Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 36
Filter
1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e200046, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351155

ABSTRACT

River impoundments for electricity generation lead to environmental changes which severely affect fish migration and species richness. However, little is known about their effect on the genetic structure and population dynamics downstream from the reservoir. Here, we analyzed a set of ten microsatellite loci of Prochilodus lineatus, an important South American migratory fish. Specimens (n = 150) were sampled from five sites in a remnant lotic system that includes sections of the Grande, Pardo and Mogi Guaçu rivers, southeastern Brazil. The data showed that all microsatellites were polymorphic with the allele number per locus ranging from 5 to 32, and genetic diversity (H e ) varied from 0.74 to 0.80. Indices of genetic differentiation and Bayesian analysis showed a significant genetic structure and three genetic clusters inhabiting this river system. An asymmetric gene flow suggests source-sink metapopulation dynamics from tributaries (genetic source) to the main river (genetic sink). A genetic cluster that was not detected in the upper Mogi and Pardo rivers tributaries may indicate there is a "trapped gene pool" downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam. Thus, here we provide new insights into the genetic structure and population dynamics of a migratory fish species in a highly dammed river basin.(AU)


Represamento de rios para geração de eletricidade levam a mudanças ambientais que afetam severamente a migração de peixes e riqueza de espécies. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seu efeito na estrutura genética e dinâmica populacional a jusante de reservatórios. Aqui, analisamos um conjunto de dez loci de microssatélites de Prochilodus lineatus, um importante peixe migratório sul-americano. Os espécimes (n = 150) foram amostrados em cinco locais de um sistema lótico remanescente que inclui seções dos rios Grande, Pardo e Mogi Guaçu, sudeste do Brasil. Os dados mostraram que todos microssatélites eram polimórficos com o número de alelos por locus variando de 5 a 32 e diversidade genética (H e ) variou de 0,74 a 0,80. Índices de diferenciação genética e análise de agrupamento baseada em modelo bayesiano indicou a presença de três agrupamentos genéticos habitando este sistema fluvial. Um fluxo gênico assimétrico sugere dinâmica metapopulacional de fonte-sumidouro dos tributários (fonte genética) para o rio principal (sumidouro genético). Um agrupamento genético que não foi detectado nos tributários rio Mogi e rio Pardo parecem indicar que há um "trapped gene pool" a jusante da represa de Porto Colômbia. Assim, nós provemos aqui novos conhecimentos sobre a estrutura genética e dinâmica populacional de uma espécie de peixe migratório em um rio altamente fragmentado por barramentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Water Reservoirs , Microsatellite Repeats , Genetic Structures , Gene Flow , Characiformes , Bayes Theorem
2.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e210007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279475

ABSTRACT

Some pelagic and usually large sized fishes are preferential targets for sport and commercial fishing. Despite their economic importance, cytogenetic data on their evolutionary processes and management are very deficient, especially due to logistical difficulties. Here, information for two of such charismatic species, the tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Elopiformes: Megalopidae), and the sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoriformes: Istiophoridae), both with a wide Atlantic distribution, were provided. Cytogenetic data were obtained using conventional methods (Giemsa staining, Ag-NORs technique, and C-banding), base-specific fluorochrome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probes. Megalops atlanticus has 2n = 50 chromosomes, all acrocentric ones (NF = 50), while Istiophorus platypterus has 2n = 48 chromosomes, 2m + 2st + 44a (NF = 52). Megalops atlanticus populations from the South Atlantic and Caribbean share identical karyotypic patterns, likely associated with gene flow between them. In turn, I. platypterus presents karyotype similarities with phylogenetically close groups, such as Carangidae. The chromosomal characteristics of these species highlight their independent evolutionary paths. Additionally, the current data contribute to knowledge of new aspects of pelagic fish fauna and will support further comparative studies with congeneric species, clarifying evolutionary karyotype trends of these fish groups.(AU)


