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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by Schistosoma. Due to its complex life cycle, evolutionary position and sexual dimorphism, schistosomes have several mechanisms of gene regulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNA transcripts. OBJECTIVES Here, we tested 12 miRNAs and identified their putative targets using a computational approach. METHODS We performed the expression profiles of a set of miRNAs and their putative targets during the parasite's life cycle by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). FINDINGS Our results showed differential expression patterns of the mature miRNAs sma-miR-250; sma-miR-92a; sma-miR-new_4-3p; sma-miR-new_4-5p; sma-miR-new_5-5p; sma-miR-new_12-5p; sma-miR-new_13-3p and sma-miR-new_13-5p. Interestingly, many of the putative target genes are linked to oxidative phosphorylation and are up-regulated in adult-worms, which led us to suggest that miRNAs might play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to energetic metabolism inversion during parasite development. It is noteworthy that the expression of sma-miR-new_13-3p exhibited a negative correlation on SmNADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our analysis revealed putative miRNA genes related to important biological processes, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, proteasome regulation, glucose and lipid metabolism, immune system evasion and transcriptional regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , MicroRNAs/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Life Cycle Stages/genetics
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190378, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Key genes control the infectivity of the Schistosoma haematobium causing schistosomiasis. A method for understanding the regulation of these genes might help in developing new disease strategies to control schistosomiasis, such as the silencing mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). The miRNAs have been studied in schistosome species and they play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes, and in parasite-host interactions. However, genome-wide identification and characterisation of novel miRNAs and their pathway genes and their gene expression have not been explored deeply in the genome and transcriptome of S. haematobium. OBJECTIVES Identify and characterise mature and precursor miRNAs and their pathway genes in the S. haematobium genome. METHODS Computational prediction and characterisation of miRNAs and genes involved in miRNA pathway from S. haematobium genome on SchistoDB. Conserved domain analysis was performed using PFAM and CDD databases. A robust algorithm was applied to identify mature miRNAs and their precursors. The characterisation of the precursor miRNAs was performed using RNAfold, RNAalifold and Perl scripts. FINDINGS We identified and characterised 14 putative proteins involved in miRNA pathway including ARGONAUTE and DICER in S. haematobium. Besides that, 149 mature miRNAs and 131 precursor miRNAs were identified in the genome including novel miRNAs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS miRNA pathway occurs in the S. haematobium, including endogenous miRNAs and miRNA pathway components, suggesting a role of this type of non-coding RNAs in gene regulation in the parasite. The results found in this work will open up a new avenue for studying miRNAs in the S. haematobium biology in helping to understand the mechanism of gene silencing in the human parasite Schistosome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma haematobium/genetics , Schistosomiasis/parasitology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , MicroRNAs/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome/genetics
3.
Biol. Res ; 52: 27, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the expression of T-box transcription factor 4 (TBX4) during the anorectal development in normal and ethylenethiourea (ETU)-induced anorectal malformations (ARM) rat embryos. METHODS: Anorectal malformations was induced by ETU on the 10th gestational day (E10) in rat embryos. Spatiotemporal expression of TBX4 was evaluated in normal (n = 490) and ETU-induced ARM rat embryos (n = 455) from E13 to E16 by immunohistochemical staining, Western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: In the normal embryos, immunohistochemical staining revealed that TBX4 expression was detected in the epithelium of hindgut and urorectal septum (URS) on E13. TBX4-immunopositive cells were increased significantly in the epithelium of hindgut and URS, the future anal orifice part of cloacal membrane on E14. On E15, abundant stained cells were observed in the rectum, URS and dorsal cloacal membrane and the expression of positive cells reached its peak. On E16, only sporadic positive cells were distributed in the epithelium of the distal rectum. In the ARM embryos, the hindgut/rectum, URS and dorsal cloacal membrane were faint for TBX4 immunohistochemical staining. In the normal group, TBX4 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the hindgut/rectum from E13 to E16 on Western blot and real-time RT-PCR. On E13 and E15, the expression level of TBX4 mRNA in the ARM group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P < 0.05). On E15, the expression level of TBX4 protein in the ARM group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of TBX4 was downregulated in ETU-induced ARM embryos, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of anorectal development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Ethylenethiourea/pharmacology , Anorectal Malformations/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Wistar , T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anorectal Malformations/chemically induced
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(5): 738-746, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973801

