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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878954

ABSTRACT

The color characteristic information of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma powder was obtained by spectrophotometer, the feasibility of rapid identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma origin based on chromaticity value was studied by statistical analysis. The results of rank correlation analysis showed that a~*(P<0.01), b~*(P<0.01) had significantly correlation with the origin of medicinal herbs, which could be used as two important parameters to distinguish the origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, the larger the a~* value, the more red the powder color,and the greater the b~* value, the more yellow the powder color. Meanwhile, through Fisher discriminant analysis, the linear discriminant functions of different genus Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were established, which was Rheum tanguticum=40.666a~*+0.019b~*-213.303, Rh. palmatum=34.121a~*+0.061b~*-151.770, Rh. officinale=28.071a~*+0.113b~*-104.604 3, the coincidence rate of cross-validation was over 95%, among them, the discriminant rate of Rh. tanguticum and Rh. officinale reached 100%;In addition, using the percentile method to analyze the 90% reference value range of three different origin of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as a result, Rh. tanguticum a~*(10.236 5-10.604 7), b~*(32.294 8-34.841 7); Rh. palmatum a~*(8.602 7-8.770 0), b~*(27.534 8-28.968 6), and Rh. officinale a~*(6.825 7-7.464 3),b~*(21.001 6-27.716 4). According to this study, rank correlation analysis and Fisher discriminant analysis are feasible to distinguish the base of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma in a certain range, and provide some theoretical basis for the identification of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It also provides a new method and idea for the identification of other multi-base Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastropoda , Plant Roots , Rheum , Rhizome
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 158-166, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Age and growth of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were studied. to address the lack of basic information on the growth rates and the size at sexual maturity of organism in a commercially harvested area, which will be important in considering the size limits to conserve this resources in future. In the present study the results showed more or less similar growth patterns in the males and females of two populations of Pugilina cochlidium. The age and growth estimation of these two populations of Pugilina cochlidium were completed using several methods and the outcome of one method will act as a check and control over the other using the FISAT 1 software. The values of asymptotic length (Lα) values obtained in the present study using various methods did not vary greatly. Lα values obtained for the first population of Pugilina cochlidium was 95.55 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.588 yr-1) and females (0.620 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN. Similarly, the values of asymptotic length (Lα), obtained for second population of Pugilina cochlidium, was 96.15 mm for males and 106.05 mm for females and the growth rate (K) for males (0.540 yr-1) and females (0.950 yr-1) was given by k-scan routine in ELEFAN.


Resumo A idade e o crescimento de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram estudados. abordar a falta de informações básicas sobre as taxas de crescimento e o tamanho na maturidade sexual do organismo em uma área comercialmente colhida, o que será importante considerando os limites de tamanho para conservar esses recursos no futuro. No presente estudo os resultados mostraram padrões de crescimento mais ou menos semelhantes nos machos e fêmeas de duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium. A idade e a estimativa de crescimento destas duas populações de Pugilina cochlidium foram completadas usando vários métodos e o resultado de um método funcionará como uma verificação e controle sobre o outro usando o software FISAT 1. Os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα) obtidos no presente estudo usando vários métodos não variaram muito. Os valores de Lα obtidos para a primeira população de Pugilina cochlidium foram de 95,55 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,588 yr-1) e fêmeas (0,620 yr-1) foi dada pela rotina k-scan na ELEFAN. Similarmente, os valores de comprimento assintótico (Lα), obtidos para a segunda população de Pugilina cochlidium, foram 96,15 mm para machos e 106,05 mm para fêmeas e a taxa de crescimento (K) para machos (0,540 anos) e fêmeas (0,950 anos). 1) foi dado pela rotina de k-scan na ELEFAN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Bays , India
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 62-77, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120437

ABSTRACT

Los moluscos son uno de los grupos faunísticos dominantes en ambientes estuarinos con bosque de manglar como el humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona. Forman parte de la transferencia de energía a través de las redes tróficas y contribuyen a la estructuración de los hábitats bénticos. El humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona se ubica en el litoral Pacífico de Guatemala. Se determinó la diversidad de la comunidad de moluscos, así como su relación con los parámetros fisicoquímicos del agua. Se realizaron ocho muestreos (enero a agosto) en 2017, utilizando parcelas con un área de 16 m2 en seis sitios de bosque de manglar y cuatro sitios en el canal estuarino, distribuidos en el humedal. La riqueza de moluscos del humedal está comprendida por 26 especies correspondientes a 18 familias y 22 géneros. Las especies más abundantes de gasterópodos fueron Cerithideopsis californica (Adams, 1852) y Littoraria fasciata (Gray, 1839) y de bivalvos Iliochione subrugosa (Wood, 1828) y Larkinia grandis (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829). Los sitios correspondientes a bosque de manglar presentaron una mayor cantidad de moluscos, principalmente gasterópodos. La distribución de las especies dominantes, no está dada por los factores fisicoquímicos del agua, pudiendo ser otros factores como la disponibilidad de hábitat y alimento los que rijan su distribución dentro del humedal. Algunos factores como la influencia de agua marina dentro del humedal, las altas concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto y pH ligeramente básicos, así como la calidad del agua en general, hacen del humedal Las Lisas-La Barrona un área muy diversa en cuanto a especies de moluscos.


Molluscs are one of the dominant faunistic groups in estuarine environments with mangrove forests such as the Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland. They are part of the transfer of energy through trophic networks and contribute to the structuring of the benthic habitats. The Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland is located on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. The diversity of the mollusk community, as well as its relationship with the physicochemical parameters of the water was determined. Eight samplings were carried out (January to August) in 2017, using parcels with an area of 16 m2 in six mangrove forest sites and four sites in the estuarine channel, distributed along the wetland. The mollusk richness of the wetland is comprised of 26 species corresponding to 18 families and 22 genera. The most abundant species of gastropods were Cerithideopsis californica (Adams, 1852) and Littoraria fasciata (Gray, 1839) and bivalves Iliochione subrugosa (Wood, 1828) and Larkinia grandis (Broderip & Sowerby, 1829). The sites corresponding to mangrove forest, presented a greater amount of mollusks, mainly gastropods. The distribution of dominant species is not given by the physicochemical factors of the water, being able to be other factors such as the availability of habitat and food that govern their distribution within the wetland. Some factors such as the influence of seawater in the wetland, the high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and the slightly basic levels of pH, as well as water quality in general, make the Las Lisas-La Barrona wetland a very diverse area in terms of mollusk species


Subject(s)
Animals , Coasts , Benthic Fauna/analysis , Wetlands , Water Quality , Bivalvia , Estuaries , Gastropoda , Mollusca/classification
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
5.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2019001-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763761

ABSTRACT

Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis‚ the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azerbaijan , Cercaria , Dermatitis , Echinostomatidae , Farmers , Fascioliasis , Fresh Water , Gastropoda , Humans , Iran , Prevalence , Snails , Trematode Infections , World Health Organization
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 65 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248386

ABSTRACT

Gastrópodes continentais atuam como hospedeiros intermediários de nematódeos de interesse para a saúde humana e animal, como Angiostrongylus spp. e outros pertencentes à superfamília Metastrongyloidea. O procedimento de digestão artificial é comumente utilizado para recuperar larvas de nematódeos em moluscos. Entretanto, essas formas imaturas não apresentam desenvolvidos os caracteres morfológicos necessários à sua identificação taxonômica. Como o produto da digestão artificial é ácido e contém restos de tecido do molusco, também surgem dificuldades para realizar o diagnóstico molecular destas larvas. Estudos pilotos mostraram ineficiência no diagnóstico molecular devido a variações na qualidade da amostra, baixa concentração de DNA e baixa eficiência nas Reações em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprimorar o diagnóstico molecular de larvas de Angiostrongylus spp. obtidas de moluscos. Assim, inicialmente, foi padronizado um método de preparo das larvas (triagem das larvas com micropipeta, somado ao ajuste do pH com PBS 1X ). A partir destas amostras padronizadas quanto ao método de preparo, foram testados métodos de extração de DNA e diferentes iniciadores para a região do Citocromo c Oxidase subunidade I (COI). Foram utilizadas larvas L3 de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis e A. vasorum provenientes de ciclos mantidos em laboratório.