Alguns peixes pelágicos de grande porte são alvos preferenciais para a pesca esportiva e comercial. Apesar de sua importância econômica, os dados citogenéticos sobre seus processos evolutivos e de manejo são muito deficientes, principalmente devido às dificuldades logísticas. Aqui são apresentadas informações cromossômicas de duas espécies carismáticas, o tarpão, Megalops atlanticus (Elopiformes: Megalopidae), e o agulhão-vela, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoriformes: Istiophoridae), ambos com ampla distribuição no oceano Atlântico. Os dados citogenéticos foram obtidos usando métodos convencionais (coloração em Giemsa, técnica de Ag-NORs e bandamento C), coloração com fluorocromos específicos e hibridização fluorescente in situ (FISH) com sondas DNAr. Megalops atlanticus possui 2n = 50 cromossomos, todos acrocêntricos (NF = 50), enquanto Istiophorus platypterus possui 2n = 48 cromossomos, 2m + 2st + 44a (NF = 52). Populações de M. atlanticus do Atlântico Sul e Caribe compartilham padrões cariotípicos idênticos, provavelmente associados ao fluxo gênico entre regiões. Por sua vez, I. platypterus apresenta semelhanças cariotípicas micro e macroestruturais com grupos filogeneticamente próximos, como Carangidae. As características cromossômicas destas espécies destacam seus caminhos evolutivos independentes. Adicionalmente, os dados apresentados contribuem com novos aspectos da fauna pelágica e apoiarão futuros estudos comparativos com espécies congenéricas, esclarecendo as tendências evolutivas do cariótipo destes grupos de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal , Cytogenetics , Gene Flow , Fisheries , Fishes/genetics
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 65 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353840

ABSTRACT

A Febre Maculosa é uma doença infecciosa febril aguda, com gravidade variável. Em algumas regiões das Américas, uma forma mais branda da doença é causada pela espécie Rickettsia parkeri que é caracterizada por manifestações clínicas mais leves. Atualmente são poucos os estudos epidemiológicos sobre a doença e seu agente etiológico. Objetivo Realizar um levantamento filogenético transversal de cepas de R. parkeri obtidas de carrapatos Amblyomma ovale e sua dispersão em diferentes áreas endêmicas do Estado de São Paulo. Métodos - Foram realizadas coletas de carrapatos em cães, identificação de espécies de carrapatos, e posterior detecção molecular, análise filogénetica, estudo de diversidade genética intraespecífica de Rickettsia parkeri e comparação geoespacial e paisagística entre os diferentes locais de amostragem, no litoral Paulista. Resultados ­ Rickettsia parkeri cepa Mata Atlântica foi indentificada em três áreas do litoral. O estudo de diversidade genetica demonstrou não ser significativo, sugerindo que exista um fluxo gênico entre as cepas dessa localidade e demonstrando que há conexão entre as áreas. Conclusões - O presente estudo mostra que a conexão estrutural e funcional entre diferentes locais em áreas costeiras pode desempenhar um papel importante como via e transportar o fluxo genético de populações de carrapatos e, conseqüentemente, riquétsias.


Spotted Fever is an infectious disease with acute severity, with varying severity. In some regions of the Americas, a milder form of the disease is caused by the species Rickettsia parkeri, which is characterized by milder clinical manifestations. Currently, there are few epidemiological studies on the disease and its etiological agent. Objective - This was a transversal phylogenetic survey of Rickettsia parkeri strains displaced from Amblyomma ovale ticks and their dispersion in different endemic areas of the State of São Paulo. Methods - Tick collections in dogs, identification of tick species, and subsequent molecular detection, phylogenetic analysis, intraspecific genetic diversity study of Rickettsia parkeri and geospatial and landscape comparison between the different sampling sites on the coast of São Paulo were carried out. Results - Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Rainforest was identified in three coastal areas. The study of genetic diversity is not significant, suggesting that there is a generic flow between the strains of this locality and demonstrating that there is a connection between the areas. Conclusions - The present study shows that the structural and functional connection between different locations in coastal areas can insert an important role as a route and transport the genetic flow of tick populations and, consequently, rickettsiae.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Rickettsia , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Communicable Diseases , Epidemiologic Studies , Gene Flow
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 204-212, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118824

ABSTRACT

Rosewood, Aniba rosaeodora is an endangered species in Amazon forests and its natural stands have been heavily depleted due to over-exploitation for the cosmetic industry. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of 90 rosewood accessions from eight localities in the Peruvian Amazon through 11 Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) primers. The ISSR primers produced a sum of 378 bands, of which 375 (99.2%) were polymorphic, with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.774. The mean effective number of alleles (Ne), Shannon informative index (I), gene diversity (He) and total gene diversity (Ht) were 1.485, 0.294, 0.453 and 0.252, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed the presence of maximum variability within populations (88%). The Structure algorithm, neighbor joining and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) grouped the 90 rosewood accessions into three main populations (A, B and C). Diversity indices at the inter-population level revealed a greater genetic diversity in population A, due to higher gene flow. The neighbor-joining analysis grouped populations A and B, while population C was found to be divergent at the inter population level. We concluded that population A reflects higher genetic diversity and should be prioritized for future management and conservation plans. (AU)


