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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249287

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Resumo Antecedentes Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Glycolipids , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2379-2392, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887804

ABSTRACT

TetR family transcriptional regulators (TFRs) are widely distributed in bacteria and archaea, and the first discovered TFR was confirmed to control the expression of tetracycline efflux pump in Escherichia coli. TFRs can bind DNAs and ligands. Small molecule ligands can induce conformational changes of TFRs, inhibiting or promoting TFRs to control target gene expression. Currently, TFRs have a wide variety of ligands, including carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids and their derivatives, metal ions, and so on. Due to the diversity of ligands, TFRs regulate a wide range of physiological processes, from basic carbon metabolism and nitrogen metabolism to quorum sensing and antibiotic biosynthesis. On the basis of the recent studies in our laboratory and the literature, we review here the regulatory mechanism mediated by ligands of TFRs in primary and secondary metabolism, as well as the application of ligands for TFRs in the development of gene route and the activation of antibiotic biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Ligands , Quorum Sensing
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878362

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate reciprocal regulation between Fur and two RyhB homologs in @*Methods@#Regulatory relationships were assessed by a combination of colony morphology assay, primer extension, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting.@*Results@#Fur bound to the promoter-proximal DNA regions of @*Conclusion@#Fur and the two RyhB homologs exert negative reciprocal regulation, and RyhB homologs have a positive regulatory effect on biofilm formation in


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology , Yersinia pestis/physiology
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1500-1510, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771779

ABSTRACT

MarR family transcription regulators are ubiquitous among bacteria and archaea. They extensively control multiple cellular processes and elaborately regulate the expression of genes involved in virulence, stress response and antibiotics at translational level. In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, insertional inactivation of MarR family transcription regulator HpaR (XC2827) resulted in significantly decrease in virulence and increase in the production of the extracellular proteases. Here, we reported that the genome of Xcc 8004 encodes nine MarR family transcription regulators. The MarR family transcription regulators, HpaR (XC2827) and XC0449, were heterologous expressed and purified. In vitro MST and Pull-down assay confirmed the physical interaction between HpaR and XC0449. Phenotypical assay determined that deletion of XC0449 resulted in substantial virulence attenuation. In vitro EMSA, in vivo qRT-PCR and GUS activity assay identified that HpaR and XC0449 coordinately act as the transcriptional activator to regulate the expression of the virulence-associated gene XC0705, and eventually control the bacterial virulence and the production of extracellular proteases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Transcription Factors , Virulence , Xanthomonas campestris
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1925-1941, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771742

ABSTRACT

Harnessing industrial microorganisms to utilize renewable feedstocks and meanwhile produce biofuels, bulk chemicals, food ingredients, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, industrial enzymes, etc. is the basis for successful biological industries. Robust traits of industrial microorganisms including high yield and productivity as well as stress tolerance are controlled by sophisticated genetic regulatory networks. Engineering robustness of industrial microorganisms requires systematic and global perturbations at the genome-wide scale to accelerate the accumulation of diversified genotypic mutations, thus generating desirable phenotypes. We review heve the mechanisms of genetic regulation and stress response in robust industrial organisms, the global perturbations and multiplex accelerated evolution at the genome-wide scale, as well as the global perturbation of cellular redox balance. In the future, based on system biology and synthetic biology, more efforts should be further devoted to understanding the mechanisms behind robust traits in industrial microorganisms under industrial niches for modeling and prediction as well as systematic engineering.


Subject(s)
Environment , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genetics , Industrial Microbiology , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 558-566, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771353

ABSTRACT

Bacterial biofilm refers to a tunicate-like biological group composed of polysaccharide, protein and nucleic acid secreted by bacteria on the surface of the mucous membrane or biological material. The biofilm formation is a major cause of chronic infections. Bacteria could produce some secondary metabolites during the growth and reproduction. Some of them act as signaling molecules allowing bacteria to communicate and regulate many important physiological behaviors at multiple-cell level, such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, motility and lifestyles. Usually, these signal molecules play an important role in the formation of bacterial biofilm. We review here the effects of related signal molecules of Quorum Sensing, cyclic diguanylate, Two-Component Systems and sRNA on the biofilm formation. Focusing on these regulation mechanism of signal molecules in the process of biofilm formation is necessary for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Biofilms , Cyclic GMP , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Protein Binding , Quorum Sensing
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 200-206, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889189

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacteroides fragilis is the strict anaerobic bacteria most commonly found in human infections, and has a high mortality rate. Among other virulence factors, the remarkable ability to acquire resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents and to tolerate nanomolar concentrations of oxygen explains in part their success in causing infection and colonizing the mucosa. Much attention has been given to genes related to multiple drug resistance derived from plasmids, integrons or transposon, but such genes are also detected in chromosomal systems, like the mar (multiple antibiotic resistance) locus, that confer resistance to a range of drugs. Regulators like MarR, that control expression of the locus mar, also regulate resistance to organic solvents, disinfectants and oxygen reactive species are important players in these events. Strains derived from the parental strain 638R, with mutations in the genes hereby known as marRI (BF638R_3159) and marRII (BF638R_3706) were constructed by gene disruption using a suicide plasmid. Phenotypic response of the mutant strains to hydrogen peroxide, cell survival assay against exposure to oxygen, biofilm formation, resistance to bile salts and resistance to antibiotics was evaluated. The results showed that the mutant strains exhibit statistically significant differences in their response to oxygen stress, but no changes were observed in survival when exposed to bile salts. Biofilm formation was not affected by either gene disruption. Both mutant strains however, became more sensitive to multiple antimicrobial drugs tested. This indicates that as observed in other bacterial species, MarR are an important resistance mechanism in B. fragilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacteroides fragilis/drug effects , Bacteroides fragilis/genetics , Bacteroides Infections/microbiology , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacteroides fragilis/isolation & purification , Bacteroides fragilis/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Silencing , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Repressor Proteins/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 97-103, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889210

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Freezing temperatures are a major challenge for life at the poles. Decreased membrane fluidity, uninvited secondary structure formation in nucleic acids, and protein cold-denaturation all occur at cold temperatures. Organisms adapted to polar regions possess distinct mechanisms that enable them to survive in extremely cold environments. Among the cold-induced proteins, cold shock protein (Csp) family proteins are the most prominent. A gene coding for a Csp-family protein, cspB, was cloned from an arctic bacterium, Polaribacter irgensii KOPRI 22228, and overexpression of cspB greatly increased the freeze-survival rates of Escherichia coli hosts, to a greater level than any previously reported Csp. It also suppressed the cold-sensitivity of an E. coli csp-quadruple deletion strain, BX04. Sequence analysis showed that this protein consists of a unique domain at its N-terminal end and a well conserved cold shock domain at its C-terminal end. The most common mechanism of Csp function in cold adaption is melting of the secondary structures in RNA and DNA molecules, thus facilitating transcription and translation at low temperatures. P. irgensii CspB bound to oligo(dT)-cellulose resins, suggesting single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity. The unprecedented level of freeze-tolerance conferred by P. irgensii CspB suggests a crucial role for this protein in survival in polar environments.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Flavobacteriaceae/physiology , Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides/metabolism , Arctic Regions , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Cold Temperature , Ecosystem , Flavobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Flavobacteriaceae/genetics , Cold Shock Proteins and Peptides/genetics
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7044, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951748

