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2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1085-1092, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of miR-142-3p to the proliferation, cycle and apoptosis of acute B lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) cells by regulating the homeobox gene 5 (HOXA5) expression.@*METHODS@#Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-142-3p and HOXA5 in human B-ALL cell Nalm6 cell line and human B lymphoblast Hmy2-cir cells. Nalm6 was transfected by using liposome transfection technology, miR-142-3p mimic, pcDNA-HOXA5 overexpression plasmid, miR-142-3p mimic+pcDNA-HOXA5 overexpression plasmid, and control. The binding site of HOXA5 and miR-142-3p was predicted according to microRNA.org, and the targeting relationship between miR-142-3p and HOXA5 gene was detected by double luciferase reporter gene experiment. The effect of miR-142-3p to the proliferation of Nalm6 cells was detected using the Cell Counting Box-8 (CCK-8) method and cell clone formation experiments. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effects of miR-142-3p to cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of Nalm6 cells. The expression levels of cell cycle-related proteins, including G@*RESULTS@#Compared with Hmy2-cir cells, miR-142-3p showed low expression in Nalm6 cells and HOXA5 showed high expression (P<0.05). MiR-142-3p and HOXA5 3'-UTR showed complementary binding regions, the luciferase activity of miR-142-3p mimic and wild-type HOXA5 3'-UTR was significantly lower than that of miR-142-3p negative control and wild-type HOXA5 3'-UTR (P<0.05). The proliferation of Nalm6 cells and the number of cell clones could be inhibited by miR-142-3p mimic after 48 and 72 hours of transfection (P<0.05), which causing G@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-142-3p can inhibit the proliferation of Nalm6 cells by targeting down-regulation the expression of HOXA5, arrest the G


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Genes, Homeobox , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Humans , Leukemia, B-Cell/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2340-2352, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Emerging evidence indicates that the sineoculis homeobox homolog 1-eyes absent homolog 1 (SIX1-EYA1) transcriptional complex significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple cancers by mediating the expression of genes involved in different biological processes, such as cell-cycle progression and metastasis. However, the roles of the SIX1-EYA1 transcriptional complex and its targets in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still being investigated. This study aimed to investigate the roles of SIX1-EYA1 in the pathogenesis of CRC, to screen inhibitors disrupting the SIX1-EYA1 interaction and to evaluate the efficiency of small molecules in the inhibition of CRC cell growth.@*METHODS@#Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to examine gene and protein levels in CRC cells and clinical tissues (collected from CRC patients who underwent surgery in the Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, between 2016 and 2018, n = 24). In vivo immunoprecipitation and in vitro pulldown assays were carried out to determine SIX1-EYA1 interaction. Cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell invasion were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, clonogenic assay, and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. The Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogeneous Assay Screen (AlphaScreen) method was used to obtain small molecules that specifically disrupted SIX1-EYA1 interaction. CRC cells harboring different levels of SIX1/EYA1 were injected into nude mice to establish tumor xenografts, and small molecules were also injected into mice to evaluate their efficiency to inhibit tumor growth.@*RESULTS@#Both SIX1 and EYA1 were overexpressed in CRC cancerous tissues (for SIX1, 7.47 ± 3.54 vs.1.88 ± 0.35, t = 4.92, P = 0.008; for EYA1, 7.61 ± 2.03 vs. 2.22 ± 0.45, t = 6.73, P = 0.005). The SIX1/EYA1 complex could mediate the expression of two important genes including cyclin A1 (CCNA1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) by binding to the myocyte enhancer factor 3 consensus. Knockdown of both SIX1 and EYA1 could decrease cell proliferation, cell invasion, tumor growth, and in vivo tumor growth (all P < 0.01). Two small molecules, NSC0191 and NSC0933, were obtained using AlphaScreen and they could significantly inhibit the SIX1-EYA1 interaction with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.60 ± 1.15 μmol/L and 83.43 ± 7.24 μmol/L, respectively. Administration of these two compounds could significantly repress the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1 and inhibit the growth of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Overexpression of the SIX1/EYA1 complex transactivated the expression of CCNA1 and TGFB1, causing the pathogenesis of CRC. Pharmacological inhibition of the SIX1-EYA1 interaction with NSC0191 and NSC0933 significantly inhibited CRC cell growth by affecting cell-cycle progression and metastasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, Homeobox , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice , Mice, Nude , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/genetics
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(6): 794-799, June 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136287

