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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Candida glabrata yeast is the second cause of candidiasis worldwide. Differs from other yeasts since assimilates only glucose and trehalose (a characteristic used in rapid identification tests for this pathogen) by secreting into the medium a highly active acid trehalase encoded by the CgATH1 gene. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to characterise the function of the acid trehalase in the physiopathology of C. glabrata. METHODS Gene deletion was performed to obtain a mutant ath1Δ strain, and the ability of the ath1Δ strain to grow in trehalase, or the presence of trehalase activity in the ath1Δ yeast cells, was verified. We also tested the virulence of the ath1Δ strain in a murine model of infection. FINDINGS The ath1Δ mutant strain grows normally in the presence of glucose, but loses its ability to grow in trehalose. Due to the high acid trehalase activity present in wild-type cells, the cytoplasmic neutral trehalase activity is only detected in the ath1Δ strain. We also observed a significantly lower virulence of the ath1Δ strain in a murine model of infection with either normal or immunocompromised mice. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The acid trehalase is involved in the hydrolysis of external trehalose by C. glabrata, and the enzyme also plays a major virulence role during infectivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Trehalase/metabolism , Virulence/genetics , Candida glabrata/genetics , Trehalase/physiology , Trehalase/genetics , Trehalose/analysis , Virulence/physiology , Candidiasis , Gene Deletion , Candida glabrata/physiology , Candida glabrata/metabolism , Candida glabrata/pathogenicity , Genes, Fungal , Hydrolases
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773661

ABSTRACT

Polyporus umbellatus,a traditional Chinese precious medicine as long been used for eliminating dampness,diuresis and have effect on cancer,getting more and more popularly in China recently. And the developmental metabolic process of the medicinal fungus,P. umbellatus,has been gotten more attention. This study is for the first time to explore the three sclerotial growth stages in P. umbellatus,named " white Polyporus"( initial phase), " grey Polyporus"( developmental phase) and " black Polyporus"( mature phase),by utilizing the de novo transcriptome assembly analysis technology. Finally,we obtained 88. 12 Gb sequence containing85 235 unigenes( ≥200 bp) assembled and 100% were annotated. We identified genes differentially expressed among the three stages of the sclerotia and screened out MFSgst,ERG4/ERG24,WD40,Rho A,CYP450,PKS,GSase and CHS1,which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites and the defense mechanism against the environmental stress and biological invasion. We did the qRT-PCR trial to verify our results,which is in line with expectations. Our results are purposed to unearth the molecular mechanism of the accumulation of active constituents in different stages of Polyporus sclerotia which can be applied in the production and protection of Polyporus effectively.


Subject(s)
China , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Fungal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polyporus , Genetics , Transcriptome
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772307

ABSTRACT

The hyphal development of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has been considered as an essential virulent factor for host cell damage. However, the missing link between hyphae and virulence of C. albicans is also been discovered. Here, we identified that the null mutants of ERG3 and ERG11, two key genes in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, can form typical hyphae but failed to cause the oral mucosal infection in vitro and in vivo for the first time. In particular, the erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains co-cultured with epithelial cells significantly reduced the adhesion, damage, and cytokine (interleukin-1α (IL-1α)) production, whereas the invasion was not affected in vitro. Importantly, they were incapable of extensive hyphal invasion, formation of micro-abscesses, and tongue epithelium damage compared to wild type due to the decrease of the colonization and epithelial infection area in a murine oropharyngeal candidiasis model. The fluconazole (FLC), an antifungal targeted at ergosterol biosynthesis, relieved the epithelial infection of C. albicansin vitro and in vivo even under non-growth inhibitory dosage confirming the virulent contribution of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains were cleared by macrophages similar to wild type, whereas their virulence factors including agglutinin-like sequence 1 (Als1), secreted aspartyl proteinase 6 (Sap6), and hyphal wall protein-1 (Hwp1) were significantly reduced indicated that the non-toxicity might not result from the change on immune tolerance but the defective virulence. The incapacity of erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ in epithelial infection highlights the contribution of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway to C. albicans pathogenesis and fluconazole can not only eliminate the fungal pathogens but also reduced their virulence even at low dosage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Candida albicans , Genetics , Virulence , Candidiasis, Oral , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Microbiology , Fluconazole , Pharmacology , Genes, Fungal , Genetics , Mice , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Potassium Channels , Genetics , Virulence
4.
Mycobiology ; : 429-439, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729732