Amostras do campo de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus também foram utilizadas para comparação. A importância do preparo da amostra foi testada através de reações de PCR realizadas em condições idênticas, com amostras padronizadas e não padronizadas quanto ao preparo. Quanto aos testes de extração, após a realização de pilotos com diferentes protocolos, foram selecionados para testes comparativos, até a etapa de sequenciamento, dois protocolos com choque térmico e um utilizando kit comercial. Estes foram avaliados quanto à quantidade de DNA, eficiência da amplificação, tempo de realização e qualidade da sequência. Em uma terceira etapa foram testados três diferentes iniciadores para o COI. Os resultados demonstraram que após uma lavagem com PBS o produto da digestão artificial torna-se neutro (pH 7,29 ± 0,13) e que estas amostras, devidamente triadas, apresentam taxa de amplificação 60% maior. Este passo mostrou-se essencial para o sucesso das demais etapas. As amostras que foram submetidas à extração de DNA com os três protocolos selecionados resultaram em um produto que permitiu a amplificação do fragmento do COI nas reações de PCR, apesar das baixas concentrações de DNA, tendo sido possível também o diagnóstico molecular, por sequenciamento de Sanger, de 100% dessas amostras.


Os protocolos com choque térmico apresentaram menor tempo de execução, custo e geração de resíduo químico. Os três iniciadores testados amplificaram com eficiência a região-alvo, viabilizando a identificação de Angiostrongylus spp. por sequenciamento. Os diferentes métodos de extração e iniciadores testados representam diferentes possibilidades para o diagnóstico de larvas de Angiostrongylus spp. e seu uso deverá levar em conta os recursos disponíveis (tempo e dinheiro) e o objetivo do estudo (diagnóstico ou pesquisa). A disponibilização de um protocolo eficiente e a possibilidade de redução dos custos no diagnóstico dos nematódeos associados a moluscos contribuem para incentivar as pesquisas na área e viabilizar estudos de vigilância epidemiológica e controle das angiostrongilíases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Pathology, Molecular , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Angiostrongylus , Nematoda
7.
Intestinal Research ; : 527-536, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the mechanisms by which colorectal cancer (CRC) cells acquire migratory and invasive capacities, and subsequently metastasize. Parthenolide (PT) expresses multiple anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities that inhibit nuclear factor κB by targeting the IκB kinase complex. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether PT can inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT in CRC cell lines.METHODS: HT-29 and SW480 cell lines were used in the experiment. Cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and sub-G1 analysis was measured by flow cytometry. The induction of EMT by TGF-β1 and inhibition of the process by PT was analyzed by phase contrast microscopy, wounding healing, cellular migration and invasion assays, and Western blotting.RESULTS: TGF-β1 inhibits HT-29 cell proliferation, but has no effect on SW480 cell proliferation; different concentrations of TGF-β1 did not induce apoptosis in HT-29 and SW480 cells. PT attenuates TGF-β1-induced elongated, fibroblast-like shape changing in cells. PT inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell migration and cell invasion. In addition, other EMT markers such as β-catenin, Vimentin, Snail, and Slug were suppressed by PT, while E-cadherin was increased by PT.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that PT inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT by suppressing the expression of the mesenchymal protein and increasing expression of the epithelial protein. These findings suggest a novel approach for CRC treatment by suppression of TGF-β1-induced EMT.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cadherins , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Colorectal Neoplasms , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Flow Cytometry , Gastropoda , HT29 Cells , Humans , Microscopy, Phase-Contrast , Phosphotransferases , Snails , Transforming Growth Factors , Vimentin , Wounds and Injuries
8.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019001-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785785

