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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252910, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360209


Bemisia tabaci is a species complex that causes damage to its broad range of plant hosts through serious feeding. It transmits plant viruses of different groups to important agricultural crops. Some important cash crops of Pakistan are sugar cane, rice, tobacco and seed oil. It shows high genetic variability and is differentiated as races or biotypes. Biotypes are, biotype Q, biotype B, biotype B2, biotype M, biotype L, biotype A, biotype H, biotype C, biotype K, biotype N, biotype R, biotype E, biotype P, biotype J, biotype S, biotype AN. Although the current report based on the Bayesian study of mitochondrial cytohrome oxidase gene1 (CO1) DNA sequences has classified the different populations of whiteflies into twelve genetic groups which are Mediterranean, Sub-Saharan Africa silverleafing, Indian Ocean, Asia II, Asia I, Australia, New World, Italy, China, Sub-Saharan Africa non-silverleafing, Mediterranean/Asia Minor/Africa and Uganda sweet potato. Begomoviruses is largest group of viruses transmitted by B. tabaci and cause major diseases of crops such as tomato and chili leaf curl disease, cassava mosaic disease; yellow mosaic disease of legumes and cotton leaf curl disease. The main objective of current study is to inculpate knowledge regarding genetic diversity of whitefly in cotton fields across Pakistan via analysis of partial DNA sequence of mitochondrial gene Cytochrom Oxidase I (mtCO1).

Bemisia tabaci é um complexo de espécies que causa danos a uma ampla gama de hospedeiros vegetais por meio de alimentação séria. Ele transmite vírus de plantas de diferentes grupos para importantes safras agrícolas. Algumas safras comerciais importantes do Paquistão são cana-de-açúcar, arroz, tabaco e óleo de semente. Apresenta alta variabilidade genética e é diferenciado em raças ou biótipos. Os biótipos são: biótipo Q, biótipo B, biótipo B2, biótipo M, biótipo L, biótipo A, biótipo H, biótipo C, biótipo K, biótipo N, biótipo R, biótipo E, biótipo P, biótipo J, biótipo S, biótipo AN . Embora o relatório atual baseado no estudo bayesiano das sequências de DNA do gene 1 da oxidase do citocromo mitocondrial (CO1) tenha classificado as diferentes populações de moscas-brancas em doze grupos genéticos, que são Mediterrâneo, África Subsaariana com folha de prata, Oceano Índico, Ásia II, Ásia I, Austrália, Novo Mundo, Itália, China, África Subsaariana sem folha prateada, Batata-doce Mediterrâneo / Ásia Menor / África e Uganda. Os begomovírus são o maior grupo de vírus transmitidos por B. tabaci e causam as principais doenças de culturas, como a doença do cacho do tomate e da pimenta-malagueta, doença do mosaico da mandioca, doença do mosaico amarelo de leguminosas e doença do enrolamento da folha do algodão. O principal objetivo do presente estudo é inculpar conhecimento sobre a diversidade genética da mosca-branca em campos de algodão em todo o Paquistão por meio da análise da sequência parcial de DNA do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase I (mtCO1).

Genetic Variation , Genes, Mitochondrial , Begomovirus , Agricultural Pests
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200183, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287097


The COVID-19 pandemic brought attention to studies about viral infections and their impact on the cell machinery. SARS-CoV-2, for example, invades the host cells by ACE2 interaction and possibly hijacks the mitochondria. To better understand the disease and to propose novel treatments, crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 enrolment with host mitochondria must be studied. The replicative process of the virus leads to consequences in mitochondrial function, and cell metabolism. The hijacking of mitochondria, on the other hand, can drive the extrusion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to the cytosol. Extracellular mtDNA evoke robust proinflammatory responses once detected, that may act in different pathways, eliciting important immune responses. However, few receptors are validated and are able to detect and respond to mtDNA. In this review, we propose that the mtDNA and its detection might be important in the immune process generated by SARS-CoV-2 and that this mechanism might be important in the lung pathogenesis seen in clinical symptoms. Therefore, investigating the mtDNA receptors and their signaling pathways might provide important clues for therapeutic interventions.(AU)

DNA/analysis , Genes, Mitochondrial , COVID-19 , Cytokines
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190054, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098419