ABSTRACT

To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4′-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA, which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans, as a new reporter gene. The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant with the PPTase npgA gene. Several promoter regions of the trpC and crp genes were fused to the npgA gene containing the 1,034-bp open reading frame and the 966-bp 3’ downstream region from the TAA, and the constructed fusions were introduced into the NPG mutant in A. nidulans to evaluate color recovery due to the transcriptional activity of the sequence elements. Serial deletion of the trpC and crp promoter regions in this PPTase reporter assay system reaffirmed results in previous reports by using the fungal transformation step without a laborious verification process. This approach suggests a more rapid and convenient system than conventional analyses for fungal gene expression studies.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus , Complement System Proteins , Fungi , Genes, Fungal , Genes, Reporter , Open Reading Frames , Pigmentation , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transferases
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 380-390, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dikarya is a subkingdom of fungi that includes Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The gene expression patterns of dikaryon are poorly understood. In this study, we bred a dikaryon DK13 × 3 by mating monokaryons MK13 and MK3, which were from the basidiospores of Pleurotus ostreatus TD300. Using RNA-Seq, we obtained the transcriptomes of the three strains. We found that the total transcript numbers in the transcriptomes of the three strains were all more than ten thousand, and the expression profile in DK13 × 3 was more similar to MK13 than MK3. However, the genes involved in macromolecule utilization, cellular material synthesis, stress-resistance and signal transduction were much more up-regulated in the dikaryon than its constituent monokaryons. All possible modes of differential gene expression, when compared to constituent monokaryons, including the presence/absence variation, and additivity/nonadditivity gene expression in the dikaryon may contribute to heterosis. By sequencing the urease gene poure sequences and mRNA sequences, we identified the monoallelic expression of the poure gene in the dikaryon, and its transcript was from the parental monokaryon MK13. Furthermore, we discovered RNA editing in the poure gene mRNA of the three strains. These results suggest that the gene expression patterns in dikaryons should be similar to that of diploids during vegetative growth.


Subject(s)
Pleurotus/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Alleles , Genes, Fungal
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 192-199, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777368

ABSTRACT

The azoles are the class of medications most commonly used to fight infections caused by Candida sp. Typically, resistance can be attributed to mutations in ERG11 gene (CYP51) which encodes the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, the primary target for the activity of azoles. The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the coding region of theERG11 gene in clinical isolates of Candidaspecies known to be resistant to azoles. We identified three new synonymous mutations in the ERG11 gene in the isolates of Candida glabrata (C108G, C423T and A1581G) and two new nonsynonymous mutations in the isolates of Candida krusei - A497C (Y166S) and G1570A (G524R). The functional consequence of these nonsynonymous mutations was predicted using evolutionary conservation scores. The G524R mutation did not have effect on 14α-demethylase functionality, while the Y166S mutation was found to affect the enzyme. This observation suggests a possible link between the mutation and dose-dependent sensitivity to voriconazole in the clinical isolate of C. krusei. Although the presence of the Y166S in phenotype of reduced azole sensitivity observed in isolate C. kruseidemands investigation, it might contribute to the search of new therapeutic agents against resistant Candida isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Point Mutation/drug effects , /genetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/genetics , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genes, Fungal , Haplotypes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Voriconazole/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 259-265, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775129

ABSTRACT

Abstract The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate quantification of gene expression and can add to our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. To identify suitable reference genes in Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus, the expression of three traditional candidate genes including 18S rRNA(18S), 28S rRNA(28S) and elongation factor 1 alpha-like protein (EF1), were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different developmental stages (conidia, conidia with germ tubes, short hyphae and elongated hyphae), and under different nutritional conditions. We calculated the expression stability of candidate reference genes using four algorithms including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct. The analysis results revealed that the comprehensive ranking of candidate reference genes from the most stable to the least stable was 18S (1.189), 28S (1.414) and EF1 (3). The 18S was, therefore, the most suitable reference gene for real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression under all conditions. These results will support further studies on gene expression in P. neoaphidis.


Subject(s)
Entomophthorales/genetics , Genes, Fungal , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/standards , Reference Standards , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , /genetics , /genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 673-682, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755832

ABSTRACT

Aflatoxin contamination of peanut, due to infection by Aspergillus flavus, is a major problem of rain-fed agriculture in India. In the present study, molecular characterisation of 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, which were sampled from the peanut fields of Gujarat state in India, was performed using AFLP markers. On a pooled cluster analysis, the markers could successfully discriminate among the ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘G’ group A. flavus isolates. PCoA analysis also showed equivalent results to the cluster analysis. Most of the isolates from one district could be clustered together, which indicated genetic similarity among the isolates. Further, a lot of genetic variability was observed within a district and within a group. The results of AMOVA test revealed that the variance within a population (84%) was more than that between two populations (16%). The isolates, when tested by indirect competitive ELISA, showed about 68.5% of them to be atoxigenic. Composite analysis between the aflatoxin production and AFLP data was found to be ineffective in separating the isolate types by aflatoxigenicity. Certain unique fragments, with respect to individual isolates, were also identified that may be used for development of SCAR marker to aid in rapid and precise identification of isolates.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus flavus , Aflatoxins/metabolism , Arachis/microbiology , Agriculture , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Aspergillus flavus/classification , Aspergillus flavus/genetics , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genes, Fungal , Genetic Variation/genetics , India , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , Principal Component Analysis
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 350-355
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158503

ABSTRACT

Phytase play an important role in phytic acid catalysis that act as a food inhibitor in cereals. Here, we isolated high phytase producing isolates NF191 closely related to Aspergillus fumigatus sp. from piggery soil. DNA was isolated from the fungal culture and amplified the ITS region using ITS1 and ITS4 primer using PCR. The 400-900 bp amplicon was gel eluted and subjected to sequencing. The sequencing results were assembled and compared with NCBI data base which showed the 99% identity of Aspergilllus fumigatus. Different carbon sources viz., fructose, galactose, lactose, dextrose, sucrose, maltose and different nitrogen sources (organic & inorganic) NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, KNO3, NaNO3, urea, yeast extract, peptone, beef extract were tested for optimal production. The 0.3% dextrose, 0.5% NH4NO3 and 96 h incubation time showed the best production and enzyme activity at 45 ºC incubation temperature. The selected parameters, dextrose, ammonium sulphate and incubation time, when employed with statistical optimization approach involving response surface optimization using Box Behnken Design, gave a 1.3 fold increase in phytase production compared to unoptimized condition.


Subject(s)
6-Phytase/chemical synthesis , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Genes, Fungal/genetics , Gene Expression/genetics , Investigative Techniques/methods , Phytic Acid/chemistry , Phytic Acid/metabolism
10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1186-1191, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257008

ABSTRACT

Four small GTPase genes which may be relative to sclerotial development were firstly cloned from medicinal fungus Polyporus umbellatus using rapid amplification of cDNA end PCR (RACE) method. The results showed that full-length cDNA of PuRhoA was 698 bp contained 585 bp ORF, which was predicted to encode a 194 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 21.75 kD with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.44; the full length cDNA of PuRhoA2 was 837 bp in length and encoded a 194 amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 21.75 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.33; the full length cDNA of Puypt1 was 896 bp in length and encoded a 204-aa protein with a molecular weight of 22.556 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.75; the full length cDNA of PuRas was 803 bp in length and encoded a 212-aa protein with a molecular weight of 23.821 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.2. There are fani acyl transferase enzyme catalytic site and myrcene-transferase enzyme catalytic site in PuRhoA1 while the PuRhoA2 only possess myrcene-transferase enzyme catalytic site. Puypt1 contains the Rab1-Ypt1 conserved domain of small GTPase family and PuRas contains the fani acyl transferase enzyme catalytic site. According to the phylogenetic analysis all these four small GTPase clustered with basidiomycete group. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Puypt1, PuRas and PuRhoA1 transcripts were significantly higher in the beginning of sclerotial formation than that in the mycelia, whereas the transcripts levels of PuRhoA2 gene were particularly lower in sclerotia than that in mycelia, suggesting that these four genes might be involved in P umbellatus selerotial development.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Genetics , Genes, Fungal , Mycelium , Phylogeny , Polyporus , Genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305306

