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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e11116, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249338

ABSTRACT

The interplay between obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) motility is contradictory, and the transgenerational influence on this parameter is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the GI function in a model of paternal obesity and two subsequent generations of their male offspring. Newborn male rats were treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG) and composed the F1 generation, while control rats (CONT) received saline. At 90 days, male F1 were mated with non-obese females to obtain male offspring (F2), which later mated with non-obese females for obtaining male offspring of F3 generation. Lee Index analysis was adopted to set up the obesity groups. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) technique was employed to calculate GI transit parameters: mean gastric emptying time (MGET), mean cecum arrival time (MCAT), mean small intestinal transit time (MSITT), and gastric frequency and amplitude of contractions. Glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and duodenal morphometry were measured. F1 obese rats showed a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of gastric contractions, while obese rats from the F2 generation showed accelerated MGET and delayed MCAT and MSITT. Glucose and leptin levels were increased in F1 and F2 generations. Insulin levels decreased in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Duodenal morphometry was altered in all three generations. Obesity may have paternal transgenerational transmission, and it provoked disturbances in the gastrointestinal function of three generations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Paternal Exposure , Obesity/etiology , Gastrointestinal Transit , Leptin , Gastrointestinal Motility , Insulin
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 161-166, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal constipation (IC) in patients with the digestive form of Chagas disease is one of the main reasons for seeking medical care. Population data indicate that the practice of physical activity improves gastrointestinal motility. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bowel frequency and symptoms of constipation and their relationship with the level of physical activity in patients with and without Chagas disease. METHODS: Patients (n=120) of both genres, aged between 35 and 84 years, in which 50% (n=60) were in the Chagas group and 50% (n=60) were in the control group, were evaluated regarding the level of IC using the Constipation Assessment Scale (CAS) and regarding the level of physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). RESULTS - Patients in the Chagas group classified as active (IPAQ 2) had higher proportion (P=0.0235) of moderate IC with severe abdominal distension (P=0.0159) and decreased evacuation frequency (P=0.0281) than the patients in the control group, considered to be very active (IPAQ 1). The sedentary lifestyle was greater (P=0.0051) in the Chagas group with duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity lower than the control group. The health perception in the Chagas group was regular for 46.7% (P=0.0035) and poor for 8.3% (P=0.0244). CONCLUSION: There is a lower risk of developing intestinal constipation in more active individuals, evidencing that the level of physical activity interferes with bowel frequency and symptoms of constipation in patients with and without Chagas disease. The level of physical activity and health perception were worse in the Chagas group, reinforcing the disease stigma, which should be modified by the training of health professionals who routinely attend these patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A constipação intestinal (CI) em pacientes com a forma digestiva da doença de Chagas é uma das principais razões para procura de atendimento médico. Os dados populacionais indicam que a prática de atividade física melhora a motilidade gastrointestinal. OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a frequência intestinal e os sintomas de constipação e sua relação com o nível de atividade física em pacientes com e sem doença de Chagas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes (n=120) de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 35 e 84 anos, nos quais 50% (n=60) eram do grupo Chagas e 50% (n=60) do grupo controle, foram avaliados quanto ao nível da CI utilizando a Escala de Avaliação da Constipação (CAS) e o nível de atividade física utilizando o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ). RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do grupo Chagas classificados como ativos (IPAQ 2) apresentaram maior proporção (P=0,0235) de CI moderada com distensão abdominal grave (P=0,0159) e frequência de evacuação diminuída (P=0,0281) do que os pacientes do grupo controle, considerados muito ativos (IPAQ 1). O estilo de vida sedentário foi maior (P=0,0051) no grupo Chagas com duração, intensidade e frequência de atividade física menor que o grupo controle. A percepção de saúde no grupo Chagas foi regular para 46,7% (P=0,0035) e ruim para 8,3% (P=0,0244). CONCLUSÃO: Existe menor risco de desenvolver constipação intestinal em indivíduos mais ativos, evidenciando que o nível de atividade física interfere na frequência intestinal e nos sintomas de constipação em pacientes com e sem doença de Chagas. O nível de atividade física e percepção de saúde foram piores no grupo Chagas, reforçando o estigma da doença, que deve ser modificado pela capacitação dos profissionais de saúde que atendem rotineiramente esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Chagas Disease , Gastrointestinal Motility , Constipation , Intestines , Middle Aged
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 285-298, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827058