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES HOXB2 is a new prognostic indicator for lung cancer. But it is unclear whether HOXB2 holds an effect in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. The purpose of this article was to probe the influences of HOXB2 on GBM pathogenesis. METHODS HOXB2 expression level and prognostic power in GBM patients were analyzed. Then the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXB2 in GBM cell lines were tested by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were determined by CCK8 and transwell assay, severally. The protein levels of PI3K/AKT-pathway associated proteins were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS The results indicated that HOXB2 was distinctly overexpressed in GBM patients and high expression of HOXB2 was related to a poor prognosis. Moreover, the expression of HOXB2 was higher in all GBM cell lines U251, U-87MG, GOS-3 than that in HEB cells (normal control). Meanwhile, decreased expression of p-PI3K and p-AKT were identified after HOXB2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrated that HOXB2 had a vital role in GBM progression and could serve as a promising target for GBM treatment.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS A HOXB2 é um novo indicador prognóstico para o câncer de pulmão. Mas não está claro se a HOXB2 tem algum efeito na progressão do glioblastoma (GBM). O objetivo deste artigo foi sondar as influências da HOXB2 na patogênese do GBM. MÉTODOS Foram analisados o nível de expressão e o poder prognóstico da HOXB2 em pacientes com GBM. Em seguida, os níveis de expressão proteica e mRNA da HOXB2 em linhagens de células de GBM foram testados por qRT-PCR e western blotting. A proliferação, a invasão e migração celular foram determinadas por CCK8 e ensaios transwell, várias vezes. Os níveis proteicos das proteínas associadas à via PI3K/AKT foram analisados pelo método western blotting. RESULTADOS Os resultados indicaram que havia uma clara superrexpressão da HOXB2 em pacientes com GBM e que a alta expressão da HOXB2 estava relacionada a um prognóstico negativo. Além disso, a expressão da HOXB2 foi mais elevada em todas as linhagens de células do GBM U251, U-87MG, GOS-3 do que nas células HEB (controle normal). Entretanto, a diminuição da expressão de P-PI3K e p-AKT foi identificada após a redução da expressão da HOXB2. CONCLUSÕES Esses dados demonstram que a HOXB2 desempenha um papel vital na progressão do GBM, podendo ser um alvo promissor para o tratamento do GBM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Genes, Homeobox/physiology , Glioblastoma/diagnosis , Prognosis , Biomarkers , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
5.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1154-1158, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect of the combined treatment of acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbal medicine and western medication and simple western medication on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of kidney deficiency and blood stagnation pattern and explore the effect on endometrial receptivity and the expression of serum homeobox gene A10 (HOXA10).@*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with PCOS of kidney deficiency and blood stagnation pattern were randomized into a combined treatment group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each one. In the western medication group, on the fifth day of menstruation, clomiphene citrate tablets were taken orally, 50 mg each time, once daily, consecutively for 5 days. On the day when the follicle diameter was ≥ 18 mm, chorionic gonadotrophin for muscular injection, a dose of 10 000 U was given. Before sleep, the aspirin enteric-coated tablets were taken orally, 50 mg (except during menstruation). In the combined treatment group, on the base of the treatment as the western medication group, acupuncture and moxibustion were adopted and the Chinese herbal for tonifying the kidney and activating blood circulation was taken orally. The acupoints were Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zigong (EX-CA 1), etc. Acupuncture was remained for 30 min each time, once every two days and discontinued during menstruation. Chinese herbal was given from the 3rd day of menstruation till the onset of the next menstruation, one dose each day. After consecutive treatment for 3 menstrual cycles in the two groups, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was adopted to determine the expression of serum HOXA10 before and after treatment in the patients of the two groups. The endometrial thickness at ovulatory phase, uterine arterial flow 7 days after ovulation [including uterine arterial pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PSV)/end diastolic velocity (EDV), meaning S/D], pregnancy rate and the score of Chinese medicine symptoms before and after treatment were compared in the patients between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#① After treatment, the expression of serum HOXA10 was higher than that before treatment in the patients of the two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#The combined treatment with acupuncture, moxibustion and medication effectively improves endometrial receptivity and uterine arterial flow in the patients with PCOS of kidney deficiency and blood stagnation pattern and increases pregnancy rate. The therapeutic effect is better than the simple western medication and its mechanism is probably related to the regulation of serum HOXA10 expression.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Female , Genes, Homeobox , Homeobox A10 Proteins , Humans , Kidney , Moxibustion , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Pregnancy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration causes blindness, and cell replacement is a potential therapy. The purpose of this study is to formation of pigmented neurospheres in a simple medium, low-cost, high-performance manner over a short period of time while expressing markers of RPE cells and the activation of specific genes of the pigment cells. Also, these neurospheres have the ability to produce a monolayer of retinal pigment epithelium-like cells (RPELC) with the ability of photoreceptor outer segment phagocytosis. METHODS: BMSC were isolated from pigmented hooded male rats and were immunoreactive to BMSC markers, then converted into neurospheres, differentiated into pigmented spheres (PS), and characterized using Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65), Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 (CRALBP) and orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) markers by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The PS were harvested into RPELC. The functionality of RPELC was evaluated by phagocytosis of fluorescein-labeled photoreceptor outer segment. RESULTS: The BMSC immunophenotype was confirmed by immunostained for fibronectin, CD90, CD166 and CD44. These cells differentiated into osteogenic and lipogenic cells. The generated neurospheres were immunoreactive to nestin and stemness genes. The PS after 7–14 days were positive for RPE65 (92.76–100%), CRALBP (95.21–100%) and OTX2 (94.88–100%), and after 30 days RT-PCR, qPCR revealed increasing in gene expression. The PS formed a single layer of RPELC after cultivation and phagocyte photoreceptor outer segments. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow stromal stem cells can differentiate into functional retinal pigmented epithelium cells in a simple, low-cost, high-performancemanner over a short period of time. These cells due to expressing theRPELCgenes andmarkers can be used in cell replacement therapy for degenerative diseases including age-relatedmacular degeneration as well as retinitis pigmentosa.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blindness , Bone Marrow , Epithelium , Fibronectins , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Nestin , Phagocytes , Phagocytosis , Rats , Retinal Degeneration , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Stem Cells
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 107 p. figuras, tabelas, quadros.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1099984