ABSTRACT

Freshwater snails, as the first intermediate hosts of trematodes, can cause health hazards in animals and humans. Recently, the World Health Organization has included Iran in a list of 6 countries known to have serious problems with fascioliasis. In addition, cercarial dermatitis is a job-related disease that is seen often in paddy workers, agricultural labourers, and fishermen in Iran, particularly in Mazandaran Province. Many studies have been conducted in Iran to survey larval trematodes in freshwater snails. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive data exist regarding infections in gastropods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the types and prevalence of cercarial infections in snails in Iran. Electronic English-language and Persian-language databases were searched to identify 24 published articles reporting the prevalence of trematode infections in snails (9 species from 6 families) in various provinces of Iran. In total, 4.4% of gastropods were infected with the larval stages of trematodes. According to the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis‚ the highest infection prevalence was found in Radix auricularia (9.9%). Twelve larval species of trematodes were identified, and the highest prevalence of cercariae was found for Echinostomatidae cercariae (4.3%). Among the provinces explored, West Azerbaijan had the highest prevalence of infected snails (16.9%). The presence of trematodes in snails could pose a serious health problem in Iran. Thus, further studies are necessary to characterize these infections in other provinces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azerbaijan , Cercaria , Dermatitis , Echinostomatidae , Farmers , Fascioliasis , Fresh Water , Gastropoda , Humans , Iran , Prevalence , Snails , Trematode Infections , World Health Organization
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 548-555, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Imposex is the development of male sexual characteristics caused by the toxic effects of some chemicals that acts as an endocrinal disruptor. Antifouling paints contain these chemicals. Cartagena lacks studies to indicate the extent of imposex in its coastal waters. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of imposex in the gastropod Stramonita haemastoma in Cartagena, Colombia. Specimens were collected during 2013 from locations of high and low influence of port activity. Morphometric measurements and the frequency of the occurrence of imposex were registered. The comparison among morphometric variables showed statistically significant differences between the two sites studied. Furthermore, the females of the S. haemastoma species presented an imposex frequency of 93.1% in Birds' Island, Cartagena Bay, compared to 31.8% in La Bocana. The relative penis size index or RPLI (10.145 and 3.231) and vas deferens sequence index or VDSI (2.83 and 1.16), showed possible contamination by organotin compounds in both places.


Resumo Imposex é o desenvolvimento de características sexuais masculinas causadas por poluentes tóxicos de alguns produtos químicos que atuam como desreguladores endócrinos. Tintas anti-incrustantes são as que contêm estes produtos químicos. Cartagena carece de estudos para indicar a extensão do imposex nas suas águas costeiras. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de imposex no gastrópode Stramonita haemastoma em Cartagena, Colômbia. Os espécimes foram coletados durante 2013 de locais de alta e baixa influência da atividade portuária. Foram registradas as medidas morfométricas e a frequência da ocorrência do imposex. A comparação entre as variáveis morfométricas mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os dois locais estudados. Além disso, as fêmeas da espécie S. haemastomaapresentaram uma frequência de imposex de 93,1% na Ilha das Aves, Baía das Cartagena, em comparação com 31,8% em La Bocana. O índice do comprimento relativo do pênis ou RPLI (10,145 e 3,231) e o índice da sequência do vaso deferente ou VDSI (2,83 e 1,16), mostraram possível contaminação por compostos organoestânicos em ambos os locais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Organotin Compounds/toxicity , Paint/toxicity , Disorders of Sex Development/chemically induced , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Gastropoda/drug effects , Vas Deferens/drug effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Colombia
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715288

ABSTRACT

The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the potential therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol in oral cancer patients. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) intensifies cancer cell invasion and metastasis, whereas resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, possesses antitumor activity, suppressing cell proliferation and progression in various cancer cell lines (ovarian, gastric, oral, pancreatic, colon, and prostate cancer cells). In addition, resveratrol has been identified as an inhibitor of LPA-induced proteolytic enzyme expression and ovarian cancer invasion. Furthermore, resveratrol was shown to inhibit oral cancer cell invasion by downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Recently, we demonstrated that LPA is important for the expression of transcription factors TWIST and SLUG during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in oral squamous carcinoma cells. In this study, we treated serum-starved cultures of oral squamous carcinoma cell line YD-10B with resveratrol for 24 hours prior to stimulation with LPA. To identify an optimal resveratrol concentration that does not induce apoptosis in oral squamous carcinoma cells, we determined the toxicity of resveratrol in YD-10B cells by assessing their viability using the MTT assay. Another assay was performed using Matrigel-coated cell culture inserts to detect oral cancer cell invasion activity. Immunoblotting was applied for analyzing protein expression of SLUG, TWIST1, E-cadherin, and GAPDH. We demonstrated that resveratrol efficiently inhibited LPA-induced oral cancer cell EMT and invasion by downregulating SLUG and TWIST1 expression. Therefore, resveratrol may potentially reduce oral squamous carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis in oral cancer patients, improving their survival outcomes. In summary, we identified new targets for the development of therapies against oral cancer progression and characterized the therapeutic potential of resveratrol for the treatment of oral cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cadherins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Colon , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gastropoda , Humans , Immunoblotting , Lysophospholipids , Mouth Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Stilbenes , Transcription Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740069

ABSTRACT

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral malignancy. Numerous therapies have been proposed for its cure. Research is continually being conducted to develop new forms of treatment as current therapies are associated with numerous side-effects. Luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid, has been demonstrated to possess strong anti-cancer activity against various human cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, research into luteolin-based anticancer activity against oral cancer remains scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of luteolin as an anti-cancer agent. After treatment with luteolin, Ca9-22 and CAL-27 oral cancer cells showed condensed nuclei and enhanced apoptotic rate with evidence of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely related to tumor migration and invasion. Luteolin suppressed cancer cell invasion and migration in the current study. Elevated expression of E-cadherin, an adherens junction protein, was evident in both cell lines after luteolin treatment. Luteolin also significantly inhibited transcription factors (i.e., N-cadherin, Slug, Snail, Twist, and ZEB-1) that regulated expression of tumor suppressors such as E-cadherin based on Western blot analysis and quantitative PCR. Thus, luteolin could induce mitochondrial apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing EMT-induced transcription factors.


Subject(s)
Adherens Junctions , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cadherins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gastropoda , Humans , Luteolin , Mouth Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Snails , Transcription Factors
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727872

ABSTRACT

The tumor microenvironment greatly influences cancer cell characteristics, and acidic extracellular pH has been implicated as an essential factor in tumor malignancy and the induction of drug resistance. Here, we examined the characteristics of gastric carcinoma (GC) cells under conditions of extracellular acidity and attempted to identify a means of enhancing treatment efficacy. Acidic conditions caused several changes in GC cells adversely affecting chemotherapeutic treatment. Extracellular acidity did inhibit GC cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest, but did not induce cell death at pH values down to 6.2, which was consistent with down-regulated cyclin D1 and up-regulated p21 mRNA expression. Additionally, an acidic environment altered the expression of atg5, HSPA1B, collagen XIII, collagen XXAI, slug, snail, and zeb1 genes which are related to regulation of cell resistance to cytotoxicity and malignancy, and as expected, resulted in increased resistance of cells to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs including etoposide, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin and 5-FU. Interestingly, however, acidic environment dramatically sensitized GC cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Consistently, the acidity at pH 6.5 increased mRNA levels of DR4 and DR5 genes, and also elevated protein expression of both death receptors as detected by immunoblotting. Gene silencing analysis showed that of these two receptors, the major role in this effect was played by DR5. Therefore, these results suggest that extracellular acidity can sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis at least partially via DR5 in GCs while it confers resistance to various type of chemotherapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cisplatin , Collagen , Cyclin D1 , Daunorubicin , Doxorubicin , Drug Resistance , Etoposide , Fluorouracil , Gastropoda , Gene Silencing , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunoblotting , Necrosis , Receptors, Death Domain , RNA, Messenger , Snails , Stomach Neoplasms , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(3): 293-300, July-Sept. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-860001

