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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242603, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355852

ABSTRACT

Abstract Transcription factors (TF) are a wide class of genes in plants, and these can regulate the expression of other genes in response to various environmental stresses (biotic and abiotic). In the current study, transcription factor activity in sugarcane was examined during cold stress. Initially, RNA transcript reads of two sugarcane cultivars (ROC22 and GT08-1108) under cold stress were downloaded from SRA NCBI database. The reads were aligned into a reference genome and the differential expression analyses were performed with the R/Bioconductor edgeR package. Based on our analyses in the ROC22 cultivar, 963 TF genes were significantly upregulated under cold stress among a total of 5649 upregulated genes, while 293 TF genes were downregulated among a total of 3,289 downregulated genes. In the GT08-1108 cultivar, 974 TF genes were identified among 5,649 upregulated genes and 283 TF genes were found among 3,289 downregulated genes. Most transcription factors were annotated with GO categories related to protein binding, transcription factor binding, DNA-sequence-specific binding, transcription factor complex, transcription factor activity in RNA polymerase II, the activity of nucleic acid binding transcription factor, transcription corepressor activity, sequence-specific regulatory region, the activity of transcription factor of RNA polymerase II, transcription factor cofactor activity, transcription factor activity from plastid promoter, transcription factor activity from RNA polymerase I promoter, polymerase II and RNA polymerase III. The findings of above results will help to identify differentially expressed transcription factors during cold stress. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the regulation of the transcription activity of many genes. Therefore, this study provides the molecular basis for improving cold tolerance in sugarcane and other economically important grasses.


Resumo Fatores de transcrição (FT) são uma ampla classe de genes em plantas e podem regular a expressão de outros genes em resposta a vários estresses ambientais (estresses bióticos e abióticos). No presente estudo, a atividade do fator de transcrição na cana-de-açúcar foi examinada durante o estresse pelo frio. Inicialmente, as leituras de transcrição de RNA de duas cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (ROC22 e GT08-1108) sob estresse frio foram baixadas do banco de dados SRA NCBI. As leituras foram alinhadas em um genoma de referência e as análises de expressão diferencial foram realizadas com o pacote R / Bioconductor edgeR. Com base em nossas análises no cultivar ROC22, 963 genes TF foram significativamente regulados positivamente sob estresse pelo frio entre um total de 5.649 genes regulados positivamente, enquanto 293 genes TF foram regulados negativamente entre um total de 3.289 genes regulados negativamente. No cultivar GT08-1108, 974 genes TF foram identificados entre 5.649 genes regulados positivamente e 283 genes TF foram encontrados entre 3.289 genes regulados negativamente. Os fatores de transcrição, em sua maioria, foram anotados com categorias GO relacionadas à ligação de proteína, ligação de fator de transcrição, ligação específica de sequência de DNA, complexo de fator de transcrição, atividade de fator de transcrição em RNA polimerase II, atividade de fator de transcrição de ligação de ácido nucleico, atividade de corepressor de transcrição, sequência específica da região reguladora, atividade do fator de transcrição da RNA polimerase II, atividade do cofator do fator de transcrição, atividade do fator de transcrição do promotor do plastídio, atividade do fator de transcrição do promotor da RNA polimerase I, polimerase II e RNA polimerase III. As descobertas dos resultados acima ajudarão a identificar fatores de transcrição expressos diferencialmente durante o estresse pelo frio. Ele também fornece uma análise abrangente da regulação da atividade de transcrição de muitos genes. Portanto, este estudo fornece base molecular para melhorar a tolerância ao frio em cana-de-açúcar e outras gramíneas economicamente importantes.


Subject(s)
Saccharum/genetics , Saccharum/metabolism , Cold-Shock Response/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Cold Temperature , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Expression Profiling
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 318-325, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153356

ABSTRACT

CKB3 is a regulatory (beta) subunit of CK2. In this study Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous T-DNA mutant ckb3 was studied to understand the role of CKB3 in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The results shown: CKB3 was expressed in all organs and the highest expression in the seeds, followed by the root. During seed germination and root growth the ckb3 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA. The ckb3 mutant had more stomatal opening and increased proline accumulation and leaf water loss. The expression levels of number of genes in the ABA regulatory network had changed. This study demonstrates that CKB3 is an ABA signaling-related gene and may play a positive role in ABA signaling.


CKB3 é uma subunidade reguladora (beta) de CK2. Neste estudo, o mutante homozigoto ckb3 de Arabidopsis thaliana foi estudado para entender o papel da CKB3 na sinalização de ácido abscísico (ABA). Os resultados apresentados: CKB3 foi expresso em todos os órgãos e a maior expressão nas sementes, seguida pela raiz. Durante a germinação das sementes e o crescimento radicular, o mutante ckb3 mostrou sensibilidade reduzida ao ABA. O mutante ckb3 teve mais abertura estomática e aumento do acúmulo de prolina e perda de água nas folhas. Os níveis de expressão do número de genes na rede reguladora da ABA haviam mudado. Este estudo demonstra que CKB3 é um gene relacionado à sinalização ABA e pode desempenhar um papel positivo na sinalização ABA.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Abscisic Acid , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , Seeds , Germination , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Mutation/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879091

ABSTRACT

NAC(NAM/ATAF/CUC) protein plays an important role in plant growth and development, secondary cell wall formation and stress response. In this study, based on the sequencing data of Angelica dahurica, the NAC family was systematically analyzed using bioinformatics methods and its expression pattern was analyzed. Studies showed that 75 candidate genes had been selected from the NAC transcription factor family of A. dahurica, with the protein size of 148-641, all of which were unstable hydrophilic proteins. Most NAC proteins were localized in the nucleus, and had complete NAC domain. Phylogenetic analysis of NAC family proteins of A.dahurica and Arabidopsis thaliana showed that among the 17 subfamilies, NAC members were unevenly distributed in each subfamily, indicating that the evolution of species is developing in multiple directions. Among them, ANAC063 subfamily contained no NAC sequence of A. dahurica, which might be due to the functional evolution of the species. Analysis of protein transmembrane structure and signal peptide showed that NAC transcription factor could carry out transmembrane transportation, but its signal peptide function had not been found. Expression analysis showed that most transcription factors responded to abiotic stress and hormones to varying degrees, and the effects of hormones were obvious, especially ABA and IAA. In different organs of A. dahurica, most members of the NAC family had higher expression in root phloem, followed by root xylem. This study lays a foundation for further research on the function of A. dahurica NAC transcription factor and for solving the biological problems of A. dahurica.


Subject(s)
Angelica , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879008

ABSTRACT

In order to enrich the transcriptome data of Fagopyrum dibotrys plants, analyze the genes encoding key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, and mine their functional genes, in this study, we performed RNA sequencing analysis for the rhizomes, roots, flowers, leaves and stems of F. dibotrys on the BGISEQ-500 sequencing platform. After de novo assembly of transcripts, a total of 205 619 unigenes were generated and 132 372 unigenes were obtained and annotated into seven public databases, of which, 81 327 unigenes were mapped to the GO database and most of the unigenes were annotated in cellular process, biological regulation, binding and catalytic activity. Besides, 86 922 unigenes were enriched in 136 pathways using KEGG database' and we identified 82 unigenes that encodes key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Comparing rhizome with root, flower, leaf or stem in F. dibotrys, 27 962 co-expressed differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were obtained. Among them, 23 515 DEGs of rhizome tissue-specific were enriched into 132 pathways and 13 unigenes were significantly enriched in biosynthesis of flavone and flavonol. In addition, we also identified 3 427 unigenes encoding 60 transcription factor(TFs) families as well as four unigenes encoding bHLH TFs were enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results greatly enriched the transcriptome database of plants, provided a reference for the analysis of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in plants, and will facilitate the study of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in F. dibotrys at the genetic level.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Fagopyrum , Flavonoids , Flowers , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Transcriptome/genetics
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878959

ABSTRACT

Amana edulis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant with low propagation coefficient. In recent years, the increasing demands of A. edulis lead to a shortage of its wild resources. In order to analyze the expression of related functional genes in A. edulis, the selection of suitable internal reference genes is crucial to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Eight genes(ACT, TUA, CYP, GAPDH, UBQ, UBI, EF1a, UBC)were chosen as candidate reference genes based on the RNA-Seq. Real-time fluorescence quantitative technique was used to detect the expression level of candidate internal reference genes in different organs(bulb, leaf, flo-wer) and stolons at different development stages of A. edulis. Then GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper softwares and RefFinder website were used for a comprehensive analysis of the expression stability of the candidate genes.The results showed that among the 8 candidate reference genes, the variation range of Ct value of UBC was the smallest, and the expression level was stable, which was suitable for an reference gene. GeNorm and NormFinder software analysis showed that UBC and UBI were the optimal reference genes. BestKeeper analysis showed that CYP and UBC expression were relatively stable. Comprehensive evaluation of RefFinder website showed that UBC and UBI were the most stable genes, and ACT displayed the lowest stability in all software evaluation, indicating UBC and UBI were suitable for reference genes. Additionally, the most stable UBC, UBI and the most unstable ACT were used as internal reference genes to detect the expression of GBSS gene in A. edulis, and expression pattern of GBSS gene was the same under the calibration of UBC and UBI. The expression data of GBSS gene confirmed that UBC and UBI genes were reliable for A. edulis qRT-PCR as internal reference genes. The results would benefit future studies on related gene expression of A. edulis.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878914

ABSTRACT

To select suitable references gene of Polygonum multiflorum for gene expression analysis in different tissues, five candidate reference genes like Actin,GAPDH,SAND,PP2A,TIP41 were selected from the transcriptome data of P. multiflorum, then the specific primers were designed. The expression stability of the five reference genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum was analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR through avilable analysis methods such as geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder, to ensure the reliability of the analysis results. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels and stability of candidate genes in different tissues of P. multiflorum. Ct distribution analysis of the expression levels of candidate genes showed that the expression levels of Actin and GAPDH genes were relatively high in different tissues, while the expression levels of SAND, PP2A and TIP41 were lower. The stability of each candidate gene was analyzed by different methods. The results of geNorm analysis showed that the expression of PP2A and GAPDH was the most stable, the expression stability of SAND was the worst, the stability of PP2A was the highest in both NormFinder and Delta CT, the stability of SAND was the lowest, and the stability of Actin was the most stable in BestKeeper analysis. Through the comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the stability of candidate genes by RefFinder, it is concluded that the stability of PP2A gene is the highest, followed by GAPDH, Actin, TIP41, SAND, and SAND gene is the worst. Therefore, the PP2A gene is an ideal reference gene for the analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. multiflorum.


Subject(s)
Fallopia multiflora , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888175

ABSTRACT

As the main chemical constituents, iridoids are widely distributed within Gentiana, Gentianaceae, with promising bioactivities. Based on the previous work, the transcriptome of G. lhassica, an original plant of Tibetan herb "Jieji Nabao", was sequenced and analyzed in this study, and the transcriptome databases of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers were constructed so as to explore unigenes that may encode the key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of iridoids. Then, qRT-PCR was used to validate the relative expression levels of 11 genes named AACT, DXS, MCS, HDS, IDI, GPPS, GES, G10H, 7-DLNGT, 7-DLGT, and SLS in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Also, the total contents of gentiopicroside and loganic acid were determined by HPLC, respectively. The results are as follows:(1)a total of 76 486 unigenes with an average length of 852 bp were obtained;(2)335 unigenes were involved in 19 stan-dard secondary metabolism pathways in KEGG database, with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis having the maximum number(75 unigenes), and no isoflavone biosynthetic pathway was annotated;(3)171 unigenes participatedin 27 key enzymes encoding in the biosynthetic pathway of iridoids, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase(DXR) gene was highly expressed;(4)qRT-PCR results were approximately consistent with RNA-Seq data and the relative expression levels of the 11 genes were higher in the aboveground parts(stem, leaf, and flower) than in the underground part(root);(5)the total contents of gentiopicroside and loganic acid were higher in the aboveground parts(stem, leaf, and flower) than in the underground part(root), and the difference was significant. This study provides basic scientific data for accurate species identification, evaluation of germplasm resources, research on secondary pro-duct accumulation of medicinal plants within Gentianaceae, and protection of endangered alpine species.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gentiana/genetics , Iridoids , Transcriptome
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888138

ABSTRACT

Stolon is an important organ for reproduction and regeneration of Amana edulis. Previous analysis of transcriptome showed that MYB was one of the most active transcription factor families during the development of A. edulis stolon. In order to study the possible role of MYB transcription factors in stolon development, the authors screened out an up-regulated MYB gene named AeMYB4 was by analyzing the expression profile of MYB transcription factors. In the present study, sequence analysis demonstrated that AeMYB4 contained an open reading frame of 756 bp encoding 251 amino acids, and domain analysis revealed that the predicted amino acids sequence contained two highly conserved SANT domains and binding sites for cold stress factor CBF. By multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it is indicated that AeMYB4 clustered with AtMYB15 from Arabidopsis thaliana, belonging to subgroup S2 of R2 R3-MYB. And most of the transcription factors in this subfamily are related to low temperature stress. The GFP-AeMYB4 fusion protein expression vector for subcellular localization was constructed and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens to infect the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, and the results showed the protein was located in the nucleus. To investigate the transcriptional activation, the constructed pGBKT7-AeMYB4 fusion expression vector was transferred into Y2 H Gold yeast cells, which proved that AeMYB4 was a transcription activator with strong transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of AeMYB4 gene in three different development stages of stolon and in leaves, flowers, and bulbs of A. edulis, which indicated that AeMYB4 transcription factor was tissue-specific in expression, mainly in the stolon development stage, and that the expression was the most active in the middle stage of stolon development, suggesting that AeMYB4 gene may play an important role in stolon development. This study contributes to the further research on the function of AeMYB4 transcription factor in stolon development of A. edulis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888106

ABSTRACT

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Multigene Family , Panax/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888102

ABSTRACT

Phytohormones play an important role at all stages of plant growth, influencing plant growth and development and regulating plant secondary metabolism, such as the synthesis of flavone, flavonol, anthocyanin, and other flavonoids. Flavonoids, a group of important secondary metabolites ubiquitous in plants, have antioxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have a wide range of potential applications in Chinese medicine and food nutrition. With the development of biotechnology, phytohormones' regulation on flavonoids has become a research focus in recent years. This study reviewed the research progress on the mechanism of common phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, gibberellin, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid, in regulating flavonoid metabolism, and discussed the molecular mechanism of the synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids, aiming at clarifying the key role of phytohormones in modulating flavonoid metabolism. The result is of guiding significance for improving the content of flavonoids in plants through rational use of phytohormones and of reference value for exploring the mechanism of hormones in regulating flavonoid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Flavonoids , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gibberellins , Plant Development , Plant Growth Regulators
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2856-2869, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887848

ABSTRACT

The environmental gas concentration affects the storage period and quality of fruits and vegetables. High concentration CO₂ treating for a long time will cause damage to fruits, However, the specific molecular mechanism is unclear. To analyze the mechanism of CO₂ injury in apple, high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina Hiseq 4000 and non-targeted metabolism technology were used to analyze the transcriptome sequencing and metabolomics analysis of browning flesh tissue of damage fruit and normal pulp tissue of the control group. A total of 6 332 differentially expressed genes were obtained, including 4 187 up-regulated genes and 2 145 down regulated genes. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes confirmed that the occurrence of CO₂ injury in apple was related to redox process, lipid metabolism, hormone signal transduction process and energy metabolism process. Twenty candidate browning genes were successfully screened, among which grxcr1 (md14g1137800) and gpx (md06g1081300) participated in the reactive oxygen species scavenging process, and pld1_ 2 (md15g1125000) and plcd (md07g1221900) participated in phospholipid acid synthesis and affected membrane metabolism. mdh1 (md05g1238800) participated in TCA cycle and affected energy metabolism. A total of 77 differential metabolites were obtained by metabolomic analysis, mainly organic acids, lipids, sugars and polyketones, including 35 metabolites related to browning. The metabolism of flavonoids was involved in the browning process of apple. Compared with the control tissue, the content of flavonoids such as catechin and quercetin decreased significantly in the damaged apple tissue, the antioxidant capacity of cells decreased, the redox state was unbalanced, and the cell structure was destroyed, resulting in browning. The results of this study further enrich the theoretical basis of CO₂ damage, and provide reference for the practical application of high concentration CO₂ preservation technology.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Malus/genetics , Metabolome , Transcriptome
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2845-2855, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887847

ABSTRACT

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Starch , Tobacco/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2658-2667, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887831

ABSTRACT

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lipids , Plants , Stress, Physiological
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2483-2494, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887814

ABSTRACT

Solanum lycopersicum phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 5 (SlPAL5) gene regulates the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The study of transcription factors that regulate the expression of SlPAL5 gene is of great significance to elucidate the regulatory mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit induced by UV-C irradiation. Here, yeast one-hybrid library of tomato fruit was constructed, and the yeast one-hybrid technology was used to screen the transcription factors that regulate the expression of SlPAL5, the key gene related to the synthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit. As a result, a transcription factor, SlERF7, was obtained and sequenced, followed by the blast homology analysis. Further experiments confirmed that SlERF7 interacted with the promoter of SlPAL5 gene. In addition, UV-C irradiation significantly increased the expression level of SlERF7. These results indicate that SlERF7, which is regulated by UV-C irradiation, might be involved in regulating the transcription of SlPAL5, which provided foundations for further studying the regulation mechanism of the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in tomato fruit induced by UV-C irradiation.


Subject(s)
Fruit , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolism , Phenols , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921773

ABSTRACT

R2 R3-MYB transcription factors are ubiquitous in plants, playing a role in the regulation of plant growth, development, and secondary metabolism. In this paper, the R2 R3-MYB transcription factors were identified by bioinformatics analysis of the genomic data of Erigeron breviscapus, and their gene sequences, structures, physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The functions of R2 R3-MYB transcription factors were predicted by cluster analysis. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of R2 R3-MYB transcription factors in response to hormone treatments were analyzed. A total of 108 R2 R3-MYB transcription factors, named EbMYB1-EbMYB108, were identified from the genome of E. breviscapus. Most of the R2 R3-MYB genes carried 2-4 exons. The phylogenetic tree of MYBs in E. breviscapus and Arabidopsis thaliala was constructed, which classified 234 MYBs into 30 subfamilies. The MYBs in the five MYB subfamilies of A.thaliala were clustered into independent clades, and those in E. breviscapus were clustered into four clades. The transcriptome data showed that MYB genes were differentially expressed in different tissues of E. breviscapus and in response to the treatments with exogenous hormones such as ABA, SA, and GA for different time. The transcription of 13 R2 R3-MYB genes did not change significantly, and the expression patterns of some genes were up-regulated or down-regulated with the extension of hormone treatment time. This study provides a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanisms of R2 R3-MYB transcription factors in regulating the growth and development, stress(hormone) response, and active ingredient accumulation in E. breviscapus.


Subject(s)
Erigeron/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, myb , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921698

ABSTRACT

Schisandra sphenanthera is dioecious and only the fruits of female plants can be used as medicine and food. It is of great significance for the cultivation and production of S. sphenanthera to explore the differences between male and female plants at the non-flowering stage and develop the identification markers at non-flowering or seedling stage. In this study, the transcriptome of male and female leaves of S. sphenanthera at the non-flowering stage was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology and analyzed based on bioinformatics. A total of 236 682 transcripts were assembled by Trinity software and 171 588 were chosen as unigenes. Finally, 1 525 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified, with 458 up-regulated and 1 067 down-regulated in female lea-ves. The down-regulated genes mainly involve photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna protein, carbon fixation in photosynthetic or-ganisms, and other pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) identified two genes between male and female leaves and one of them was a HVA22-like gene related to floral organ development and abscisic acid(ABA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to determine the content of ABA, auxin, gibberellin, and zeatin riboside(ZR) in leaves of S. sphenanthera. The results showed that the content of ABA and ZR in male leaves was significantly higher than that in female leaves. The involvement of down-regulated genes in female leaves in the photosynthesis pathway and the significant differences in the content of endogenous hormones between male and female leaves lay a scientific basis for analyzing the factors affecting sex differentiation of S. sphenanthera.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Leaves/genetics , RNA-Seq , Schisandra , Transcriptome
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4351-4362, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921511

ABSTRACT

To explore the function of a heat shock transcription factor gene (HSFB1) and its promoter in Amorphophallus, a 1 365 bp DNA sequence was obtained by homologous cloning from Amorphophallus albus. The gene expression level of AaHSFB1 determined by qRT-PCR indicated that AaHSFB1 gene is more sensitive to heat stress. The expression level of AaHSFB1 in roots increased followed by a decrease upon heat treatment, and the highest expression level was observed after heat treatment for 1 h. The expression level of AaHSFB1 in leaves reached the highest after heat treatment for 12 h. The expression level in bulbs did not change greatly during the heat treatment. Subcellular localization analysis showed that AaHSFB1 protein was localized in the nucleus. A 1 509 bp DNA sequence which contains the AaHSFB1 promoter was obtained by FPNI-PCR method. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the promoter contained heat stress response elements HSE and a plurality of cis-acting elements related to plant development and stress response. A prAaHSFB1::GUS fusion expression vector was constructed to further analyze the function of AaHSFB1 promoter. The expression vector was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method, and GUS staining analysis on transgenic plants after heat treatment was performed. The results showed that AaHSFB1 promoter had very high activity in the leaves. Therefore, we speculate that AaHSFB1 may play an important role in the stress resistance of A. albus, especially when encountering heat stress.


Subject(s)
Amorphophallus/metabolism , Arabidopsis/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4329-4341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921509

ABSTRACT

Dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are an important class of transcription factors related to plant stress tolerance. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is an evergreen broadleaf shrub endemic to desert areas of northwest China, and it has a very high tolerance to harsh environments. In order to reveal the functions and mechanisms of the AmDREB1F gene from this species in enduring abiotic stresses, we performed subcellular localization test, expression pattern analysis, and stress tolerance evaluation of transgenic Arabidopsis harboring this gene. The protein encoded by AmDREB1F was localized in the nucleus. In laboratory-cultured A. mongolicus seedlings, the expression of AmDREB1F was induced significantly by cold and drought but very slightly by salt and heat stresses, and undetectable upon ABA treatment. In leaves of naturally growing shrubs in the wild, the expression levels of the AmDREB1F gene were much higher during the late autumn, winter and early spring than in other seasons. Moreover, the expression was abundant in roots and immature pods rather than other organs of the shrubs. Constitutive expression of AmDREB1F in Arabidopsis induced the expression of several DREB-regulated stress-responsive genes and improved the tolerance of transgenic lines to drought, high salinity and low temperature as well as oxidative stress. The constitutive expression also caused growth retardation of the transgenics, which could be eliminated by the application of gibberellin 3. Stress-inducible expression of AmDREB1F also enhanced the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to all of the four stresses mentioned above, without affecting its growth and development. These results suggest that AmDREB1F gene may play positive regulatory roles in response to abiotic stresses through the ABA-independent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Droughts , Ectopic Gene Expression , Fabaceae/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 253-265, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878559

ABSTRACT

Based on observing the cytological characteristics of the flower buds of the functional male sterile line (S13) and the fertile line (F142) in eggplant, it was found that the disintegration period of the annular cell clusters in S13 anther was 2 days later than that of F142, and the cells of stomiun tissue and tapetum in F142 disintegrated on the blooming day, while it did not happen in S13. The comparative transcriptomic analysis showed that there were 1 436 differential expression genes (DEGs) (651 up-regulated and 785 down-regulated) in anthers of F142 and S13 at 8, 5 days before flowering and flowering day. The significance analysis of GO enrichment indicated that there were more unigene clusters involved in single cell biological process, metabolism process and cell process, and more catalytic activity and binding function were involved in molecular functions. Through KEGG annotation we found that the common DEGs were mainly enriched in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, metabolic pathway, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids, carbon metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. The fifteen genes co-expression modules were identified from 16 465 selected genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), three of which (Plum2, Royalblue and Bisque4 modules) were highly related to S13 during flower development. KEGG enrichment showed that the specific modules could be enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, polysaccharide biosynthesis and metabolism, fatty acid degradation and the mutual transformation of pentose and glucuronic acid. These genes might play important roles during flower development of S13. It provided a reference for further study on the mechanism of anther dehiscence in eggplant.


Subject(s)
Flowers/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Solanum melongena/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
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