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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of blocking the activation of ERK pathway on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the formation of cerebral edema in SD rats after brain injury.@*METHODS@#Ninety SD rats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, including a sham-operated group, modified Feeney's traumatic brain injury model group, and ERK inhibition group where the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 (500 μg/kg) was injected via the femoral vein 15 min before brain trauma. At 2 h and 2 days after brain trauma, the permeability of blood-brain barrier was assessed by Evans blue method, the water content of the brain tissue was determined, and the phosphorylation level of ERK and the expression level of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operated group, the rats with brain trauma exhibited significantly increased level of ERK phosphorylation at 2 h and significantly increased expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury ( < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of ERK after the injury ( < 0.01), suppressed over-expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury ( < 0.01). The permeability of blood-brain barrier increased significantly 2 h after brain trauma ( < 0.05) and increased further at 2 days ( < 0.01); the water content of the brain did not change significantly at 2 h ( > 0.05) but increased significantly 2 d after the injury ( < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly lowered the permeability of blood-brain barrier and brain water content after brain trauma ( < 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Blocking the activation of ERK pathway significantly reduced the over-expression of MMP-9 and alleviates the damage of blood-brain barrier and traumatic brain edema, suggesting that ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in traumatic brain edema by regulating the expression of MMP-9.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Edema , Drug Therapy , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Drug Therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Indazoles , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Genetics , Piperazines , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(7): 449-453, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020606

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the effects of estrogen alone or in combination with progestogens and tibolone (TIB) on the expression of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), of perlecan, and of heparanase (HPSE) of the vascular walls of the carotid arteries. Methods A total of 30 250-day-old ovariectomized Wistar rats were orally treated for 5 weeks with: a) 1 mg/kg of estradiol benzoate (EB); b) EB + 0.2 mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA); c) EB + 0.2mg/kg of norethisterone acetate (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg of dydrogesterone (DI); e) 1 mg/kg of TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Following treatment, the expression of mRNA for MMP-2, MMP-9, and HPSE was analyzed by realtime polymerase chain-reaction (PCR), and the expression of MMP-2, of MMP-9, of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and of perlecan was quantified by immunohistochemistry in the carotid arteries. Results The groups showed significant differences on mRNA HPSE expression (p = 0.048), which was higher in the EB, EB + MPA, and TIB groups. There was no statistically significant difference in mRNA MMP-2 or MMP-9 expression. The immunohistochemical expression of MMP-2, of TIMP-2, of MMP-9, of HPSE, and of perlecan showed no differences between groups. Conclusion Estradiol alone or associated with MPA and TIB treatment can increase mRNA HSPE expression of the walls of the carotid arteries in ovariectomized rats.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar os efeitos do estrogênio isolado ou em combinação com progestogênios e tibolona (TIB) na expressão das metaloproteinases 2 e 9 da matriz extracelular (MMP-2 e MMP-9), da perlecan e da heparanase (HPSE) das paredes vasculares das artérias carótidas. Métodos Trinta ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas com 250 dias de idade foram tratadas oralmente por 5 semanas com: a) 1 mg/kg de benzoato de estradiol (EB); b) EB + 0,2 mg/kg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MPA); c) EB + 0,2mg/kg de acetato de noretisterona (NETA); d) EB + 2 mg/kg de didrogesterona (DI); e) 1 mg/kg de TIB; f) placebo (CTR). Após o tratamento, a expressão de mRNA para MMP-2, MMP- 9, e HPSE foi analisada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) em tempo real, e a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, inibidor tecidual de metaloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), e de perlecan foi quantificado por imunohistoquímica em artérias carótidas. Resultados Os grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas na expressão do mRNA HPSE (p = 0,048), sendo maiores nos grupos EB, EB + MPA e TIB. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas expressões de mRNA MMP-2 ou MMP-9. A expressão imunohistoquímica de MMP-2, TIMP-2, MMP-9, HPSE e perlecan não mostrou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão O estradiol isolado ou associado ao tratamento com MPA e TIB pode aumentar a expressão de mRNA HSPE nas paredes das artérias carótidas em ratas ovariectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Progestins/pharmacology , Carotid Arteries/enzymology , Heparin Lyase/drug effects , Estradiol/analogs & derivatives , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Norpregnenes/pharmacology , Progestins/administration & dosage , Ovariectomy , Carotid Arteries/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Rats, Wistar , Heparin Lyase/genetics , Heparin Lyase/metabolism , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/genetics , Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Models, Animal , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estradiol/pharmacology , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Norpregnenes/administration & dosage
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 857-870, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771324

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of genistein (Gen) on the biosynthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in rats, 80 4-week-old male SD rats were randomly equally into the control and genistein groups. The rats of control and genistein groups were fed 5% ethanol and 300 mg/(kg·d) genistein respectively by gavage. The contents of Neu5Gc in hind leg muscle, kidney and liver tissues of rats were measured by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD), and the mechanism of inhibition of Neu5Gc synthesis was investigated by using the molecular docking of Gen and sialyltransferase. On the 15th day, the content of Neu5Gc in hind leg muscle and liver tissues decreased 13.77% and 15.45%, respectively, and there was no significant change in the content of Neu5Gc in kidney tissues. On the 30th day, the content of Neu5Gc in liver tissues decreased 13.35%, however, there was no significant change in the content of Neu5Gc in kidney tissues and Neu5Gc was not detected in hind leg muscle. The content of Neu5Gc in hind leg muscle, kidney and liver tissues decreased respectively 32.65%, 32.78%, 16.80% and 12.72%, 11.42%, 12.30% while rats fed on the 45th and the 60th days. Genistein has formed the hydrogen bond with sialyltransferase activity site residues His319, Ser151, Gly293, Thr328 and formed a hydrophobic interactions with the residues His302, His301, Trp300, Ser271, Phe292, Thr328, Ser325 and Ile274. The results of molecular docking indicated that the weak intermolecular interaction was the main cause of genistein inhibiting sialyltransferase activity. The research results provided an experimental basis for the subsequent reduction of Neu5Gc in red meat before slaughter.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genistein , Pharmacology , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neuraminic Acids , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transferases , Metabolism
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacillus/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cellulose/metabolism , Computational Biology , Feces/microbiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , INDEL Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Substrate Specificity , Zea mays/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812398

ABSTRACT

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis through aggressive migration and invasion. Madecassoside (Madec), a triterpenoid saponin present in Centella asiatica herbs, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, Madec exerted an obvious therapeutic effect in reversing the histological lesions in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats. To recognize the anti-rheumatoid potentials of Madec, we further investigated whether Madec interfered with FLS invasion and metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In cultures of primary FLS isolated from the AIA rats, Madec (10 and 30 μmol·L) was proven to considerably inhibit migration and invasion of FLS induced by interleukin 1β (IL-1β), but exhibiting no obvious effect on cell proliferation. Madec repressed IL-1β-triggered FLS invasion by prohibiting the expression of MMP-13. Additionally, Madec suppressed MMP-13 transcription via inhibiting the MMP-13 promoter-binding activity of NF-κB. Our results further showed that Madec down-regulated the translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB as demonstrated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In conclusion, our results suggest that Madec exerts anti-RA activity via inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-13 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Movement , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Interleukin-1beta , Pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Genetics , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Transport , Rats , Signal Transduction , Synoviocytes , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812382

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii Caulis (DC), named 'Shihu' in Chinese, is a precious herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely used to nourish stomach, enhance body fluid production, tonify "Yin" and reduce heat. More than thirty Dendrobium species are used as folk medicine. Some compounds from DC exhibit inhibitory effects on macrophage inflammation. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects among eight Dendrobium species. The results provided evidences to support Dendrobium as folk medicine, which exerted its medicinal function partially by its inhibitory effects on inflammation. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Dendrobium species, mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was activated by lipopolysaccharide. The nitric oxide (NO) level was measured using Griess reagent while the pro-inflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. The protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Among the eight Dendrobium species, both water extracts of D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams (DTW) and D. chrysotoxum Lindl (DCHW) showed most significant inhibitory effects on NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. DTW also significantly reduced TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 production. Further investigations showed that DTW suppressed iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as ERK and JNK phosphorylation, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of DTW on LPS-induced macrophage inflammation was through the suppression of MAPK pathways. In conclusion, D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams was demonstrated to have potential to be used as alternative or adjuvant therapy for inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Genetics , Cytokines , Metabolism , Dendrobium , Chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Genetics , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813166

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of sinomenine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms.
 Methods: The mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with sinomenine and/or LPS with or without heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor Znpp. Real-time PCR, ELISA, immunofluenscence, and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6, the release of TNF-α and IL-6, the protein expression of HO-1 and autophagy, respectively.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression and release of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were increased, the green fluorescence of autophagy-related protein LC3 was accumulated and the protein expression of HO-1 was increased in RAW264.7 cells after LPS treatment (P<0.05). Compared with the LPS group, sinomenine treatment could reduce the mRNA expression and release of TNF-α and IL-6, accompanied by increasess in green fluorescence aggregation of LC3 and HO-1 production (P<0.05). HO-1 inhibitor Znpp could weaken the ability of sinomenine through suppressing TNF-α and IL-6 expression and decreasing the aggregation of LC3 green fluorescence (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Sinomenine could alleviate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages, which might be related to HO-1 mediated autophagy. This study provides an experimental and theoretical basis for the clinical application of sinomenine in prevention and treatment of inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Autophagy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Genetics , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Morphinans , Pharmacology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813119

ABSTRACT

To establish rat model of lung ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in vivo, and to explore the effects of acidification pretreatment for respiratory acidosis on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the possible mechanisms.
 Methods: A total of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a sham group (S group), a IR group, and an experiment group (RA group) (n=12 in each group). The rat left lung hilum in the S group was dissociated, followed by perfusion without ischemia. After the left lung hilum in the IR group was blocked for 45 min, the rats were followed by reperfusion for 180 min. After left lung hilum in the RA group was dissociated, the respiratory parameters were adjusted so that pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) reached 56-65 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) for 5 min, then the rats was subjected to IR. Lung tissue wet/dry (W/D) and lung permeability index (LPI) were calculated, while the lung histopathology was observed and the MMP-9 protein expression were measured.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the W/D and LPI in the IR group and the RA group increased after reperfusion (both P<0.05), and the levels of W/D and LPI in the group RA were lower than that in the IR group (P<0.05). LPI and pathology scores were significantly lower in the RA group than those in the IR group (both P<0.01). After IR, the expression of MMP9 in the lung tissues in the IR group and the RA group increased significantly (both P<0.01). The expression of MMP-9 protein in the RA group was significantly lower than that in the IR group (P<0.01).
 Conclusion: After lung IR injury, the expression of MMP-9 protein, vascular permeability and inflammatory exudation is increased. The acidification pretreatment for respiratory acidosis can inhibit the expression of MMP-9 protein and reduce inflammatory exudation after lung IR, showing a protective effect on lung IR injury.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , Drug Therapy , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Lung , Lung Injury , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Genetics , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(12): e180377, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040587

ABSTRACT

Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a redox enzyme of the trypanothione pathway that converts hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water molecules. In the present study, the APX gene was overexpressed in Leishmania braziliensis to investigate its contribution to the trivalent antimony (SbIII)-resistance phenotype. Western blot results demonstrated that APX-overexpressing parasites had higher APX protein levels in comparison with the wild-type line (LbWTS). APX-overexpressing clones showed an 8-fold increase in the antimony-resistance index over the parental line. In addition, our results indicated that these clones were approximately 1.8-fold more tolerant to H2O2 than the LbWTS line, suggesting that the APX enzyme plays an important role in the defence against oxidative stress. Susceptibility tests revealed that APX-overexpressing L. braziliensis lines were more resistant to isoniazid, an antibacterial agent that interacts with APX. Interestingly, this compound enhanced the anti-leishmanial SbIII effect, indicating that this combination represents a good strategy for leishmaniasis chemotherapy. Our data demonstrate that APX enzyme is involved in the development of L. braziliensis antimony-resistance phenotype and may be an attractive therapeutic target in the design of new strategies for leishmaniasis treatment.


Subject(s)
Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania braziliensis/enzymology , Ascorbate Peroxidases/metabolism , Antimony/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Drug Resistance , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Oxidative Stress , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
10.
Biol. Res ; 51: 24, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase, phosphoribosylaminoimidazole succinocarboxamide synthetase (PAICS), an enzyme required for de novo purine biosynthesis, is associated with and involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PAICS in human breast cancer, which remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in less developed countries. RESULTS: Lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA targeting PAICS specifically depleted its endogenous expression in ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Depletion of PAICS led to a significant decrease in cell viability and proliferation. To ascertain the mechanisms through which PAICS modulates cell proliferation, flow cytometry was performed, and it was confirmed that G1-S transition was blocked in ZR-75-30 cells through PAICS knockdown. This might have occurred partly through the suppression of Cyclin E and the upregulation of Cyclin D1, P21, and CDK4. Moreover, PAICS knockdown obviously promoted cell apoptosis in ZR-75-30 cells through the activation of PARP and caspase 3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression in ZR-75-30 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that PAICS plays an essential role in breast cancer proliferation in vitro, which provides a new opportunity for discovering and identifying novel effective treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Peptide Synthases/physiology , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carboxy-Lyases/biosynthesis , Biomarkers, Tumor/physiology , Cell Proliferation , Peptide Synthases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Flow Cytometry
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6980, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889067

ABSTRACT

Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver. In primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells, insulin reduced Enpp1 mRNA abundance, whereas dexamethasone induced it. Dexamethasone disrupted the insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression in primary hepatocytes. This is in contrast to the responses of the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene to the same hormones, where insulin reduced it significantly in the process. In addition, the dexamethasone-induced Enpp1 gene expression was attenuated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatic Enpp1 is regulated in the cycle of fasting and refeeding, a process that might be attributed to insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression. This insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression might play a role in the development of complications in diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Insulin/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Pyrophosphatases/biosynthesis , Pyrophosphatases/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , Fasting/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/drug effects , Hep G2 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773609

ABSTRACT

Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a pivotal role in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis through aggressive migration and invasion. Madecassoside (Madec), a triterpenoid saponin present in Centella asiatica herbs, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. In the present study, Madec exerted an obvious therapeutic effect in reversing the histological lesions in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats. To recognize the anti-rheumatoid potentials of Madec, we further investigated whether Madec interfered with FLS invasion and metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. In cultures of primary FLS isolated from the AIA rats, Madec (10 and 30 μmol·L) was proven to considerably inhibit migration and invasion of FLS induced by interleukin 1β (IL-1β), but exhibiting no obvious effect on cell proliferation. Madec repressed IL-1β-triggered FLS invasion by prohibiting the expression of MMP-13. Additionally, Madec suppressed MMP-13 transcription via inhibiting the MMP-13 promoter-binding activity of NF-κB. Our results further showed that Madec down-regulated the translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB as demonstrated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In conclusion, our results suggest that Madec exerts anti-RA activity via inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-13 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antirheumatic Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cell Movement , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Interleukin-1beta , Pharmacology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Genetics , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Transport , Rats , Signal Transduction , Synoviocytes , Metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773593

ABSTRACT

Dendrobii Caulis (DC), named 'Shihu' in Chinese, is a precious herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely used to nourish stomach, enhance body fluid production, tonify "Yin" and reduce heat. More than thirty Dendrobium species are used as folk medicine. Some compounds from DC exhibit inhibitory effects on macrophage inflammation. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects among eight Dendrobium species. The results provided evidences to support Dendrobium as folk medicine, which exerted its medicinal function partially by its inhibitory effects on inflammation. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Dendrobium species, mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was activated by lipopolysaccharide. The nitric oxide (NO) level was measured using Griess reagent while the pro-inflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. The protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Among the eight Dendrobium species, both water extracts of D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams (DTW) and D. chrysotoxum Lindl (DCHW) showed most significant inhibitory effects on NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. DTW also significantly reduced TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 production. Further investigations showed that DTW suppressed iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as ERK and JNK phosphorylation, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of DTW on LPS-induced macrophage inflammation was through the suppression of MAPK pathways. In conclusion, D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams was demonstrated to have potential to be used as alternative or adjuvant therapy for inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Genetics , Cytokines , Metabolism , Dendrobium , Chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Inflammation , Drug Therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Genetics , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690643

ABSTRACT

Infrasound widely exists in nature, our living condition, productive and traffic environment. Gastrointestinal tract is relatively sensitive to infrasound. However, the effect of infrasound on gastrointestinal function is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to observe the effects of infrasound on gastric motility and gastric morphology and to assess the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in gastric antrum after exposure to infrasound of 8 Hz - 130 dB for 2 hours per day for 14 consecutive days. Gastric motility was assessed by gastric fluid-emptying rate. Gastric morphology was evaluated by HE. The expression of NOS was measured by tissue microarray technology. The results would contribute to understand the role of infrasound in gastroenterology, and help to explain the mechanism of infrasound on gastroenterology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Male , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Metabolism , Rats , Sound , Stomach
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311377

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To characterize carbapenem (CPM)-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and carbape-nemase produced by these strains isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital based on a five-year surveillance.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Minimal Inhibition Concentration values for 15 antibiotics were assessed using the Phonix100 compact system. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were used to detect genes encoding carbapenemases. WHONET 5.6 was finally used for resistance analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, 179 strains of CPM-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were isolated from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The rates of non-susceptible to imipenem and meropenem were 95.0% and 95.6%, respectively. In the 179 strains, 95 (53.1%) strains carried the blaIMP gene, and IMP-4 and IMP-8 were detected in 92 (96.8%) and 3 (3.2%) IMP-producing isolates, respectively. 65 (36.3%) strains carried the blaNDM-1 gene. 6 (3.4%) strains carried the blaKPC gene, and KPC-2 were detected in 6 KPC-producing isolates. In addition, New Delhi-Metallo-1 (NDM-1) producing isolates increased from 7.1% to 63.0% in five years and IMP-4 producing isolates decreased from 75.0% to 28.3%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High frequencies of multiple resistances to antibiotics were observed in the CPM-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae strains isolated from Beijing Children's Hospital. The production of IMP-4 and NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamases appears to be an important mechanism for CPM-non- susceptible in K. pneumoniae.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Child , China , Epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Physiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Klebsiella Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Population Surveillance , Time Factors , beta-Lactamases , Genetics , Metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Brain , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Galactose , Toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Maze Learning , Mice , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Mitochondria, Liver , Oxidative Stress , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Protein Hydrolysates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296500

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>We aim to explore the potential association between serum gamma-glutamyl transferase levels and functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chinese population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 386 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were included in the study from September 2007 to February 2015. Baseline serum gamma-glutamyl transferase levels and 6-month follow-up functional outcomes were determined. A poor outcome was defined as a modified ranking scale score of ⋝ 3. The multivariable logistic model was used to analyze the relationship between serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and clinical outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The adjusted poor outcome rates of patients with gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of < 30 U/L, 30-50 U/L and ⋝ 50 U/L were 16.7%, 19.6%, and 34.4%, respectively (P < 0.01). The age-sex and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of poor prognosis comparing the top group (⋝ 50 U/L) with the lowest group (< 30 U/L) were 5.76 (2.74-12.13), 6.64 (2.05-21.52), and 6.36 (1.92-21.02). A significant linear trend existed between gamma-glutamyl transferase level and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage prognosis. This association was also observed among nondrinkers.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Patients with higher gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were more likely to have a poor prognosis. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase can be considered to be an independent predictor of functional outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Blood , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Blood
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296495

ABSTRACT

Lead exposure is a known potential risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exposure to lead during the critical phase of brain development has been linked with mental retardation and hypophrenia in later life. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of lead exposure of pregnant mice on the expressions of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus of their offspring. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein, and after anesthetizing the pups, the brain was excised on postnatal day 21. Lead concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the expressions of IDE and NGF were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results showed that the reduction in IDE and NGF expression in the hippocampus of pups might be associated with impairment of learning and memory and dementia induced by maternal lead exposure during pregnancy and lactation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Down-Regulation , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Insulysin , Genetics , Metabolism , Lead , Toxicity , Mice , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197511

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the migration of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and its association with expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). METHODS: Primary human TM cells treated with 1 or 10 microM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and examined for changes in adherence. TM cells were seeded onto transwell culture inserts, and changes in their migratory activity were quantified. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the relative changes in mRNA expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). RESULTS: Treatment with SNAP did not significantly suppress TM cell adhesion or migration (p > 0.05). Treatment of TM cells with 10 microM SNAP decreased expression of MMP-2 and increased expression of membrane type MMP-1 and TIMP-2. Treatment with interleukin-1alpha triggered MMP-3 expression but did not exert significant effects on MMP-3 activation in response to SNAP. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that NO revealed no significant effect on the migration of TM cells because NO decreased MMP-2 and increased TIMP-2 expression. Although expression of certain MMPs and TIMPs change in response to NO donors, NO may modulate trabecular outflow by changing the cellular production of extracellular matrix without having a significant effect on the migration of TM cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , DNA Primers/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics , Nitric Oxide Donors/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/genetics , Trabecular Meshwork/cytology
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