ABSTRACT

Abstract MiRNA (or microRNA) is a subclass of non-coding RNAs that is responsible for post-transcriptional gene regulation. It has approximately 22 nucleotides and regulates gene expression in plants and animals at the post-transcriptional level, by the cleavage of a target mRNA or by suppression of its translation. Although many of the processes and mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated, there is a strong association between miRNA expression and several diseases. It is known that miRNAs are expressed in the cardiovascular system, but their role in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has not been clearly established. In this non-systematic review of the literature, we first present the definition of miRNAs and their action at the cellular level. Afterward, we discuss the role of miRNAs as circulating biomarkers of CVDs, and then their role in cardiac remodeling and atherosclerosis. Despite the complexity and challenges, it is crucial to identify deregulated miRNAs in CVDs, as it allows a better understanding of underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and helps in the development of more accurate diagnostic and prognostic circulating biomarkers, and new therapeutic strategies for different stages of CVDs.


Resumo O miRNA (ou microRNA) constitui uma subclasse de RNAs não codificantes responsáveis pela regulação gênica pós-transcricional. Ele possui aproximadamente 22 nucleotídeos e regula a expressão gênica em plantas e animais ao nível pós-transcricional, pela clivagem de um mRNA alvo ou da repressão de sua tradução. Embora muitos processos e mecanismos ainda não estejam completamente elucidados, existe uma forte associação entre a expressão de miRNAs e diversas doenças que acometem o organismo. Os miRNAs são expressos no sistema cardiovascular, contudo o seu papel no desenvolvimento das doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs) ainda não está totalmente elucidado. Diante disso, realizou-se uma revisão não sistemática da literatura a fim de se discutir a relação entre os miRNAs e as DCVs. Nesta revisão, primeiramente é discutido o que são os miRNAs e a sua ação a nível celular. Após, é discutido o papel dos miRNAs como biomarcadores circulantes de DCVs e então o seu papel no remodelamento cardíaco e na aterosclerose. Apesar da complexidade e dos desafios, a identificação dos miRNAs desregulados nas DCVs é crucial, uma vez que possibilita uma melhor compressão dos mecanismos celulares e moleculares envolvidos, assim como auxilia o desenvolvimento de marcadores circulantes de diagnóstico e prognóstico mais acurados e de novas estratégias terapêuticas para os diferentes estágios da DCV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , MicroRNAs/physiology , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Ventricular Remodeling/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Atherosclerosis/metabolism
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(4): 281-291, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Dengue is considered one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Although miRNAs possess antiviral activity against many mammalian-infecting viruses, their involvement in Dengue virus (DENV) replication remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the role of miR-484 and miR-744 in DENV infection and to examine whether DENV infection alters the expression of both miRNAs. METHODS We used bioinformatics tools to explore the relationship between DENV and cellular miRNAs. We then overexpressed miR-484 or miR-744 in Vero cells to examine their role in DENV replication using flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and western blotting. FINDINGS We found several cellular miRNAs that target a conserved region within the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of the genome of the four DENV serotypes and found that overexpression of miR-484 or miR-744 inhibits infection by DENV-1 to DENV-4. Furthermore, we observed that DENV RNA might be involved in the downregulation of endogenous miR-484 and miR-744. CONCLUSION Our study identifies miR-484 and miR-744 as two possible restriction host factors against DENV infection. However, further studies are needed to directly verify whether miR-484 and miR-744 both have an anti-DENV effect in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Blotting, Western , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Computational Biology , Untranslated Regions , Untranslated Regions/physiology , Dengue Virus/physiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Flow Cytometry
6.
Biol. Res ; 50: 43, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis underlying the formation of bone-forming osteocytes and lipid-storing adipocytes will help provide insights into the cause of disorders originating in stem/progenitor cells and develop therapeutic treatments for bone- or adipose-related diseases. In this study, the role of RGS2 and RGS4, two members of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family, was investigated during adipogenenic and osteogenenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). RESULTS: Expression of RGS2 and RGS4 were found to be inversely regulated during adipogenesis induced by dexamethasone (DEX) and 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine, regardless if insulin was present, with RGS2 up-regulated and RGS4 down-regulated in response to adipogenic induction. RGS2 expression was also up-regulated during osteogenesis at a level similar to that induced by treatment of DEX alone, a shared component of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation inducing media, but significantly lower than the level induced by adipogenic inducing media. RGS4 expression was down-regulated during the first 48 h of osteogenesis but up-regulated afterwards, in both cases at levels similar to that induced by DEX alone. Expression knock-down using small interfering RNA against RGS2 resulted in decreased differentiation efficiency during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis. On the other hand, expression knock-down of RGS4 also resulted in decreased adipogenic differentiation but increased osteogenic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: RGS2 and RGS4 are differentially regulated during adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. In addition, both RGS2 and RGS4 play positive roles during adipogenesis but opposing roles during osteogenesis, with RGS2 as a positive regulator and RGS4 as a negative regulator. These results imply that members of RGS proteins may play multifaceted roles during human adipogenesis and osteogenesis to balance or counterbalance each other's function during those processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteocytes/cytology , Osteogenesis/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , RGS Proteins/metabolism , Adipogenesis/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Osteogenesis/genetics , Time Factors , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , RGS Proteins/genetics , Adipogenesis/genetics
7.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 329-334
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158496

