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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4996-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008074

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) gene is closely related to immune response, signal transduction, growth and disease development in mammals. However, only the Drosophila TMED gene has been reported on insects. We identified the TMED family genes of silkworm, Tribolium castaneum, tobacco moth and Italian bee from their genomes, and found that the TMED family gene composition patterns of one α-class, one β-class, one δ-class and several γ-classes arose in the common ancestor of pre-divergent Hymenoptera insects, while the composition of Drosophila TMED family members has evolved in a unique pattern. Insect TMED family γ-class genes have evolved rapidly, diverging into three separate subclasses, TMED6-like, TMED5-like and TMED3-like. The TMED5-like gene was lost in Hymenoptera, duplicated in the ancestors of Lepidoptera and duplicated in Drosophila. Insect TMED protein not only has typical structural characteristics of TMED, but also has obvious signal peptide. There are seven TMED genes in silkworm, distributed in six chromosomes. One of seven is single exon and others are multi-exons. The complete open reading frame (ORF) sequences of seven TMED genes of silkworm were cloned from larval tissues and registered in GenBank database. BmTMED1, BmTMED2 and BmTMED6 were expressed in all stages and tissues of the silkworm, and all genes were expressed in the 4th and 5th instar and silk gland of the silkworm. The present study revealed the composition pattern of TMED family members, their γ class differentiation and their evolutionary history, providing a basis for further studies on TMED genes in silkworm and other insects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx/metabolism , Genes, Insect/genetics , Moths/metabolism , Insecta/metabolism , Drosophila , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Mammals/genetics
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040604

ABSTRACT

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Psychodidae/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/genetics , Argentina , Psychodidae/classification , Bolivia , Haplotypes , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Phylogeography , Insect Vectors/classification
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 353-362, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745984

ABSTRACT

A pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", paralogous to the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), has been recently found in many triatomine species distributed throughout North America, Central America and northern South America. Among characteristics used as criteria for pseudogene verification, secondary structures and free energy are highlighted, showing a lower fit between minimum free energy, partition function and centroid structures, although in given cases the fit only appeared to be slightly lower. The unique characteristics of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" as a processed or retrotransposed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type are reviewed, with emphasis on its potential functionality compared to the functionality of genes and spacers of the normal rDNA operon. Besides the technical problem of the risk for erroneous sequence results, the usefulness of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses and systematic/taxonomic studies should be highlighted, based on consistence and retention index values, which in pseudogenic sequence trees were higher than in functional sequence trees. Additionally, intraindividual, interpopulational and interspecific differences in pseudogene amount and the fact that it is a pseudogene in the nuclear rDNA suggests a potential relationships with fitness, behaviour and adaptability of triatomine vectors and consequently its potential utility in Chagas disease epidemiology and control.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Pseudogenes , Triatominae/genetics , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Triatominae/classification
4.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(6): 325-329, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-656268

ABSTRACT

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.


Culex quinquefasciatus é vetor de patógenos humanos, incluindo nematódeos filarídeos e vários vírus. Embora a sua relevância epidemiológica varie entre as diferentes regiões geográficas, o conhecimento da estrutura genética da população é ainda incipiente. Em vista disso, foram avaliados os níveis de diversidade genética de Cx. quinquefasciatus e de híbridos Cx. quinquefasciatus x Cx. pipiens de nove cidades do Brasil e em La Plata, na Argentina. Para os testes foram utilizados fragmentos dos genes mitocondriais cox1 e nd4, juntamente com coxA e wsp do endossimbionte Wolbachia, herdado maternalmente. O fragmento nd4 não apresentou variação entre as amostras, e o cox1 exibiu quatro haplótipos que separaram dois tipos de Cx. quinquefasciatus, com um deles agrupado no sul do Brasil. Os dados de sequência mostraram baixa diversidade, sendo esta discutida. Ambas as amostras de mosquitos brasileiros e argentinos estão infectados com uma única cepa de Wolbachia. A diversidade apresentada por nd4 e cox1 não é congruente com a estrutura da população revelada por marcadores nucleares e morfologia alar de estudos anteriores com estas mesmas populações. Pesquisas com Cx. quinquefasciatus devem, se possível, avaliar a diversidade por DNA mitocondrial na luz de outros marcadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culex/genetics , Culex/microbiology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Wolbachia , Argentina , Brazil , Genes, Insect/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(6): 705-715, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-602054

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic relationships among species of the Myzorhynchella Section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were investigated using the nuclear ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), the nuclear whitegene and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions. The recently described Anopheles pristinus and resurrected Anopheles guarani were also included in the study. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses found Anopheles parvus to be the most distantly related species within the Section, a finding that is consistent with morphology. An. pristinus and An. guarani were clearly resolved from Anopheles antunesi and Anopheles lutzii, respectively. An. lutzii collected in the same mountain range as the type locality were found within a strongly supported clade, whereas individuals from the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, tentatively identified as An. lutzii based on adult female external morphology, were distinct from An. lutzii, An. antunesi and from each other, and may therefore represent two new sympatric species. A more detailed examination of An. lutzii sensu latoalong its known geographic range is recommended to resolve these anomalous relationships.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Anopheles/classification , Bayes Theorem , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Mitochondria/enzymology , Phylogeny , Species Specificity
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(3): 278-285, May 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-547297

ABSTRACT

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) pristinus Nagaki & Sallum, n. sp. of the Myzorhynchella Section is described based on morphological characters of adult females, males, fourth-instar larvae, pupae and male genitalia. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) antunesi Galvão & Amaral is characterized to fix its identity and distinguish it from An. pristinus. The eggs of An. antunesi are described for the first time. Molecular characterization employing sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene and the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA are provided for each species. An. antunesi and An. pristinus are compared with morphologically similar species of the Myzorhynchella Section. The results of the present study suggest that the new species has been misidentified as both An. antunesi and Anopheles lutzii Cruz. An. antunesi and An. pristinus are sympatric, occurring at high altitudes in Serra da Mantiqueira, Southeastern Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Anopheles , Anopheles/anatomy & histology , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/genetics , Anopheles/ultrastructure , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Larva , Pupa , Species Specificity
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(5): 437-444, May 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546328

ABSTRACT

Elongation factor 1A is a highly conserved protein that participates in translation. We report the occurrence of two genes homologous to the eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A in Bradysia hygida and describe the partial cloning and characterization of the B. hygida eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A-F1 (BheEF1A-F1) gene. The pattern of BheEF1A-F1 expression in the salivary gland at the end of the fourth larval instar was investigated using real-time PCR. The results showed that BheEF1A-F1 expression levels are relatively constant at the time when rapid changes in protein synthesis occur in this tissue. In situ hybridization experiments coupled to Southern blot analyses showed that the BheEF1A-F1 gene is located at position 3d of the A chromosome and a second gene homologous to eEF1A is located at position 6a of the X chromosome. Southern blot analyses showed that both the BheEF1A-F1 gene and the second gene homologous to eEF1A constitute non-amplified genes. The present results contribute to the molecular characterization of a sciarid eEF1A gene.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diptera/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , Base Sequence , Blotting, Southern , Larva/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(8): 791-799, Dec. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-502300

ABSTRACT

Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and partial sequences of the cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA and white gene nDNA were obtained from specimens of Anopheles nuneztovari A collected in Macapá (state of Amapá), Óbidos, Prainha and Almeirim (state of Pará), Itacoatiara and Parintins (state of Amazonas), Brazil, and compared with previously published sequences of A. nuneztovari s.l. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses performed using either COI or combined ITS2, COI and white gene sequences suggest that An. nuneztovari B/C is distinct from specimens obtained in the Amazonas/Solimões River basin. Anopheles goeldii, currently in synonymy with An. nuneztovari, was described from individuals collected in Belterra (= Fordlândia) in the Tapajós River, state of Pará, Southern Amazonas River. Morphological comparisons of the characteristics of the male genitalia indicated that An. nuneztovari A and An. goeldii are similar but distinct from An. nuneztovariB/C by the apex of the aedeagus. In considering the results of the phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons, An. goeldii is resurrected from synonymy with An. nuneztovari. Additionally, Anopheles dunhamiis reported for the first time in Parintins. This species can be distinguished from An. goeldiiby characters of the male genitalia and molecular data.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anopheles/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Anopheles/anatomy & histology , Anopheles/classification , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(4): 1717-1739, Dec. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637773