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Endangered Species , Gene Flow
5.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 37-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785804

ABSTRACT

Isolation-with-migration (IM) models have become popular for explaining population divergence in the presence of migrations. Bayesian methods are commonly used to estimate IM models, but they are limited to small data analysis or simple model inference. Recently three methods, IMa3, MIST, and AIM, resolved these limitations. Here, we describe the major problems addressed by these three software and compare differences among their inference methods, despite their use of the same standard likelihood function.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Gene Flow , Likelihood Functions , Phylogeny , Statistics as Topic
6.
Acta amaz ; 48(3): 217-223, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1455364

ABSTRACT

Pollen and seed dispersal patterns greatly influence the spatial distribution of plant genetic diversity. Microsatellite-based parentage analysis provides accurate estimates of contemporary gene dispersal. Although most tropical trees have been shown to exhibit widespread pollen dispersal, few studies have estimated contemporary gene dispersal after seedling establishment. Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) is pollinated by large-bodied bees, while previous seed-tracking experiments suggest their seeds are mainly dispersed across very short distances by scatter-hoarding rodents, who primarily act as seed predators. Here we used parentage analysis to provide contemporary estimates of pollen and seed dispersal in B. excelsa recruits. We examined six 25-ha plots located in two natural stands in the Acre River valley, in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. We used 11 microsatellite markers to estimate genetic diversity and fixation index parameters in adults, seedlings and saplings. Genetic diversity was moderate and did not differ across size classes or sampling locations. We assigned pollen and seed parents for < 20% of the recruits, indicating that most events of realized gene flow occurred beyond our 25-ha plots. Only 10 parentage assignments were confirmed with 80% confidence. Pollen distance ranged from 33 to 372 m and seed dispersal from 58 to 655 m. Actual seed-dispersal distances were far greater than the estimates obtained in previous seed-tracking experiments. Thus, studies encompassing larger sampling areas are necessary to determine a more representative spatial scale of B. excelsas pollen and seed dispersal capacity in natural stands.


Os padrões de dispersão de pólen e sementes influenciam a distribuição espacial da diversidade genética. Muitas espécies arbóreas tropicais apresentam ampla dispersão de pólen, mas poucos estudos avaliaram fluxo gênico a partir de plântulas. Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) é polinizada por abelhas e as sementes são dispersas por roedores do tipo scatter-hoarders (que estocam recursos em diferentes pontos de sua área de vida), que atuam primariamente como predadores de sementes. Experimentos de remoção de sementes tem mostrado que a dispersão de sementes por esses roedores é espacialmente limitada. Nosso objetivo foi obter estimativas de dispersão de pólen e sementes em B. excelsa a partir da análise de parentesco de regenerantes. Nós estudamos seis parcelas de 25 ha, em duas áreas de floresta nativa no vale do Rio Acre, no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira. Parâmetros de diversidade genética e índice de fixação foram estimados em adultos, varetas e plântulas com 11 marcadores microssatélites. A diversidade genética foi moderada e não diferiu entre classes de tamanho ou entre localidades. A paternidade foi determinada em menos de 20% dos regenerantes, indicando que a maioria dos eventos de fluxo gênico ocorreu em distâncias maiores que as encontradas nas parcelas de 25 ha. As distâncias de pólen variaram de 33 a 372 m e as de dispersão de sementes variaram de 58 a 655 m. As distâncias de dispersão obtidas neste estudo excedem em muito as estimativas obtidas em experimentos de remoção de sementes. Estudos envolvendo áreas maiores são necessários para que possamos aprofundar nosso conhecimento sobre capacidade de dispersão de pólen e sementes em populações naturais de B. excelsa.