ABSTRACT

Os genes homeobox são fatores de transcrição que regulam a expressão de múltiplos genes que influenciam o crescimento celular e fazem a mediação entre o epitélio e o estroma, regulando a diferenciação específica de cada tecido. Sua expressão é comumente desregulada em tumores, e estudos indicam que estes genes atuam como oncogenes, promovendo crescimento celular e invasão, ou como supressores tumorais, devido à sua atuação nos processos de morfogênese. No caso do câncer de mama, alguns genes homeobox tem expressão aumentada e outros, reduzida, e em geral não há ocorrência de mutações. Objetivos: Este trabalho procurou estudar a expressão de membros da família HOX em carcinomas luminais da mama, e correlacionar essa expressão com características clínico-patológicas, sobrevida global e livre de doença; avaliar a correlação entre a expressão de HOXA1 e Receptor de Progesterona; avaliar a correlação da expressão de HOXB7 e de MYC, bem como comparar os resultados da expressão gênica por imunohistoquímica e RT-qPCR. Métodos: Foram selecionados 260 pacientes com Carcinoma Mamário Luminal (CML) diagnosticados entre 2007 e 2010, 29 pacientes com amostras de CML congelados no Biobanco do AC Camargo Cancer Center, todos pareados com as respectivas amostras para imunohistoquímica, e 4 casos de tecido mamário normal congelado oriundos das pacientes doadoras de amostras de tumor congeladas. A expressão gênica foi pesquisada através dos métodos de imunohistoquímica e reação em cadeia da polimerase da transcrição reversa em tempo real. A técnica imunohistoquímica e os ensaios de expressão gênica foram realizados para os genes HOXA1, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB7, HOXB9, HOXB13, HOXC13 e HOXD3. Para a técnica de imunohistoquímica, o número de células positivas foi quantificado para cada marcador através do sistema de morfometria e escaneamento de lâminas Aperio ScanScope XT. A quantificação relativa de expressão gênica, na técnica de RT-qPCR foi realizada utilizando o software Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems), e calculada pelo modelo matemático descrito por Pfaffl. Todos os testes estatísticos foram realizados utilizando os softwares Excel (Microsoft 2011) e IBM SPSS, versão 24. Resultados: Houve associação com entre a expressão de HOXB7 e estadiamento patológico T ao diagnóstico (p=0,015) e entre a expressão de HOXC13 e estadiamento N ao diagnóstico (p=0,002; OR=2,61). Aumento da expressão de HOXA9 foi associado com redução da sobrevida global (p=0,031; RR: 2,331, IC95% [1,054-5,157], P=0,037). Não houve associação entre a expressão de HOXA1 e Receptor de Progesterona e/ou entre a expressão de HOXB7 e MYC. A correlação entre a expressão gênica por imunohistoquímica e RT-qPCR foi inexistente, negativa fraca ou positiva muito fraca. Conclusões: Aumento da expressão de HOXB7 é associado com pior estadiamento patológico T ao diagnóstico. Aumento da expressão de HOXC13 é associado com maior ocorrência de metástases linfonodais. Aumento da expressão de HOXA9 reduz a sobrevida global


Homeobox genes are transcription factors that regulate the expression of multiple genes which affect cell growth and make the mediation between the epithelium and the stroma, so regulating the differentiation of each specific tissue. Its expression is commonly deregulated in tumors, and studies indicate that these genes act as oncogenes, promoting cell growth and invasion, or act as tumor suppressors genes, due to its role in morphogenesis processes. In breast cancer, homeobox genes can have their increased or decreased expression, and generally there are no ocurrence of mutations. Objectives: This work aimed to study the expression of HOX family members in luminal carcinomas of the breast and to correlate this expression with clinical-pathological characteristics, global and disease-free survival; to evaluate the correlation between the expression of HOXA1 and Progesterone Receptor; to evaluate the correlation of HOXB7 and MYC expression, as well as to compare the results of the gene expression by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Methods: We selected 260 patients with Luminal Mammary Carcinoma (CML) diagnosed between 2007 and 2010, 29 patients with frozen CML samples in the AC Camargo Cancer Center Biobank, all paired with the respective samples for immunohistochemistry, and 4 cases of normal breast tissue frozen from donor patients with frozen tumor samples. Gene expression was investigated through the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in real time. Immunohistochemical technique and gene expression assays were performed for the genes HOXA1, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB7, HOXB9, HOXB13, HOXC13 and HOXD3. For the immunohistochemical technique, the number of positive cells was quantified for each marker through the morphometry and scanning system of Aperio ScanScope XT slides. The relative quantification of gene expression in the RT-qPCR technique was performed using the Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems) software, and calculated by the mathematical model described by Pfaffl. Results: There was an association between the expression of HOXB7 and pathological staging T at the diagnosis (p = 0.015) and between the expression of HOXC13 and staging N at diagnosis (p = 0.002, OR = 2.61). Increased expression of HOXA9 was associated with a reduction in overall survival (p = 0.031, RR = 2.331, 95% CI [1.054-5.157], P = 0.037). There was no association between the expression of HOXA1 and Progesterone Receptor and / or between the expression of HOXB7 and MYC. The correlation between the gene expression by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR was non-existent, negative negative or very weak positive. Conclusions: Increased expression of HOXB7 is associated with poorer T staging at diagnosis. Increased expression of HOXB13 is associated with increased occurrence of lymph node metastases. Increased expression of HOXA9 reduces overall survival


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma in Situ , Gene Expression , Genes, Regulator , Genes, Homeobox , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766024