ABSTRACT

In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes in a multidrug-resistant isolate strain of Clostridium perfringens by RNA sequencing. We also separated and identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the isolate strain by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). The RNA sequencing results showed that, compared with the control strain, 1128 genes were differentially expressed in the isolate strain, and these included 227 up-regulated genes and 901 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified the following genes and gene categories that are potentially involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the isolate strain: drug transport, drug response, hydrolase activity, transmembrane transporter, transferase activity, amidase transmembrane transporter, efflux transmembrane transporter, bacterial chemotaxis, ABC transporter, and others. The results of the 2-DE showed that 70 proteins were differentially expressed in the isolate strain, 45 of which were up-regulated and 25 down-regulated. Twenty-seven DEPs were identified by MS and these included the following protein categories: ribosome, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and ABC transporter, all of which may be involved in MDR in the isolate strain of C. perfringens. The results provide reference data for further investigations on the drug resistant molecular mechanisms of C. perfringens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Clostridium perfringens/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Genes, MDR , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Clostridium perfringens/classification , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Clostridium perfringens/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Proteome/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Gene Ontology
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1895-1905, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771419

ABSTRACT

The exogenous gene expression and its impacts on the bacterial population are important to study quorum sensing systems and synthetic biology industry. However, the behavior of exogenous protein expressing bacteria remains poorly understood. To find out which factors are playing a critical role in the growth of population and exogenous gene expression, we measured Lux-type receptor-regulated exogenous gene expression under the induction of N-acyl homoserine lactone (N-AHL) signaling molecules and impacts on the bacterial population dynamics after such stimulation. To analyze the cause of fitness burden of bacteria, we set up a hypothetical mathematical model. Previous studies often arrogate this phenomenon to the synthesis cost and the toxicity of N-AHL signaling molecule. However, we suggested another possible cause of the fitness burden.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Quorum Sensing
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1760-1771, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776292

ABSTRACT

Promoter, an essential regulatory element, is widely used for metabolic engineering of industrial strains. Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse to produce various amino acids. However, strong constitutive promoters that are applicable to C. glutamicum are rarely reported. In this study, we first performed a time-series transcriptome analysis of a glutamate hyper-producing strain C. glutamicum SL4 by using RNA-Seq. Overall, we picked 10 samples at different time during the fermentation process. By analyzing the time-series transcriptome data, we selected 10 candidate genes with the highest transcriptional level. These genes were all transcribed stably during the fermentation process. We subsequently cloned the promoter sequences and evaluated the promoters' strength in strain SL4 using a red fluorescent protein reporter system. To evaluate the universality of the promoters in different C. glutamicum strains, we further tested the performance of some promoters in wild type C. glutamicum strains, including ATCC 13869 and ATCC 13032. The strongest promoter was further characterized using LacZ as a reporter in all the three C. glutamicum strains. Finally, we successfully obtained three constitutive promoters with universality, PcysK, PgapA and PfumC. PcysK is the most efficient promoter among the three C. glutamicum strains. In strains SL4 and ATCC 13869, the strength of PcysK is 2-fold of the strong inducible promoter Ptac using the red fluorescent protein as a reporter and 4-fold of Ptac using LacZ as a reporter. Moreover, the strength of PcysK reaches 30%-40% of Ptac in strain ATCC 13032. The promoter PcysK is identified as a strong promoter for the first time, which can be used as an efficient biobrick for metabolic engineering of synthesis pathways in C. glutamicum.


Subject(s)
Corynebacterium glutamicum , Genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transcriptome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690658

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Macrolide susceptibility and drug resistance mechanisms of clinical non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates were preliminarily investigated for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of the infection in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Four macrolides, including clarithromycin (CLAR), azithromycin (AZM), roxithromycin (ROX), and erythromycin (ERY), were used to test the drug susceptibility of 310 clinical NTM isolates from six provinces of China with the broth microdilution method. Two resistance mechanisms, 23S rRNA and erm, were analyzed with nucleotide sequence analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Varied effectiveness of macrolides and species-specific resistance patterns were observed. Most Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense were susceptible and all M. fortuitum were highly resistant to macrolides. All the drugs, except for erythromycin, exhibited excellent activities against slow-growing mycobacteria, and drug resistance rates were below 22.2%. Only four highly resistant strains harbored 2,058/2,059 substitutions on rrl and none of other mutations were related to macrolide resistance. G2191A and T2221C on rrl were specific for the M. abscessus complex (MABC). Seven sites, G2140A, G2210C, C2217G, T2238C, T2322C, T2404C, and A2406G, were specifically carried by M. avium and M. intracellulare. Three sites, A2192G, T2358G, and A2636G, were observed only in M. fortuitum and one site G2152A was specific for M. gordonae. The genes erm(39) and erm(41) were detected in M. fortuitum and M. abscessus and inducible resistance was observed in relevant sequevar.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The susceptibility profile of macrolides against NTM was demonstrated. The well-known macrolide resistance mechanisms, 23S rRNA and erm, failed to account for all resistant NTM isolates, and further studies are warranted to investigate macrolide resistance mechanisms in various NTM species.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , China , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Humans , Macrolides , Pharmacology , Mycobacterium , Genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 386-390, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) adopts a special survival strategy to overcome the killing mechanism(s) of host immune system. Amongst the many known factors, small heat shock protein 16.3 (sHSP16.3) of MTB encoded by gene hspX has been reported to be critical for the survival of MTB. In the present study, the effect of recombinant murine interferon-gamma (rmIFN-γ) and recombinant murine interleukin-10 (rmIL-10) on the expression of gene hspX of MTB in murine macrophage RAW264.7 has been investigated. By real-time RT-PCR, it was observed that three increasing concentrations (5, 25 and 50 ng/ml) of rmIFN-γ significantly up-regulated the expression of hspX whereas similar concentrations of rmIL-10 (5, 25 and 50 ng/ml) significantly down-regulated the hspX expression. This effect was not only dependent on the concentration of the stimulus but this was time-dependent as well. A contrasting pattern of hspX expression was observed against combinations of two different concentrations of rmIFN-γ and rmIL-10. The study results suggest that rIL-10 mediated down-regulation of hspX expression, in the presence of low concentration of rIFN-γ, could be used as an important strategy to decrease the dormancy of MTB in its host and thus making MTB susceptible to the standard anti-mycobacterial therapy used for treating tuberculosis. However, as these are only preliminary results in the murine cell line model, this hypothesis needs to be first validated in human cell lines and subsequently in animal models mimicking the latent infection using clinical isolates of MTB before considering the development of modified regimens for humans.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Interleukin-10/pharmacology , Macrophages/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/metabolism , Time Factors , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 499-503, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040573

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus pandemic clone USA300 has, in addition to its constitutive arginine catabolism (arc) gene cluster, an arginine catabolism mobile element (ACME) carrying another such cluster, which gives this clone advantages in colonisation and infection. Gene arcR, which encodes an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator, is inside ACME and downstream of the constitutive arc gene cluster, and this situation may have an impact on its activation. Different relative expression behaviours are proven here for arcRACME and the arcACME operon compared to the constitutive ones. We also show that the artificially expressed recombinant ArcRACME protein binds to the promoter region of the arcACME operon; this mechanism can be related to a positive feedback model, which may be responsible for increased anaerobic survival of the USA300 clone during infection-related processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Operon/genetics , Arginine/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Arginine/metabolism , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311377

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To characterize carbapenem (CPM)-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and carbape-nemase produced by these strains isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital based on a five-year surveillance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Minimal Inhibition Concentration values for 15 antibiotics were assessed using the Phonix100 compact system. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to detect genes encoding carbapenemases. WHONET 5.6 was finally used for resistance analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, 179 strains of CPM-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were isolated from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The rates of non-susceptible to imipenem and meropenem were 95.0% and 95.6%, respectively. In the 179 strains, 95 (53.1%) strains carried the blaIMP gene, and IMP-4 and IMP-8 were detected in 92 (96.8%) and 3 (3.2%) IMP-producing isolates, respectively. 65 (36.3%) strains carried the blaNDM-1 gene. 6 (3.4%) strains carried the blaKPC gene, and KPC-2 were detected in 6 KPC-producing isolates. In addition, New Delhi-Metallo-1 (NDM-1) producing isolates increased from 7.1% to 63.0% in five years and IMP-4 producing isolates decreased from 75.0% to 28.3%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High frequencies of multiple resistances to antibiotics were observed in the CPM-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae strains isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital. The production of IMP-4 and NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamases appears to be an important mechanism for CPM-non- susceptible in K. pneumoniae.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Child , China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Physiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Klebsiella Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Population Surveillance , Time Factors , beta-Lactamases , Genetics , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311372