Subject(s)
Bertholletia/genetics , Plant Dispersal/genetics , Seed Dispersal/genetics , Pollen/genetics , Gene Flow , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genetic Variation
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(supl.2): 117-126, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-974013

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A pesar de los recientes reportes de infección con Plasmodium spp. en poblaciones relacionadas con los linajes noroeste y sureste, Anopheles triannulatus no está incriminado como vector de la transmisión de malaria en Colombia. La diversidad genética puede delimitar la información sobre el flujo génico y la diferenciación poblacional entre localidades con malaria. Objetivo. Estimar la diversidad genética de An. triannulatus en cinco municipios con alta y baja incidencia de malaria en el departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. La recolección entomológica se hizo entre agosto y noviembre de 2016 en los municipios de Tierralta, Puerto Libertador, Montelíbano, Sahagún y Planeta Rica. Como marcador genético, se utilizó la región de código de barras de ADN del gen mitocondrial COI. El análisis genético incluyó la estimación de los parámetros de diversidad haplotípica, estructura genética y flujo génico, la prueba D de neutralidad de Tajima, la red de haplotipos y las relaciones filogenéticas. Resultados. Se obtuvieron 148 secuencias parciales de 655 nucleótidos del gen COI, de los cuales se derivaron 44 haplotipos. Los haplotipos H2 y H21 fueron los más frecuentes en las poblaciones. Los valores de la prueba D de Tajima fueron negativos y no significativos (p>0,10). Los estimadores de estructura genética (FST=0,01427) y de flujo génico (Nm=17,27) evidenciaron que no hubo diferenciación genética en las poblaciones muestreadas debido al importante intercambio de migrantes. Mediante las inferencias filogenéticas y la red de haplotipos, se identificó una sola especie sin diferenciación geográfica o de linajes en el rango geográfico estudiado. Conclusión. La diversidad genética calculada para An. triannulatus en este contexto, indicó que las poblaciones están en un intercambio constante.


Introduction: Anopheles triannulatus is not incriminated as a vector of malaria transmission in Colombia despite recent reports of infection with Plasmodium spp. in populations related to the northwestern and southeastern lineages. Genetic diversity can delimit information about gene flow and population differentiation in localities with malaria. Objective: To estimate the genetic diversity of An. triannulatus in five municipalities with high and low incidence of malaria in the department of Córdoba. Materials and methods: The entomological collections were done between August and November, 2016, in Tierralta, Puerto Libertador, Montelíbano, Sahagún, and Planeta Rica. We used the COI barcoding fragment as molecular marker. The genetic analysis included the estimation of genetic parameters such as the diversity haplotype, the genetic structure, the gene flow, the Tajima's D test, the haplotype network, and the phylogenetic relationship. Results: We obtained 148 sequences with a length of 655 nucleotides of the COI gene, from which we derived 44 haplotypes. The H2 and H21 haplotypes were the most frequent in the populations. The values of the Tajima's D test were negative and not significant (p>0.10). The genetic structure index (FST=0.01427) and the gene flow (Nm=17.27) evidenced no differentiation between sampled populations due to the high exchange of migrants. Using phylogenetic inferences and the haplotype network, we identified one single species without geographic differentiation or lineages in the geographic range studied. Conclusions: The genetic diversity calculated for An. triannulatus in this context indicated stable populations in constant exchange.


Subject(s)
Anopheles/genetics , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Colombia , Gene Flow
8.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 153-165, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742237

ABSTRACT

Development of an effective vaccine is critically needed for the prevention of malaria. One of the key antigens for malaria vaccines is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the surface protein for erythrocyte invasion of the parasite. The gene encoding AMA-1 has been sequenced from populations of P. falciparum worldwide, but the haplotype diversity of the gene in P. falciparum populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including Thailand, remains to be characterized. In the present study, the AMA-1 gene was PCR amplified and sequenced from the genomic DNA of 65 P. falciparum isolates from 5 endemic areas in Thailand. The nearly full-length 1,848 nucleotide sequence of AMA-1 was subjected to molecular analyses, including nucleotide sequence diversity, haplotype diversity and deduced amino acid sequence diversity and neutrality tests. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise population differentiation (F( st) indices) were performed to infer the population structure. The analyses identified 60 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, predominately located in domain I of AMA-1. A total of 31 unique AMA-1 haplotypes were identified, which included 11 novel ones. The phylogenetic tree of the AMA-1 haplotypes revealed multiple clades of AMA-1, each of which contained parasites of multiple geographical origins, consistent with the F(st) indices indicating genetic homogeneity or gene flow among geographically distinct populations of P. falciparum in Thailand's borders with Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia. In summary, the study revealed novel haplotypes and population structure needed for the further advancement of AMA-1-based malaria vaccines in the GMS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cambodia , DNA , Erythrocytes , Gene Flow , Haplotypes , Laos , Malaria , Malaria Vaccines , Membranes , Myanmar , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Thailand , Trees
9.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 175-181, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742235

ABSTRACT

The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 258 Ascaris specimens from humans and pigs from 6 sympatric regions in Ascaris-endemic regions of China using existing simple sequence repeat data. The microsatellite markers showed a high level of allelic richness and genetic diversity in the samples. Each of the populations demonstrated excess homozygosity (Ho 0). According to a genetic differentiation index (Fst=0.0593), there was a high-level of gene flow in the Ascaris populations. A hierarchical analysis on molecular variance revealed remarkably high levels of variation within the populations. Moreover, a population structure analysis indicated that Ascaris populations fell into 3 main genetic clusters, interpreted as A. suum, A. lumbricoides, and a hybrid of the species. We speculated that humans can be infected with A. lumbricoides, A. suum, and the hybrid, but pigs were mainly infected with A. suum. This study provided new information on the genetic diversity and population structure of Ascaris from human and pigs in China, which can be used for designing Ascaris control strategies. It can also be beneficial to understand the introgression of host affiliation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascaris suum , Ascaris , China , Gene Flow , Genetic Structures , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Swine
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(3): 357-366, mar. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-964181

ABSTRACT

O gene floR descrito é descrito pela literatura como o responsável pela resistência ao florfenicol, que é um antimicrobiano amplamente utilizado na aquicultura. Esse gene já foi relatado em muitas espécies de bactérias, inclusive no gênero Aeromonas. Essas bactérias causam alta mortalidade na piscicultura trazendo prejuízos econômicos. É importante que haja estudos sobre esse gene e possíveis mutações que possam levar a alterações na estrutura e função da proteína. Os objetivos desse estudo foram caracterizar o gene floR em isolados de Aeromonas spp. obtidas do Vale do São Francisco e verificar se a presença desse gene está associada com a resistência ao florfenicol. Foram realizadas reações em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para a presença do gene floR em 27 isolados de Aeromonas spp.. Amostras positivas para a presença do gene foram sequenciadas e analisadas quanto à presença de polimorfismos por meio de alinhamentos. Os diferentes haplótipos detectados foram utilizados para análises com os programas SIFT e PolyPhen para predição de alteração de função proteica. A modelagem estrutural da proteina codificada pelo gene floR foi realizada com o programa Modeller e, os modelos foram avaliados pelo Procheck, Verify3D e Whatif. A similaridade da estrutura tridimensional da proteína referência com as estruturas tridimensionais das proteínas codificadas pelos diferentes haplótipos foi comparada através do TM-align. A resistência das bactérias ao florfenicol foi avaliada através do teste de microdiluição em caldo, o qual também foi realizado na presença do carbonil cianeto m-clorofenil hidrazona para verificar o efeito da inibição da bomba de efluxo sobre tal resistência. Dos vinte e sete isolados avaliados quanto a presença do gene floR, 14 isolados foram positivos e 10 foram sequenciados, o que permitiu a identificação de três polimorfismos no gene floR, que levaram a construção de três haplótipos diferentes (TAA, TTA e CTG). As análises realizadas com os programas SIFT e PolyPhen apontaram que os haplótipos TTA e TAA provavelmente poderiam alterar a estrutura e função da proteína. As proteínas modeladas para os três haplótipos demonstraram possuir praticamente a mesma conformação estrutural entre si. Todos os isolados que apresentaram o gene foram resistentes ao florfenicol e aqueles que não apresentavam foram sensíveis. O teste na presença do Carbonil Cianeto m-Clorofenil Hidrazona foi realizado para três isolados, cada isolado representando um haplótipo, sendo possível observar a inibição do crescimento bacteriano em todas as concentrações independente do haplótipo. Os resultados obtidos nesse estudo mostram que a resistência ao flofenicol em Aeromonas spp. pode ser explicada pela presença do gene floR, e que esse gene está relacionado com uma bomba de efluxo. As mutações verificadas no gene floR, parecem não estar envolvidas com alteração de estrutura e função da proteína codificada por esse gene.(AU)


