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1.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 859-867, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct a modABC gene knockout strain of Proteus mirabilis and explore the effect of modABC gene deletion on biological characteristics of Proteus mirabilis.@*METHODS@#Fusion PCR was used to obtain the fusion gene of modABC and the kanamycin-resistant gene Kn, which was ligated with the suicide vector pCVD442 and transduced into Proteus mirabilis. The modABC gene knockout strain of Proteus mirabilis was obtained after homologous recombination with the suicide vector. PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to identify genomic deletion of modABC gene in the genetically modified strain. The concentration of molybdate in the wild-type and gene knockout strains was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and their survival ability in LB medium was compared under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.@*RESULTS@#PCR and sanger sequencing confirmed genomic deletion of modABC gene in the obtained Proteus mirabilis strain. The concentration of intracellular molybdenum in the modABC gene knockout strain was 1.22 mg/kg, significantly lower than that in the wild-type strain (1.46 mg/kg, P < 0.001). Under the aerobic condition, the modABC gene knockout strain grown in LB medium showed no significant changes in survival ability compared with the wild-type strain, but its proliferation rate decreased significantly under the anaerobic condition and also when cultured in nitrate-containing LB medium under anaerobic condition.@*CONCLUSION@#Homologous recombination with the suicide vector can be used for modABC gene knockout in Proteus mirabilis. modABC gene participates in molybdate uptake and is associated with anaerobic growth of Proteus mirabilis in the presence of nitrate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Deletion , Nitrates , Proteus mirabilis/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1644-1654, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981160

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of Mlk3 (mixed lineage kinase 3) deficiency on blood pressure, Mlk3 gene knockout (Mlk3KO) mice were generated. Activities of sgRNAs targeted Mlk3 gene were evaluated by T7 endonuclease I (T7E1) assay. CRISPR/Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA were obtained by in vitro transcription, microinjected into zygote, followed by transferring into a foster mother. Genotyping and DNA sequencing confirmed the deletion of Mlk3 gene. Real- time PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting or immunofluorescence analysis showed that Mlk3KO mice had an undetectable expression of Mlk3 mRNA or Mlk3 protein. Mlk3KO mice exhibited an elevated systolic blood pressure compared with wild-type mice as measured by tail-cuff system. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis showed that the phosphorylation of MLC (myosin light chain) was significantly increased in aorta isolated from Mlk3KO mice. Together, Mlk3KO mice was successfully generated by CRISPR/Cas9 system. MLK3 functions in maintaining blood pressure homeostasis by regulating MLC phosphorylation. This study provides an animal model for exploring the mechanism by which Mlk3 protects against the development of hypertension and hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mice, Knockout , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Blood Pressure , Gene Knockout Techniques , Zygote
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1096-1111, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927766

ABSTRACT

Pigs are considered as ideal donors for xenotransplantation because they have many physiological and anatomical characteristics similar to human beings. However, antibody-mediated immunity, which includes both natural and induced antibody responses, is a major challenge for the success of pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Various genetic modification methods help to tailor pigs to be appropriate donors for xenotransplantation. In this study, we applied transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to knock out the porcine α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene GGTA1, which encodes Gal epitopes that induce hyperacute immune rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Meanwhile, human leukocyte antigen-G5 gene HLA-G5, which acts as an immunosuppressive factor, was co-transfected with TALEN into porcine fetal fibroblasts. The cell colonies of GGTA1 biallelic knockout with positive transgene for HLA-G5 were chosen as nuclear donors to generate genetic modified piglets through a single round of somatic cell nuclear transfer. As a result, we successfully obtained 20 modified piglets that were positive for GGTA1 knockout (GTKO) and half of them expressed the HLA-G5 protein. Gal epitopes on the cell membrane of GTKO/HLA-G5 piglets were completely absent. Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that HLA-G5 was expressed in the modified piglets. Functionally, the fibroblasts from the GTKO/HLA-G5 piglets showed enhanced resistance to complement-mediated lysis ability compared with those from GTKO-only or wild-type pigs. These results indicate that the GTKO/HLA-G5 pigs could be a valuable donor model to facilitate laboratory studies and clinics for xenotransplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Animals, Genetically Modified , Gene Knockout Techniques , HLA Antigens , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1074-1085, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927764

ABSTRACT

To investigate the cellular target selectivity of small molecules targeting thioredoxin reductase 1, we reported the construction and functional research of a stable TrxR1 gene (encode thioredoxin reductase 1) knockout HCT-116 cell line. We designed and selected TrxR1 knockout sites according to the TrxR1 gene sequence and CRISPR/Cas9 target designing principles. SgRNA oligos based on the selected TrxR1 knockout sites were obtained. Next, we constructed knockout plasmid by cloning the sgRNA into the pCasCMV-Puro-U6 vector. After transfection of the plasmid into HCT-116 cells, TrxR1 knockout HCT-116 cells were selected using puromycin resistance. The TrxR1 knockout efficiency was identified and verified by DNA sequencing, immunoblotting, TRFS-green fluorescent probe, and cellular TrxR1 enzyme activity detection. Finally, the correlation between TrxR1 expression and cellular effects of drugs specifically targeting TrxR1 was investigated by CCK-8 assay. The results demonstrated that the knockout plasmid expressing the sgRNA effectively knocked-out TrxR1 gene within HCT-116 cells, and no expression of TrxR1 protein could be observed in stable TrxR1 knockout HCT-116 (HCT116-TrxR1-KO) cells. The TrxR1-targeting inhibitor auranofin did not show any inhibitory activity against either cellular TrxR1 enzyme activity or cell proliferation. Based on these results, we conclude that a stable TrxR1 gene knockout HCT-116 cell line was obtained through CRISPR/Cas9 techniques, which may facilitate investigating the role of TrxR1 in various diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Gene Editing , Gene Knockout Techniques , HCT116 Cells , /metabolism
5.
Biol. Res ; 55: 2-2, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese hamster ovary cell line has been used routinely as a bioproduction factory of numerous biopharmaceuticals. So far, various engineering strategies have been recruited to improve the production efficiency of this cell line such as apoptosis engineering. Previously, it is reported that the caspase-7 deficiency in CHO cells reduces the cell proliferation rate. But the effect of this reduction on the CHO cell productivity remained unclear. Hence, in the study at hand the effect of caspase-7 deficiency was assessed on the cell growth, viability and protein expression. In addition, the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 was investigated in the absence of caspase-7. RESULTS: Findings showed that in the absence of caspase-7, both cell growth and cell viability were decreased. Cell cycle analysis illustrated that the CHO knockout (CHO-KO) cells experienced a cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. This cell cycle arrest resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in the expression of luciferase in CHO-KO cells compared to parenteral cells. Furthermore, in the apoptotic situation the enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in CHO-KO cells was approximately 3 times more than CHO-K1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represented that; however, caspase-7 deficiency reduces the cell proliferation rate but the resulted cell cycle arrest leads to the enhancement of recombinant protein expression. Moreover, increasing in the caspase-3 enzymatic activity compensates the absence of caspase-7 in the caspase cascade of apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , CHO Cells , Caspase 7/genetics , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Cell Division , Cricetulus , Cricetinae , Gene Knockout Techniques
6.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 209-216, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of CACNA1H gene knockout (KO) on autistic-like behaviors and the morphology of hippocampal neurons in mice.@*METHODS@#In the study, 25 CACNA1H KO mice of 3-4 weeks old and C57BL/6 background were recruited as the experimental group, and 26 wild type (WT) mice of the same age and background were recruited as the control group. Three-chamber test and open field test were used to observe the social interaction, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors in mice. After that, their brain weight and size were measured, and the number of hippocampal neurons were observed by Nissl staining. Furthermore, the CACNA1H heterozygote mice were interbred with Thy1-GFP-O mice to generate CACNA1H-/--Thy1+(KO-GFP) and CACNA1H+/+-Thy1+ (WT-GFP) mice. The density and maturity of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons were observed.@*RESULTS@#In the sociability test session of the three-chamber test, the KO mice spent more time in the chamber of the stranger mice than in the object one (F1, 14=95.086, P < 0.05; Post-Hoc: P < 0.05), without any significant difference for the explored preference index between the two groups (t=1.044, P>0.05). However, in the social novelty recognition test session, no difference was observed between the time of the KO mice spend in the chamber of new stranger mice and the stranger one (F1, 14=18.062, P < 0.05; Post-Hoc: P>0.05), and the explored preference index of the KO mice was less than that of the control group (t=2.390, P < 0.05). In the open field test, the KO mice spent less time in the center of the open field apparatus than the control group (t=2.503, P < 0.05), but the self-grooming time was significantly increased compared with the control group (t=-2.299, P < 0.05). Morphological results showed that the brain weight/body weight ratio (t=0.356, P>0.05) and brain size (t=-0.660, P>0.05) of the KO mice were not significantly different from those of the control group, but the number of neurons were significantly reduced in hippocampal dentate gyrus compared with the control group (t=2.323, P < 0.05). Moreover, the density of dendritic spine of dentate gyrus neurons in the KO-GFP mice was significantly increased compared with the control group (t=-2.374, P < 0.05), without any significant difference in spine maturity (t=-1.935, P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#CACNA1H KO mice represent autistic-like behavior, which may be related to the decrease in the number of neurons and the increase in the density of dendritic spine in the dentate gyrus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Calcium Channels, T-Type/genetics , Gene Knockout Techniques , Hippocampus , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Neurons
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 39-56, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880896

ABSTRACT

Gene expression labeling and conditional manipulation of gene function are important for elaborate dissection of gene function. However, contemporary generation of pairwise dual-function knockin alleles to achieve both conditional and geno-tagging effects with a single donor has not been reported. Here we first developed a strategy based on a flipping donor named FoRe to generate conditional knockout alleles coupled with fluorescent allele-labeling through NHEJ-mediated unidirectional targeted insertion in zebrafish facilitated by the CRISPR/Cas system. We demonstrated the feasibility of this strategy at sox10 and isl1 loci, and successfully achieved Cre-induced conditional knockout of target gene function and simultaneous switch of the fluorescent reporter, allowing generation of genetic mosaics for lineage tracing. We then improved the donor design enabling efficient one-step bidirectional knockin to generate paired positive and negative conditional alleles, both tagged with two different fluorescent reporters. By introducing Cre recombinase, these alleles could be used to achieve both conditional knockout and conditional gene restoration in parallel; furthermore, differential fluorescent labeling of the positive and negative alleles enables simple, early and efficient real-time discrimination of individual live embryos bearing different genotypes prior to the emergence of morphologically visible phenotypes. We named our improved donor as Bi-FoRe and demonstrated its feasibility at the sox10 locus. Furthermore, we eliminated the undesirable bacterial backbone in the donor using minicircle DNA technology. Our system could easily be expanded for other applications or to other organisms, and coupling fluorescent labeling of gene expression and conditional manipulation of gene function will provide unique opportunities to fully reveal the power of emerging single-cell sequencing technologies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alleles , CRISPR-Cas Systems , DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA, Circular/metabolism , Embryo, Nonmammalian , Gene Editing/methods , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Loci , Genotyping Techniques , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Integrases/metabolism , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Single-Cell Analysis , Zebrafish/metabolism
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 577-583, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887693

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to explore the roles of arachidonic acid cytochrome P450ω hydroxylase CYP4A14 in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. Wild-type (WT) control mice and Cyp4a14 knockout (A14


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Cytochromes , Gene Knockout Techniques , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Muscle, Skeletal , Regeneration
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 482-490, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887683

ABSTRACT

S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) is involved in a variety of biological processes such as inflammation and tumor cell migration and invasion regulation. The purpose of this study was to construct S100A9 gene-edited mice by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, thereby providing an animal model for exploring the biological functions of this gene. According to the S100A9 gene sequence, the single-stranded small guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exons 2 and 3 was transcribed in vitro, and a mixture of Cas9 mRNA and candidate sgRNA was injected into mouse fertilized eggs by microinjection. Early embryos were obtained and transferred to surrogate mice, and F


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Calgranulin B , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Knockout Techniques , Gene Targeting , Lung , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Ovalbumin , Phenotype
10.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1099-1106, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is a rare degenerative eye disease caused by mutations in the CYP4V2 gene, and Cyp4v3 is the murine ortholog to CYP4V2. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and to explore the potential treatment we have established a Cyp4v3 knock-out mouse model.@*METHODS@#Cyp4v3-/- mice were generated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in embryonic stem cells of C57BL/6J mice. Ocular morphologic characteristics were evaluated via fundus imaging, histologic analysis of rods and cones via immunofluorescence, and phalloidin stain to observe retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in whole-mounts, electroretinogram (ERG) was also conducted to examine the retinal function.@*RESULTS@#The characteristic features of BCD recurred in the Cyp4v3-/- mice, including retinal crystalline deposits, atrophy and degeneration of RPE cells, and ERG amplitude decline of dark and light adapted a- and b- wave; however, the immunofluorescence stain of rod and cone cells did not show obvious differences when compared with the wild type (WT) mice. In the early stage of the disease, no crystal-like deposits were found in the fundus, ERG detection of the retinal function did not find a significant decline, and the morphological structure and quantity of the neural retina and RPE did not change significantly. Crystalline deposits occurred and converged when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 6 months, and the deposits disappeared when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 12 months. The ERG amplitude started to decline when the Cyp4v3-/- mice at the end of 6 months and deteriorated at the end of 12 months. The RPE cells of the 12-month old Cyp4v3-/- mice showed irregular shape by phalloidin staining of F-actin. The Cyp4v3-/- mice behaved normally and were viable and fertile when maintained under specific pathogen-free (SPF) housing conditions.@*CONCLUSION@#Just like BCD patients, the disease progress of Cyp4v3-/- mouse is correlated with the age, which provides a good model for pathogenesis and gene therapy study in the future. The atrophy and degeneration of RPE take the lead in progressing of the disease, but the mechanism is not clear yet.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Face , Fertility , Gene Knockout Techniques , Housing Quality , Mice, Inbred C57BL
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2092-2103, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878469

ABSTRACT

Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important strain for bio-butanol formation. In recent years, gene-editing technology is widely used for developing the hyper-butanol-production strains. In this study, three genes (cac1251, cac2118 and cac2125) encoding cell division proteins (RodA, DivIVA and DivIB) in C. acetobutylicum were knocked out. The cac2118-knockout strain had changed its cell morphology to spherical-shape during the solventogenesis, and obtained a higher butanol yield of 0.19 g/g, increasing by 5.5%, compared with the wild type strain. The glucose utilization and butanol production of cac1251-knockout strain decreased by 33.9% and 56.3%, compared the with wild type strain, reaching to 47.3 g/L and 5.6 g/L. The cac1251-knockout strain and cac2125-knockout strain exhibited poor cell growth with cell optical density decreased by 40.4% and 38.3%, respectively, compared with that of the wild type strain. The results indicate that cell division protein DivIVA made the differences in the regulation of cell morphology and size. Cell division proteins RodA and DivIB played significant roles in the regulation of cell division, and affected cell growth, as well as solventogenesis metabolism.


Subject(s)
Butanols , Cell Division/genetics , Clostridium acetobutylicum/genetics , Fermentation , Gene Knockout Techniques , Solvents
12.
Biol. Res ; 53: 18, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin resistance (DDP-resistance) remains one of the major causes of poor prognosis in females with ovarian cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to participate in the regulation of cellular processes, including chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to explore the role of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) in DDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: DDP-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP) were established. Real-time PCR, western blot, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and flow cytometry were then used to evaluate the effect of HOTAIR/miR-138-5p axis on chemoresistance of DDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells to DDP. RESULTS: We found that HOTAIR was upregulated in DDP-resistant cells, while miR-138-5p was downregulated. Knockdown of HOTAIR increased the expression of miR-138-5p in DDP-resistant cells and miR-138-5p is directly bound to HOTAIR. Upregulation of miR-138-5p induced by HOTAIR siRNA or by its mimics enhanced the chemosensitivity of DDP-resistant cells and decreased the expression of EZH2 (enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit) and SIRT1 (sirtuin 1). Furthermore, the HOTAIR silencing-induced chemosensitivity of DDP-resistant cells was weakened by miR-138-5p inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that HOTAIR acts as a sponge of miR-138-5p to prevent its binding to EZH2 and SIRT1, thereby promoting DDP-resistance of ovarian cancer cells. Our work will shed light on the development of therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Apoptosis/drug effects , MicroRNAs/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Knockout Techniques/methods , Sirtuin 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1138-1149, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826864

ABSTRACT

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an important redox enzyme cofactor, has many physiological and biochemical functions, and is widely used in food, medicine, health and agriculture industry. In this study, PQQ production by recombinant Gluconobacter oxydans was investigated. First, to reduce the by-product of acetic acid, the recombinant strain G. oxydans T1 was constructed, in which the pyruvate decarboxylase (GOX1081) was knocked out. Then the pqqABCDE gene cluster and tldD gene were fused under the control of endogenous constitutive promoter P0169, to generate the recombinant strain G. oxydans T2. Finally, the medium composition and fermentation conditions were optimized. The biomass of G. oxydans T1 and G. oxydans T2 were increased by 43.02% and 38.76% respectively, and the PQQ production was 4.82 and 20.5 times higher than that of the wild strain, respectively. Furthermore, the carbon sources and culture conditions of G. oxydans T2 were optimized, resulting in a final PQQ yield of (51.32±0.899 7 mg/L), 345.6 times higher than that of the wild strain. In all, the biomass of G. oxydans and the yield of PQQ can be effectively increased by genetic engineering.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Gene Knockout Techniques , Gluconobacter oxydans , Genetics , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Multigene Family , Genetics , Organisms, Genetically Modified , PQQ Cofactor , Genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1386-1394, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826838

ABSTRACT

We used CRISPR/Cas9 to delete plin1 of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte, to observe its effect on lipolysis in adipocytes and to explore regulatory pathways. We cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and the plin1 knockout vectors were transfected by electroporation. Puromycin culture was used to screen successfully transfected adipocytes, and survival rates were observed after transfection. The optimized "cocktail" method was used to differentiate 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The glycerol and triglyceride contents were determined by enzymatic methods. The changes in lipid droplet form and size were observed by Oil red O staining. The protein expression of PLIN1, PPARγ, Fsp27, and lipases was measured by Western blotting. RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of PLIN1 and lipases mRNA. After the adipocytes in the control group were induced to differentiate, the quantity of tiny lipid droplets was decreased, and the quantity of unilocular lipid droplets was increased and arranged in a circle around the nucleus. Compared with the control group, the volume of unilocular lipid droplets decreased, and the quantity of tiny lipid droplets increased after induction of adipocytes in the knockout group. The expression of PLIN1 mRNA and protein in the adipocytes was significantly inhibited (P<0.05); glycerol levels increased significantly (0.098 4±0.007 6), TG levels decreased significantly (0.031 0±0.005 3); mRNA and protein expression of HSL and ATGL increased (P<0.05); PPARγ and Fsp27 expression unchanged in adipocytes. The above results indicate that the knockout of plin1 enhances the lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by exposing lipids in lipid droplets and up-regulating lipases effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes , Metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Knockout Techniques , Lipase , Metabolism , Lipolysis , Genetics , Perilipin-1 , Genetics , Metabolism
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
18.
Mycobiology ; : 207-216, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760538

ABSTRACT

Talaromyces marneffei is the only dimorphic species in its genus and causes a fatal systemic mycosis named talaromycosis. Our previous study indicated that knockdown of AcuD gene (encodes isocitrate lyase of glyoxylate bypass) of T. marneffei by RNA interference approach attenuated the virulence of T. marneffei, while the virulence of the AcuD knockout strains was not studied. In this study, T. marneffei-zebrafish infection model was successfully established through hindbrain microinjection with different amounts of T. marneffei yeast cells. After co-incubated at 28°C, the increasing T. marneffei inoculum doses result in greater larval mortality; and hyphae generation might be one virulence factor involved in T. marneffei-zebrafish infection. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the virulence of the ΔAcuD was significantly attenuated in this Zebrafish infection model.


Subject(s)
Gene Knockout Techniques , Hyphae , Isocitrate Lyase , Microinjections , Mortality , Rhombencephalon , RNA Interference , Talaromyces , Virulence , Yeasts , Zebrafish
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 910-918, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771835

ABSTRACT

Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) derived from bi-maternal genomes do not have competency of tetraploid complementation, due to lacking of paternal imprinting genes. To make pESCs possess fully development potentials and similar pluripotency to zygote-derived ESCs, we knocked out one allelic gene of the two essential maternal imprinting genes (H19 and IG) in their differentially methylated regions (DMR) via CRISPR/Cas9 system and obtained double knock out (DKO) pESCs. Maternal pESCs had similar morphology, expression levels of pluripotent makers and in vitro neural differentiation potentials to zygotes-derived ESCs. Besides that, DKO pESCs could contribute to full-term fetuses through tetraploid complementation, proving that they held fully development potentials. Derivation of DKO pESCs provided a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matched pluripotent stem cells, which would benefit research in regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Embryonic Stem Cells , Gene Knockout Techniques , Genomic Imprinting , Parthenogenesis , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine , Tetraploidy
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1247-1255, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771804

ABSTRACT

L-tyrosine is one of three aromatic amino acids that are widely used in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The transport system engineering provides an important research strategy for the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to breed L-tyrosine producing strain. The intracellular transport of L-tyrosine in E. coli is mainly regulated by two distinct permeases encoded by aroP and tyrP genes. The aroP and tyrP gene knockout mutants were constructed by CRISPR-Cas technique on the basis of L-tyrosine producing strain HGXP, and the effects of regulating transport system on L-tyrosine production were investigated by fermentation experiments. The fermentation results showed that the aroP and tyrP knockout mutants produced 3.74 and 3.45 g/L L-tyrosine, respectively, which were 19% and 10% higher than that of the original strain. The optimum induction temperature was determined to be 38 °C. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out on a 3-L fermentor. The L-tyrosine yields of aroP and tyrP knockout mutants were further increased to 44.5 and 35.1 g/L, respectively, which were 57% and 24% higher than that of the original strain. The research results are of great reference value for metabolic engineering of E. coli to produce L-tyrosine.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Proteins , Gene Knockout Techniques , Metabolic Engineering , Tyrosine
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