ABSTRACT

Genetic structure in five Phlebotominae (Lutzomyia spp.), townsendi series, verrucarum group, in Colombia (Diptera: Prychodidae). Sixteen isoenzyme patterns were analyzed for five Colombian Lutzomyia species. The average unbiased expected heterozygosity levels ranged from 0.098 (Lu. youngi) to 0.215 (Lu. torvida). The five species samples, taken all the isoenzymes employed, were significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by homozygous excess with classical as well as Markov chain exact tests. Possible causes: (1) Wahlund effect within populations due to subdivision and/or sampling. Endogamy could be discarded because these loci were affected by highly different levels of homozygous excess. (2) Null alleles could be not discarded, at least for some isoenzymes. The hierarchical Wright´s F analysis showed high and significant values for each parameter. The average F IT value was 0.655 with a conspicous homozygous excess at a global level (all species taken together); the average F IS value was significantly positive (0.515) as well, with homozygous excess within each species. The genetic heterogeneity between the fives species was noteworthy (F ST = 0.288), indicating clear genetic differentiation. The more related species pairs were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida (0.959) and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa (0.960); while Lu. torvida-Lu. youngi (0.805) and Lu. quasitownsendi-Lu. youngi (0.796) were the most divergent (Nei´s genetic identity matrix). UPGMA and Wagner algorithms showed that the most divergent species was Lu. youngi, whereas the most related were Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida and Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa. A spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran´s I index) revealed a very weak, or inexistent spatial structure, which means that the speciation events between these species were independent from the geographic distances from where they currently live. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1717-1739. Epub 2008 December 12.


Se analizaron 16 sistemas isoenzimáticos para cinco especies colombianas del género Lutzomyia. Los niveles de heterocigosis media esperada insesgada oscilaron entre 0.098 (Lu. youngi) y 0.215 (Lu. torvida). Las cinco muestras estudiadas de forma global, para todos los marcadores analizados, presentaron desviación respecto al equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg por un exceso de homocigotos, tanto al utilizar algunas pruebas clásicas como tests exactos con cadenas de Markov. Este hecho puede estar favorecido por diversas causas: (1) la más probable es la existencia de efecto Wahlund en el seno de cada población debido a subdivisión y/o a la técnica de muestreo empleada. La endogamia puede descartarse ya que no todos los loci están afectados por el mismo tipo de exceso de homocigotos. (2) Sin embargo, no se puede descartar la existencia de alelos nulos, al menos, para algunos de los marcadores isoenzimáticos utilizados. El análisis jerarquizado con las F de Wright mostró valores elevados y significativos para cada uno de los estadísticos. El estadístico promedio F IT mostró un valor de 0.655 existiendo un conspicuo exceso de homocigotos a nivel total de todas las especies, el estadístico promedio F IS fue altamente positivo (0.515) mostrando exceso de homocigotos a nivel individual en cada una de las especies estudiadas. La heterogeneidad genética entre las cinco especies fue notable (F ST = 0.288). Esto muestra que esas especies están bien diferenciadas a nivel isoenzimático y que en el interior de cada especie también hay una subdivisión genética. La matriz de identidades genéticas de Nei muestra que las especies más relacionadas fueron Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida (0.959) y Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa (0.960) mientras que las genéticamente más distantes fueron Lu. torvida-Lu. youngi (0.805) y Lu. quasitownsendi-Lu. youngi (0.796). Con los algoritmos UPGMA y Wagner, se observó que la especie más divergente fue Lu. youngi, mientras que las relaciones más conspicuas se observaron entre Lu. longiflocosa-Lu. torvida y Lu torvida-Lu. spinicrassa. Adicionalmente, con un análisis de autocorrelación espacial (índice de Moran) la mayoría de los alelos utilizados presentaron una estructura espacial muy débil o inexistente, lo que significa que los eventos de especiación entre las especies estudiadas se dieron en forma independiente de las distancias geográficas existentes actualmente entre ellas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Isoenzymes/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Colombia , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genetics, Population , Psychodidae/enzymology
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 736-740, Nov. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498386