ABSTRACT

Studies on the distribution of molluscs in Brazil have been conducted since the beginning of the twentieth and the knowledge of the species distributed in the country represent important findings, which contribute to the understanding of human diseases and those of veterinary importance, transmitted by them. In order to verify the distribution of freshwater gastropods in Espírito Santo, a malacological surveywas carried out in nine municipalities that comprise the Northern mesoregion of the State, between January 2010 and February 2015. Initially the water collections occurring in the municipality were verified and the lotic systems at different levels of use and conservation were determined. Molluscs were collected monthly using a hand net adapted to a stick steel. An individual sample effort of 30 minutes was applied, by scanning, at about ten meters in each one of the selected habitats. A total of 6,000 specimens were collected, represented by genera Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria and Pomacea. Among the molluscs, some specimens were positive for flatworm larvae of medical and veterinary importance. The results contributed to the knowledge of the current distribution of freshwater gastropods in the Northern region of Espírito Santo whose the only record for the region dates back to 1983.


Estudos sobre a distribuição de moluscos no Brasil vêm sendo realizados desde os primórdios do século XX e o conhecimento das espécies distribuídas no país representam achados importantíssimos ao entendimento das doenças humanas e de importância veterinária. Com o objetivo de verificar a distribuição dos gastrópodes de água doce no Espírito Santo, realizou-se um levantamento malacológico em nove municípios que compõem a mesorregião Norte do Estado, entre janeiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2015. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma verificação das coleções hídricas ocorrentes nos municípios e os sistemas lóticos em diferentes níveis de utilização e conservação foram determinados. Os moluscos foram coletados mensalmente, utilizando-se de uma rede de mão (puçá), adaptada a um cabo de madeira. Foi aplicado um esforço amostral individual de 30 minutos, por varredura, em cerca de dez metros de extensão, em cada um dos habitats selecionados. Foram coletados 6.000 espécimes de moluscos, representados pelos gêneros Melanoides, Drepanotrema, Physa, Biomphalaria e Pomacea. Alguns exemplares apresentaram-se positivos para larvas de trematódeos de importância médico -veterinária. Os resultados contribuíram para o conhecimento da atual distribuição dos gastrópodes de água doce da região Norte do estado do Espírito Santo, cujo único registro para a região data do ano de 1983.


Subject(s)
Fresh Water , Gastropoda , Mollusca
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 185-190, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839170

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.


Resumo Este estudo investigou os efeitos de tributil-estanho (TBT) sobre a morfologia do sistema genital do gastrópode Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822) no Litoral Sul da Bahia, Brasil. Para isso, 330 espécimens foram coletados durante o verão de 2014 em oito pontos de amostragem, para verificar se os órgãos sexuais masculinos tinham se desenvolvido para além do trato genital feminino completo (= imposex). As análises foram feitas sob um microscópio estereoscópico. O imposex e seus índices associados, assim como as fêmeas estéreis, apresentaram as maiores taxas em áreas portuárias e estaleiros. Apesar da proibição total do TBT em tintas anti-incrustantes em escala global desde 2003, os resultados deste e de outros estudos indicam a continuidade de uso dessas tintas na costa brasileira. Isso mostra a ineficácia da legislação vigente e reforça a necessidade de se cumprir integralmente o banimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Paint/toxicity , Disorders of Sex Development/chemically induced , Trialkyltin Compounds/toxicity , Gastropoda/drug effects , Seasons , Disorders of Sex Development/veterinary , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring/methods
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649063

ABSTRACT

Relative to its incidence, oral cancer has serious negative social effects. The exact causes of oral cancer have not been clarified, but many studies have implicated smoking and drinking. However, the fundamental mechanism of oral cancer causation has yet to be elucidated. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) augments epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and development of various cancer cells. However, a detailed mechanistic explanation for LPA-induced EMT and the effects of EMT-promoting conditions on oral squamous cell carcinoma development remain elusive. In the present study, a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze TWIST1, Slug, E-cadherin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcript expression. Immunoblotting was used to analyze TWIST1, Slug, E-cadherin, and GAPDH protein expression. siRNAs were used to silence TWIST1 and Slug transcript expression. A matrigel-coated in vitro invasion insert was used to analyze oral cancer cell invasion. The results of the present study show that the expression levels of TWIST1 and Slug, which are EMT factors, were increased by LPA treatment in YD-10B oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conversely, E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced. In addition, transfection of the cells with TWIST1 and Slug siRNA strongly inhibited LPA-induced oral cancer cell invasion. The present study shows that TWIST1 and Slug mediate LPA-induced oral cancer cell EMT and invasiveness. The present study confirmed the mechanism by which LPA promotes oral cancer cell development, with TWIST1 and Slug providing novel biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets for oral cancer cell development.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cadherins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Drinking , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gastropoda , Immunoblotting , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Lysophospholipids , Mouth Neoplasms , Oxidoreductases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Small Interfering , Smoke , Smoking , Transfection
16.
Biol. Res ; 50: 41, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive natural products. Many of the marine bioactive compounds have been derived successfully from molluscs. Euchelus asper is a marine mollusc which is commonly found in the intertidal rocky regions of the Mumbai coast. The present study was focused on evaluating the anti-angiogenic and anti- proliferative activities of methanolic extract of Euchelus asper (EAME). METHODS: The anti-angiogenic activity of EAME (50-800 µg/mL) was assessed by chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM) model wherein multiple parameters in the CAM blood vessels were analysed through morphometric and histo-logical investigations. In vitro testing of EAME (5-20 µg/mL) included its cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, its effect on cell proliferation by wound healing assay as well as their relevant molecular mechanisms. Statistical analysis was carried out by two-tailed student's t test for two unpaired groups. RESULTS: Analysis of CAM revealed that the extract is effective in reducing the branching points of the 1st order blood vessels or capillaries of CAM. Histological analysis of CAM showed significant decrease in capillary plexus and compartmentalization along with increase in mesodermal blood vessels, thus establishing its anti-angiogenicity. Further, EAME exhibited moderate but significant cytotoxicity against A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line. We also demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of EAME in A549 was associated with its apoptotic activity by subG1 phase arrest. Lastly, EAME significantly reduced A549 proliferation by reducing the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). CONCLUSION: Overall, our study suggested that EAME has potential to inhibit tumour angiogenic and proliferative activity and may be a potential source for development of new anti-cancer pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Biological Products/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Gastropoda/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220159

ABSTRACT

A hypoxic microenvironment leads to cancer progression and increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells within tumors via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness acquisition. The hypoxic response pathway can occur under oxygen tensions of < 40 mmHg through hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are considered key mediators in the adaptation to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that cellular responses to hypoxia are required for EMT and cancer stemness maintenance through HIF-1α and HIF-2α. The principal transcription factors of EMT include Twist, Snail, Slug, Sip1 (Smad interacting protein 1), and ZEB1 (zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1). HIFs bind to hypoxia response elements within the promoter region of these genes and also target cancer stem cell-associated genes and mediate transcriptional responses to hypoxia during stem cell differentiation. Acquisition of stemness characteristics in epithelial cells can be induced by activation of the EMT process. The mechanism of these phenotypic changes includes epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Increased expression of EMT and pluripotent genes also play a role through demethylation of their promoters. In this review, we summarize the role of hypoxia on the acquisition of EMT and cancer stemness and the possible association with epigenetic regulation, as well as their therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fingers , Gastropoda , Genes, Homeobox , Histones , MicroRNAs , Oxygen , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Response Elements , Snails , Stem Cells , Transcription Factors
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189587