ABSTRACT

Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes ‘quick wilt’ in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Oomycetes/genetics
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158208

ABSTRACT

A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Disease Progression/analysis , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Microarray Analysis/methods , Microarray Analysis/statistics & numerical data
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 477-486, 03/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744826

ABSTRACT

This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be tailored locally and contextually; third, the need for an urgent response to a rapidly growing epidemic of HIV among young people; and fourth, the negative effects of the growing criminalization of minority sexualities and people living with HIV. Lack of stress on human rights and community participation is resulting in poorer policy globally. A new research agenda is needed to respond to these challenges.


Este artigo oferece uma perspectiva crítica da pesquisa em ciências sociais apresentada na Confe-rência Internacional de AIDS de Melbourne, Aus-trália, em 2014. Em tempos de grandes avanços no campo biomédico, a natureza política do HIV permanece de importância fundamental. Nenhuma inovação será bem-sucedida na prática se desconsiderar o contexto sociopolítico e suas consequências. Quatro temas emergiram da Conferência nos campos do direito, dos direitos humanos e da pesquisa social e política: (1) a importância do trabalho com grupos socialmente vulneráveis, crescentemente chamado de "populações chaves"; (2) o reconhecimento de que ações e programas devem ser sob medida para cada local e contexto; (3) a urgência da resposta a uma epidemia crescendo muito rapidamente entre adolescentes; (4) o efeito negativo da crescente criminalização de minorias sexuais e pessoas vivendo com HIV. Globalmente, a falta de ênfase nos direitos humanos e da participação comunitária tem como resultado políticas públicas de pior qualidade. Precisamos de uma nova agenda de pesquisa para responder a esses desafios.


El artículo ofrece una perspectiva crítica de la investigación en ciencias sociales, presentada en la Conferencia Internacional de SIDA en Melbourne (Australia), 2014. En tiempos de enormes avances biomédicos, la naturaleza política del VIH sigue siendo muy importante. Ninguna innovación será exitosa sin considerar el contexto sociopolítico y sus consecuencias. Cuatro temas surgieron de la conferencia en el campo legal y derechos humanos, además de investigación social y política: (1) la importancia del trabajo con grupos socialmente vulnerables, crecientemente denominados "poblaciones claves"; (2) el reconocimiento de que las acciones y programas deben ser adaptados a un contexto local; (3) la urgencia de una respuesta a una epidemia con crecimiento rápido entre adolescentes; (4) el efecto negativo de la creciente criminalización de las minorías sexuales y personas viviendo con VIH. Globalmente, un limitado énfasis en los derechos humanos y la participación comunitaria tiene como consecuencia peores políticas públicas. Necesitamos una nueva agenda de investigación para responder a estos desafíos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Gene Silencing/physiology , Huntington Disease/therapy , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Northern , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Huntington Disease/genetics , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/physiology , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/physiology
10.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 45-51, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD. .


INTRODUÇÃO: o consenso sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi de uma associação de causa e efeito à ideia de que não há evidências confiáveis que suportem essa afirmação. OBJETIVO: avaliar as crenças, sem considerar as evidências, de ortodontistas brasileiros sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico com relação ao tratamento, prevenção e etiologia da DTM. MÉTODOS: um questionário sobre a relação entre DTM e tratamento ortodôntico foi preparado e enviado a ortodontistas brasileiros por meio de e-mail e mídias sociais. As respostas foram analisadas por estatística descritiva, e fortes associações entre as variáveis foram verificadas pelo teste χ2. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico não é o melhor tratamento para DTM. Além disso, acreditam que não é a melhor forma para sua prevenção. Também, a maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar sintomas de DTM. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo sugere que as crenças dos ortodontistas sobre a relação entre tratamento ortodôntico e DTM estão de acordo com as evidências científicas apenas quando se trata do tratamento e da prevenção de DTM. A maioria dos ortodontistas acredita que, apesar das evidências científicas, o tratamento ortodôntico pode causar DTM. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , DNA Replication/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , G1 Phase/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Replication Origin/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Blotting, Western , Cell Fractionation , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , /metabolism , DNA Primers/genetics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immunoblotting , Immunoprecipitation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Interference
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(1): 50-59, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697673

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and evidence indicates a correlation between the inflammatory process and cardiac dysfunction. Selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme are not recommended for long-term use because of potentially severe side effects to the heart. Considering this and the frequent prescribing of commercial celecoxib, the present study analyzed cellular and molecular effects of 1 and 10 µM celecoxib in a cell culture model. After a 24-h incubation, celecoxib reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner as also demonstrated in MTT assays. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the drug modulated the expression level of genes related to death pathways, and Western blot analyses demonstrated a modulatory effect of the drug on COX-2 protein levels in cardiac cells. In addition, the results demonstrated a downregulation of prostaglandin E2 production by the cardiac cells incubated with celecoxib, in a dose-specific manner. These results are consistent with the decrease in cell viability and the presence of necrotic processes shown by Fourier transform infrared analysis, suggesting a direct correlation of prostanoids in cellular homeostasis and survival.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , /pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Myoblasts, Cardiac/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Cell Survival/genetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Time Factors
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2014. 82 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847153

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma gamaproteobactéria com capacidade de colonizar diversos tipos de ambiente e infectar hospedeiros filogeneticamente distintos. Em humanos, comporta-se como um patógeno oportunista,estando frequentemente relacionada à infecções em indivíduos imunocomprometidos e indivíduos portadores de fibrose cística. Um mecanismo importante para a versatilidade de P. aeruginosa é o sistema de percepção de quórum (QS), onde a bactéria pode vincular expressão gênica à densidade populacional e às características do ambiente. Atualmente, sabe-se que muitos outros reguladores estão interligados com QS, entre eles, a proteína reguladora RsmA e os pequenos RNAs RsmZ e RsmY. Além disso, diversos fatores importantes para a patogenicidade da bactéria são reguladas por QS. Em P. aeruginosa PA14, um fator importante para a patogenicidade em diversos hospedeiros é a proteína KerV, cujo envolvimento com QS foi descrito pela primeira vez neste trabalho. A linhagem D12, que possui uma deleção no gene kerV, mostrou alterações em fenótipos regulados por QS, como a maior produção de piocianina, composto que contribui para virulência e persistência das infecções causada por P. aeruginosa. Por ser facilmente detectável e pela regulação de sua síntese não ter sido completamente explorada em PA14, a expressão dos genes responsáveis pela produção de piocianina é um interessante repórter na investigação do possível envolvimento de KerV com QS. Além de piocianina, D12 apresenta níveis reduzidos de ramnolipídeos. Esses fenótipos somados se assemelham aos fenótipos da mutação de rsmA, sugerindo o envolvimento de KerV com os sistemas QS e Gac-Rsm direta ou indiretamente. Neste trabalho, mostramos que KerV exerce um efeito negativo na regulação dos operons phz1 e phz2, responsáveis pela síntese de piocianina, alterando a expressão desses genes. KerV exerce também um efeito positivo na expressão da proteína RsmA, responsável pela repressão de diversos genes alvos, onde RsmA se liga ao sítio de ligação ao ribossomo no mRNA, impedindo a tradução. Ensaios de gel shift mostraram que a ligação direta de RsmA na sequência líder de phzA1 e phzA2 ocorre, elucidando a maneira pela qual KerV está envolvido na regulação da expressão dos operons phz em P. aeruginosa PA14. Mostramos também que phz2 é ativo e contribui para a síntese de piocianina, pois na ausência de phz1, os níveis do pigmento são maiores do que aqueles detectados em PA14. Isso sugere uma maior expressão de phz2 e uma regulação diferencial dos operons de acordo com as condições ambientais como possível estratégia para manter os níveis desse composto. Uma evidência dessa regulação diferencial é vista no mutante lasR. Na fase inicial de crescimento, esse mutante não produz piocianina, porém quando exposto a tempos mais longos de cultivo, a produção de piocianina é maior quando comparada a PA14. Isso é reflexo da ativação da expressão de phz1 no mutante lasR em fase estacionária tardia, enquanto phz2 permanece não expresso. Isso indica que phz2 é dependente de LasR, ainda que indiretamente. Já phz1, embora tenha sua expressão influenciada por LasR no estágio inicial de crescimento, na fase estacionária é regulado por outros fatores independentes de las


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gammaproteobacterium that colonizes several environments and infects phylogenetically distinct hosts. It behaves as an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often related to infection in immunocompromised individuals and cystic fibrosis patients. An important mechanism for P. aeruginosa versatility is the quorum sensing (QS) network, that allows bacteria to link gene expression to population density and environmental traits. Several additional regulators are interconnected with QS, as the regulatory mRNA binding protein RsmA and the non-coding small RNAs RsmZ and RsmY. Futhermore, key factors for pathogenicity are QS-regulated. In P. aeruginosa PA14, an important pathogenicity-related factor is the KerV protein, described for the first time here as involved in QS. D12 strain, that harbor a deletion in the kerV gene, shows alterations in QS-regulated phenotypes, such as high production of pyocyanin, a compound that contributes to virulence and persistence of P. aeruginosa infections. As the production of pyocyanin is easily detected and all mechanisms involved in its synthesis regulation are not fully described, the expression of genes responsible for production of this pigment is a good reporter to investigate KerV involvement in the QS network. Additionally, D12 also shows lower levels of rhamnolipids, another QS-regulated trait. Taken together, these phenotypes resemble the effects of a rsmA mutation, suggesting KerV involvement with QS and Gac-Rsm systems. In this work, we propose that KerV exerts a negative effect in the regulation of phz1 and phz2 operons, responsible for pyocyanin synthesis, by alterating the expression of these genes. KerV also has a positive effect on rsmA expression, responsible for the repression of several genes by blocking the ribosome binding site preventing the translation. Gel shift assays showed that RsmA binds directly in the leader sequence of phzA1 and phzA2, elucidating the manner in which KerV is involved in the regulation of phz operons expression in P. aeruginosa PA14. We also demonstrate that phz2 is actively expressed and contributes to pyocyanin production in PA14, since in the phz1 mutant the levels of pyocyanin are even higher than in the wild type strain. This suggests a phz2 higher expression and a differential regulation of phz operons according to environmental changes as a mechanism to maintain the levels of pyocyanin synthesis. An evidence for this regulation is the synthesis of pyocyanin by the lasR mutant, which does not make pyocyanin at early growth stages. However, at late stationary phase, pyocyanin production is even higher than in the wild-type strain, reflecting the LasR-independent regulation of phz1 expression, while phz2 operon remains silent


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Quorum Sensing , Bacterial Infections , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Molecular Biology/instrumentation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Proteobacteria , Pseudomonas/cytology , Pyocyanine/pharmacology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 707-717, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685497

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma. Because schistosomes exhibit a complex life cycle and numerous mechanisms for regulating gene expression, it is believed that spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing could play an important role in the biology of these parasites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of trans-splicing in Schistosoma mansoni through analysis of genes that may be regulated by this mechanism and via silencing SL-containing transcripts through RNA interference. Here, we report our analysis of SL transcript-enriched cDNA libraries from different S. mansoni life stages. Our results show that the trans-splicing mechanism is apparently not associated with specific genes, subcellular localisations or life stages. In cross-species comparisons, even though the sets of genes that are subject to SL trans-splicing regulation appear to differ between organisms, several commonly shared orthologues were observed. Knockdown of trans-spliced transcripts in sporocysts resulted in a systemic reduction of the expression levels of all tested trans-spliced transcripts; however, the only phenotypic effect observed was diminished larval size. Further studies involving the findings from this work will provide new insights into the role of trans-splicing in the biology of S. mansoni and other organisms. All Expressed Sequence Tags generated in this study were submitted to dbEST as five different libraries. The accessions for each library and for the individual sequences are as follows: (i) adult worms of mixed sexes (LIBEST_027999: JZ139310 - JZ139779), (ii) female adult worms (LIBEST_028000: JZ139780 - JZ140379), (iii) male adult worms (LIBEST_028001: JZ140380 - JZ141002), (iv) eggs (LIBEST_028002: JZ141003 - JZ141497) and (v) schistosomula (LIBEST_028003: JZ141498 - JZ141974).


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Gene Knockdown Techniques , RNA Precursors/isolation & purification , RNA, Spliced Leader/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Trans-Splicing/physiology , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Library , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Larva , Life Cycle Stages/genetics , Phenotype , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Precursors/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Schistosoma mansoni/growth & development , Trans-Splicing/genetics
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 752-757, 19/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686571

ABSTRACT

One of the challenges of the postgenomic era is characterizing the function and regulation of specific genes. For various reasons, the early chick embryo can easily be adopted as an in vivo assay of gene function and regulation. The embryos are robust, accessible, easily manipulated, and maintained in the laboratory. Genomic resources centered on vertebrate organisms increase daily. As a consequence of optimization of gene transfer protocols by electroporation, the chick embryo will probably become increasingly popular for reverse genetic analysis. The challenge of establishing chick embryonic electroporation might seem insurmountable to those who are unfamiliar with experimental embryological methods. To minimize the cost, time, and effort required to establish a chick electroporation assay method, we describe and illustrate in great detail the procedures involved in building a low-cost electroporation setup and the basic steps of electroporation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Electroporation/economics , Electroporation/instrumentation , Electroporation/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques/instrumentation , Electrodes , Equipment Design , Green Fluorescent Proteins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167888

ABSTRACT

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be propagated in vitro on feeder layers of mouse STO fibroblast cells. The STO cells secrete several cytokines that are essential for ESCs to maintain their undifferentiated state. In this study, we found significant growth inhibition of mouse ESCs (mESCs) cultured on STO cells infected with adenovirus containing a dominant-negative mutant form of IkappaB (rAd-dnIkappaB). This blockage of the NF-kappaB signal pathway in STO cells led to a significant decrease in [3H]thymidine incorporation and colony formation of mESCs. Expression profile of cytokines secreted from the STO cells revealed an increase in the bone morphogenetic protein4 (BMP4) transcript level in the STO cells infected with adenoviral vector encoding dominant negative IkappaB (rAd-dnIkappaB). These results suggested that the NF-kappaB signaling pathway represses expression of BMP4 in STO feeder cells. Conditioned medium from the rAd-dnIkappaB-infected STO cells also significantly reduced the colony size of mESCs. Addition of BMP4 prevented colony formation of mESCs cultured in the conditioned medium. Our finding suggested that an excess of BMP4 in the conditioned medium also inhibits proliferation of mESCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Culture Media, Conditioned , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Feeder Cells/cytology , Fibroblasts/cytology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , I-kappa B Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mutation , NF-kappa B/genetics , Signal Transduction
17.
Clinics ; 67(1): 35-40, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha regulates genes related to cellular survival under hypoxia. This factor is present in osteroarthritic chondrocytes, and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta, participate in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, thereby increasing the activities of proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases, and accelerating cartilage destruction. We hypothesize that Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) can regulate cytokines (catabolic action) and/or growth factors (anabolic action) in osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the modulation of HIF-1α in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-I) and II (IGF-II) and to determine the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) pathway in this process. METHODS: Human osteroarthritic chondrocytes were stimulated with IL-1β, IGF-I and IGF-II and LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3K. Nuclear protein levels and gene expression were analyzed by western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. RESULTS: HIF-1α expression was upregulated by IL-1β at the protein level but not at the gene level. IGF-I treatment resulted in increases in both the protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α , whereas IGF-II had no effect on its expression. However, all of these stimuli exploited the PI-3K pathway. CONCLUSION: IL-1β upregulated the levels of HIF-1α protein post-transcriptionally, whereas IGF-I increased HIF-1α at the transcript level. In contrast, IGF-II did not affect the protein or gene expression levels of HIF-1α . Furthermore, all of the tested stimuli exploited the PI-3K pathway to some degree. Based on these findings, we are able to suggest that Hypoxia inducible Factor-1 exhibits protective activity in chondrocytes during osteoarthritis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Osteoarthritis/genetics , /antagonists & inhibitors , /metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(6): 514-523, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589977