The floR gene is described in related literature as responsible for resistance to florfenicol, which is a widely used antimicrobial agent in aquaculture. This gene has been reported in many species of bacteria, including the genus Aeromonas. These bacteria cause high mortality in fish farming bringing economic losses. It is important that studies of this gene and possible mutations that can lead to changes in the structure and function of the protein. The aim of this study was to characterize the floR gene in isolates of Aeromonas spp. and check if the presence of this gene is associated with resistance to florfenicol in Aeromonas spp. obtained from the San Francisco Valley. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) were also performed to verify the presence of the floR gene in 27 isolates of Aeromonas spp. Positive samples for the presence of the gene were sequenced and analyzed for the presence of polymorphisms using alignments. Different haplotypes detected were used for analysis with the SIFT and PolyPhen programs for prediction of changes in protein function. The structural modeling of protein encoded by the floR gene was performed using the Modeller software, and the models were evaluated by Procheck, Verify3D and Whatif. The similarity of the dimensional structure of reference protein with the dimensional structures of the proteins encoded by the different haplotypes was compared by TM-align. Bacterial resistance to florfenicol was assessed by the microdilution test, which was also performed in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone to verify the effect of inhibiting the efflux pump. 14 isolates were positive for the presence of floR gene and 10 were sequenced and allowed the identification of three polymorphisms in the floR gene, which led to construction of three different haplotypes (TAA TTA and CTG). The analyzes carried out with the SIFT and PolyPhen programs showed that the TTA and TAA haplotypes could probably change the protein structure-function. Proteins modeled for the three haplotypes were found to have substantially the same structural conformation with each other. All isolates presenting the gene were resistant to florfenicol and those who did not have were sensitive. The test in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone was conducted for three isolates, representing each single haplotype and was observed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations independent of the haplotype. The results of this study show that resistance to flofenicol in Aeromonas spp. may be explained by the presence of floR gene and that this gene is associated with an efflux pump. Mutations observed in floR gene do not appear to be involved with chenges in structure and function of the protein encoded by gene.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Tilapia/genetics , Tilapia/microbiology , Aeromonas , Gene Flow
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4210-4216, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775357

ABSTRACT

The study aims at evaluating genetic diversity and medicinal quality of cultivated germplasm in Rehmannia glutinosa, and providing theoretical guidance for screening excellent germplasm. The genetic diversity of 21 species of R. glutinosa were analyzed by SRAP molecular markers, and the catalpol and verbascoside was determined by HPLC. The mass fraction of catalpol and verbascoside in R. glutinosa germplasm were respectively in the range of 2.393%-6.519% and 0.063%-0.478%, the germplasm 14, 16, 15 and 20 germplasm, witch catalpol and verbascoside content was higher. A total of 57 bands were produced by 10 primer, among which 40 polymorphic bands were polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 8.77%-54.39%, the Nei's genetic diversity index (H) was 0.374 1, Shannon's polymorphism information index (I) was 0.546 6. Gst and gene flow Nm were 0.608 8 and 0.321 3, respectively. Based on the genetic uniformity, 21 species of germplasm were grouped into 2 categories. The genetic diversity level of R. glutinosa was medium low. The comprehensive consideration of the genetic diversity and the content inculde catalpol and verbascoside, germplasm 7 and germplasm 18 could be used as the preferred materials for the cultivation of reticulum. Germplasm 15 and 16 can be used as the preservation and breeding object of rhubarb germplasm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Rehmannia , Genetics
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 63-69, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748362

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Animal Migration , Chiroptera/genetics , Mycoses/transmission , Residence Characteristics , Conservation of Natural Resources , Chiroptera/microbiology , Demography , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Hibernation , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Mycoses/microbiology , Pennsylvania , Phylogeography
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 70-78, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748365

ABSTRACT

A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Dogs/genetics , Gene Flow/genetics , Wolves/genetics , Base Sequence , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Georgia (Republic) , Hybridization, Genetic , Haplotypes/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Pedigree , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Sequence Analysis, DNA
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 164-169
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158408

ABSTRACT

Gardenia jasminoides is a common garden medicinal plant known for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombic, anti-fibrotic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, lung-protective, renal-protective, retina-protective and neuroprotective activities. It is found in several regions of the world, including China, but information about its genetic characteristics is limited. Here, we employed an improved method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis (with increased RAMP time) to investigate the genetic link between G. jasminoides samples collected from six different regions of Southern China. Total 26 RAPD primers were selected randomly, among which 23 primers generated reproducible polymorphic amplification bands. A total of 174 bands were obtained, where each primer had amplified 5-13 bands with an average of 7.56 bands per primer. The band size ranged approximately 150-2200 bp. Cluster dendrogram was obtained based on the improved RAPD amplification profiles, which showed that the similarity coefficients among six varieties of G. jasminoides ranged 0.67-0.88. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of G. jasminoides using improved RAPD analysis, which may be useful for the preservation of genetic diversity and identification of Gardenia population.