Among the four butterflyfishes of the genus Chaetodon present in the western Atlantic, the banded butterflyfish Chaetodon striatus has the largest distribution range, spanning 44 degrees of latitude (from Massachusetts, USA to Santa Catarina, Brazil). Although the ecology of the banded butterflyfish has been well studied over its entire range, nothing is known about its phylogeography and how biogeographic barriers structure its populations. To assess the level of genetic connectivity among populations from distinct biogeographic provinces and environmental conditions, we collected samples from seven localities: Puerto Rico, in the Caribbean, and Tamandaré, Salvador, Abrolhos, Trindade Island, Arraial do Cabo and Florianópolis, in Brazil. One nuclear (rag 2) and two mitochondrial (control region and cyt b) molecular markers were sequenced. Our findings are consistent with a recent population expansion, around 30-120 thousand years ago, which was found for all populations. Haplotype network analyses point to the Caribbean as a refugium before the population expansion. Results show no geographic pattern of genetic diversity. Indeed, a lack of population structure was found and no isolation was observed across oceanographic barriers, as well as between coral and rocky reef ecosystems. Furthermore, no directionality in the migration pattern was found among populations. Since ecological and environmental characteristics are very diverse across such a vast geographic range, the lack of genetic differentiation suggests that C. striatus evolved ecological plasticity rather than local adaptation in the western Atlantic.(AU)

O peixe-borboleta listrado, Chaetodon striatus, possui a maior distribuição geográfica dentre as quatro espécies de peixes-borboleta do gênero Chaetodon presentes no Oceano Atlântico Ocidental, abrangendo 44° de latitude (entre Massachusetts, EUA até o sul do Brasil). A ecologia alimentar desta espécie é bastante conhecida, considerando a ampla distribuição, porém, pouco se sabe sobre a filogeografia e como as barreiras biogeográficas estruturam as populações. Para acessar a conectividade genética entre as populações de diferentes províncias biogeográficas e diferentes condições ambientais, foram coletadas amostras de sete localidades: Porto Rico, no Caribe, e Tamandaré, Salvador, Abrolhos, Ilha da Trindade, Arraial do Cabo e Florianópolis, no Brasil. Foram sequenciados um gene nuclear (rag 2) e dois genes mitocondriais (região controle e cit B). Para todas as populações, foi identificada uma expansão populacional recente, em torno de 30-120 mil anos atrás. A análise de rede de haplótipos sugere que o Caribe serviu como refúgio antes desta expansão populacional. Os resultados indicam que não há padrão geográfico de diversidade genética. Apesar da existência de barreiras oceanográficas e diferenças na constituição dos recifes (rochosos e coralíneos), não foi encontrada estruturação populacional. Também, não encontramos padrão na direção de migração entre as populações. Os resultados sugerem que C. striatus apresenta plasticidade ecológica, uma vez que não há diferenciação genética entre as populações que habitam ecossistemas tão diferentes ao longo da ampla distribuição no Atlântico Ocidental.(AU)

Animals , Ecosystem , Phylogeography/methods , Fishes/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772017


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with Leigh syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical features and laboratory test of the patient were analyzed. Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the mitochondrial genome were carried out. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to capture and sequence nuclear genes related to mitochondrial structure and function.@*RESULTS@#The child presented with developmental delay, unsteady gait, falling episodes, bilateral upper extremity tremor, muscle hypertonia, convulsions, and mouth angle asymmetry. Serum lactic acid was significantly increased. Cranial MRI showed abnormal signal in bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral basal ganglia, left thalamus, and corona radiata. Her mother and brother did not show any anomalies. Sanger sequencing revealed the child, her mother and brother all carried the MT-ND3 m.10191 T>C mutation, with heterogeneous rates respectively being 74.34%, 9.73%, and 6.28%. MLPA revealed heterogeneity of (MT-ND6, MTCYB-390nt)] deletion in all three individuals. No significant mutation was found by NGS sequencing of the children, their parents and brother.@*CONCLUSION@#Leigh syndrome can be caused by the simultaneous existence of multiple mitochondrial genes, and multiple mutations may play a synergic role in the occurrence of the disease.

Child , DNA, Mitochondrial , Female , Genes, Mitochondrial , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Leigh Disease , Genetics , Male , Mutation
Rev. méd. Panamá ; 39(1): 2-7, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102142


Lutzomyia longipalpis es el principal v ector de una importante enfermedad desatendida en América. La diversidad genética de este vector se estimó en la población colectada en dos áreas geográficas separadas por hasta 37 km. Analizamos la secuencia CB3­PDR / N1N­PDR de 22 individuos obte­ niendo un parámetro de: h = 0.43 y π = 0.0017 (Bona), h = 0.89, π = 0.004 (El Limón) con una dife­ renciación genética de kst = 0.03; p> 0.05 entre ellos. Ocho haplotipos fueron detectados, de los cuales fue compartido. Se detectó una diferenciación significativa entre las poblaciones Panamá­ Colombia (kst = 0.98), Panamá­Costa Rica (kst = 0.98) y Panamá­Brasil (kst = 0.72) bajo el modelo de aislamiento. Las inferencias genéticas de esta población pueden complementar la información de la capacidad de dispersión y brindar pistas importantes para comprender la ecología de Lutzom­yia longipalpisen Panamá.

Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of an important neglected disease in America. The genetic div ers ity of this vector was estimated in the population collected in two geographical areas separated by up to 37 km. We analyzed the sequence CB3­PDR / N1N­PDR of 22 individuals obtaining a parameter of: h = 0.43 and π = 0.0017 (Bona), h = 0.89, π = 0.004 (The Lemon) with a genetic differentiation of kst = 0.03; p> 0.05 between them. Eight haplotypes were detected, of which it was shared. A significant differentiation was detected between the Panama­Colombia (ks t = 0.98), Panama­Costa Rica (kst = 0.98) and Panama­Brazil (kst = 0.72) populations under the isolation model. The genetic inferences of this population can complement the dispersion information and provide important clues to understand the ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Panama.

Psychodidae/pathogenicity , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1041-1045, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886687


ABSTRACT The golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, is among the most devastating invasive species in freshwater habitats worldwide, leading to severe environmental disturbances and economic losses. Therefore, management efforts would be greatly improved by methods that efficiently detect and quantify the abundance of the golden mussel in freshwater habitats, particularly in early stages of colonization. In this study, we describe a highly-sensitive real-time PCR assay targeting a 100-bp region of the COI mitochondrial gene of the golden mussel. The method was able to detect as little as 0.225 pg of target DNA. This assay represents an important contribution to surveillance methods, as well as to optimize field measures to contain and manage populations of the golden mussel in its introduced range.

Animals , Mytilidae/genetics , Introduced Species , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reference Values , DNA/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Genes, Mitochondrial
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296487


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to investigate the genetic background of mitochondrial genes in young patients with Coronary heart disease (CHD) to provide a foundation for the early prevention of young patients with CHD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>115 cases of young (⋜ 45 years) CHD Chinese Han patients (case group), 100 cases of older (> 45 years) Chinese Han CHD patients (experimental group) hospitalized and 100 cases of healthy people through physical examination (control group) at the General Hospital of PLA between January 2014 and December 2015 were selected. General information, clinical assessment, pedigree analysis, and mitochondrial full sequence scanning were performed. The pedigrees of one patient harbouring the C5263T mutation were recruited. Mitochondrial functional analysis including cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed on pedigrees with the C5263T mutation (mutation group) and without the mutation (non-mutation group).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The differences in biochemical tests (P > 0.05) between the case group and experimental group were not significant. The C5263T single-nucleotide mutation of the mitochondrial ND2 gene was observed in 2 young CHD patients in the case group. The premature CHD of these 2 patients followed a pattern of maternal inheritance. The mutation group (I1, II2) had higher ROS levels (4750.82 ± 1045.55 vs. 3888.58 ± 487.60, P = 0.022) and lower MMP levels (P = 0.045) than the non-mutation group (II1, III1, III2).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We speculated that the mitochondrial C5263T mutation might be associated with the occurrence CHD in Chinese Han young people.</p>

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Base Sequence , China , Epidemiology , Coronary Disease , Epidemiology , Genetics , Female , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondrial Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Mutation , NADH Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168659


Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta are globally widespread zoonotic cestodes. Rodents are the main reservoir host of these cestodes. Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are the best known and most common rats, and usually live wherever humans live, especially in less than desirable hygiene conditions. Due to the little information of the 2 hymenolepidid species in brown rats in China, the aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and genetic characterization of H. nana and H. diminuta in brown rats in Heilongjiang Province, China. Total 114 fecal samples were collected from brown rats in Heilongjiang Province. All the samples were subjected to morphological examinations by microscopy and genetic analysis by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. In total, 6.1% (7/114) and 14.9% (17/114) of samples were positive for H. nana and H. diminuta, respectively. Among them, 7 and 3 H. nana isolates were successfully amplified and sequenced at the COX1 and ITS2 loci, respectively. No nucleotide variations were found among H. nana isolates at either of the 2 loci. Seventeen H. diminuta isolates produced 2 different COX1 sequences while 7 ITS2 sequences obtained were identical to each other. The present results of H. nana and H. diminuta infections in brown rats implied the risk of zoonotic transmission of hymenolepiasis in China. These molecular data will be helpful to deeply study intra-specific variations within Hymenolepis cestodes in the future.