ABSTRACT

Despite anatomical proximity, prostatic adenocarcinoma with rectal invasion is extremely rare. We present a case of rectal invasion by prostatic adenocarcinoma that was initially diagnosed from a rectal polyp biopsied on colonoscopy in a 69-year-old Korean man. He presented with dull anal pain and voiding discomfort for several days. Computed tomography revealed either prostatic adenocarcinoma with rectal invasion or rectal adenocarcinoma with prostatic invasion. His tumor marker profile showed normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and significantly elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level. Colonoscopy was performed, and a specimen was obtained from a round, 1.5 cm, sessile polyp that was 1.5 cm above the anal verge. Microscopically, glandular tumor structures infiltrated into the rectal mucosa and submucosa. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed alpha-methylacyl-CoA-racemase positivity, PSA positivity, and caudal-related homeobox 2 negativity. The final diagnosis of the rectal polyp was consistent with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Here, we present a rare case that could have been misdiagnosed as rectal adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Aged , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Colonoscopy , Diagnosis , Genes, Homeobox , Humans , Mucous Membrane , Polyps , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Rectum
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic conditions. However, little is known about how CDK5 impair β-cell function. Myricetin, a natural flavonoid, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effect of myricetin on high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell apoptosis and explored the relationship between myricetin and CDK5. METHODS: To address this question, we subjected INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets to HG conditions (30 mM) in the presence or absence of myricetin. Docking studies were conducted to validate the interaction between myricetin and CDK5. Gene expression and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Activation of CDK5 in response to HG coupled with the induction of ER stress via the down regulation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) gene expression and reduced the nuclear accumulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) leads to β-cell apoptosis. Docking study predicts that myricetin inhibit CDK5 activation by direct binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Myricetin counteracted the decrease in the levels of PDX1 and SERCA2b by HG. Moreover, myricetin attenuated HG-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells and rat islets and reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss. CONCLUSION: Myricetin protects the β-cells against HG-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress, possibly through inactivation of CDK5 and consequent upregulation of PDX1 and SERCA2b.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Reverse Transcription , Up-Regulation
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 20180000. 81 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1009661

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma mucoepidermoide (CME) é a neoplasia maligna de glândula salivar mais comum, e com maior frequência de metástase linfonodal. Alterações genéticas estão intimamente associadas à carcinogênese e, também, aos processos de metástase tumoral. Para o CME o tratamento de escolha mais aplicado hoje é a cirurgia seguida de radioterapia, pois a quimioterapia não tem mostrado muita eficiência para o tratamento destas neoplasias. Entre os quimioterápicos mais prescritos para o tratamento de cânceres encontra-se a cisplatina, à base de platina, que atua no DNA da célula, induzindo a apoptose. Pouco se sabe a respeito de seu mecanismo de ação sobre o CME, inclusive sobre os genes homeobox. Estes genes compreendem uma família grande e essencial de reguladores do desenvolvimento que são vitais para o crescimento e diferenciação celular, e a expressão anômala destes genes têm sido implicados na carcinogênese. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a expressão dos genes homeobox em células derivadas de carcinoma mucoepidermoide tratadas com cisplatina. Os genes avaliados neste trabalho foram: PROX1, MEIS1, HOXB5, HOXB7 e HOXB9 por RT-qPCR. Previamente, as linhagens celulares derivadas de carcinoma mucoepidermoide UM-HMC1 UM-HMC2 e UM-HMC3A foram tratadas com a cisplatina por 24h e posteriormente submetidas aos ensaios de RT-qPCR. Adicionalmente, as amostras tratadas e sem tratamento foram analisadas pelo ensaio de formação de esferas e ensaio de ferida para verificar o efeito da cisplatina sobre propriedades relacionadas às células quimiorresistentes (putativas células tronco tumorais). Como resultados, entre os genes analisados foram expressos PROX1, MEIS1 e HOXB7. A UM-HMC3A apresentou maior expressão destes genes que as demais linhagens. Os genes HOXB5 e HOXB9 não foram expressos nas linhagens analisadas. A cisplatina reduziu a expressão de MEIS1 e aumentou a expressão de HOXB7, em todas as linhagens. O gene PROX1 apresentou expressão variável entre as linhagens, sendo expresso na UM-HMC1 apenas quando são tratadas com cisplatina e reduzido nas UM-HMC2 e UM-HMC3A tratadas. O número de esferas formadas não apresentou diferença significativa para UM-HMC1 e UM-HMC3A, o número de esferas aumentou na linhagem UM-HMC2 tratada com cisplatina. No ensaio de ferida, a cisplatina foi capaz de reduzir a migração celular em todas as linhagens quando comparadas com seus controles. Os resultados sugerem que o PROX1 e HOXB7 podem estar relacionados com carcinomas mucoepidermoides mais invasivos, enquanto que o MEIS1 pode estar relacionado à carcinogênese e autorrenovação tumoral. A cisplatina é capaz de afetar a expressão dos genes homeobox PROX1, MEIS1 e HOXB7, os quais foram encontrados nas linhagens de carcinoma mucoepidermoide analisados. A cisplatina não afeta as células formadoras de esferas, mas reduzir a migração das linhagens de carcinoma mucoepidermoide.


Subject(s)
Genes, Homeobox , Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 Protein
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715521

ABSTRACT

Thyroid diseases, including autoimmune thyroid diseases and thyroid cancer, are known to have high heritability. Family and twin studies have indicated that genetics plays a major role in the development of thyroid diseases. Thyroid function, represented by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4), is also known to be partly genetically determined. Before the era of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the ability to identify genes responsible for susceptibility to thyroid disease was limited. Over the past decade, GWAS have been used to identify genes involved in many complex diseases, including various phenotypes of the thyroid gland. In GWAS of autoimmune thyroid diseases, many susceptibility loci associated with autoimmunity (human leukocyte antigen [HLA], protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 [PTPN22], cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 [CTLA4], and interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha [IL2RA]) or thyroid-specific genes (thyroid stimulating hormone receptor [TSHR] and forkhead box E1 [FOXE1]) have been identified. Regarding thyroid function, many susceptibility loci for levels of TSH and free T4 have been identified through genome-wide analyses. In GWAS of differentiated thyroid cancer, associations at FOXE1, MAP3K12 binding inhibitory protein 1 (MBIP)-NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2-1), disrupted in renal carcinoma 3 (DIRC3), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), and pecanex-like 2 (PCNXL2) have been commonly identified in people of European and Korean ancestry, and many other susceptibility loci have been found in specific populations. Through GWAS of various thyroid-related phenotypes, many susceptibility loci have been found, providing insights into the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases and disease co-clustering within families and individuals.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , Genes, Homeobox , Genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Graves Disease , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Leukocytes , Neuregulin-1 , Phenotype , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22 , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715205

ABSTRACT

Point mutations in the human cardiac homeobox gene NKX2.5 are associated with familial atrial septal defect (ASD), atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbance, as well as sudden cardiac death. To date, more than 60 NKX2.5 mutations have been documented, but there are no reports in Korea. We are reporting the first Korean family with ASD and AV block associated with a novel mutation in the NKX2.5 coding region. A 9-year-old boy presented with a slow and irregular pulse, and was diagnosed with secundum ASD and first degree AV block. The boy's father, who had a history of ASD correction surgery, presented with second degree AV block and atrial fibrillation. The boy's brother was also found to have secundum ASD and first degree AV block. There were two sudden deaths in the family. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation of NKX2.5 in all affected members of the family.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrioventricular Block , Child , Clinical Coding , Death, Sudden , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Fathers , Genes, Homeobox , Genetic Testing , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Humans , Korea , Male , Point Mutation , Siblings
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The major genetic cause of Currarino syndrome (CS), a congenital malformation syndrome typically characterized by sacral agenesis, anorectal malformation, and presence of a pre-sacral mass, is known to be pathogenic variants in motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1 (MNX1), which exist in almost all familial cases and 30% of sporadic cases. Less commonly, a large deletion or a complex rearrangement involving the 7q36 region is associated with CS. We investigated the spectrum of MNX1 pathogenic variants and associated clinical features in the Korean patients with CS. METHODS: We enrolled 25 patients with CS, including 24 sporadic cases and one familial case. Direct sequencing of MNX1 and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. We also analyzed clinical phenotypes and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS: We identified six novel variants amongst a total of six null variants, one missense variant, and one large deletion. The null variants included four frameshift variants (p.Gly98Alafs*124, p.Gly145Alafs*77, p.Gly151Leufs*67, and p.Ala216Profs*5) and two nonsense variants (p.Tyr186* and p.Gln212*). The missense variant, p.Lys295Gln, was located in the highly-conserved homeobox domain and was predicted to be deleterious. A large deletion involving the 7q36 region was detected in one patient. Pathogenic variants in MNX1 were detected in 28% of all CS cases and 25% of sporadic cases. The clinical phenotype was variable in patients with and without pathogenic variants; no significant genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the spectrum and phenotypic variability of MNX1 pathogenic variants in the Korean population.


Subject(s)
Genes, Homeobox , Genetic Association Studies , Humans , Motor Neurons , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pancreas , Phenotype
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In 2014 World Health Organization criteria, seromucinous carcinoma was defined as a new histological subtype in ovarian carcinomas, but “seromucinous carcinoma” was not defined in endometrial carcinomas. The aim of this study was to identify seromucinous carcinoma resembling ovarian seromucinous carcinoma in endometrial carcinomas, and to evaluate the clinical significance for prognoses of the patients. METHODS: Central pathological review was conducted for patients with endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium treated by primary surgery at our hospital between 1990 and 2013. RESULTS: Among 340 cases included in the study, no case had all tumor cells resembling ovarian seromucinous carcinoma in all specimens, and 31 cases (9.1%) had seromucinous component in combination with endometrioid carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed seromucinous component had positive reactivity for cytokeratin (CK) 7, and negative reactivity for CK20 and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) in all cases. Seromucinous component showed lower immunoreactivity of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, compared with endometrioid carcinoma component. Progression-free survival of the cases with seromucinous component was better than those without seromucinous component (p=0.049). CONCLUSION: Seromucinous component was identified in approximately 10% of endometrioid carcinoma, and could be a histological predictor for prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Endometrioid , Disease-Free Survival , Endometrial Neoplasms , Endometrium , Estrogens , Female , Genes, Homeobox , Humans , Keratins , Prognosis , Receptors, Progesterone , World Health Organization
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220159

ABSTRACT

A hypoxic microenvironment leads to cancer progression and increases the metastatic potential of cancer cells within tumors via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness acquisition. The hypoxic response pathway can occur under oxygen tensions of < 40 mmHg through hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), which are considered key mediators in the adaptation to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that cellular responses to hypoxia are required for EMT and cancer stemness maintenance through HIF-1α and HIF-2α. The principal transcription factors of EMT include Twist, Snail, Slug, Sip1 (Smad interacting protein 1), and ZEB1 (zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1). HIFs bind to hypoxia response elements within the promoter region of these genes and also target cancer stem cell-associated genes and mediate transcriptional responses to hypoxia during stem cell differentiation. Acquisition of stemness characteristics in epithelial cells can be induced by activation of the EMT process. The mechanism of these phenotypic changes includes epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and microRNAs. Increased expression of EMT and pluripotent genes also play a role through demethylation of their promoters. In this review, we summarize the role of hypoxia on the acquisition of EMT and cancer stemness and the possible association with epigenetic regulation, as well as their therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fingers , Gastropoda , Genes, Homeobox , Histones , MicroRNAs , Oxygen , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Response Elements , Snails , Stem Cells , Transcription Factors
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222890

ABSTRACT

Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes. The protein level of HOXC10 inversely correlates with brown fat genes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. Expression of HOXC10 in mice suppresses cold-induced browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and abolishes the beneficial effect of cold exposure on glucose clearance. HOXC10 exerts its effect, at least in part, by suppressing PRDM16 expression. The results support that HOXC10 is a key negative regulator of the process of browning in white adipose tissue.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Ectopic Gene Expression , Energy Metabolism , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Mice , Myoblasts , Thermogenesis , Transcription Factors
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Homeobox (HOX) genes are essential developmental regulators that should normally be in the silenced state in an adult brain. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been associated with the prognosis of many cancer types, including glioblastoma (GBM). This study examined the identity and role of HOX genes affecting GBM prognosis and treatment resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The full series of HOX genes of five pairs of initial and recurrent human GBM samples were screened by microarray analysis to determine the most plausible candidate responsible for GBM prognosis. Another 20 newly diagnosed GBM samples were used for prognostic validation. In vitro experiments were performed to confirm the role of HOX in treatment resistance. Mediators involved in HOX gene regulation were searched using differentially expressed gene analysis, gene set enrichment tests, and network analysis. RESULTS: The underexpression of HOXA11 was identified as a consistent signature for a poor prognosis among the HOX genes. The overall survival of the GBM patients indicated a significantly favorable prognosis in patients with high HOXA11 expression (31±15.3 months) compared to the prognoses in thosewith low HOXA11 expression (18±7.3 months, p=0.03). When HOXA11 was suppressed in the GBM cell lines, the anticancer effect of radiotherapy and/or temozolomide declined. In addition, five candidate mediators (TGFBR2, CRIM1, TXNIP, DPYSL2, and CRMP1) that may confer an oncologic effect after HOXA11 suppression were identified. CONCLUSION: The treatment resistance induced by the underexpression of HOXA11 can contribute to a poor prognosis in GBM. Further investigation will be needed to confirm the value of HOXA11 as a potential target for overcoming the treatment resistance by developing chemo- or radiosensitizers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Cell Line , Genes, Homeobox , Glioblastoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Microarray Analysis , Prognosis , Radiotherapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80758

