi-directional axis and its relations with the balance and imbalance of the intestinal microbiota argue on the possible involvement of the referred axis in neurodevelopment, brain affectation and neuromodulation, and especially in behavioral disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and other conditions analyzed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cerebrum/microbiology , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Mental Disorders/complications
5.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 17-24, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100762

ABSTRACT

Se estima que aproximadamente 100 trillones de microorganismos (incluidos bacterias, virus y hongos) residen en el intestino humano adulto y que el total del material genético del microbioma es 100 veces superior al del genoma humano. Esta comunidad, conocida como microbioma se adquiere al momento del nacimiento a través de la flora comensal de la piel, vagina y heces de la madre y se mantiene relativamente estable a partir de los dos años desempeñando un papel crítico tanto en el estado de salud como en la enfermedad. El desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como los secuenciadores de próxima generación (NGS), permiten actualmente realizar un estudio mucho más preciso de ella que en décadas pasadas cuando se limitaba a su cultivo. Si bien esto ha llevado a un crecimiento exponencial en las publicaciones, los datos sobre las poblaciones Latinoamérica son casi inexistentes. La investigación traslacional en microbioma (InTraMic) es una de las líneas que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). Esta se inició en 2018 con la línea de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) en una colaboración con el Colorectal Cancer Research Group del Leeds Institute of Medical Research en el proyecto Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents. A fines de 2019 se cumplió el objetivo de comprobar la factibilidad de la recolección, envío y análisis de muestras de MBF en 5 continentes, incluyendo muestras provenientes de la Argentina, Chile, India y Vietnam. Luego de haber participado de capacitaciones en Inglaterra, se ha cumplido con el objetivo de la etapa piloto, logrando efectivizar la recolección, envío y análisis metagenómico a partir de la secuenciación de la región V4 del ARNr 16S. En 2019, la línea de enfermedad de hígado graso no alcohólico se sumó a la InTraMic iniciando una caracterización piloto en el marco de una colaboración con el laboratorio Novartis. Los resultados de ese estudio, así como el de cáncer colorrectal, están siendo enviados a publicación. En 2020, con la incorporación de la línea de trasplante alogénico de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas, fue presentado un proyecto para un subsidio del CONICET que ha superado la primera etapa de evaluación. En el presente artículo se brinda una actualización sobre la caracterización taxonómica de microbioma y se describen las líneas de investigación en curso. (AU)


It is estimated that approximately 100 trillion microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) reside in the adult human intestine, and that the total genetic material of the microbiome is 100 times greater than that of the human genome. This community, known as the microbiome, is acquired at birth through the commensal flora of the mother's skin, vagina, and feces and remains relatively stable after two years, playing a critical role in both the state of health and in disease. The development of new technologies, such as next-generation sequencers (NGS), currently allow for a much more precise study of it than in past decades when it was limited to cultivation. Although this has led to exponential growth in publications, data on Latin American populations is almost non-existent. Translational research in microbiome (InTraMic) is one of the lines developed at the Instituto de Medicina Traslacional e Ingeniería Biomédica (IMTIB). This started in 2018 with the Colorectal Cancer Line (CRC) in a collaboration with the Colorectal Cancer Research Group of the Leeds Institute of Medical Research in the project "Large bowel microbiome disease network: Creation of a proof of principle exemplar in colorectal cancer across three continents". At the end of 2019, the objective of verifying the feasibility of collecting, sending and analyzing MBF samples on 5 continents, including samples from Argentina, Chile, India and Vietnam, was met. After having participated in training in England, the objective of the pilot stage has been met, achieving the collection, delivery and metagenomic analysis from the sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA. In 2019, the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease line joined InTraMic, initiating a pilot characterization in the framework of a collaboration with the Novartis laboratory. The results of that study, as well as that of colorectal cancer, are being published. In 2020, with the incorporation of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation line, a project was presented for a grant from the CONICET that has passed the first stage of evaluation. This article provides an update on the taxonomic characterization of the microbiome and describes the lines of ongoing research. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Transplantation, Homologous , Vietnam , Aztreonam/therapeutic use , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/microbiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Classification/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Metagenomics , Translational Medical Research/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/trends , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , India , Latin America , Occult Blood
7.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(2): e786, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1003964

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El exposoma, la epigenética y la microbiota de un individuo son categorías que se interrelacionan y pueden contribuir a una mejor comprensión del proceso salud enfermedad. Objetivo: Exponer la relación entre las categorías mencionadas con enfoque biopsicosocial. Métodos: Búsqueda bibliográfica en Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, LILACS y Cochrane en los últimos cinco años en idioma inglés y español, sobre la relación entre nutrición y aparición de enfermedades, el eje intestino cerebro, la correspondencia entre epigenética y el exposoma y la microbiota intestinal y su relación con algunas afecciones. Resultados: La alimentación adecuada de la madre, en calidad y cantidad, es un seguro de salud para la vida futura del hombre. El eje intestino cerebro puede afectarse por factores de riesgo, de ahí la importancia de regular su funcionamiento para la prevención de enfermedades como la depresión, síndrome de ansiedad, sobrepeso, y otras. El 10 por ciento del riesgo de padecer enfermedades crónicas puede deberse a factores genéticos pero se desconoce que muchas exposiciones humanas al ambiente, podrían iniciar procesos de enfermedad en el futuro. El exposoma es una herramienta útil para evaluar factores de riesgo de enfermedades generadas por el medio ambiente: exposición a productos químicos y contaminantes; el estilo de vida, el nivel socioeconómico y el entorno social de un individuo. Consideraciones finales: La ruptura del equilibrio entre la microbiota intestinal, la epigenética y el exposoma está relacionada con la etiopatogenia de diversas enfermedades, con las características individuales del ser humano y su relación con el medio ambiente(AU)


Introduction: Exposome, epigenetics and microbiota of an individual are categories that are interrelated and can contribute to a better understanding of the health-sickness process. Objective: To deepen the comprehensive analysis of the mentioned categories with a biopsychosocial approach. Methods: A bibliographic search in Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, LILACS and Cochrane databases was made in the last five years in English and Spanish, on the relation between nutrition and diseases onset, the intestine-brain axis, the correspondence between epigenetics and the exposome, and intestinal microbiota and its relation with some conditions. Results: The proper feeding of the mother in quality and quantity is a health insurance for the future life of a person. The intestine -brain axis can be affected by risk factors, hence the importance of regulating its functioning for the prevention of diseases such as depression, anxiety syndrome, overweight, and others. 10 percent of the risk of chronic diseases may be due to genetic factors but it is unknown that many human exposures to the environment could initiate disease processes in the future. The exposome is a useful tool to evaluate risk factors for diseases generated by the environment: exposure to chemicals and contaminants, lifestyle, socioeconomic status and social environment of an individual. Final considerations: The rupture of the equilibrium between intestinal microbiota, epigenetics and exposome is related to the etiopathogenesis of various diseases, with the individual characteristics of human beings and their relationship with the environment(AU)


Subject(s)
Health-Disease Process , Epigenomics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Exposome , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Nutritional Sciences
8.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 55(3): 31-40, set. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041742

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción La cantidad y la diversidad bacteriana intestinal están relacionadas con las enfermedades metabólicas e inflamatorias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la composición de la microbiota intestinal en heces y su relación con variables bioquímicas y el patrón de consumo de alimentos en individuos sanos, obesos y pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, en Mallorca (España). Métodos Las bacterias en heces se caracterizaron por PCR tiempo real. El ADN se aisló a partir de sujetos sanos (23), obesos (no diabéticos) (24) y diabéticos tipo 2 (no obesos) y se amplificó con cebadores específicos para identificar Roseburia, Clostridium leptum, Lactobacillus y Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale (Firmicutes); Prevotella y Bacteroides (Bacteroidetes); Bifidobacterium (Actinobacteria) y el cebador Universal (para total de bacterias), para la amplificación de la región V4 del gen 16S rRNA. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente utilizando SPSS v.21. Resultados En una población rural y urbana de Baleares, se detectaron niveles de insulina significativamente superiores en obesos (12,2 + 1,3 md/dL). En diabéticos, los niveles de triglicéridos, glucosa en sangre, hemoglobina glucosilada y albúmina en orina fueron superiores que en controles y obesos (por encima del rango normal). La mayor dispersión de las variables bioquímicas en sangre se identificó con: Clostridium coccoide-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides y Bifidobacterium, como posibles marcadores en obesos y diabéticos y Prevotella y Lactobacillus, como marcadores de salud. El contenido total de bacterias es mayor en controles y la relación entre reinos bacterianos es menor en este grupo. Los patrones de consumo de alimentos fueron diferentes en los tres grupos lo cual está relacionado con la variación en los patrones bacterianos. Conclusión La variabilidad en el consumo de alimentos estuvo relacionada con cinco marcadores bacterianos principales que contribuyeron a la mayor variabilidad de marcadores bioquímicos entre grupos de sujetos: Clostridium coccoide-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella y Lactobacillus, en una población de Mallorca (España). Gut microbiota and healthy in human: obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


ABSTRACT Introduction The amount and bacterial diversity in the bowel are associated to metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The aim was to characterize the gut microbiota composition in faeces and food consumption pattern in healthy, obese and Type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects from Majorca (Spain). Methods Bacteria in faeces were characterized by Real-time PCR. DNA was isolated from healthy subjects (23), obese patients (not diabetic) (24) and type 2 diabetic patients (12) and amplified with specific primers for the identification of Roseburia, Clostridium leptum, Lactobacillus and Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale (Firmicutes); Prevotella and Bacteroides (Bacteroidetes); Bifidobacterium (Actinobacteria); and Universal primer (for all bacteria), referred to amplification of 16S rRNA gene V4 region. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS v.21. Results A rural and urban population from Balearic Islands was tested. The insulin levels were highest in obese group (12.2 + 1.3 md/dL) while the triglyceride, blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and urine albumin levels were highest in diabetic group. The major dispersion of the blood variables was identified to a bacteria core: Clostridium coccoide-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium as possible markers for obese and diabetic patients; and Prevotella and Lactobacillus levels as markers of health. The total amount of bacteria is the highest in control group, such as the ratio between phyla is the lowest. The food consumptiom patterns were different among which is related to the variation in the bacterial patterns. Conclusion The variability in the foods consumption among groups was related to five bacterial markers which contributed to the major variability in blood markers: Clostridium coccoide-Eubacterium rectale, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella y Lactobacillus; in a population from Majorca, Spain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Obesity/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Feces/microbiology , Food Microbiology/classification
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 90(1): 94-110, ene.-mar. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901470

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la microbiota intestinal participa en eventos de homeostasis e inmunidad intestinal de trascendencia para la salud humana. Sus interacciones con el ecosistema intestinal, participación en distintas enfermedades, y el valor de los probióticos y prebióticos son revisados. Objetivo: evaluar los conocimientos de la literatura médica en las últimas décadas sobre los principales aspectos de la microbiota intestinal, su relación con la inmunidad, y beneficios de probióticos y prebióticos como terapia en distintas afecciones intestinales y extraintestinales. Métodos: se realiza búsqueda en bases de datos de PubMed, Scielo, Redalycs, Latindex de publicaciones acerca de microbiota intestinal, revisiones sistemáticas de probióticos y libros afines. Desarrollo: se revisan las características de los procesos de colonización, desarrollo, funciones y composición de la microbiota intestinal, su inmunidad y relación con el hígado. Se actualizan los principios de la terapia con probióticos y prebióticos, y sus distintas indicaciones en enfermedades digestivas. Conclusiones finales: se evidencia el papel del microbioma intestinal y su relación con el ecosistema intestinal, los mecanismos participantes y el consiguiente desarrollo de su inmunidad, resaltando el rol de la lactancia materna para un adecuado proceso de implantación de la microbiota. Se analiza el uso de probióticos y prebióticos, y su eficacia en distintas enfermedades digestivas(AU)


Introduction: the intestinal microbiota is involved in homeostasis and intestinal immunity events which are crucial to human health. An overview is provided of its interactions with the intestinal ecosystem, its participation in various conditions, and the value of probiotics and prebiotics. Objective: evaluate the information contained in the medical literature published in the past decades about the main features of the intestinal microbiota, its relationship to immunity, and the beneficial therapeutic action of probiotics and prebiotics in various intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Methods: a search was conducted in the databases PubMed, SciELO, Redalyc and Latindex for publications about the intestinal microbiota, systematic reviews about probiotics, and related books. Results: examination was carried out of the characteristics of colonization processes, development, functions and composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as its immunity and relationship to the liver. Updating was also performed about the principles underlying the therapy with probiotics and prebiotics, and their various indications for digestive diseases. Final conclusions: a description is provided of the role of the intestinal microbiota and its relationship to the intestinal ecosystem, the mechanisms involved and the consequent development of its immunity, pointing out the role of breastfeeding for an adequate process of implantation of the microbiota. An analysis is made of the use of probiotics and prebiotics, and their efficacy for various digestive diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Prebiotics , Probiotics/therapeutic use
10.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 43: 1-9, Mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881665

ABSTRACT

The colonic epithelial cells represent a border between the colon luminal content, containing notably bacteria and a complex mixture of compounds, and the"milieu interieur"as defined by the French physiologist Claude Bernard.The physical-chemical composition of the luminal content, including luminal pH and bacterial metabolite, that obviousl y is not constant, is modified for instance according to the diet. Data obtained recently indicate that physical exercise may also modify the colonic luminal content. Evidence has indicated that modification of the luminal content characteristics has, indeed, consequences for the colonic epithelial cells, notably in terms of energy metabolism and DNA integrity. Although such alterations impact presumably the homeostatic process of the colonic epithelium renewal and the epithelial barrier function, their contribution to pathological processes like mucosal inflammation, pre-neoplasia, and neoplasia remains partly elusive. Open questions remain regarding the individual and collective roles of luminal changes, particularly in a long-term perspective. These questions are related particularly to the capacity of the bacterial metabolites to cross the mucus layer before entering the colonocytes, to the concentrations of metabolites in proximity of the colonic crypt stem cells, and to the capacity of colonocytes to detoxicate deleterious compounds, to take up and utilize beneficial compounds.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colon/anatomy & histology , Colon/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Dietary Proteins , Exercise
11.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(4): e1400, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Studies suggest that weight loss induced by bariatric surgery and the remission of some comorbidities may be related to changes in the microbiota profile of individuals undergoing this procedure. In addition, there is evidence that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota may prove to be a therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic diseases. Objective: To verify the changes that occur in the intestinal microbiota of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, and the impact of the usage of probiotics in this population. Methods: Articles published between 2007 and 2017 were searched in Medline, Lilacs and Pubmed with the headings: bariatric surgery, microbiota, microbiome and probiotics, in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Of the 166 articles found, only those studies in adults subjected to either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve vertical gastrectomy published in original articles were enrolled. In the end, five studies on the change of intestinal microbiota composition, four on the indirect effects of those changes and three on the probiotics administration on this population were enrolled and characterized. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery provides changes in intestinal microbiota, with a relative increase of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla and reduction of Firmicutes. This is possibly due to changes in the gastro-intestinal flux, coupled with a reduction in acidity, in addition to changes in eating habits. The usage of probiotics seems to reduce the gastro-intestinal symptoms in the post-surgery, favor the increase of vitamin B12 synthesis, as well as potentiate weight loss.


RESUMO Introdução: Estudos sugerem que a perda de peso induzida pela cirurgia bariátrica e a remissão de algumas comorbidades podem estar relacionadas às mudanças no perfil da microbiota dos indivíduos submetidos a este procedimento. Além disso, há indícios de que a manipulação da microbiota intestinal pode vir a ser abordagem terapêutica contra a obesidade e doenças metabólicas. Objetivo: Verificar as mudanças que ocorrem na microbiota intestinal de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, e o impacto do uso dos probióticos nessa população. Métodos: Foi realizada a busca de artigos publicados entre os anos de 2007 e 2017 nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e PubMed com os descritores: cirurgia bariátrica, microbiota, microbioma e probióticos em português, inglês e espanhol. Dos 166 artigos encontrados, foram selecionados apenas os estudos realizados em adultos, submetidos ao bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux ou gastrectomia vertical sleeve publicados em artigos originais. Ao final, foram selecionados e categorizados cinco estudos sobre a mudança na composição da microbiota intestinal, quatro sobre os efeitos indiretos dessas mudanças e três sobre a administração de probióticos nessa população. Conclusão: A cirurgia bariátrica proporciona mudanças na microbiota intestinal com aumento relativo dos filos Bacteroidetes e Proteobactéria e redução de Firmicutes. Isso se deve, possivelmente, às alterações no trânsito gastrointestinal com redução da acidez intestinal além de modificação dos hábitos alimentares. O uso de probióticos parece reduzir os sintomas gastrointestinais no pós-operatório, favorecer o aumento de síntese de vitamina B12 e potencializar a perda de peso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Gastric Bypass/methods , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrectomy/methods , Postoperative Period , Weight Loss/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Bacteroidetes/growth & development
12.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(4)July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894360

ABSTRACT

In the history of medicine, only recently has obesity been recognized as a disease. We know now that it is a pandemic condition, partly explained by the so-called Western lifestyle and related to multiple other comorbidities in various systems. This lyfestyle includes eating large portions, rich in saturated fats and refined sugar, all coupled with sedentary habits. In recent years, the gut microbiota has been indited as a new culprit in pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity. From studies with animals free of bacteria in the digestive tract, known as "germ-free animals", the relevance of intestinal microbiota in the regulation of body fat became evident and its importance has also been extended to the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Characterization of Toll-like receptors led to the discovery of mechanisms that link the immune system with some metabolic pathways and opened new avenues of a previously unknown world to biological sciences. Increased knowledge about interactions between gut microbiota and the host can certainly reveal, in a not too distant future, new therapeutic perspectives for obesity and its related diseases.


Na história da medicina apenas recentemente a obesidade foi reconhecida como uma doença. Sabemos agora que é uma doença pandêmica, explicada em parte pelo chamado estilo de vida ocidental e relacionado a múltiplas outras comorbidades em vários sistemas. O referido estilo de vida inclui comer grandes porções, ricas em gorduras saturadas e açúcares refinados, e hábitos sedentários. Nos últimos anos, a microbiota intestinal foi associada aos aspectos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na obesidade. De estudos com animais livres de bactérias no trato digestivo, conhecidos como "animais sem germes", a relevância da microbiota intestinal na regulação da gordura corporal tornou-se evidente e sua importância também se estendeu à fisiopatologia de doenças como diabetes mellitus e doença cardíaca coronária. A caracterização dos receptores "Toll-like" levou à descoberta de mecanismos que ligam o sistema imunológico a algumas vias metabólicas e abriram novas avenidas de um mundo anteriormente desconhecido para as ciências biológicas. O aumento do conhecimento sobre as interações entre a microbiota intestinal e o hospedeiro certamente pode revelar, em um futuro não muito distante, novas perspectivas terapêuticas para a obesidade e suas doenças relacionadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 89(2): 203-230, abr.-jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845095

ABSTRACT

Introducción: hace varias décadas se consideraba que la función del intestino solamente estaba relacionada con el proceso de la nutrición, sin embargo se ha demostrado que también interviene en la respuesta inmune y en la inflamación sistémica del individuo. Objetivo: describir la relación de los diferentes factores que intervienen en la respuesta del intestino en el proceso salud/enfermedad. Método: se realizó una revisión búsqueda en Medline/Pubmed, Elseiver y Scielo de los artículos publicados en el período comprendido entre 2011-2016 en idioma inglés y español sobre las particularidades de la respuesta del intestino en el proceso salud/enfermedad. Los términos de búsqueda fueron: ecosistema intestinal, permeabilidad intestinal, translocación bacteriana y estrés oxidativo. Desarrollo: por la intervención del intestino en la respuesta inmune y en la inflamación sistémica del individuo, se considera un órgano metabólicamente activo en el proceso salud/enfermedad. La interrelación entre estos factores interviene en la fisiopatogenia de enfermedades crónicas como el asma, el cáncer, el hígado graso no alcohólico, así como en la respuesta y evolución del paciente críticamente enfermo. Consideraciones finales: la modificación en la composición de la microbiota intestinal, asociado a la disbiosis, la permeabilidad intestinal aumentada a través de la zonulina, el estrés oxidativo, el fenómeno de traslocación bacteriana y el uso de antibióticos en el paciente grave, están íntimamente ligados a las disímiles funciones que se regulan a partir del intestino como parte del proceso salud/enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: several decades ago, it was thought that the intestine's function was only related to the process of nutrition; however, it has been demonstrated that it also influences in the immune response and the systemic inflammation of the individual. Objective: to describe the relationship of the different factors involved in the intestine's response in the health/disease process. Method: a literature review was made in Medline/Pubmed, Elsevier and Scielo to find articles published in English and Spanish about the particularities of the intestine's response in the health/disease process in the period of 2011 through 2016. The search terms were intestinal ecosystem, intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation and oxidative stress. Development: due to the role of the intestine in the immune response and the systemic inflammation of the individual, this is considered a metabolically active organ in the health/disease process. The interrelation of these factors has an effect on the physiopathogeny of chronic diseases such as asthma, cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver as well as in response and progress of the critically-ill patient. Final thoughts: changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, associated to disbiosis, increased intestinal permeability through zonuline, the oxidative stress, the bacterial translocation and the use of antibiotics in the critical patient are closely linked to a number of functions that are regulated from the intestine as part of the health/disease process(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/physiology , Health-Disease Process
15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(3,supl.1): 46-56, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787519

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the development and prevalence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms associated with the development of the digestive tract, and to assess the measures aimed to reduce their negative impacts. Source of data: Considering the scope and comprehensiveness of the subject, a systematic review of the literature was not carried out. The Medline database was used to identify references that would allow the analysis of the study topics. Synthesis of results: Infants frequently show several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. These clinical manifestations can be part of gastrointestinal functional disorders such as infantile colic, infant regurgitation, and functional constipation. Allergy to cow's milk protein and gastroesophageal reflux disease are also causes of these clinical manifestations and represent an important and difficult differential diagnosis. The diseases that course with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms can have an impact on family dynamics and maternal emotional status, and may be associated with future problems in the child's life. Comprehensive pediatric care is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Maternal breastfeeding should always be maintained. Some special formulas can contribute to the control of clinical manifestations depending on the established diagnosis. Conclusion: During the normal development of the digestive tract, several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur, usually resulting from functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and allergy to cow's milk protein. Breastfeeding should always be maintained.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o desenvolvimento e a prevalência de sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais associados com o desenvolvimento do tubo digestivo e as medidas que visam a diminuir suas repercussões negativas. Fontes dos dados: Considerando a abrangência e amplitude do tema, não foi feita revisão sistemática da literatura. Usou-se a base de dados do Medline para a identificação de referências bibliográficas que permitissem contemplar os temas de estudo. Síntese dos resultados: O lactente apresenta com elevada frequência sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais. Essas manifestações clínicas podem fazer parte de distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais, como cólica, regurgitação e constipação intestinal funcional. A alergia à proteína do leite de vaca e a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico também são causas dessas manifestações clínicas e representam um importante e difícil diagnóstico diferencial. As doenças que cursam com sintomas e sinais gastrintestinais podem ter consequências na dinâmica familiar e no estado emocional das mães. Podem se associar com problemas na vida futura da criança. A atenção pediátrica completa é fundamental para o diagnóstico e o tratamento. O aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido. Algumas fórmulas especiais podem contribuir para o controle das manifestações clínicas na dependência do diagnóstico estabelecido. Conclusão: Durante o desenvolvimento normal do tubo digestivo podem ocorrer sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais em geral decorrentes dos distúrbios gastrintestinais funcionais, da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e da alergia à proteína do leite de vaca. Aleitamento natural deve sempre ser mantido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Milk Hypersensitivity/complications , Age Factors , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/physiopathology , Constipation/therapy , Crying/physiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology
17.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 222-229, 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831581

ABSTRACT

A epidemia da obesidade é considerada um importante problema de saúde pública na sociedade ocidental, pois ela se relaciona a comorbidades como síndrome metabólica, diabetes mellitus e hipertensão. A microbiota intestinal pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da obesidade através do aumento da extração energética dos componentes da dieta, da lipogênese, da permeabilidade intestinal e da endotoxemia, mediada especialmente pelos lipopolissacarídeos. Estudos têm demonstrado diferenças na composição da microbiota intestinal entre indivíduos obesos e magros. Ao que parece, o aumento na proporção de Firmicutes em relação a Bacteroidetes parece estar presente na obesidade, podendo ser alterado à medida que ocorre perda de peso. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi revisar a literatura acerca dos mecanismos que relacionam a microbiota e a barreira intestinal ao desenvolvimento ou agravamento da obesidade (AU)


The epidemic of obesity is considered an important public health problem in the Western society and is related to comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by increasing energy extraction from the dietary components, lipogenesis, intestinal permeability, and endotoxemia, especially mediated by lipopolysaccharides. Studies have demonstrated differences in composition of the intestinal microbiota between obese and lean individuals. Apparently, the increase in the proportion of Firmicutes in relation to Bacteroidetes seems to be present in obesity and can be changed during weight loss. The aim of this study was to review the mechanisms that relate microbiota and intestinal barrier to the development or worsening of obesity (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Weight , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Endotoxemia , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Obesity/etiology , Permeability , Prebiotics/statistics & numerical data , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Synbiotics/statistics & numerical data
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 360-367, dic. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141144

ABSTRACT

La industria avícola se ha convertido en una importante actividad económica en Argentina. En nuestro país, el consumo de carne aviar ha experimentado un aumento sustancial en los últimos años debido al incremento y a la diversificación de la oferta de productos. Gracias a los avances tecnológicos experimentados en los últimos años (mejoras genéticas, automatizaciones, planes sanitarios, etc.), el pollo parrillero alcanza en solo 50 días el peso requerido para la faena, con 2,7kg y una conversión alimentaria de alrededor de 1,6kg de alimento/kg de carne. Para satisfacer la demanda actual y continuar en la búsqueda de mercados internacionales, los pollos parrilleros son sometidos a sistemas de crianza intensivos en confinamiento. En esos sistemas, los pollos parrilleros están expuestos diariamente a diversos factores de estrés. La suplementación con antibióticos fue ampliamente utilizada en las últimas décadas para estabilizar la microbiota intestinal, mejorar los parámetros productivos y prevenir las enfermedades aviares. Sin embargo, la utilidad de esta estrategia ha sido cuestionada debido a la aparición y propagación de bacterias resistentes a los antibióticos en la carne. Por lo tanto, hay un renovado interés en la búsqueda de alternativas viables a los antibióticos; es así que la suplementación de las dietas con probióticos se plantea como una opción interesante. Esta revisión proporciona un resumen actual sobre el empleo de probióticos en pollos parrilleros, haciendo énfasis en el papel de estos como una terapia alternativa que podría reemplazar a los antibióticos utilizados en producción y sanidad animal


The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/growth & development , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Poultry/microbiology , Probiotics/analysis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Food/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
19.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 26(4): 225-234, dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973157

ABSTRACT

La microbiota intestinal se define como el conjunto de microorganismos que habitan de forma natural en el tubo digestivo. Bacterias, hongos y virus se incluyen dentro de este ente fisiológico que va mucho más allá de ser un mero espectador pasivo de la mucosa intestinal. La microbiota interviene de forma activa en la homeostasis y su desregulación se ha relacionado con múltiples enfermedades de naturaleza infecciosa, metabólica y autoinmunitaria. El trasplante de microbiota fecal (TMF) consiste en la introducción de una solución de materia fecal debidamente procesada procedente de un donante sano en el tracto gastrointestinal de otro individuo con el fin de manipular las características de la microbiota del receptor. Aunque pueda parecer algo novedoso, los primeros casos se remontan a la época de la China Imperial; no obstante, no ha sido hasta los últimos 20 años cuando el interés y la actividad investigadora en este campo se han multiplicado de forma exponencial. Fruto de este trabajo el TMF constituye hoy en día una herramienta eficaz y validada en casos refractarios de diarrea por C. Difficile. Aunque la evidencia científica es menor, ya existen ensayos clínicos que evalúan su beneficio en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y en el síndrome metabólico. Lo atractivo de su mecanismo fisiopatológico, la sencillez del procedimiento y su bajo coste lo sitúan como un tratamiento prometedor en múltiples enfermedades extradigestivas. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir de una forma concisa, rigurosa y actualizada las indicaciones, metodología y seguridad del TMF.


The intestinal microbiota is defined as the set of organisms that live in the digestive tract. Bacteria, fungi and viruses are included in a physiological entity that goes far beyond being a passive spectator of the intestinal mucosa. The microbiota is actively involved in homeostasis and its imbalance has been linked to multiple infectious, metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) consists in the introduction of a solution made with processed stool from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of another individual in order to manipulate the characteristics of the receiver microbiota. Although it may seem new, the first cases date back to the days of Imperial China; however, it was not until the past 20 years when the interest and research in this field have grown exponentially. Nowadays, TMF is an effective and validated treatment in refractory cases of C.difficile diarrhea. Although the scientific evidence is less, there are clinical trials evaluating its benefit in inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome. The appeal of its pathophysiological mechanism, the simplicity of the procedure and its low cost place FMT as a promising treatment for multiple extraintestinal diseases. The objective of this review is to summarize in a concise, thorough and updated form its indications, methodology and safety.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/standards , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/adverse effects , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/history , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Microbiological Techniques , Donor Selection , Spain
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