ABSTRACT

We used a proteomic approach to identify IbpA in Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazaki), which is related to heat tolerance in this strain. The abundance of IbpA in C. sakazakii strains strongly increased after heat shock. C. sakazakii CMCC 45402 ibpA deletion mutants were successfully constructed. The C. sakazakii CMCC 45402 ΔibpA and wild-type strains could not be distinguished based on colony morphology on LB agar plates or biochemical assays. The growth of the C. sakazakii CMCC 45402 ΔibpA mutant in heat shock conditions was indistinguishable from that of the isogenic wild-type, but showed greater heat resistance than E. coli O157:H7 strain CMCC 44828. This study suggests that the absence of a single ibpA gene has no obvious effect on the phenotype or heat resistance of the strain C. sakazakii CMCC 45402.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Cronobacter sakazakii , Genetics , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Physiology , Genotype , Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Stress, Physiological
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 414-416, Apr.-June 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780834

ABSTRACT

Abstract Escherichia coli is the major causative agent of human cystitis. In this study, a preliminary molecular analysis carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that 100% of 31 E. coli strains isolated from patients with recurrent UTIs (urinary tract infections) showed the presence of the curli fimbria gene (csgA). Curli fimbria is known to be associated with bacterial biofilm formation but not with the adhesion of human cystitis-associated E. coli. Therefore, this work aimed to study how curli fimbria is associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) as an adhesion factor. For this purpose, the csgA gene was deleted from strain UPEC-4, which carries three adhesion factor genes (csgA, fimH and ompA). The wild-type UPEC-4 strain and its mutant (ΔcsgA) were analyzed for their adhesion ability over HTB-9 (human bladder carcinoma), Vero (kidney cells of African green monkey) and HUVEC (human umbilical vein) cells in the presence of α-D-mannose. All the wild-type UPEC strains tested (100%) were able to adhere to all three cell types, while the UPEC-4 ΔcsgA mutant lost its adherence to HTB-9 but continued to adhere to the HUVEC and Vero cells. The results suggest that curli fimbria has an important role in the adhesion processes associated with human UPEC-induced cystitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesins, Escherichia coli/metabolism , Cystitis/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/metabolism , Bacterial Adhesion , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Sequence Deletion , Adhesins, Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 165-171, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782103

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the wide use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, clinical resistance to tigecycline has increased in recent years. Here, we investigated the relationship between tigecycline resistance and the expression of efflux pumps. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were consecutively collected from hospitalized patients in three hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline was determined using the broth microdilution method. Expression levels of efflux pump genes and regulators were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 1,026 A. baumannii and 725 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Most strains were isolated from sputum. The tigecycline resistance rate was 13.4% in A. baumannii isolates and 6.5% in K. pneumoniae isolates. Overexpression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems was observed found in clinical tigecycline-resistant isolates. The tigecycline MIC had a linear relationship with the adeB expression level in A. baumannii isolates, but not with the acrB expression level in K. pneumoniae isolates. There were significant linear trends in the overexpression of ramA as the tigecycline MIC increased in K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae was strongly associated with the overexpression of efflux systems. More studies are needed to elucidate whether there are other regulators that affect the expression of adeB in A. baumannii and how ramA affects the expression of acrB in K. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tigecycline , Minocycline/pharmacokinetics
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