ABSTRACT

The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para), a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Communication , Courtship , Genes, Insect/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Genetic Markers , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/physiology , Species Specificity , Sodium Channels/genetics
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112030

ABSTRACT

Anopheles stephensi is an important urban malaria vector, which is widely distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent. The said vector species has developed resistance to various insecticides and therefore, it is desirable to develop alternative strategies including genetic methods for its control. One of the requirements for such strategy is to establish morphological mutants and to establish the genetic basis of the same. Such mutant markers could be used in the construction of genetically modified strain/s in the genetic control programme of An. stephensi. The dark colour expresses in all larval stages and pupae with full penetarence and uniform expression in both the sexes. The viability of the mutant is as good as the wild type. The genetic studies of the dark larva revealed that the gene da is mono-factorial, autosomal and recessive to the wild type. The gene da is an excellent marker for An. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Genes, Recessive , Insect Vectors , Mutation/genetics , Pigmentation/genetics
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(3): 255-262, June 2007. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-452500

ABSTRACT

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 46 polymorphic fragments, while two AFLP primer combinations produced 197 polymorphic fragments from 71 DNA samples. Both of the evaluated genetic markers showed the presence of gene flow, suggesting that Colombian An. darlingi populations are in panmixia. Average genetic diversity, estimated from observed heterozygosity, was 0.374 (RAPD) and 0.309 (AFLP). RAPD and AFLP markers showed little evidence of geographic separation between eastern and western populations; however, the F ST values showed high gene flow between the two western populations (RAPD: F ST = 0.029; Nm: 8.5; AFLP: F ST = 0.051; Nm: 4.7). According to molecular variance analysis (AMOVA), the genetic distance between populations was significant (RAPD:phiST = 0.084; AFLP:phiST = 0.229, P < 0.001). The F ST distances and AMOVAs using AFLP loci support the differentiation of the Guyana biogeographic province population from those of the Chocó-Magdalena. In this last region, Chocó and Córdoba populations showed the highest genetic flow.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genes, Insect/genetics , Anopheles/classification , Base Sequence , Colombia , Geography , Genetic Markers/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Multivariate Analysis , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
13.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(1): 206-213, 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-456766

ABSTRACT

Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) were prepared to establish a baseline for molecular genetic studies of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). The largest class of identifiable ESTs (15.2%) was from genes involved in cellular metabolic functions, including physiological processes. Twenty-seven ESTs (9.8%) were from genes associated with transcription and translation, including ribosomal genes. One hundred and forty-two of the 276 unique ESTs were from genes not previously identified from any organism. Twelve sequences appear to be associated with feeding and digestion and may be targets for pest control studies


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Library , Genes, Insect/genetics , Hemiptera/genetics
14.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 5(1): 154-168, Mar. 31, 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449136

ABSTRACT

A comparison of the most conserved sex-determining genes between the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the honey bee, Apis mellifera, was performed with bioinformatics tools developed for computational molecular biology. An initial set of protein sequences already described in the fruit fly as participants of the sex-determining cascade was retrieved from the Gene Ontology database (http://www.geneontology.org/) and aligned against a database of protein sequences predicted from the honey bee genome. The doublesex (dsx) gene is considered one of the most conserved sex-determining genes among metazoans, and a male-specific partial cDNA of putative A. mellifera dsx gene (Amdsx) was identified experimentally. The theoretical predictions were developed in the context of sequence similarity. Experimental evidence indicates that dsx is present in embryos and larvae, and that it encodes a transcription factor widely conserved in metazoans, containing a DM DNA-binding domain implicated in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in sexual phenotype formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sex Determination Processes , Bees/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Conserved Sequence/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Molecular Sequence Data , Drosophila Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(6): 539-544, Oct. 2005. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-417072

ABSTRACT

The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti was introduced in Peru in 1852 and was considered to be eradicated in 1958. In 2001, Ae. aegypti had been recorded in 15 out of 24 Peruvian Departments. Peru has great ecological differences between the east and west sides of Andes. Because of this, we consider that Ae. aegypti populations of both east and west sides can have a genetically distinct population structure. In this study we examined genetic variability and genealogical relationships among three Ae. aegypti Peruvian populations: Lima, Piura (west Andes), and Iquitos (east Andes) using a fragment of the ND4 gene of the mitochondrial genome. Three haplotypes were detected among 55 samples. Lima and Iquitos showed the same haplotype (Haplotype I), whereas Piura has two haplotypes (Haplotype II and III). Haplotype II is four mutational steps apart from Haplotype I, while Haplotype III is 13 mutational steps apart from Haplotype I in the network. The analysis of molecular variation showed that mostly of the detected genetic variation occurs at interpopulational level. The significant value phist suggests that Piura population is structured in relation to Lima and Iquitos populations and the gene flow of the ND4 is restricted in Piura when compared to Lima and Iquitos. Genetic relationship between haplotype I and haplotype II suggests introduction of the same mtDNA lineage into those localities. However the existence of a genetically distant haplotype III also suggests introduction of at least two Ae. aegypti lineages in Peru.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Aedes/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Base Sequence , Molecular Sequence Data , Peru , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(2): 155-160, Apr. 2005. ilus, mapas, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-410853

ABSTRACT

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi, An. (N.) oswaldoi, and An. (N.) rangeli are the most common anthropophilic mosquitoes in the southern Colombian state of Putumayo. Adult females are most commonly collected in epidemiological studies, and this stage poses significant problems for correct identification, due to overlapping inter-specific morphological characters. Although An. rangeli is easy to identify, the morphological variant of An. benarrochi found in the region and An. oswaldoi are not always easy to separate. Herein we provide a rapid molecular method to distinguish these two species in Southern Colombia. Sequence data for the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of rDNA was generated for link-reared progeny of An. benarrochi and An. oswaldoi, that had been identified using all life stages. ITS2 sequences were 540 bp in length in An. benarrochi (n = 9) and 531 bp in An. oswaldoi (n = 7). Sequences showed no intra-specific variation and ungapped inter-specific sequence divergence was 6.4 percent. Species diagnostic banding patterns were recovered following digestion of the ITS2 amplicons with the enzyme Hae III as follows: An. benarrochi (365, 137, and 38 bp) and An. oswaldoi (493 and 38 bp). This polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay provides rapid, accurate, and inexpensive species diagnosis of adult females. This will benefit future epidemiological studies and, as PCR amplification can be achieved using a single mosquito leg, the remaining specimen can be either retained as a morphological voucher or further used in vector incrimination studies. That An. benarrochi comprises a complex of at least two species across Latin America is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Anopheles/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Anopheles/classification , Base Sequence , Colombia , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(1): 27-31, Jan. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-405550

ABSTRACT

The establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity in Drosophila is a complex process which involves the action of maternal and zygotically expressed genes. Interspecific differences in the expression pattern of some of these genes have been described in other species. Here we present the expression of dorsal-ventral genes during early embryogenesis in the lower dipteran Rhynchosciara americana. The expression of four genes, the ventralizing genes snail (sna) and twist (twi) and the dorsalizing genes decapentaplegic (dpp) and zerknüllt (zen), was investigated by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Sense and antisense mRNA were transcribed in vitro using UTP-digoxigenin and hybridized at 55°C with dechorionated fixed embryos. Staining was obtained with anti-digoxigenin alkaline phosphatase-conjugated antibody revealed with NBT-BCIP solution. The results showed that, in general, the spatial-temporal expression of R. americana dorsal-ventral genes is similar to that observed in Drosophila, where twi and sna are restricted to the ventral region, while dpp and zen are expressed in the dorsal side. The differences encountered were subtle and probably represent a particular aspect of dorsal-ventral axis determination in R. americana. In this lower dipteran sna is expressed slightly later than twi and dpp expression is expanded over the lateral ectoderm during cellular blastoderm stage. These data suggest that the establishment of dorsal-ventral polarity in R. americana embryos follows a program similar to that observed in Drosophila melanogaster.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Body Patterning/genetics , Central Nervous System/embryology , Diptera/embryology , Embryonic and Fetal Development/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics , Genes, Insect/genetics , Diptera/genetics , Embryo, Nonmammalian/embryology , In Situ Hybridization , RNA, Messenger/genetics
18.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 1(4): 306-316, Dec. 2002.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-417635

ABSTRACT

We have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for a European honey bee strain using the cloning enzyme HindIII in order to develop resources for structural genomics research. The library contains 36,864 clones (ninety-six 384-well plates). A random sampling of 247 clones indicated an average insert size of 113 kb (range = 27 to 213 kb) and 2 empty vectors. Based on an estimated genome size of 270 Mb, this library provides approximately 15 haploid genome equivalents, allowing >99 probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density colony filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4 x 4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm2 filters. Screening of the library with four mapped honey bee genomic clones and two bee cDNA probes identified an average of 21 positive signals per probe, with a range of 7-38 positive signals per probe. An additional screening was performed with nine aphid gene fragments and one Drosophila gene fragment resulting in seven of the nine aphid probes and the Drosophila probe producing positive signals with a range of 1 to 122 positive signals per probe (average of 45). To evaluate the utility of the library for sequence tagged connector analysis, 1152 BAC clones were end sequenced in both forward and reverse directions, giving a total of 2061 successful reads of high quality. End sequences were queried against SWISS-PROT, insect genomic sequence GSS, insect EST, and insect transposable element databases. Results in spreadsheet format from these searches are publicly available at the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) website in a searchable format (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/projects/stc/bee/AM__Ba/)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/genetics , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Genomic Library , Sequence Tagged Sites , Cloning, Molecular/methods , Genes, Insect/genetics , In Situ Hybridization , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(3): 403-405, Apr. 2001. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-282854

ABSTRACT

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas and it might represent a complex of sibling species. Reproductive isolation between closely related species often involves differences in courtship behaviour. cacophony (cac) and period (per) are two Drosophila genes that control features of the "lovesong" males produce during courtship that has been implicated in the sexual isolation between closely related species. We are using gene fragments from L. longipalpis' homologues of these two genes to study the speciation process in this putative species complex


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Courtship , Genes, Insect , Psychodidae/genetics , Sex Attractants/genetics , Sexual Behavior, Animal , Vocalization, Animal , Genes, Insect/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Psychodidae/physiology
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 72(3): 381-8, Sept. 2000. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-269389

ABSTRACT

The cell adhesion molecule Rst-irreC is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in several important developmental processes in Drosophila, including axonal pathfinding in the optic lobe and programmed cell death and pigment cell differentiation in the pupal retina. As an initial step towards the "in vivo" functional analysis of this protein we have generated transgenic fly stocks carrying a truncated cDNA construct encoding only the extracellular domain of Rst-IrreC under the transcriptional control of the heat shock inducible promoter hsp70. We show that heat-shocking embryos bearing the transgene during the first 8hs of development lead to a 3-4 fold reduction in their viability compared to wild type controls. The embryonic lethality can already be produced by applying the heat pulse in the first 3hs of embryonic development, does not seem to be suppressed in the absence of wildtype product and is progressively reduced as the heat treatment is applied later in embryogenesis. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of the lethal phenotype being primarily due to heterophilic interactions between Rst-IrreC extracellular domain and an yet unknown ligand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Embryo, Nonmammalian/physiology , Gene Expression , Genes, Lethal/physiology , Transgenes/physiology , Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/physiology , Genes, Insect/genetics , Hot Temperature , Phenotype , Shock
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