Animals , Cestoda , China , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genes, Mitochondrial , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Hygiene , Hymenolepiasis , Hymenolepis diminuta , Hymenolepis nana , Hymenolepis , Microscopy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Rats , Rodentia
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217849


In addition to identifying genetic differences between target populations, it is also important to determine the impact of genetic differences with regard to the respective target populations. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of cases where this approach is needed, and thus various statistical methods must be considered. In this study, genetic data from populations of Southeast and Southwest Asia were collected, and several statistical approaches were evaluated on the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat data. In order to develop a more accurate and practical classification model, we applied gradient boosting and ensemble techniques. To infer between the Southeast and Southwest Asian populations, the overall performance of the classification models was better than that of the decision trees and regression models used in the past. In conclusion, this study suggests that additional statistical approaches, such as data mining techniques, could provide more useful interpretations for forensic analyses. These trials are expected to be the basis for further studies extending from target regions to the entire continent of Asia as well as the use of additional genes such as mitochondrial genes.

Asia , Asians , Classification , Data Mining , Decision Trees , Ethnicity , Genes, Mitochondrial , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Microsatellite Repeats , Models, Statistical
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(3): e170057, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895099


A new species of Ituglanis associated to the grasslands of the Pampa biome is described from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the low number of ribs and by a unique color pattern composed of an outer layer with scattered round black blotches equivalent in size to the eye circumference over a reddish brown background on the lateral surface of the body. We provide the genetic sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I (COI) for three of the paratypes and discuss aspects about the recent discovery of the new species.(AU)

Uma nova espécie de Ituglanis, associada aos campos do bioma Pampa, é descrita para a bacia do rio Uruguai no sul do Brasil. A nova espécie distingue-se de todos seus congêneres pelo pequeno número de costelas e por um padrão de coloração único que consiste de manchas pretas arredondadas de tamanho equivalente à circunferência do olho sobre um fundo marrom avermelhado na superfície lateral do corpo. Sequências genéticas do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase subunidade I (COI) para três dos parátipos são fornecidas, e aspectos sobre a recente descoberta da nova espécie são discutidos.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes/classification , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99315


The genus Spirometra belongs to the family Diphyllobothriidae and order Pseudophyllidea, and includes intestinal parasites of cats and dogs. In this study, a plerocercoid labeled as Spirometra mansonoides from the USA was examined for species identification and phylogenetic analysis using 2 complete mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3). The cox1 sequences (1,566 bp) of the plerocercoid specimen (USA) showed 99.2% similarity to the reference sequences of the plerocercoid of Korean Spirometra decipiens (GenBank no. KJ599679), and 99.1% similarity in regard to nad3 (346 bp). Phylogenetic tree topologies generated using 4 analytical methods were identical and showed high confidence levels with bootstrap values of 1.00, 100%, 100%, and 100% for Bayesian inference (BI), maximum-likelihood (ML), neighbor-joining (NJ), and maximum parsimony (MP) methods, respectively. Representatives of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra species formed a monophyletic group, and the sister-genera status between these species was well supported. Trapezoic proglottids in the posterior 1/5 region of an adult worm obtained from an experimentally infected cat were morphologically examined. The outer uterine loop of the uterus coiling characteristically consisted of 2 complete turns. The results clearly indicated that the examined Spirometra specimen from the USA matched to S. decipiens very well, and indicated possible presence of the life cycle of this species in this region.

Adult , Animals , Cats , Diphyllobothrium , Dogs , Electron Transport Complex IV , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , NADH Dehydrogenase , Parasites , Sparganum , Spirometra , Trees , United States , Uterus
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99309


In the present study, we report on the occurrence of paramphistomes, Fischoederius cobboldi and Paramphistomum epiclitum, in Lao PDR with the basis of molecular data. Parasite materials were collected from bovines bred in Ban Lahanam area, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR at Lahanam public market. Morphological observations indicated 2 different species of paramphistomes. The mitochondrial gene cox1 of the specimens was successfully amplified by PCR and DNA sequencing was carried out for diagnosis of 11 specimens. Pairwise alignment of cox1 sequences were performed and confirmed F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum infecting bovines in Laos. Although there were many limiting points, as the small number of worm samples, and the restricted access of the animal host materials, we confirmed for the first time that 2 species of paramphistomes, F. cobboldi and P. epiclitum, are distributed in Lao PDR. More studies are needed to confirm the paramphistome species present in Savannakhet and its hosts to clear the natural history of these parasites of ruminants in the region and measure the impact of this parasite infection in the life and health of the local people.

Animals , Cattle , Diagnosis , Genes, Mitochondrial , Helminths , Laos , Natural History , Paramphistomatidae , Parasites , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rumen , Ruminants , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 19(1): 19-24, 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780425


Fatores ambientais e genéticos, ou mesmo ainteração destes, podem ser causadores da surdez sendo amesma o déficit sensorial mais frequente em humanos, sendoestimado que um a cada 500 recém-nascidos tenha perdaauditiva bilateral permanente, e que esta incidência aumentepara 3,5:1000 em indivíduos na adolescência. Determinadosfatores ambientais podem ser potencializados, quandodeterminadas mutações estão presentes no genoma. Éamplamente conhecida que a utilização de antibióticosaminoglicosídeos pode originar a surdez; especialmentequando o sujeito possuir mutações mitocondriaispredisponentes. A mutação C1494T do gene mitocondrial MTRNR1,o qual é responsável pela formação da subunidade12S do RNA ribossômico (12S rRNA), tem sido descritaassociada à perda auditiva pelo uso de antibióticosaminoglicosídeos. Objetivo: É o de investigar a prevalênciada mutação mitocondrial C1494T do gene MT-RNR1 em coortesde sujeitos ouvintes e surdos, das regiões Norte e Nordeste doEstado do Paraná, Brasil. Material e Método: Foraminvestigados 80 sujeitos ouvintes saudáveis e 80 surdos queapresentavam surdez pré-lingual, não sindrômica, de etiologiadesconhecida, sendo casos isolados dentro das famílias. Foiutilizada a técnica de PCR para amplificação da região, deum fragmento de 936 pb, na posição 1494, do gene MT-RNR1seguido de digestão pela enzima de restrição Hph I. Resultados:A mutação C1494T não foi encontrada nas amostras de sujeitosouvintes e de surdos. Conclusões: A mutação C1494T do geneMT-RNR1 pode ser considerada ausente ou rara nas populaçõesde sujeitos ouvintes e surdos das regiões Norte e Nordeste doestado do Paraná, Brasil...

Deafness is the most common sensory deficit inhumans, which may be caused by environmental and geneticfactors or even by a combination of both. It has been estimatedthat one in every 500 newborns has bilateral permanent hearingloss, and this incidence increases to 3.5:1,000 individuals inadolescence. Certain environmental factors may be enhancedwhen specific mutations are present in the genome. It is widelyknown that the use aminoglycoside antibiotics may lead tohearing loss, especially if the individual has predisposingmitochondrial mutations. Mutation C1494T of themitochondrial gene MT-RNR1 which causes the formation ofthe subunit 12S of the ribosome RNA (12S rRNA), has beenassociated with hearing loss due to the use of aminoglycosideantibiotics. Objective: This study investigates the occurrenceof mitochondrial mutation C1494T in the gene MT-RNR1 incohorts of hearing and deaf people in northern and northwesternregions of Paraná state, Brazil. Material and Methods: Eightyhearing people and eighty deaf people were analyzed. Thelatter were characterized as pre-lingual, non-syndromic, ofunknown etiology, being isolated cases within the family. PCRtechnique was used for amplification of the fragment 936 bpof the gene MT-RNR1 at position 1494, followed by digestionwith restriction enzyme Hph I. Results: Mutation C1494T wasnot detected in the samples of hearing and deaf people.Conclusions: Mutation C1494T of the gene MT-RNR1 may beabsent or rare in populations of hearing and deaf people innorthern and northwestern regions of Paraná state, Brazil...

Humans , Male , Female , Deafness , Genes, Mitochondrial , Hearing Loss
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14031


PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic alcohol and excessive iron intake on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the progression of alcoholic liver injury in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into four groups (Control, EtOH, Fe, and EtOH + Fe), and fed either control or ethanol (36% of total calories) liquid diet with or without 0.6% carbonyl iron for eight weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, liver malondialdehyde concentrations were measured by colorimetric assays. Liver histopathology was examined by Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the fixed liver tissues. The integrity of the hepatic mtDNA and nuclear DNA was measured by long-range PCR. The gene expression levels of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (Nd4) were examined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Serum ALT and AST activities were significantly higher in the EtOH+Fe group, as compared to the Control group. Similarly, among four groups, liver histology showed the most severe lipid accumulation, inflammation, and necrosis in the EtOH + Fe group. PCR amplification of near-full-length (15.9 kb) mtDNA showed more than 50% loss of full-length product in the liver of the EtOH + Fe group, whereas amounts of PCR products of a nuclear DNA were unaffected. In addition, the changes in the mtDNA integrity showed correlation with reductions in the mRNA levels of mitochondrial gene Cox1 and Nd4. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that the liver injury associated with excessive iron and alcohol intake involved mtDNA damage and corresponding mitochondrial dysfunction.

Alanine Transaminase , Alcoholics , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Diet , DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Ethanol , Gene Expression , Genes, Mitochondrial , Humans , Inflammation , Iron , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , NADH Dehydrogenase , Necrosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
Braz. j. biol ; 74(4): 923-932, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732311


Didemnum granulatum is a colonial fouling ascidian that lives in subtidal substrates, worldwide. It exhibits two morphotypes, orange and beige. In this study, we verified if the color morphotypes and/or the spatial distribution of specimens in different islands might be associated to patterns of genetic structure of a single species, or if they represent distinct cryptic species. Specimens were collected in four islands, along the coast of the Santa Catarina state. A segment of 490 bp from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) was amplified from 45 samples. Twenty-one haplotypes were identified. The total haplotype diversity (0.912) and the total nucleotide diversity (0.044) were high. The global Fst of the populations analyzed was 0.97, with most of the variation occurring between orange and beige groups (82.19%). The variation found between populations within groups was 15.37%, and 2.45% within populations. Haplotype networks and the neighbor-joining tree showed clear genetic divergence between individuals of distinct colors, and between the islands. These evidences strongly support the presence of a complex of two cryptic species for D. granulatum occupying the studied area. Both species were also highly genetically structured between islands, suggesting that the conservation process of these populations is complex.

Didemnum granulatum é uma ascídia colonial incrustante de substratos consolidados infralitorâneos, e de ampla distribuição mundial. Variação na pigmentação é comum em invertebrados marinhos, e morfotipos de D. granulatum das cores laranja e bege foram detectados na região. Neste estudo, nós verificamos se os morfotipos de cor e/ou a distribuição espacial dos espécimens nas diferentes ilhas podem estar associados aos padrões de estruturação genética de uma única espécie, ou se eles representam espécies crípticas distintas. Os espécimens foram coletados em quatro ilhas ao longo da costa do estado de Santa Catarina. Um total de 45 amostras tiveram amplificados um segmento de 490pb do gene mitocondrial citocromo oxidase subunidade I (COI). Vinte e um haplótipos foram identificados. A diversidade haplotípica total (0.912) e a diversidade nucleotídica total (0.044) foram altas. O Fst global das populações analisadas foi 0.97, e a maior parte da variação ocorreu entre os grupos laranja e bege (82.19%). A variação encontrada entre as populações dentro dos grupos foi 15.37%, e 2.45% dentro das populações. A rede de haplótipos e a árvore de Neighbor-joining mostraram nítidas divergências genéticas entre os indivíduos de cores distintas, e entre as ilhas. Tais evidências sugerem a presença de um complexo de duas espécies crípticas de D. granulatum na região. Ambas as espécies foram fortemente estruturadas geneticamente entre as ilhas, o que reforça a necessidade de que tais atributos sejam considerados em medidas de conservação e proteção do ambiente marinho, mais especificamente nestas ilhas.

Animals , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Urochordata/genetics , Brazil , Geography , Haplotypes , Phylogeny , Urochordata/anatomy & histology , Urochordata/classification
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 649-657, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715460


The tribe Sciurini comprehends the genera Sciurus, Syntheosiurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus and Rheinthrosciurus. The phylogenetic relationships within Sciurus have been only partially done, and the relationship between Mesoamerican species remains unsolved. The phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican tree squirrels were examined using molecular data. Sequence data publicly available (12S, 16S, CYTB mitochondrial genes and IRBP nuclear gene) and cytochrome B gene sequences of four previously not sampled Mesoamerican Sciurus species were analyzed under a Bayesian multispecies coalescence model. Phylogenetic analysis of the multilocus data set showed the neotropical tree squirrels as a monophyletic clade. The genus Sciurus was paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Microsciurus species (M. alfari and M. flaviventer). The South American species S. aestuans and S. stramineus showed a sister taxa relationship. Single locus analysis based on the most compact and complete data set (i.e. CYTB gene sequences), supported the monophyly of the South American species and recovered a Mesoamerican clade including S. aureogaster, S. granatensis and S. variegatoides. These results corroborated previous findings based on cladistic analysis of cranial and post-cranial characters. Our data support a close relationship between Mesoamerican Sciurus species and a sister relationship with South American species, and corroborates previous findings in relation to the polyphyly of Microsciurus and Syntheosciurus’ paraphyly. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2): 649-657. Epub 2014 June 01.

La tribu Sciurini comprende los géneros Sciurus, Syntheosciurus, Microsciurus, Tamiasciurus y Rheinthrosciurus. Las relaciones filogenéticas de Sciurus han sido resueltas parcialmente mientras que las relaciones de las especies Mesoamericanas permanecen sin resolverse. Las relaciones filogenéticas de las ardillas arborícolas mesoamericanas fueron estudiadas empleando datos moleculares. Datos de secuencias disponibles de forma pública (genes mitocondriales CYTB, 12S, 16S y gen nuclear IRBP) en conjunto con secuencias nuevas para el gen del Citocromo B de 4 especies mesoamericanas del genero Sciurus, fueron analizadas empleando un modelo bayesiano de coalescencia multi-especie. Los análisis filogenéticos del conjunto de datos multilocus mostraron que las especies neotropicales forman un clado monofilético. El género Sciurus resulto ser parafilético debido a la inclusión de las especies de Microsciurus (M. alfari y M. flaviventer). Las especies suramericanas S. aestuans y S. stramineus presentaron una relación de especies hermanas. El análisis de un solo locus basado en el conjunto de datos más compacto y completo (secuencias del gen del citocromo B), apoyó la naturaleza monofilética de las especies suramericanas y recuperó un clado mesoamericano que incluye a S. aureogaster, S. granatensis y S. variegatoides. Estos resultados corroboran los descubrimientos previos que emplearon datos morfológicos craneales y pos-craneales. Nuestros datos apoyan la relación cercana entre las especies de Sciurus Mesoamericanas y la relación hermana de estas con las especies de Suramérica, así como también corroboran la relación polifilética de Microsciurus y parafilética de Syntheosciurus previamente reportadas.

Animals , Cytochromes b/genetics , Sciuridae/genetics , Bayes Theorem , Biological Evolution , Genes, Mitochondrial , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sciuridae/classification
Rev. psicanal ; 21(1): 125-140, abr. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716771


Neste artigo, veremos duas questões. Por um lado, a partir de Freud, sintetizo a perspectiva psicossomática, que considera que todos os seres humanos constituem uma unidade psicofísica e que todo o processo físico tem seu correlato afetivo específico. Como exemplo, destaco a importância do DNA mitocondrial, herdado somente da mãe. A outra questão que desenvolvo é seu correlato psíquico. Para isso, diferentemente de Freud, considero que a verdadeira horda primitiva é a família consanguínea (todos com todos, inclusive a própria mãe), e que – na filogenia – depois de se estabelecer a primeira proibição do incesto, começou a luta fratricida (todos contra todos). Estas marcas filogenéticas ganham força através da experiência ontogenética universal: estado pré-natal em e com a mãe, vinculo denominado siamês. O representante pós-natal dessa poderosa díade é a criança indômita. Nós a expressamos quando aspiramos restabelecer aquela segurança original, quando empreendemos lutas fratricidas para recuperar um lugar em e com equivalentes maternos (cônjuge, filhos, netos, líderes empresariais, institucionais, partidos políticos, etc.). Proponho adicionar às fases de desenvolvimento evolutivo o complexo prévio: estado siamês em e com a mãe-criança indômita-luta fratricida. E interpretar sua transferência em todas as biografias.

In this work I refer to two issues. First, from Freud, I synthesize a psychosomatic perspective, which considers that all human beings constitute a psychophysical unity and that every physical process has its specific affective correlate. As an example I focus on the importance of mitochondrial DNA, inherited only from the mother. The other issue is its psychical correlate. For this, unlike Freud, I rescue that the true primitive horde was the consanguineous family (everybody with everybody, even with their own mother). Thus – in the phylogeny – after establishing the first prohibition of incest, fratricide struggle began (all against all). These phylogenetic footprints gain strength by universal ontogenetic experience: prenatal state in and with mom, relationship that I call siamese. The postnatal representative of this powerful dyad is the indomitable child. We express it when we wish to restore that original security, when we establish fraternal struggles to regain a place in and with maternal equivalents (partners, children, grandchildren, business and institutional leaders, political parties, etc.). I propose to add in evolutionary developmental stages to this prior complex: siamese state in and with mom-indomitable child-fratricidal struggle. And interpret their transfer in all biographies.

En este trabajo me refiero a dos cuestiones. Por un lado, a partir de Freud sintetizo la perspectiva psicosomática que considera que todos los seres humanos constituimos una unidad psicofísica y que todo proceso físico posee su específico correlato afectivo. Como ejemplo me centro en la importancia del ADN mitocondrial, heredado solo por vía materna. Así, la otra cuestión que desarrollo es su correlato psíquico. Para eso, a diferencia de Freud, rescato que la verdadera horda primitiva fue la familia consanguínea (todos con todos, incluso la propia madre), y que – en la filogenia – luego de establecer la primera prohibición del incesto, comenzó la lucha fratricida (todos contra todos). Estas huellas filogenéticas cobran fuerza por la experiencia ontogenética universal: el estado prenatal en y con mamá, vínculo que denomino siamés. El representante postnatal de esta poderosa díada lo denomino niño indómito. Lo expresamos cuando aspiramos a restablecer aquella originaria seguridad, cuando establecemos luchas fraternas para reconquistar un lugar en y con equivalentes maternos (pareja, hijos, nietos, líderes empresariales, institucionales, partidos políticos, etc.). Propongo agregar en las fases del desarrollo evolutivo el complejo previo: estado siamés em y con mamá-niño indómito-lucha fratricida. E interpretar su transferencia en todas las biografias.

Humans , Male , Female , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Psychoanalysis , Psychosomatic Medicine , Family Relations/ethnology , Escape Reaction , Psychoanalysis/methods , Maternal-Fetal Relations/psychology
Indian J Cancer ; 2013 July-Sept; 50(3): 206-213
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148650


BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (Mt DNA) defects have been identified in a variety of Tumors, but the exact role of these defects in the pathogenicity and tumor progression is poorly understood. This study aims at identifying the status of mitochondrial OXPHOS genes in neoplastic transformation and attempts to establish a cause and effect relationship between mitochondrial OXPHOS defects and tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mutational, expression and functional analysis of l2 of the 13 mitochondrial OXPHOS genes has been carried out using PCR, Real-Time PCR and protein modeling in 180 sporadic samples of a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant tumors like that of benign, malignant, matched blood and adjacent normal tissue of breast and benign hemangioma. RESULTS: Mutations were identified in the ND4L, ND6 and COX-II regions of the mitochondrial OXPHOS genes. All the mutations were limited only to the malignant breast tissues. On relative quantification, a compromised expression of OXPHOS genes was identified in all the malignant tissues irrespective of their mutational states. Protein modeling revealed loss of function mutations of ND6 and COX-II proteins. CONCLUSION: This is the first study worldwide wherein a comparative study using different benign and malignant tumors has been carried out to assess the role of Mt DNA defects. Our data reveals mitochondrial dysfunction only in malignant cells and not in their benign counterparts, indicating that the dysfunction may arise after the pro-proliferative pathway has set in. We hypothesize that compromised OXPHOS may be a responsive mechanism of the cell to counter cancers, rather than a mechanism of initiating tumorigenesis.

DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , NADH Dehydrogenase/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 30(2): 246-250, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-680990


Con el objetivo de establecer la variabilidad genética de Aedes aegypti determinada por el análisis del gen mitocondrial ND4, se analizaron 51 especímenes de Ae. aegypti en once regiones endémicas para dengue en el Perú. La variabilidad genética se determinó mediante la amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento de 336 pares de bases del gen mitocondrial ND4. El análisis de filogenia intraespecífica se realizó con el programa Network Ver. 4.6.10; y el análisis filogenético, con el método de distancia Neighbor Joining. Se identificó la presencia de cinco haplotipos de Ae. aegypti agrupados en dos linajes: el primero agrupa a los haplotipos 1, 3 y 5 y el segundo agrupa los haplotipos 2 y 4, se muestra además la distribución geográfica de cada uno de los haplotipos encontrados. Se concluye que esta variabilidad se debe tanto a la migración activa de este vector como a la migración pasiva mediada por la actividad humana.

In order to establish the genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by the analysis of the MT-ND4 gene, in eleven endemic regions for dengue in Peru, 51 samples of Ae. Aegypti were tested. The genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 336 base-pairs of MT ND4, the analysis of intra-specific phylogeny was conducted with the Network Ver. 4.6.10 program; and the phylogenetic analysis, with the Neighbor Joining distance method. The presence of five haplotypes of Ae. Aegypti grouped in two lineages was identified: the first one includes haplotypes 1, 3 and 5, and the second one comprises haplotypes 2 and 4. The geographic distribution of each of the haplotypes found is also shown. It is concluded that this variability is caused by the active migration of this vector and the human activity-mediated passive migration.

Animals , Humans , Aedes/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Peru/epidemiology
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2013; 14 (1): 37-47
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150720


Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders [RCD] are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases, caused due to defects of the respiratory chain. This study aimed to investigate the presence of common mtDNA point mutations in tRNALeu [UUR], tRNALys, MT-ATPase 6, MT-ND4, MT-ND1, MT-ND6 genes in eight Egyptian patients suspected to have mtDNA disease and optic atrophy. PCR-RFLP analysis was done for the detection of 3243A > G, 327IT > C, 8344A > G, and 8993T > G/C mtDNA point mutations. DNA direct sequencing was pursued for the detection of 11778G > A, 3460G > A and 14484T > C mtDNA point mutations. No point mutation of 3243A > G, 327IT > C, 8344A > G, and 8993T > G/C was detected in our group of patients. Four mtDNA polymorphisms in MT-ND1 and MT-ND4 genes [11467A > G, 11719G > A, 3348A > G and 3357G > A] were detected in three patients. Mitochondrial disorders are caused by a variety of genetic and racial factors, which differ among populations. The negative results of this study indicate that the chosen mutations might not be specific in Egyptians. Another explanation might be due to the low heteroplasmic levels of the mtDNA mutation. A registry for the different mtDNA mutations in Egyptian patients is highly recommended

Humans , Male , Female , Mitochondrial Diseases/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, Mitochondrial