ABSTRACT

One of the new promising therapies in treatment of diabetes mellitus is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which have an interesting therapeutic potentiality based on their paracrine effect and transdifferentiation potentiality. Also obestatin improves the generation of functional β cells/islet-like cell clusters in vitro, suggesting implications for cell-based replacement therapy in diabetes. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combination of both MSCs and obestatin on an experimental model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty male rats were divided into; group I (control group), group II (T2DM group) induced by administration of high fat diet (HFD) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in low dose, group III (T2DM treated with MSCs), group IV (T2DM treated with obestatin), group V (T2DM treated with MSCs and obestatin). Fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and lipid profile were measured. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were calculated. Pancreatic expression of insulin, glucagon like peptide -1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) mRNA levels were measured. In addition pancreatic histological changes, insulin and Bax were analyzed by immunohistochemical examination of islets of Langerhans. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in HOMA-IR, serum glucose and lipid profile levels with significant decrease in insulin, HOMA-β, GLP-1 and Pdx1 levels. MSCs and obestatin caused significant improvement in all parameters with more significant improvement in combined therapy. The protective effects afforded by MSCs and obestatin may derive from improvement of the metabolic profile, antiapoptosis and by increase in pancreatic GLP-1and Pdx1 gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Bone Marrow , C-Peptide , Diabetes Mellitus , Diet, High-Fat , Fasting , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Ghrelin , Glucagon , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolome , Models, Theoretical , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Streptozocin
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, for which smoking is considered as the primary risk factor. The present study was conducted to determine whether genetic alterations induced by radon exposure are associated with the susceptible risk of lung cancer in never smokers. METHODS: To accurately identify mutations within individual tumors, next generation sequencing was conduct for 19 pairs of lung cancer tissue. The associations of germline and somatic variations with radon exposure were visualized using OncoPrint and heatmap graphs. Bioinformatic analysis was performed using various tools. RESULTS: Alterations in several genes were implicated in lung cancer resulting from exposure to radon indoors, namely those in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tumor protein p53 (TP53), NK2 homeobox 1 (NKX2.1), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7), discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (DDR2), lysine methyltransferase 2C (MLL3), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (CHD5), FAT atypical cadherin 1 (FAT1), and dual specificity phosphatase 27 (putative) (DUSP27). CONCLUSIONS: While these genes might regulate the carcinogenic pathways of radioactivity, further analysis is needed to determine whether the genes are indeed completely responsible for causing lung cancer in never smokers exposed to residential radon.


Subject(s)
Cadherins , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins , Dual-Specificity Phosphatases , Genes, Homeobox , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lysine , Radioactivity , Radon , ErbB Receptors , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , TYK2 Kinase
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1195-1203, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15473

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment can improve regeneration of the endometrium in an experimental model of ethanol-induced damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: control group, ethanol group, and PRP-treated group (administration of 0.25 mL of PRP into both uterine cavities 72 hours after ethanol injection). After 15 days of endometrial damage, all the animals were sacrificed during the estrous cycle, and samples were taken from the mid-uterine horn. Functional and structural recovery of the endometrium was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome (MT) staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and immuno-histochemical (IHC) analyses. RESULTS: H&E and MT staining confirmed significantly decreased fibrosis and increased cellular proliferation in the PRP-treated group, compared to the ethanol group. The endometrial areas in the ethanol and PRP-treated groups were 212.83±15.84 µm² and 262.34±12.33 µm² (p=0.065). Significantly stronger IHC expression of cytokeratin, homeobox A10 (HOXA10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Ki-67 was found in the PRP-treated group, compared to the ethanol group. In real-time PCR analyses, interleukin-1β mRNA was down-regulated, while c-Kit mRNA was up-regulated, in the PRP-treated group, compared to the ethanol group. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine administration of autologous PRP stimulated and accelerated regeneration of the endometrium and also decreased fibrosis in a murine model of damaged endometrium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Endometrium , Estrous Cycle , Ethanol , Female , Female , Fibrosis , Genes, Homeobox , Horns , Humans , Keratins , Models, Theoretical , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Regeneration , RNA, Messenger , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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