Subject(s)
China , /genetics , /isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Gardenia/classification , Gardenia/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Reproductive Isolation
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3748-3753, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237737

ABSTRACT

In this study, 31 Notopterygium incisum populations were analyzed using ITS sequences to investigate the genetic structure. The results showed that: the ITS region ranged in size from 634 to 635 bp and base composition was with high G + C content of 57.8%. Thirty-one polymorphic sites were detected from 402 sequences of 31 populations of N. incisum, and the proportion of polymorphic sites was 4.88%, in which parsimony informative sites were up to 12. And 31 haplotypes were identified based on these polymorphic sites. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) indicated that high genetic differentiation (57%) existed among population, and gene flow was low (N(m) = 0.38) among populations. Phylogenetic relationships of 31 haplotypes were analyzed using NJ method with N. forbesiias an out-group. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 31 haplotypes from different populations mixed together and did not form distinct geographically separated clades.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Classification , Genetics , Base Sequence , China , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3,supl.1): S167-S170, 8/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732280

ABSTRACT

Freshwater mussel species are in global decline. Anthropogenic changes of river channels and the decrease of autochthonous fish population, the natural hosts of mussels larval stages (glochidia), are the main causes. Therefore, the conservation of mussel species depends not only on habitat conservation, but also on the availability of the fish host. In Portugal, information concerning most of the mussel species is remarkably scarce. One of the most known species, Unio pictorum is also in decline however, in the basins of the rivers Tua and Sabor (Northeast of Portugal), there is some indication of relatively large populations. The aforementioned rivers can be extremely important for this species conservation not only in Portugal, but also in the remaining Iberian Peninsula. Thus, it is important to obtain data concerning Unio pictorum bioecology (distribution, habitat requirements, population structure, genetic variability, reproductive cycle and recruitment rates), as well as the genetic variability and structure of the population. Concomitantly, information concerning fish population structure, the importance of the different fish species as “glochidia” hosts and their appropriate density to allow effective mussel recruitment, will also be assessed. The achieved data is crucial to obtain information to develop effective management measures in order to promote the conservation of this bivalve species, the conservation of autochthonous fish populations, and consequently the integrity of the river habitats.


As espécies de mexilhões de água doce estão em declínio global. Mudanças antropogénicas do canal dos rios e diminuição das populações de peixes autóctones, os hospedeiros naturais do mexilhão nos estágios larvais (glochidia), são as principais causas. Portanto, a conservação de espécies de mexilhão depende não só da conservação dos habitats, mas também da disponibilidade do hospedeiro peixe. Em Portugal, a informação relativa à maioria das espécies de mexilhão é extremamente escassa. Uma das espécies mais conhecidas, Unio pictorum também está em declínio, no entanto, nas bacias dos rios Tua e Sabor (Nordeste de Portugal), existe indicação de populações relativamente grandes. Os rios acima mencionados podem ser extremamente importantes para a conservação das espécies, não só em Portugal, mas também na restante Península Ibérica. Assim, é importante obter dados relativos à bioecologia do Unio pictorum (distribuição, requisitos de habitat, estrutura populacional, variabilidade genética, ciclo reprodutivo e as taxas de recrutamento), bem como a variabilidade e estrutura genética da população. Concomitantemente, informações sobre a estrutura da população de peixes, a importância das diferentes espécies de peixes como hospedeiros e sua densidade adequada para permitir o recrutamento eficaz do mexilhão, também será avaliada. Os resultados obtidos serão cruciais para obter informações que permitam o desenvolvimento de medidas de gestão eficazes, a fim de promover a conservação destas espécies de bivalves, a conservação das populações de peixes autóctones e, consequentemente, a integridade dos habitats fluviais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bivalvia/genetics , Genetic Variation , Gene Flow/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Bivalvia/classification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Fishes , Host-Parasite Interactions , Portugal , Rivers
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 278-283, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318677

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Revealed the genetic diversity level and genetic structure characteristics in Sinopodophyllum emodi, a rare and endangered species in China.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>We detected the genetic polymorphism within and among six wild populations (45 individuals) by the approach of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) Polymorphism. The associated genetic parameters were calculated by POP-GENE1.31 and the relationship was constructed based on UPGMA method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A total of 350 bands were scored by 27 primers and 284 bands of them were polymorphic. The average polymorphic bands of each primer were 10.52. At species level, there was a high level of genetic diversity among six populations (PPB = 79.27%, N(e) = 1.332 7, H = 0.210 9 and H(sp) = 0.328 6). At population level, the genetic diversity level was low (PPB = 10.48% (4.00% -23.71%), N(e) = 1.048 7 (1.020 7-1.103 7), H = 0.029 7 (0.012 9-0.063 1), H(pop) = 0.046 2 (0.019 9-0.098 6). The Nei's coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0.841 1, which was consistent with the Shannon's coefficient of genetic differentiation (0.849 4). Two calculated methods all showed that most of the genetic variation existed among populations. The gene flow (N(m) = 0.094 4) was less among populations, indicating that the degree of genetic differentiation was higher. Genetic similarity coefficient were changed from 0.570 8 to 0.978 7. By clustering analysis, the tested populations were divided into two classes and had a tendency that the same geographical origin or material of similar habitats clustered into one group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The genetic diversity of samples of S. emodi is high,which laid a certain foundation for effective protection and improvement of germplasm resources.</p>


Subject(s)
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Berberidaceae , Classification , Genetics , China , Cluster Analysis , Codon, Initiator , DNA Primers , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Endangered Species , Gene Flow , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Structures , Genetic Variation , Geography , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phylogeny , Plants, Medicinal , Polymorphism, Genetic , Software
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 535-540, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-276284

ABSTRACT

PCR sequencing ITS genes methods were used to assess the genetic diversity of Morinda officinalis How different populations. The sequence of Morinda officinalis ITS gene was 567 bp in length, and the content of G/C was 64.5%. In this study, 17 haplotypes were obtained, which were at a high level of branching, and the haplotypes of Guangdong population showed to be the expansion origin. The result of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also showed that the percentage of variation among populations (56.65%) was greater than that within a population (43.35%). The F(ST) value was 0.566 5, and the genetic divergence among populations was significant. Mantel test results also indicated that the level of geneflow was positively correlated with geographic distances (R2 = 0.721 1). The result showed a good correlation between genotype and geographic distribution of Morinda officinalis, and ITS gene sequencing could be useful molecular method for the genuineness and phylogeography of Morinda officinalis.


Subject(s)
DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genotype , Haplotypes , Morinda , Genetics , Phylogeography , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(3): 1127-1134, Sept. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638147

ABSTRACT

Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.


El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro) mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares del tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He) de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49) y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos) entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Snails/genetics , Gene Flow , Mexico , Snails/classification
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 579-592, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235594

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To understand the genetic structures and variations of the superintegron (SI) in Vibrio cholerae isolated in the seventh cholera pandemic.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Polymerase chain reaction scanning and fragment sequencing were used. Sixty toxigenic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated between 1961 and 2008 were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Some variations were found, including insertions, replacements, and deletions. Most of the deletions were probably the result of recombination between V. cholerae repeat sequences. The majority of the variations clustered together. The SIs of the strains isolated in the 1960s and 1970s showed more diversity, whereas SI cassette variations in strains isolated in the 1990s and after were lower, with ∼24 kb signature sequence deletion. This indicates the predominant SI in the host during the epidemic in the 1990s and after. The insertion cassettes suggested the mobilization from the SIs of other V. cholerae serogroups and Vibrio mimicus.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study revealed that structural variations of SIs were obvious in the strains isolated in epidemics in different decades, whereas the divergence was based on syntenic structure of SIs in these El Tor strains. Also, the continuing cassette flows in the SIs of the host strains during the seventh cholera pandemics were displayed.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Cholera , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Chromosomes, Bacterial , Genetics , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Bacterial , Genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Gene Deletion , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Integrons , Genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Open Reading Frames , Genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vibrio cholerae O1 , Classification , Genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL