Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Biol. Res ; 52: 39, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019503

ABSTRACT

In the growth condition(s) of plants, numerous secondary metabolites (SMs) are produced by them to serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes, and recent increasing evidences have implicated stress and defense response signaling in their production. The type and concentration(s) of secondary molecule(s) produced by a plant are determined by the species, genotype, physiology, developmental stage and environmental factors during growth. This suggests the physiological adaptive responses employed by various plant taxonomic groups in coping with the stress and defensive stimuli. The past recent decades had witnessed renewed interest to study abiotic factors that influence secondary metabolism during in vitro and in vivo growth of plants. Application of molecular biology tools and techniques are facilitating understanding the signaling processes and pathways involved in the SMs production at subcellular, cellular, organ and whole plant systems during in vivo and in vitro growth, with application in metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways intermediates.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Secondary Metabolism/physiology , Plants/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques
2.
Biol. Res ; 51: 47, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983951

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated climatic variability is primarily responsible for inducing heat waves, flooding and drought stress. Among these, water scarcity is a major limitation to crop productivity. Water stress can severely reduce crop yield and both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Water availability is a key driver for sustainable cotton production and its limitations can adversely affect physiological and biochemical processes of plants, leading towards lint yield reduction. Adaptation of crop husbandry techniques suitable for cotton crop requires a sound understanding of environmental factors, influencing cotton lint yield and fiber quality. Various defense mechanisms e.g. maintenance of membrane stability, carbon fixation rate, hormone regulation, generation of antioxidants and induction of stress proteins have been found play a vital role in plant survival under moisture stress. Plant molecular breeding plays a functional role to ascertain superior genes for important traits and can offer breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. This review highlights drought-induced damage to cotton plants at structural, physiological and molecular levels. It also discusses the opportunities for increasing drought tolerance in cotton either through modern gene editing technology like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9), zinc finger nuclease, molecular breeding as well as through crop management, such as use of appropriate fertilization, growth regulator application and soil amendments.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Gossypium/physiology , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Acclimatization/genetics
3.
Biol. Res ; 51: 46, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983950

ABSTRACT

The negative effects of environmental stresses, such as low temperature, high temperature, salinity, drought, heavy metal stress, and biotic stress significantly decrease crop productivity. Plant hormones are currently being used to induce stress tolerance in a variety of plants. Brassinosteroids (commonly known as BR) are a group of phytohormones that regulate a wide range of biological processes that lead to tolerance of various stresses in plants. BR stimulate BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANCE 1 (BZR1)/BRI1-EMS SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1), transcription factors that activate thousands of BR-targeted genes. BR regulate antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, and carbohydrate metabolism to increase plant growth under stress. Mutants with BR defects have shortened root and shoot developments. Exogenous BR application increases the biosynthesis of endogenous hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, zeatin riboside, brassinosteroids (BR), and isopentenyl adenosine, and gibberellin (GA) and regulates signal transduction pathways to stimulate stress tolerance. This review will describe advancements in knowledge of BR and their roles in response to different stress conditions in plants.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Brassinosteroids/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Signal Transduction/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology
4.
Biol. Res ; 51: 43, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CircRNAs are widespread in plants and play important roles in response to abiotic stresses. Low nitrogen (LN) promotes the growth of plant root system, allowing it to explore more nitrogen. However, whether circRNAs involved in the response to LN stress and the regulation of LN-promoted root growth in wheat remains unclear. METHODS: Two wheat varieties (LH9 and XN979) with contrasting root phenotypes to LN stress were used as materials to identify circRNAs under control and LN conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) involved in the common response to LN stress and 23 DECs involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth were successfully identified. GO analysis of the DEC-host genes involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth showed that GO terms related to biological regulation, responses to stimuli and signalling were significantly enriched. Moreover, seven DECs were predicted to have miRNA binding sites and may serve as miRNA sponges to capture miRNAs from their target genes. CONCLUSIONS: LN stress altered the expression profiles of circRNAs in wheat. This is the first report of LN stress responsive circRNAs in plants. Our results provided new clues for investigating the functions of circRNAs in response to LN stress and in the regulation of LN-promoted wheat root growth.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/growth & development , RNA/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/growth & development , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Triticum/physiology , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Circular
5.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-5, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA) pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1) gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain), and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89). The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT). Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radicals (O2._) had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Antioxidants/physiology , Photosynthesis/physiology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/metabolism , Time Factors , Tobacco/genetics , Genetic Markers , Gene Expression/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxides/analysis , Superoxides/metabolism , Plant Leaves/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism
6.
Biocell ; 29(2): 187-193, ago. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-429674

ABSTRACT

Using RNA extracted from Zantedeschia aethiopica young leaves and primers designed according to the conservative regions of Araceae lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. aethiopica agglutinin (ZAA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zaa was 871 bp and contained a 417 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 138 amino acids. Through comparative analysis of zaa gene and its deduced amino acid sequence with those of other Araceae species, it was found that zaa encoded a precursor lectin with signal peptide. Secondary and three-dimensional structure analyses showed that ZAA had many common characters of mannose-binding lectin superfamily and ZAA was a mannose-binding lectin with three mannose-binding sites. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA revealed that zaa belonged to a multi-copy gene family


Subject(s)
Mannose-Binding Lectin/physiology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/chemistry , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Plant Proteins/physiology , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Genes, Plant/physiology , Genes, Plant/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics
7.
J Biosci ; 2005 Jun; 30(3): 351-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111335

ABSTRACT

The open reading frame (ORF) encoding curcin 2 was cloned from total genomic and cDNA of Jatropha curcas leaves, which were treated by drought, temperature stress and fungal infection, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification. The ORF has 927 bp that encodes a precursor protein of 309 amino acid residues. There are high similarities with curcin and the conserved domain of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Antiserum to curcin recognized one band of 32 kDa on Western blot of the leaves treated by temperature stresses at 4 degree C and 50 degree C and by fungal infections of Pestalotia funerea, Curvularia lunata (Walk) Boed, Gibberelle zeae (Schw.) Petch. Two bands of 32 kDa and 65 kDa were recognized on Western blot of the leaves treated by 10--40 percent polyethylene glycol (PEG). In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. This finding suggests that the protein of 32 kDa should be related to curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Conserved Sequence , DNA, Complementary/chemistry , DNA, Plant/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Jatropha/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Plant Proteins/biosynthesis , Ribosomes/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL