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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 126-131, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935488

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of NTRK3 gene rearrangement thyroid papillary carcinoma (PTC). Methods: The PTC cases without BRAF V600E mutation were collected at Fujian Provincial Hospital South Branch from January 2015 to January 2020. The cases of NTRK3 gene rearrangement PTC were examined using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The clinical data, histopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features and molecular pathological changes were retrospectively analyzed. Data from the TCGA PTC dataset and the literature were also studied. Results: A total of 3 PTC cases harboring NTRK3 gene rearrangement were confirmed. All the patients were female, aged from 26,49,34 years. Histologically, two of them demonstrated a multinodular growth pattern. Only one case showed prominent follicular growth pattern; the other two tumors showed a mixture of follicular, papillary and solid growth patterns. All tumors showed a typical PTC nuclear manifestation, with some nuclear pleomorphism, vacuolated foci and oncocytic features. The characteristic formation of glomeruloid follicular foci was present in two cases which also showed psammoma bodies, and tumoral capsular or angiolymphatic invasion. The background thyroid parenchyma showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Mitotic rates were low, and no cases had any tumor necrosis. The pan-TRK and TTF1 testing was both positive in 3 cases, while S-100 and mammaglobin were both negative in them. FISH studies confirmed the NTRK3 gene rearrangement in all 3 cases. Studies on the TCGA datasets and literature revealed similar findings. Conclusions: NTRK3 gene rearrangement PTC is rare. It may be easily misdiagnosed due to the lack of histological and clinicopathological characteristics. Molecular studies such as pan-TRK immunostaining, FISH and even next-generation sequencing are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry of pan-TRK performed in the PTC cases without BRAF V600E mutation can be used as a good rapid-screening tool. With the emergence of pan-cancer tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitors, proper diagnosis of these tumors can help determine appropriate treatments and improve their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Gene Rearrangement , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Receptor, trkC , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 120-125, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935487

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) involving combined rearrangements of MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6. Methods: A total of 1 138 cases of large B cell lymphoma (LBL) that were treated at the Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2017 to September 2020 were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes against MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6. The clinical and pathological data of the 45 patients with HGBL that had rearrangements of MYC and bcl-2 and/or bcl-6 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 1 138 LBL, 45 (4.0%) cases had combined rearrangements of MYC, bcl-2 and/or bcl-6 that included 6 HGBL cases with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements, 14 HGBL cases with MYC and bcl-2 rearrangements, and 25 HGBL cases with MYC and bcl-6 rearrangements. Of these 45 patients, 29 patients were male, and 16 patients were female, aged 29 to 83 years. HGBL with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements and HGBL with MYC and bcl-2 rearrangement were reclassified as the germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype using the Hans algorithm. HGBL with MYC and bcl-6 rearrangement were reclassified as the GCB subtype (68.0%) and the non-GCB subtype (32.0%). The vast majority of HGBL cases had a high Ki-67 proliferation index. Most HGBL patients had advanced stage disease with a high IPI score and an increased LDH level. Also, some patients had clinical features including elevated plasma β2-microglobulin levels, B symptoms, and bone marrow involvement. The IPI scores and LDH levels were significantly different between the HGBL cases with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements and the HGBL cases with MYC and bcl-6 rearrangements (P<0.05). Compared with the HGBL cases with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements, the HGBL cases with MYC and bcl-2 or bcl-6 rearrangements had a lower incidence of bone marrow involvement (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the prognosis among HGBL cases with MYC, bcl-2 and bcl-6 rearrangements, the cases with MYC and bcl-2 rearrangements, and the cases with MYC and bcl-6 rearrangements (P>0.05). Conclusions: HGBL with MYC, bcl-2 and/or bcl-6 rearrangements are rare types of B-cell lymphoma with high degree of malignancy and have a short overall survival. To reduce misdiagnosis and improve diagnostic accuracy, it is necessary to assess the patients' clinical features and conduct histopathological, immunohistochemical and FISH analyses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , China , Gene Rearrangement , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/genetics , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics , Retrospective Studies
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1450-1455, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics, outcomes and prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with NUP98 gene rearrangement.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of adult AML patients with NUP98 gene rearrangement from January 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, genetic anomaly, treatment strategy and survival.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 patients with NUP98 gene rearrangement were detected in 410 adult AML patients (3.7%). The ratio of male to female among 15 patients was 1.1∶1, and the median age was 43 (17-76) years old. The main FAB types were M2 and M4/M5, and including one unclassified. According to the genetic prognosis, 11 cases were intermediate risk, while 4 cases were high risk. The main type of NUP98 gene rearrangement was NUP98-HOXA9 (13/15, 86.7%). 10 patients underwent next generation sequencing, in which 5 patients showed epigenetic gene mutations, 3 patients showed FLT3-ITD or WT1 mutations, and 2 patients showed no mutation. After induction therapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved complete remission(CR). 7 of 8 patients with standard induction therapy achieved CR. 7 elder or intolerance patients with demethylation drug and chemotherapy all achieved CR. The median follow-up time was 28 months. The median OS of 15 the patients was 31.5 months (95% CI 10.7%-52.2%), and the median OS of the patients in non-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) group was 18.5 months (95% CI 17.8%-19.1%). The median OS was not reached for the patients in the Allo-HSCT group.@*CONCLUSION@#Allo-HSCT can significantly improve the prognosis of AML patients with NUP98 rearrangement. NUP98 rearrangement can be accompanied by epigenetic gene mutations. For the elderly or patients who do not tolerate standard induction therapy, demethylation drugs combined with chemotherapy can achieve good outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gene Rearrangement , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/genetics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement.@*METHODS@#A total of 108 children with B-cell ALL (B-ALL) were diagnosed and systematically treated according to Chinese Children's Leukemia Group (CCLG) -ALL 2008 in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2016. The 108 patients were divided into two groups according to the result of mutiplex polymerase chain reaction: group with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement and group without P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement. The ALL children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement were all treated by CCLG-ALL 2008 high-risk group (HR) regimens, and the ALL children in group without P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement received different intensity chemotherapy according to clinical risk classification.@*RESULTS@#Five (4 male and 1 female) out of 108 patients with B-ALL had P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement. In the 5 B-ALL patients with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement, the median age of the was 4 (2-6) years old and the median WBC count was 26.2 (2.46-525.1)×10@*CONCLUSION@#The early treatment response and prognosis of ALL children with P2RY8-CRLF2 gene rearrangement are worse, and more effective protocol is needed for this subtype patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Disease-Free Survival , Gene Rearrangement , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Prognosis , Receptors, Cytokine/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic influencing factors of adult AML patients with MLL rearrangement.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 184 adult AML patients with MLL rearrangement treated in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical features, immunophenotypic characteristics, cytogenetic characteristics, molecular biological characteristics and gene mutation characteristics were recorded, the survival and prognostic influencing factors of patients were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 184 patients, 94 cases were male, 90 cases were female, median age were 36.0 years, median WBC count were 22.0×10/L, 156 cases as 84.78% for FAB typing M5, and 18 cases as 28.13% for MLL/AF9 gene positive. The median total survival time and recurrence-free survival time of 184 patients were 15.7 months and 13.3 months respectively. The cumulative total survival rate and recurrence-free survival rate by followed-up for 2 years were 36.72% and 29.33% respectively. The cumulative overall survival rate and recurrence-free survival rate of transplant recipients were significantly higher than those of non-transplant recipients by follow-up for 2 years (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that age, baseline WBC count, baseline Hb levels, complete remission after one course of treatment and transplantation or no were the influencing factors of overall survival time in adult AML patients with MLL rearrangement (P<0.05). Cox regression model multivariate analysis showed that baseline WBC count, complete remission after one course of treatment, and transplantation or no were the independent influencing factors for overall survival time in adult AML patients with MLL rearrangement(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Adult AML patients with MLL rearrangement are mostly belong to acute monocytic leukemia, and MLL/AF9 is the most common associated gene. Patients with AML and MLL rearrangement are prone to recurrence after routine chemotherapy. Allo-HSCT treatment is helpful to improve clinical prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Gene Rearrangement , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828746

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828582

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 262-266, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811468

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization 2016 edition assigned anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC) as an emerging renal tumor entity. Identifying ALK-RCC is important because ALK inhibitors have been shown to be effective in treatment. Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old young man with ALK-RCC. Computed tomography revealed a well-demarcated 5.3-cm enhancing mass at the upper pole of the left kidney. There was no further history or symptoms of the sickle-cell trait. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy. Pathologically, the mass was diagnosed as an unclassified RCC. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a TPM3-ALK fusion gene. The present report and literature review demonstrate that TPM3-ALK RCC may be associated with distinct clinicopathological features. Microscopically, the tumors showed diffuse growth and tubulocystic changes with inflammatory cell infiltration. Tumor cells were dis-cohesive and epithelioid with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuoles. If morphological features and TFE3 expression are present in adolescent and young patients, molecular tests for ALK translocation should be performed. This awareness is critically important, because ALK rearrangement confers sensitivity to ALK inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Cytoplasm , Eosinophils , Gene Rearrangement , Kidney , Lymphoma , Nephrectomy , Phosphotransferases , Vacuoles , World Health Organization
9.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 740-770, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827016

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Coronavirus Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Cytokines , Genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry , Methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Immune System , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Immunocompetence , Genetics , Inflammation , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of detecting the rearrangement of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene in children with acute mononuclear leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe was used to detect MLL gene rearrangement in 68 children with AML by interphase FISH. The results were compared with that of conventional G banding chromosomal analysis.@*RESULTS@#Among the 68 children, 28 were detected by FISH with positive hybridization signals, with a detection rate for MLL gene rearrangement being 41.2%. Twelve (17.6%) reciprocal translocations and interruption of 11q23 were detected by G banding analysis. The difference in the detection rates between the two methods was statistically significant (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The sensitivity of FISH assay for MLL gene rearrangement was significantly higher than that of G banding chromosomal karyotyping. Combined use of both methods for children with AML can improve the detection rate of MLL gene rearrangements and provide crucial clues for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Gene Rearrangement , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute , Genetics , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein , Genetics , Translocation, Genetic
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of detecting multiple rearrangements of MLL gene in children with acute mononuclear leukemia (AML).@*METHODS@#Eighty six children with AML were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosomal karyotyping and multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR).@*RESULTS@#Cross signals were detected by FISH in 26 cases, and 30.2% were detected with MLL gene rearrangements. R-band karyotyping analysis revealed 14 translocations with breakages involving 11q23 and 5 other aberrations, which yielded an overall detection rate of 22.1%. Multiple RT-PCR has detected 12 fusion genes produced by the MLL translocation, which yielded a detection rate of 14.0%. A significant difference was found in the detection rate of the three methods (P< 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Combined use of FISH, chromosomal karyotyping and multiplex RT-PCR can improve the detection of MLL gene rearrangements and provide important clues for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of AML.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Gene Rearrangement , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase , Genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genetics , Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein , Genetics , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 329-335, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pneumonic-type lung carcinoma is a special type of lung cancer both clinically and radiologically. Here we present our experience on pneumonic-type lung carcinoma in an attempt to investigate the clinical, radiological and pathological features, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and prognosis of this type of tumor.@*METHODS@#Pathologically confirmed lung cancer with a chest CT characterized by ground glass opacity or consolidation was defined as pneumonic-type lung carcinoma. Cases with advanced pneumonic-type lung carcinoma admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from January 1, 2013 to August 30, 2018 were enrolled. Retrospective analysis of clinical data and survival follow-up of these patients was conducted.@*RESULTS@#A total of 46 cases were enrolled, all of which were adenocarcinoma. Cough (41/46, 89.1%) and expectoration (35/46, 76.1%) were the most prominent symptoms. The most frequent chest CT findings were ground glass attenuation (87.0%), patchy consolidation (84.8%), and multiple ground-glass nodules (84.8%). Multiple cystic changes (40%) and cavitation (13%) were also quite frequent. Ipsilateral and contralateral intrapulmonary metastasis were noted in 95.3% and 84.8% of cases respectively. The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was 214 days (95%CI: 129-298). Both surgical lung biopsy and CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy had a diagnostic yield of 100%. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) combined with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) had a diagnostic yield of 80.9% (17/21). Sputum cytology had a diagnostic yield of 45% (9/20). Twenty-six cases were invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (26/46, 56.5%) and the remainder were unable to identify pathological subtypes due to lack of adequate biopsy sample size. EGFR mutation was detected in 15.8% (6/38) of patients and ALK rearrangement was detected in 3.0% (1/33) of patients. The median overall survival for these patients was 522 d (95%CI: 424-619). In patients without EGFR mutation or ALK rearrangement, chemotherapy significantly improved survival (HR=0.155, P=0.002,2). The median overall survival was 547 d (95%CI: 492-602 d) with chemotherapy and 331 d (95%CI: 22-919) without chemotherapy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Diagnosis of pneumonic-type carcinoma is usually delayed due to clinical and radiological features mimicking pulmonary infection. TBLB combined with BAL has a quite high diagnostic yield. The most frequent histological type is invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. The incidence of EGFR mutation or ALK rearrangement is low in pneumonic-type carcinoma. For patients without cancer driver genes, chemotherapy is recommended to improve overall survival.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Genetics , Metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Carcinoma , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , ErbB Receptors , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Rearrangement , Lung Neoplasms , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , Mutation , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787518

ABSTRACT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma has specific clinical and pathologic features. The most common site MALT lymphomas is the stomach; however, it can also occur in other organs, such as the salivary glands. MALT lymphoma is rare, but its prognosis is good. A 32-year-old man visited Konyang university hospital with parotid mass. Superficial partial parotidectomy was performed to exclude lymphoid neoplasms. IgH gene rearrangement analysis of the surgical specimen led to the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and whole-body bone scan. Regional or distant metastasis was not observed on staging workup. The patient underwent postoperative radiation therapy, there has been no recurrence of MALT lymphoma to date. Here, we report this rare case of parotid MALT lymphoma that was treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Diagnosis , Electrons , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gene Rearrangement , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Neoplasm Metastasis , Parotid Gland , Prognosis , Recurrence , Salivary Glands , Stomach
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719287

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, including in Korea. Systemic therapy including platinum-based chemotherapy and targeted therapy should be provided to patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Applications of targeted therapy, such as an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors, in patients with NSCLC and an EGFR mutation or ALK gene rearrangement has enabled dramatic improvements in efficacy and tolerability. Despite advances in research and a better understanding of the molecular pathways of NSCLC, few effective therapeutic options are available for most patients with NSCLC without druggable targets, especially for patients with squamous cell NSCLC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 or anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have demonstrated durable response rates across a broad range of solid tumors, including NSCLC, which has revolutionized the treatment of solid tumors. Here, we review the current status and future approaches of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are being investigated for NSCLC with a focus on pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and ipilimumab.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Gene Rearrangement , Immunotherapy , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma , Mortality , Phosphotransferases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 104(10): 478-488, dic 2018. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046959

ABSTRACT

Las inversiones son reordenamientos intracromosómicos originados por dos rupturas en un cromosoma seguidas de la reinserción del fragmento rotado en 180º. Dependiendo si involucra o no al centrómero pueden ser pericén tricas o paracéntricas. La incidencia es 0.09 a 0.49/1.000. Las inversiones son rearreglos estructurales aparentemente equilibrados, por lo que la mayoría de los individuos portadores tienen fenotipos normales y una minoría tienen fenotipos patológicos (probablemente por alteración en la secuencia de genes o variación en la función de éstos por efectos de cambio de posición). Se presentan tres casos de inversiones detectas por la técnica de Bandeo G y confirmadas por Hibridación In Situ Fluorescente (FISH). Caso 1: INVERSION PARACENTRICA FAMILIAR DEL CROMOSOMA 13 ASOCIADA A RETRASO MENTAL Y DISMORFIAS. El exhaustivo análisis del árbol genealógico y el estudio cromosómico al mayor número posible de individuos permitió confirmar la asociación inversión/fenotipo patológico en este grupo familiar. 13 de 17 miembros son portadores de inv(13)(q31q32)inh.ish inv(13)(q31q32) (wcp13+). Caso 2: INVERSION PARACENTRICA DEL CROMOSOMA 6 DE NOVO EN RECIEN NACIDO CON RETRASO MADURATIVO GLOBAL Y RETRASO DEL CRECIMIENTO INTRAUTERINO. En este caso no es posible adjudicar que, el fenotipo afectado se deba a la inversión. Cariotipo: 46,XY,add(6)(q21)dn.ish inv(6)(q21q27)(wcp6+). Caso 3: INVERSION PERICENTRICA DEL CROMOSOMA 12 EN OVODONANTE. Dicha inversión no parece tener efecto sobre el fenotipo, ya que es una paciente con coeficiente intelectual normal y no presenta malformaciones congénitas. Cariotipo: 46,XX,inv(12)(p12q14).ish inv(12) (p12q14)(wcp12+). Este reporte de casos muestra los tres fenotipos posibles de una inversión: patológico, dudoso y normal. Es el primer reporte de una inv(13) que confiera fenotipo patológico.


The inversions are intrachromosomal rearrangements which occur when a single chromosome undergoes two breaks and the region between it's rotates 180 degrees before rejoining. Depending on whether or not it include the centromere, they can be pericentric or paracentric. The incidence is 0.09 to 0.49/1,000. The inversions are apparently balanced structural rearrangements, so the most of the carrier individuals show normal phenotypes and a minority have pathological phenotypes (probably due to variation in their function due to changes in position). Three cases of inversions detected by the G Banding technique and confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) are presented. Case 1: FAMILIAL PARACENTRIC INVERSION OF CHROMOSOME 13 ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DISMORPHIA. The exhaustive analysis of the pedigree and the chromosomal study to the greatest possible number of individuals confirmed the inversion/pathological phenotype association in this family group. 13 of 17 members are carriers of inv(13)(q31q32)inh.ish inv(13)(q31q32)(wcp13+). Case 2: PARACENTRAL INVERSION DE NOVO OF CHROMOSOME 6 IN NEWBORN WITH GLOBAL MATURITY DELAY AND DELAY OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH. In this case it is not possible to adjudge that, the affected phenotype is due to the inversion. Karyotype: 46,XY,add(6)(q21)dn.ish inv(6)(q21q27)(wcp6+). Case 3: PERICENTRIC INVERSION OF CHROMOSOME 12 IN OVODONANT. This inversion does not seem to have an effect on the phenotype, since it is a patient with normal IQ and does not present congenital malformations. Karyotype: 46,XX,inv(12)(p12q14).ish inv(12) (p12q14)(wcp12+). This case report shows the three possible phenotypes of an inversion: pathological, questionable and normal. It is the first report of an inv(13) that confers pathological phenotype. Key words: chromosomal inversion, G Banding, phenotype, structural rearrangement, fluorescence in situ hybridization.


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Gene Rearrangement/genetics , Chromosome Banding , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 623-635, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Initial diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is frequently associated with advanced stages and a poor prognosis. Thus, the need for earlier diagnoses and detection in relatives at risk for the disease has led to increased use of RET genetic screening. Subjects and methods: We performed RET screening in 247 subjects who were referred to the Brazilian Research Consortium for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (BRASMEN) Center in the State of Ceará. Direct genetic sequencing was used to analyze exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 in MTC index cases and specific exons in at risk relatives. Afterward, clinical follow-up was offered to all the patients with MTC and their affected relatives. Results: RET screening was performed in 60 MTC index patients and 187 at-risk family members. At the initial clinical assessment of the index patients, 54 (90%) were diagnosed with apparently sporadic disease and 6 (10%) diagnosed with hereditary disease. After RET screening, we found that 31 (52%) index patients had sporadic disease, and 29 (48%) had hereditary disease. Regarding at-risk relatives, 73/187 were mutation carriers. Mutations in RET codon 804 and the rare p.M918V mutation were the most prevalent. Conclusions: Performing RET screening in Ceará allowed us to identify a different mutation profile in this region compared with other areas. RET screening also enabled the diagnosis of a significant number of hereditary MTC patients who were initially classified as sporadic disease patients and benefited their relatives, who were unaware of the risks and the consequences of bearing a RET mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Genetic Carrier Screening/methods , Time Factors , Brazil , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection/methods , Gene Rearrangement/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Risk Assessment , Early Detection of Cancer , Genetic Association Studies
17.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 4(1): 11-17, 2018. graf., ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1290609

ABSTRACT

La influenza continúa siendo una causa importante de muerte en las Américas; en nuestro país al igual que en otros países del continente, hay circulación viral sostenida del virus Influenza A H1N1pdm09, este reporte describe los hallazgos histopatológicos más relevantes, encontrados en femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de anemia drepanocítica; que falleció tres días después de inicio de síntomas respiratorios. La autopsia estableció como causa de muerte neumonía, daño alveolar difuso (DAD), edema, hemorragia, membranas hialinas y colonias bacterianas secundarias a infección por virus Influenza AH1N1pdm09. Este reporte destaca la importancia que el médico forense realice una labor integrativa, de los hallazgos macro y microscópicos y exámenes complementarios de la autopsia en el contexto epidemiológico y clínico en el que se dan los decesos...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Autopsy/methods , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Gene Rearrangement/genetics , Morphological and Microscopic Findings
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718773

ABSTRACT

Quality control for genetic analysis has become more important with a drastic increase in testing volume and clinical demands. The molecular diagnostics division of the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory conducted two trials in 2017 on the basis of molecular diagnostics surveys, involving 53 laboratories. The molecular diagnostics surveys included 37 tests: gene rearrangement tests for leukemia (BCR-ABL1, PML-RARA, AML1-ETO, and TEL-AML1), genetic tests for Janus kinase 2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-tyrosine kinase domain, nucleophosmin, cancer-associated genes (KRAS, EGFR, KIT, and BRAF), hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53), Wilson disease (ATP7B), achondroplasia (FGFR3), hearing loss and deafness (GJB2), Avellino (TGFBI), multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (RET), Huntington disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, myoclonic epilepsy ragged red fibre, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Prader-raderd Angelman syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, fragile X syndrome, apolipoprotein E genotyping, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotyping, and ABO genotyping. Molecular genetic surveys revealed excellent results for most participants. The external quality assessment program for genetic analysis in 2017 proved useful for continuous education and the evaluation of quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Achondroplasia , Acidosis, Lactic , Angelman Syndrome , Apolipoproteins , Brain Diseases , Breast , Deafness , Education , Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Fragile X Syndrome , Gene Rearrangement , Hearing Loss , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Huntington Disease , Janus Kinase 2 , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Leukemia , Li-Fraumeni Syndrome , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) , Molecular Biology , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Muscular Disorders, Atrophic , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pathology, Molecular , Phosphotransferases , Quality Control , Quality Improvement , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335116

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze a case of supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) with combined genetic techniques and explore its correlation with the clinical phenotype.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The SMC was analyzed with G-banded karyotyping, multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>G-banding analysis indicated that the patient has a karyotype of 47,XX,+mar. MLPA showed that there were duplications of proximal 15q. FISH assay using D15Z4 probes indicated that the SMC was a pseudodicentric chromosome derived from chromosome 15. And SNP-array revealed that there were two extra copies of 15q11-13 region spanning from locus 20 161 372 to 29 071 810.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The duplication of Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region probably underlies the abnormal phenotype of the inv dup(15) case with a BP3:BP3 rearrangement.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Chromosome Banding , Chromosome Disorders , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 , Genetics , Gene Rearrangement , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345316

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Todelineate the clinical and genetic features of a patient with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in association with PDGFRA and EVI1 genes rearrangements.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of the patient was collected. Conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and nested PCR were carried out for the patient.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patient has featured recurrent rash, joint pain, and intermittent fever. Laboratory tests showed hyperleukocytosis and marked eosinophilia. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly. His karyotype was 46,XY,t(3;5)(q26;q15)[6]/46,XY[10]. FISH assay showed that both PDGFRA and EVI1 genes were rearranged. Molecular studies of the mRNA suggested that there was a in-frame fusion between exon 12 of the PDGFRA gene and exon 9 of the FIP1L1 gene. Imatinib was initiated at a dosage of 200 mg, and after 10 months, the signal of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene was undetectable in bone marrow sample. However, the expression of EVI1 mRNA was stable, with no significant difference found between the patient and 10 healthy controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>MPN in association with PDGFRA and EVI1 genes rearrangements have unique clinical and genetic features. Genetic testing is helpful for early diagnosis. Imatinib may be effective for the treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Base Sequence , Chromosome Banding , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Gene Rearrangement , Imatinib Mesylate , Therapeutic Uses , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , MDS1 and EVI1 Complex Locus Protein , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Proto-Oncogenes , Genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Translocation, Genetic , Treatment Outcome
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