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the present study were to identify the cis-elements of the promoter absolutely required for the efficient rat NHE3 gene transcription and to locate positive and negative regulatory elements in the 5’-flanking sequence (5’FS), which might modulate the gene expression in proximal tubules, and to compare this result to those reported for intestinal cell lines. We analyzed the promoter activity of different 5’FS segments of the rat NHE3 gene, in the OKP renal proximal tubule cell line by measuring the activity of the reporter gene luciferase. Because the segment spanning the first 157 bp of 5’FS was the most active it was studied in more detail by sequential deletions, point mutations, and gel shift assays. The essential elements for gene transcription are in the region -85 to -33, where we can identify consensual binding sites for Sp1 and EGR-1, which are relevant to NHE3 gene basal transcription. Although a low level of transcription is still possible when the first 25 bp of the 5’FS are used as promoter, efficient transcription only occurs with 44 bp of 5’FS. There are negative regulatory elements in the segments spanning -1196 to -889 and -467 to -152, and positive enhancers between -889 and -479 bp of 5’FS. Transcription factors in the OKP cell nuclear extract efficiently bound to DNA elements of rat NHE3 promoter as demonstrated by gel shift assays, suggesting a high level of similarity between transcription factors of both species, including Sp1 and EGR-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Terminator Regions, Genetic/genetics , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , /genetics , Didelphis , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , Point Mutation/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107278

ABSTRACT

The onset, severity, and ultimate outcome of malaria infection are influenced by parasite-expressed virulence factors as well as by individual host responses to these determinants. In both humans and mice, liver injury follows parasite entry, persisting to the erythrocytic stage in the case of infection with the fatal strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha is a master regulator of not only the liver damage and adaptive responses but also diverse metabolic functions. In this study, we analyzed the expression of host HNF-1alpha in relation to malaria infection and evaluated its interaction with the 5'-untranslated region of subtilisin-like protease 2 (subtilase, Sub2). Recombinant human HNF-1alpha expressed by a lentiviral vector (LV HNF-1alpha) was introduced into mice. Interestingly, differences in the activity of the 5'-untranslated region of the Pf-Sub2 promoter were detected in 293T cells, and LV HNF-1alpha was observed to influence promoter activity, suggesting that host HNF-1alpha interacts with the Sub2 gene.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha/administration & dosage , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Lentivirus/genetics , Malaria, Falciparum/metabolism , Mice , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Signal Transduction , Subtilisins/genetics
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(11): 1019-1026, Nov. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564139

ABSTRACT

Glucose enters eukaryotic cells via two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins, the Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLT) and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT). The SGLT family consists of six members. Among them, the SGLT1 and SGLT2 proteins, encoded by the solute carrier genes SLC5A1 and SLC5A2, respectively, are believed to be the most important ones and have been extensively explored in studies focusing on glucose fluxes under both physiological and pathological conditions. This review considers the regulation of the expression of the SGLT promoted by protein kinases and transcription factors, as well as the alterations determined by diets of different compositions and by pathologies such as diabetes. It also considers congenital defects of sugar metabolism caused by aberrant expression of the SGLT1 in glucose-galactose malabsorption and the SGLT2 in familial renal glycosuria. Finally, it covers some pharmacological compounds that are being currently studied focusing on the interest of controlling glycemia by antagonizing SGLT in renal and intestinal tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/genetics , /genetics , Transcription, Genetic/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Gene Expression Regulation/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/physiology , /physiology , Transcription, Genetic/physiology
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