ABSTRACT

The current study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of perinatal exposure to therapeutic dose of penicillin and cefixime on the cognitive behaviors, gastrointestinal (GI) motility and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level in the offspring. Pregnant rats were continuously treated with cefixime or penicillin in the period between 1 week before and 1 week after labor. Behavior tests, including social preference, self-grooming and elevated plus maze tests, and intestinal motility tests were carried out on the offspring at age of 4 to 10 weeks. Serum 5-HT levels were detected with ELISA, and potassium/sodium hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) expression levels in colon epithelium of offspring were detected by Western blot and RT-qPCR. The results showed that, compared with the naive group, cefixime increased social behavior in the female offspring, but did not affect the male offspring. Compared with the naive group, cefixime significantly decreased colonic and intestinal transits, and increased cecum net weight and standardized cecum net weight in the male offspring, but did not affect the female offspring. The serum 5-HT levels in the male offspring, rather than the female offspring, in cefixime and penicillin groups were significantly increased compared with that in the naive group. The protein expression level of HCN2 in colon epithelium of the offspring in cefixime group was significantly down-regulated, and the TPH1 expression level was not significantly changed, compared with that in the naive group. These results suggest that perinatal antibiotics exposure may affect neural development and GI functions of the offspring, and the mechanism may involve peripheral 5-HT and gender-dependent factor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Colon , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility , Male , Mice , Pregnancy , Rats , Serotonin , Tryptophan Hydroxylase
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 361-370, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827052

ABSTRACT

Stress is the non-specific systemic response that occurs when the body is stimulated by various factors, and it can affect multiple systems of the body. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota is an essential part of human microecology, and plays a pivotal role in keeping the body healthy. Stress can result in gut dysbiosis by affecting the function of intestinal mucosal barrier, intestinal immune and gastrointestinal motility. This article reviewed the alteration of gut microbiota caused by stress and the possible mechanisms involved.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1557, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: High-resolution manometry is more costly but clinically superior to conventional manometry. Water-perfused systems may decrease costs, but it is unclear if they are as reliable as solid-state systems, and reference values are interchangeable. Aim: To validate normal values for a new water-perfusion high-resolution manometry system. Methods: Normative values for a 24-sensors water perfused high-resolution manometry system were validated by studying 225 individuals who underwent high resolution manometry for clinical complaints. Patients were divided in four groups: group 1 - gastroesophageal reflux disease; group 2 - achalasia; group 3 - systemic diseases with possible esophageal manifestation; and group 4 - dysphagia. Results: In group 1, a hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter was found in 49% of individuals with positive 24 h pH monitoring, and in 28% in pH-negative individuals. In groups 2 and 3, aperistalsis was found in all individuals. In group 4, only one patient (14%) had normal high-resolution manometry. Conclusions: The normal values determined for this low-cost water-perfused HRM system with unique peristaltic pump and helicoidal sensor distribution are discriminatory of most abnormalities of esophageal motility seen in clinical practice.


RESUMO Racional: A manometria de alta resolução é mais custosa, porém clinicamente superior à manometria convencional. Sistemas por perfusão de água podem ter custo diminuído, mas não é certo se são tão eficazes quanto aos sistemas de estado sólido e se os valores de referência são intercambiáveis. Objetivo: Este estudo visa validar valores de normalidade para um novo sistema por perfusão de água. Método: Valores de normalidade para um sistema de manometria de alta resolução de 24 sensores por perfusão de água foram validados estudando 225 indivíduos submetidos à manometria de alta resolução por queixas clínicas. Pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo 1 - doença do refluxo gastroesofágico; grupo 2 - acalasia; grupo 3 - doenças sistêmicas com possível doenças sistêmicas com comprometimento esofágico; e grupo 4 - pacientes com disfagia. Resultado: No grupo 1, esfíncter esofagiano inferior hipotônico foi encontrado em 49% dos indivíduos com pHmetria positiva e 28% daqueles com pHmetria negativa. Nos grupos 2 e 3, aperistalse foi encontrada em todos indivíduos. No grupo 4, somente um paciente (14%) tinha manometria normal. Conclusão: Os valores de normalidade definidos para este sistema de manometria de alta resolução por perfusão de água são discriminatórios da maioria das anormalidades da motilidade esofágica vistas na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Esophagus/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Manometry/methods , Peristalsis , Reference Values , Water , Esophageal Achalasia , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Reproducibility of Results , Manometry/instrumentation
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1548, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152623

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are frequently reported in patients with Parkinson's disease whose disorders reduce the absorption of nutrients and drugs, worsening the clinical condition of patients. However, the mechanisms involved in modifying gastrointestinal pathophysiology have not yet been fully explained. Aim: To evaluate its effects on gastrointestinal motility and the involvement of the vagal and splanchnic pathways. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g, n = 84) were used and divided into two groups. Group I (6-OHDA) received an intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (21 µg/animal). Group II (control) received a saline solution (NaCl, 0.9%) under the same conditions. The study of gastric emptying, intestinal transit, gastric compliance and operations (vagotomy and splanchnotomy) were performed 14 days after inducing neurodegeneration. Test meal (phenol red 5% glucose) was used to assess the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Results: Parkinson's disease delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit at all time periods studied; however, changes in gastric compliance were not observed. The delay in gastric emptying was reversed by pretreatment with vagotomy and splanchnotomy+celiac gangliectomy, thus suggesting the involvement of such pathways in the observed motor disorders. Conclusion: Parkinson's disease compromises gastric emptying, as well as intestinal transit, but does not alter gastric compliance. The delay in gastric emptying was reversed by truncal vagotomy, splanchnotomy and celiac ganglionectomy, suggesting the involvement of such pathways in delaying gastric emptying.


RESUMO Racional: Distúrbios gastrintestinais são frequentemente relatados em pacientes com doença de Parkinson cujos distúrbios reduzem a absorção de nutrientes e fármacos, agravando o quadro clínico dos pacientes. No entanto, os mecanismos envolvidos na alteração da fisiopatologia gastrintestinal ainda não foram totalmente elucidados. Objetivo: Avaliar os seus efeitos sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal e o envolvimento das vias vagal e esplâncnica. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos (250-300 g, n=84) foram utilizados e divididos em dois grupos. O grupo I (6-OHDA) recebeu injeção intraestriatal de 6-hidroxidopamina (21 µg/animal). O grupo II (controle) recebeu solução salina (NaCl, 0,9%) nas mesmas condições. O estudo do esvaziamento gástrico, trânsito intestinal, complacência gástrica e operações (vagotomia e esplancnotomia) foram realizadas 14 dias após a indução da neurodegeneração. Refeição teste (vermelho de fenol+glicose 5%) foi utilizada para avaliar a taxa de esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal. Resultados: A doença de Parkinson retardou o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal em todos os tempos estudados; porém, alterações da complacência gástrica não foram observadas. O retardo do esvaziamento gástrico foi revertido por pré-tratamento com vagotomia e esplancnotomia+gangliectomia celíaca, sugerindo assim, o envolvimento de tais vias nos distúrbios motores observados. Conclusão: A doença de Parkinson compromete o esvaziamento gástrico, bem como o trânsito intestinal, mas não altera a complacência gástrica. O retardo do esvaziamento gástrico foi revertido pela vagotomia troncular, esplancnotomia e gangliectomia celíaca, sugerindo o envolvimento de tais vias no retardo do esvaziamento gástrico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Parkinson Disease , Vagotomy/adverse effects , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Rats, Wistar
7.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(1): e002045, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103172

ABSTRACT

Una mujer de 36 años, diagnosticada con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de diarrea (SII-D) acude a la consulta médica. Ella pregunta si el uso de probióticos sería útil para controlar los episodios de diarrea, ya que los fármacos con los que está siendo tratada no le resultan eficaces. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo de en contrar evidencia en respuesta a su consulta, tras la cual se seleccionaron dos ensayos clínicos y una revisión sistemática. Se evidenciaron diversos resultados en cuanto al uso de probióticos en el SII-D y se discutieron los riesgos y beneficios del tratamiento, así como las implicancias en la vida de la paciente. (AU)


A 36-year-old woman diagnosed with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) goes to meet the doctor. She raises whether the use of probiotics would be useful for controlling diarrhea episodes, since the drugs which she is being treated with, are not effective. A bibliographic search was conducted with the objective of finding evidence in response toher query. Two clinical trials and a systematic review were found. Variable results were found regarding the use of probioticsin D-IBS. The risks and benefits of the treatment were discussed, as well as the implications in the patient's lifestyle. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Cholestyramine Resin/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/adverse effects , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Diarrhea/complications , Duration of Therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Loperamide/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774574

ABSTRACT

Based on metabolomics,the effect of Magnolia officinalis before and after " sweating" on gastrointestinal motility disorder( rat) was compared. To study the mechanism of M. officinalis " sweating" increased the efficacy and reduced the toxicity. The rat model of gastrointestinal motility disorder was established by intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine. Pharmacodynamic indexes were relative residual rate of gastric pigment and intestinal propulsion ratio in rats. LC-MS metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis were used to screen and identify biomarkers associated with gastrointestinal motility disorders,and MetPA database was used to analyze related metabolic pathways. The results showed that M. officinalis could improve gastrointestinal motility disorder whether it " sweating" or not,and the effect of " sweating" M. officinalis was stronger than that of " no sweating" M. officinalis. The metabolites of the experimental groups could be distinguished distinctly,and 15 different compounds and 17 related pathways were identified preliminarily. The mechanism of M. officinalis might be to improve gastrointestinal motility disorder by increasing the content of L-glutamate in the metabolic pathway of alanine,aspartate and glutamate and protecting gastrointestinal barrier. Before " sweating",M. officinalis could reduce taurine through metabolism of taurine and taurine and biosynthetic pathway of primary bile acid,increase the content of deoxycholic acid in glycine goose,and increase the risk of liver and kidney injury. After " sweating",M. officinalis could enhance gastrointestinal motility by increasing the contents of L-tryptophan and serotonin in the tryptophan pathway,and avoid the production of harmful metabolites to achieve synergistic and detoxifying effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Motility , Magnolia , Metabolomics , Rats , Sweating , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772557

ABSTRACT

Bowel sounds are one of the important physiological signals of the body,and different bowel sounds can reflect different gastrointestinal states.In this paper,long time bowel sound data is obtained with wearable full belly bowel sound recorder which is independent designed.After adaptive noise cancellation and wavelet threshold denoising,voice endpoint detection method based on short-time energy is used to identify effective bowel sounds.Experiments and results show that the sound recorder is simple and reliable.Through processing,analysis and endpoint detection algorithm,the recognition accuracy of effective bowel sounds is high,which has certain clinical practicality and research significance.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Algorithms , Gastrointestinal Motility , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Sound
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765974

ABSTRACT

Pediatric chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare disorder characterized by a severe impairment of gastrointestinal motility leading to intestinal obstruction symptoms in the absence of mechanical causes. The diagnosis is usually clinical and diagnostic work is usually aimed to rule out mechanical obstruction and to identify any underlying diseases. Treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary effort. In this manuscript we describe the youngest child successfully treated with the orally administrable, long-acting, reversible anti-cholinesterase drug, pyridostigmine. Like other drugs belonging to cholinesterase inhibitors, pyridostigmine enhances gut motility by increasing acetylcholine availability in the enteric nervous system and neuro-muscular junctions. Based on the direct evidence from the reported case, we reviewed the current literature on the use of pyridostigmine in severe pediatric dysmotility focusing on intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The overall data emerged from the few published studies suggest that pyridostigmine is an effective and usually well tolerated therapeutic options for patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction. More specifically, the main results obtained by pyridostigmine included marked reduction of abdominal distension, reduced need of parenteral nutrition, and improvement of oral feeding. The present case and review on pyridostigmine pave the way for eagerly awaited future randomized controlled studies testing the efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors in pediatric severe gut dysmotility.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Child , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Diagnosis , Enteric Nervous System , Female , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction , Parenteral Nutrition , Pyridostigmine Bromide
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms may develop when we fail to adapt to various stressors of our daily life. Central oxytocin (OXT) can counteract the biological actions of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and in turn attenuates stress responses. Administration (intracerebroventricular) of OXT significantly antagonized the inhibitory effects of chronic complicated stress (CCS) on GI dysmotility in rats. However, intracerebroventricular administration is an invasive pathway. Intranasal administration can rapidly deliver peptides to the brain avoiding stress response. The effects of intranasal OXT on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and GI motility in CCS conditions have not been investigated. METHODS: A CCS rat model was set up, OXT 5, 10, or 20 μg were intranasal administered, 30 minutes prior to stress loading. Central CRF and OXT expression levels were analyzed, serum corticosterone and OXT concentrations were measured, and gastric and colonic motor functions were evaluated by gastric emptying, fecal pellet output, and motility recording system. RESULTS: Rats in CCS condition showed significantly increased CRF expression and corticosterone concentration, which resulted in delayed gastric emptying and increased fecal pellet output, attenuated gastric motility and enhanced colonic motility were also recorded. OXT 10 μg or 20 μg significantly reduced CRF mRNA expression and the corticosterone concentration, OXT 20 μg also helped to restore GI motor dysfunction induced by CCS. CONCLUSION: Intranasal administration of OXT has an anxiolytic effect and attenuates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to CCS, and gave effects which helped to restore GI dysmotility, and might be a new approach for the treatment of stress-induced GI motility disorders.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Brain , Colon , Corticosterone , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Motility , Models, Animal , Oxytocin , Peptides , Rats , RNA, Messenger
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765940

ABSTRACT

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Postoperative ileus increases healthcare costs and reduces the postoperative quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study is to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 and PC6 on gastrointestinal motility in rat model of postoperative ileus. METHODS: Laparotomy was performed in 24 rats (control [n = 8], sham-EA [n = 8], and EA [n = 8]) for the implantation of electrodes in the stomach and mid-jejunum for recording of gastric and small intestinal slow waves. Electrodes were placed in the chest skin for electrocardiogram (ECG). Intestinal manipulation (IM) was performed in Sham-EA and EA rats after surgical procedures. Small intestinal transit (SIT), gastric emptying (GE), postoperative pain, and plasma TNF-α were evaluated in all rats. RESULTS: (1) Compared with sham-EA, EA accelerated both SIT (P < 0.05) and GE (P < 0.05) and improved regularity of small intestinal slow waves. (2) Compared with the control rats (no IM), IM suppressed vagal activity and increased sympathovagal ratio assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability from ECG, which were significantly prevented by EA. (3) EA significantly reduced pain score at 120 minutes (P < 0.05, vs 15 minutes) after the surgery, which was not seen with sham-EA. (4) Plasma TNF-α was increased by IM (P = 0.02) but suppressed by EA (P = 0.04) but not sham-EA. CONCLUSION: The postoperative ileus induced by IM, EA at ST36 and PC6 exerts a prokinetic effect on SIT and GE, a regulatory effect on small intestinal slow waves and an analgesic effect on postoperative pain possibly mediated via the autonomic-cytokine mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Electrocardiography , Electrodes , Gastric Emptying , Gastrointestinal Motility , Health Care Costs , Heart Rate , Ileus , Inflammation , Laparotomy , Models, Animal , Pain, Postoperative , Plasma , Quality of Life , Rats , Skin , Stomach , Thorax
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastrointestinal adverse effects have a major impact on health and quality of life in analgesics users. Non-invasive methods to study gastrointestinal motility are of high interest. Fluoroscopy has been previously used to study gastrointestinal motility in small experimental animals, but they were generally anesthetized and anesthesia itself may alter motility. In this study, our aim is to determine, in conscious rats, the effect of increasing doses of 2 opioid (morphine and loperamide) and 1 cannabinoid (WIN 55,212-2) agonists on colonic motility using fluoroscopic recordings and spatio-temporal maps. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received barium sulfate intragastrically, 20–22 hours before fluoroscopy, so that stained fecal pellets could be seen at the time of recording. Animals received an intraperitoneal administration of morphine, loperamide, or WIN 55,212-2 (at 0.1, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or their corresponding vehicles (saline, Cremophor, and Tocrisolve, respectively), 30 minutes before fluoroscopy. Rats were conscious and placed within movement-restrainers for the length of fluoroscopic recordings (120 seconds). Spatio-temporal maps were built, and different parameters were analyzed from the fluoroscopic recordings in a blinded fashion to evaluate colonic propulsion of endogenous fecal pellets. RESULTS: The analgesic drugs inhibited propulsion of endogenous fecal pellets in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Fluoroscopy allows studying colonic propulsion of endogenous fecal pellets in conscious rats. Our method may be applied to the noninvasive study of the effect of different drug treatments and pathologies.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthesia , Animals , Barium Sulfate , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists , Cannabinoids , Colon , Fluoroscopy , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Loperamide , Male , Methods , Morphine , Pathology , Quality of Life , Rats , Rats, Wistar
15.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 102-110, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760576

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of delayed elevation of thyrotropin (TSH) (deTSH) on gastrointestinal motility in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). METHODS: This study retrospectively investigated 228 premature VLBWI aged ≥4 weeks with normal neonatal TSH screening test results and free serum thyroxine levels. Infants with serum TSH levels ranging from 5 to 10 µIU/mL were categorized as the deTSH group (n=76), when TSH was measured at 4 (n=53), 8 (n=20), or 12 (n=3) weeks of age. Serum TSH levels in the control group (n=152) were <5 µIU/mL. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for the development of deTSH. Covariance analysis was used to analyze the relationship between deTSH and gastrointestinal motility. RESULTS: The mean gestational age and birth weight were 29.11±2.25 weeks and 1,157.4±218.0 g, respectively. Risk factors affecting deTSH were dopamine administration (odds ratio [OR], 8.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 42.05; P=0.007) and operation time (OR, 6.95; 95% CI, 1.43 to 33.75; P=0.016) when the cumulative operating time was ≥1 hour. The mean±standard deviation (SD) duration of a nil per os (NPO) status was significantly higher in the deTSH (99.57±134.99 hours) than in the control group (37.25±59.02 hours) (P from analysis of covariance [ANCOVA]=0.001). The mean±SD duration (33.84±22.34 days) of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was considerably longer in the deTSH group than in the control group (27.68±13.08 days) (P from ANCOVA=0.003). CONCLUSION: Clinicians must consider deTSH in VLBWI showing feeding intolerance with a prolonged NPO and TPN status.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Dopamine , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Logistic Models , Mass Screening , Parenteral Nutrition , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 403-409, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759962

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality. It is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation due to excess body fat. Weight homeostasis is maintained through changes in various gastrointestinal hormones caused by dietary intake. However, being overweight or obese breaks the balance of these appetite-related gastrointestinal hormones and creates resistance to the actions of these hormones. The sensitivity of vagal afferent neurons to peripheral signals becomes blunted. Cytokines produced by excessive fat tissue damage our normal immune system, making us vulnerable to infection. In addition, various changes in gastrointestinal motility occur. Therefore, this review focuses on the various changes in gastrointestinal hormones, the immune state, the vagus nerve, and gastrointestinal movement in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cytokines , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Gastrointestinal Motility , Homeostasis , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation , Mortality , Neurons, Afferent , Obesity , Overweight , Physiology , Vagus Nerve
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1190-1196, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the classification, diagnosis, and natural course of ophthalmoplegia associated with mitochondrial disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 372 patients with mitochondrial disease who visited our hospital between January 2006 and January 2016, 21 patients with ophthalmoplegia were retrospectively identified. Inclusion criteria included onset before 20 years of age, pigmentary retinopathy, and cardiac involvement. The 16 patients who were finally included in the study were divided into three groups according to disease type: Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), KSS-like, and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). RESULTS: The prevalences of clinical findings were as follows: ptosis and retinopathy, both over 80%; myopathy, including extraocular muscles, 75%; lactic acidosis, 71%; and elevated levels of serum creatine kinase, 47%. Half of the patients had normal magnetic resonance imaging findings. A biochemical enzyme assay revealed mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I defect as the most common (50%). The prevalence of abnormal muscle findings in light or electron microscopic examinations was 50% each, while that of large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in a gene study was 25%. We compared the KSS and KSS-like groups with the CPEO patient group, which showed pigmentary retinopathy (p < 0.001), cardiac conduction disease (p=0.013), and large-scale mtDNA deletions (p=0.038). KSS and KSS-like groups also had gastrointestinal tract disorders such as abnormal gastrointestinal motility (p=0.013) unlike the CPEO group. CONCLUSION: Patients with KSS had gastrointestinal symptoms, which may indicate another aspect of systemic involvement. The presence of large-scale mtDNA deletions was an objective diagnostic factor for KSS and a gene study may be helpful for evaluating patients with KSS.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , Classification , Creatine Kinase , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport , Enzyme Assays , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gastrointestinal Tract , Genes, vif , Humans , Kearns-Sayre Syndrome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mitochondrial Diseases , Muscles , Muscular Diseases , Ophthalmoplegia , Ophthalmoplegia, Chronic Progressive External , Prevalence , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766517

ABSTRACT

Antispasmodics are effective in reducing abdominal pain and controlling spasm. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients have characteristic key factors such as intestinal motility disorder and visceral hypersensitivity. So antispasmodics have been used in the treatment of IBS for decades. Mebeverine blocks intestinal peristalsis but are not significantly better than placebo. Alverine citrate combined with simethicone is effective treatment option in IBS. Otilonium and pinaverium bromide are poorly absorbed agents, so they have mostly local effect with minimal systemic adverse events. Phloroglucinol controls acute exacerbation of abdominal pain effectively. Tiropramide reduce abdominal discomfort without serious adverse events. Fenoverine control spasm in spastic colon but does not affect normal contraction. Trimebutine have dual actions that it inhibits hyperactive colon and activates hypomotile colon. Each drug has advantages and disadvantages. Antispasmodics are considered as the first treatment option of pain-dominant IBS.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Citric Acid , Colon , Gastrointestinal Motility , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Muscle Spasticity , Parasympatholytics , Peristalsis , Phloroglucinol , Simethicone , Spasm , Trimebutine
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease characterized by intestinal dysmotility, the mechanism of which remains elusive. We aim to determine whether the high-affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1), a determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, modulates intestinal motility associated with stress-induced IBS. METHODS: A rat IBS model was established using chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). Colonic pathological alterations were evaluated histologically and intestinal motility was assessed by intestinal transit time and fecal water content (FWC). Visceral sensitivity was determined by visceromotor response to colorectal distension. RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining were performed to identify colonic CHT1 expression. Contractility of colonic muscle strips was measured using isometric transducers. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure acetylcholine (ACh). We examined the effects of MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, on colonic motility. RESULTS: After 10 days of WAS, intestinal transit time was decreased and fecal water content increased. Visceromotor response magnitude in WAS rats in response to colorectal distension was significantly enhanced. Protein and mRNA CHT1 levels in the colon were markedly elevated after WAS. The density of CHT1-positive intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons in WAS rats was higher than in controls. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate partly reversed CHT1 upregulation and alleviated colonic hypermotility in WAS rats. Pharmacological enhancement of CHT1 activity by MKC-231 enhanced colonic motility in control rats via upregulation of CHT1 and elevation of ACh production. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of CHT1 in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons is implicated in chronic stress-induced colonic hypermotility by modulation of ACh synthesis via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Ammonium Compounds , Animals , Blotting, Western , Choline , Colon , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Transducers , Up-Regulation , Water
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Whether high-resolution anorectal pressure topography (HRPT), having better fidelity and spatio-temporal resolution is comparable to waveform manometry (WM) in the diagnosis and characterization of defecatory disorders (DD) is not known. METHODS: Patients with chronic constipation (Rome III) were evaluated for DD with HRPT and WM during bearing-down “on-bed” without inflated rectal balloon and “on-commode (toilet)” with 60-mL inflated rectal balloon. Eleven healthy volunteers were also evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-three of 117 screened participants (F/M = 77/16) were included. Balloon expulsion time was abnormal (> 60 seconds) in 56% (mean 214.4 seconds). A modest correlation between HRPT and WM was observed for sphincter length (R = 0.4) and likewise agreement between dyssynergic subtypes (κ = 0.4). During bearing down, 2 or more anal pressure-segments (distal and proximal) could be appreciated and their expansion measured with HRPT but not WM. In constipated vs healthy participants, the proximal segment was more expanded (2.0 cm vs 1.0 cm, P = 0.003) and of greater pressure (94.8 mmHg vs 54.0 mmHg, P = 0.010) during bearing down on-commode but not on-bed. CONCLUSIONS: Because of its better resolution, HRPT may identify more structural and functional abnormalities including puborectal dysfunction (proximal expansion) than WM. Bearing down on-commode with an inflated rectal balloon may provide additional dimension in characterizing DD.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Constipation , Defecation , Diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Motility , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Manometry
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