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of andrographolide (AG) on quroum sensing (QS) and relevant virulence genes of Candida albicans.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to detect the changes in the content of farnesol and tyrosol in C. albicans intervened by AG. The real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to inspect the expressions of relevant virulence genes such as CHK1, PBS2 and HOG1 regulated by QS.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>At 2 h after the growth of C. albican, the farnesol and tyrosol secretions reduced, without notable change after intervention with AG. The secretions were highest at 12 h and decreased at 24 h. After the intervention with different concentrations of AG, the farnesol content reduces, whereas tyrosol increased, indicating a dose-dependence, particularly with 1 000 mg x L(-1) AG. qRT-PCR revealed that 1 000 mg x L(-1) AG could down-regulate CHK1 by 2.375, 3.330 and 4.043 times and PBS2 by 2.010, 4.210 and 4.760 times, with no significant change in HOG1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AG could inhibit the farnesol secretion, promote the tyrosol secretion and down-regulate QS-related virulence genes CHK1 and PBS2 expressions.</p>


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Genetics , Physiology , Diterpenes , Pharmacology , Farnesol , Metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Genes, Fungal , Phenylethyl Alcohol , Metabolism , Quorum Sensing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence , Genetics
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 511-517, oct. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730266

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The commensal yeast Candida albicans, can cause superficial or systemic candidiasis in susceptible hosts. In Chile, azole antifungals are the most widely used drugs in the treatment of candidiasis. In a previous study performed at our center, 2.1 and 1.6% of clinical isolates of C. albicans were found to be resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Objective: To characterize the resistance mechanisms involved in azoles resistance in Chilean clinical isolates. Methodology: Eight resistant, nine susceptible-dose dependent (SDD) and 10 susceptible strains (n: 27) were selected according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-S3 criteria, from vaginal and urine samples. Mutations in the 408-488 region of the ERG11 gene were studied by sequencing, and the relative expression of ERG11 gene and efflux pump genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR). Results: No mutations were detected in the ERG11 gene and its overexpression was found only in 12.5% of the resistant strains (1/8). The most prevalent mechanism of resistance was the over-expression of efflux pumps (62.5%; 5/8). Conclusion: The study of the expression of efflux pumps by q-PCR could be a useful diagnostic tool for early detection of azole resistance in C. albicans.


Introducción: Candida albicans es una levadura comensal capaz de causar una infección oportunista en hospederos susceptibles denominada candidiasis, que puede ser superficial o sistémica. En Chile, los antifúngicos más utilizados para el tratamiento de las candidiasis son los azoles. En un estudio previo en nuestro centro, se detectó que 2,1 y 1,6% de cepas clínicas de C. albicans fueron resistentes a fluconazol y voriconazol, respectivamente. Objetivo: Caracterizar los mecanismos de resistencia involucrados en la resistencia a azoles en cepas clínicas chilenas. Metodología: Según los criterios del Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-S3, se seleccionaron ocho cepas resistentes, nueve cepas susceptibles dosis dependiente (SDD) y 10 cepas sensibles (n: 27), aisladas de flujo vaginal y orina. Se evaluó la presencia de mutaciones en la región 408-488 del gen ERG11 por secuenciación y la expresión relativa del gen ERG11 y de los genes de bombas de eflujo CDR1, CDR2 y MDR1 por RPC en tiempo real cuantitativa (q-PCR). Resultados: No se encontraron mutaciones en el gen ERG11 y la sobre-expresión de éste sólo se presentó en 12,5% de las cepas resistentes (1/8). El mecanismo prevalente en la cepas resistentes fue la sobre-expresión de bombas de eflujo encontrándose en 62,5% de las cepas resistentes (5/8). Conclusión: El estudio de la expresión bombas de eflujo por q-PCR podría ser una herramienta diagnóstica útil para la detección temprana de resistencia a azoles en C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Chile , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Genes, Fungal/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Fungal/genetics
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 813-820, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727007

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic yeasts that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. Iron is an essential nutrient for virtually every organism as it functions as a cofactor in numerous essential enzymatic reactions. In the literature, the competition for iron between microbes and mammalian hosts during infection is well documented. In this study, we used representational difference analysis (RDA) in order to gain a better understanding of how C. gattii responds to iron starvation. A total of 15 and 29 genes were identified as having altered expression levels due to iron depletion after 3 h and 12 h, respectively. Of these, eight genes were identified in both libraries. The transcripts were related to many biological processes, such as cell cycle, ergosterol metabolism, cell wall organization, transportation, translation, cell respiration and the stress response. These data suggest a remodeling of C. gattii metabolism during conditions of iron deprivation.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Iron/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Cryptococcus gattii/physiology , Genes, Fungal
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 439-445, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723099

ABSTRACT

The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acid/biosynthesis , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Mortierella/genetics , Mortierella/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Genes, Fungal , Nitrogen/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 317-323, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676905

ABSTRACT

Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries.


Subject(s)
Phytic Acid/analysis , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Edible Grain/enzymology , Edible Grain/genetics , Phosphates/analysis , Genes, Fungal , Heavy Ions , Inositol , Food Samples , Hydrolysis , Methods
16.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 218-225, jun.-set. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634695

ABSTRACT

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica accumulates oils and is able to produce extracellular lipases when growing in different carbon sources including glycerol, the principal by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study, biomass production of a novel mutant strain of Y. lipolytica was statistically optimized by Response Surface Methodology in media containing biodiesel-derived glycerol as main carbon source. This strain exhibited distinctive morphological and fatty acid profile characteristics, and showed an increased extracellular lipase activity. An organic source of nitrogen and the addition of 1.0 g/l olive oil were necessary for significant lipase production. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Statistical Designs were employed for screening and optimization of fermentation in shaken flasks cultures, and the maximum values obtained were 16.1 g/l for biomass and 12.2 Units/ml for lipase, respectively. Optimized batch bioprocess was thereafter scaled in aerated bioreactors and the values reached for lipase specific activity after 95 % of the glycerol had been consumed, were three-fold higher than those obtained in shaken flasks cultures. A sustainable bioprocess to obtain biomass and extracellular lipase activity was attained by maximizing the use of the by-products of biodiesel industry.


Optimización de la producción de biomasa usando glicerol crudo, de una cepa mutante de Yarrowia lipolytica con actividad incrementada de lipasa. La levadura Yarrowia lipolytica acumula aceites y produce una lipasa extracelular al crecer en diferentes fuentes de carbono, entre ellas el glicerol, principal subproducto de la creciente industria del biodiésel. En el presente trabajo, se optimizó mediante la metodología de superficies de respuesta la producción de biomasa de una nueva cepa mutante de Y. lipolytica, empleando medios con glicerol derivado de la industria del biodiésel como principal fuente de carbono. Esta cepa presentó características morfológicas y perfil de ácidos grasos distintivos, y una mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular. Para obtener una producción significativa de lipasa extracelular, fue necesario el agregado de una fuente orgánica de nitrógeno y de 1 g/l de aceite de oliva. Se utilizaron los diseños estadísticos de Plackett-Burman y central compuesto para la selección y la optimización de las fermentaciones en frascos agitados; los máximos valores de biomasa y de lipasa obtenidos fueron de 16,1 g/l y 12,2 unidades/ml, respectivamente. Luego, el bioproceso en lote optimizado se escaló a biorreactores aireados, y los valores de actividad específica de lipasa alcanzados después de haberse consumido el 95 % del glicerol fueron tres veces más altos que los obtenidos en los cultivos en frascos agitados. En suma, se desarrolló un bioproceso sostenible para la obtención de biomasa y de una actividad de lipasa extracelular, que a la vez maximiza el uso de subproductos de la industria del biodiésel.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Culture Media/pharmacology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Glycerol/pharmacology , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Lipase/genetics , Mycology/methods , Yarrowia/growth & development , Bioreactors , Biofuels/analysis , Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Fungal Proteins/biosynthesis , Genes, Fungal , Glycerol/isolation & purification , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Lipase/biosynthesis , Yarrowia/enzymology , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/ultrastructure
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1410-1418, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351579

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus niger is an important industrial workhorse with extensive application in the sectors of industrial enzymes, heterogeneous proteins, organic acids and etc. The disclosure of its genomic sequence to the public brought the study of A. niger into the post-genomic era. Diverse omic data are being produced massively and rapidly, which largely upgrades our understanding to the hyperproduction mechanism of A. niger to a systems and molecular level. At meanwhile, its genetic operating system is becoming mature, which enables genome-scale genetic perturbation within A. niger. In conclusion, we are on the right way to redesign and engineer A. niger to an omnipotent cellular factory.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger , Genetics , Metabolism , Biotechnology , Methods , Enzymes , Genetics , Bodily Secretions , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Genes, Fungal , Genome, Fungal , Protein Biosynthesis , Genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Bodily Secretions , Transcription, Genetic
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(3): 505-512, May 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-517023

ABSTRACT

Aspartyl proteases are a class of enzymes that include the yeast aspartyl proteases and secreted aspartyl protease (Sap) superfamilies. Several Sap superfamily members have been demonstrated or suggested as virulence factors in opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsilosis harbour 10, four, eight and three SAP genes, respectively. In this work, genome mining and phylogenetic analyses revealed the presence of new members of the Sap superfamily in C. tropicalis (8), Candida guilliermondii (8), C. parapsilosis(11) and Candida lusitaniae (3). A total of 12 Sap families, containing proteins with at least 50 percent similarity, were discovered in opportunistic, pathogenic Candida spp. In several Sap families, at least two subfamilies or orthologous groups were identified, each defined by > 90 percent sequence similitude, functional similarity and synteny among its members. No new members of previously described Sap families were found in a Candida spp. clinical strain collection; however, the universality of SAPT gene distribution among C. tropicalis strains was demonstrated. In addition, several features of opportunistic pathogenic Candida species, such as gene duplications and inversions, similitude, synteny, putative transcription factor binding sites and genome traits of SAP gene superfamily were described in a molecular evolutionary context.


Subject(s)
Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/genetics , Candida/enzymology , Evolution, Molecular , Phylogeny , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Genes, Fungal
19.
Genet. mol. biol ; 32(1): 129-132, 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505768

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have described pgg2, a polygalacturonase-encoding gene of Penicillium griseoroseum, as an attractive model for transcriptional regulation studies, due to its high expression throughout several in vitro growth conditions, even in the presence of non-inducing sugars such as sucrose. A search for regulatory motifs in the 5' upstream regulatory sequence of pgg2 identified a putative CCAAT box that could justify this expression profile. This element, located 270 bp upstream of the translational start codon, was tested as binding target for regulatory proteins. Analysis of a 170 bp promoter fragment by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with nuclear extracts prepared from mycelia grown in pectin-containing culture medium revealed a high mobility complex that was subsequently confirmed by analyzing it with a double-stranded oligonucleotide spanning the CCAAT motif. A substitution in the core sequence for GTAGG partially abolished the formation of specific complexes, showing the involvement of the CCAAT box in the regulation of the polygalacturonase gene studied.


Subject(s)
CCAAT-Binding Factor , Penicillium/genetics , Polygalacturonase/genetics , Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay , Genes, Fungal , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Upstream Stimulatory Factors
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 129-138, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302844

ABSTRACT

To improve the efficiency of targeted gene replacement (TGR), a dual screen (DS) system with gusA gene as negative selective marker (GUS-DS) was developed in Magnaporthe oryzae. First, we tested the endogenous beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities of 78 fungal strains. All tested strains were GUS-, only with 3 exceptions. Whereas, after the gusA being introduced in, M. oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum lagenarium acquired high GUS activities. The gusA is thus usable as a selective maker in fungal species. With gusA as the negative marker, HPH gene as the positive marker, and the peroxisomal targeting signal receptor genes MGPEX5 and MGPEX7 as 2 instances of target genes, we established the GUS-DS system. After transformation, we collected the transformants from hygromycin B screen media and then tested the GUS activities of them. The GUS- ones were selected as potential mutants and checked in succession by PCR and Southern blotting to identify the true mutants and calculate the efficiency of GUS-DS. As a result, GUS-DS improved the screen efficiency for delta mgpex5 from 65.8% to 90.6%, and for delta mgpex7 from 31.2% to 82.8%. In addition, we established a multiple PCR (M-PCR) method for mutant confirmation. By amplifying the different regions at the targeted locus, M-PCR differentiated the wild type, the ectopic transformants and the mutants effectively and rapidly, and had the same reliability as Southern blotting. In conclusion, GUS-DS and M-PCR are useful tools to improve the efficiency of TGR and would be helpful for fungal genomics.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Genes, Fungal , Glucuronidase , Genetics , Magnaporthe , Genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Methods , Mutation , Recombination, Genetic , Transformation, Genetic
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