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway remodeling, leading to a progressive decline in lung function. Therapeutic agents that attenuate airway remodeling can complement the limited effects of traditional glucocorticoids. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic bronchial asthma. METHODS: Peribronchial smooth muscle thickening that developed in mice challenged with a 3-month repeated exposure to ovalbumin (OVA) was used to study airway remodeling. Oral resveratrol was administered daily during the OVA challenge. The expression of TGF-β1/Smad signaling proteins and downstream mesenchymal markers in the presence or absence of resveratrol was examined in bronchial epithelial cells. RESULTS: OVA sensitization and chronic challenge increased airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and collagen deposition. Resveratrol effectively suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. The expression of TGF-β1/phosphorylated Smad2/3 was increased in the lung tissues of OVA-challenged mice but effectively inhibited by resveratrol. In bronchial epithelial cells, the TGF-β1-induced expression of the mesenchymal markers snail, slug, vimentin, and α-SMA was suppressed by resveratrol treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Resveratrol effectively ameliorated both airway inflammation and airway structural changes in a mouse model of bronchial asthma. These effects were mediated by decreased TGF-β1 expression, in turn suppressing TGF-β1/Smad signaling and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Our results demonstrate the potential benefits of resveratrol for the treatment of airway remodeling associated with bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Actins , Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Collagen , Complement System Proteins , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gastropoda , Glucocorticoids , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Lung , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Snails , Vimentin
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61396

ABSTRACT

Even though Neptunea contricta appears similar to Batilus cornutus and Rapana venosa, they are different in tetramine content which inhibits the neuronal calcium channel. Therefore, mistaking Neptunea contricta for Batilus cornutus or Rapana venosa, can result in the occurrence of toxic symptoms. Three patients developed nausea, epigastric pain, chest pain, dizziness, blurred vision, dyspnea, hypertension and tachycardia after eating Neptunea contricta. Moreover, consumption of one only piece was sufficient to cause symptoms because each Neptunea contricta has 17.3 mg of tetramine. Accordingly, care should be taken when patients are consuming more than 5 pieces because toxic symptoms such as dyspnea can occur. Moreover, correct species identification is important because the quantity of tetramine varies among sea snail species. Finally, it is important to educate people to remove the salivary glands completely before consuming Neptunea contricta.


Subject(s)
Calcium Channels , Chest Pain , Dizziness , Dyspnea , Eating , Gastropoda , Humans , Hypertension , Nausea , Neurons , Poisoning , Salivary Glands , Snails , Tachycardia
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136325

ABSTRACT

Some carnivorous gastropods have heat stable tetramine toxins in their salivary glands. This toxin is an autonomic ganglionic blocking agent that enables them to catch the prey easily by paralyzing their targets. Acute tetramine toxin poisoning in humans from eating whelks has been well described based on numerous cases, but is rare in Korea. Symptoms of tetramine poisoning include eyeball pain, blurred vision, headache, dizziness, muscular twitching, tingling of hands and feet, weakness, paralysis and sometimes collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting can also occur. However, intoxication is self-limiting and patients will usually recover in about 24 hours. Herein, we report 2 cases of tetramine poisoning after ingestion of Buccinum striatissinum as meat and soup.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Dizziness , Eating , Foot , Ganglia, Autonomic , Gastropoda , Hand , Headache , Hot Temperature , Humans , Korea , Meat , Nausea , Paralysis , Poisoning , Salivary Glands , Vomiting
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