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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1671-1679, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#A polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gastric cancer has been reported in Chinese populations (PRS-112). However, its performance in other populations is unknown. A functional PRS (fPRS) using functional SNPs (fSNPs) may improve the generalizability of the PRS across populations with distinct ethnicities.@*METHODS@#We performed functional annotations on SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the 112 previously reported SNPs to identify fSNPs that affect protein-coding or transcriptional regulation. Subsequently, we constructed an fPRS based on the fSNPs by using the LDpred2-infinitesimal model and then analyzed the performance of the PRS-112 and fPRS in the risk prediction of gastric cancer in 457,521 European participants of the UK Biobank cohort. Finally, the performance of the fPRS in combination with lifestyle factors were evaluated in predicting the risk of gastric cancer.@*RESULTS@#During 4,582,045 person-years of follow-up with a total of 623 incident gastric cancer cases, we found no significant association between the PRS-112 and gastric cancer risk in the European population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.09], P = 0.846). We identified 125 fSNPs, including seven deleterious protein-coding SNPs and 118 regulatory non-coding SNPs, and used them to construct the fPRS-125. Our result showed that the fPRS-125 was significantly associated with gastric cancer risk (HR = 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20], P = 0.009). Compared to participants with a low fPRS-125 (bottom quintile), those with a high fPRS-125 (top quintile) had a higher risk of incident gastric cancer (HR = 1.43 [95% CI, 1.12-1.84], P = 0.005). Moreover, we observed that participants with both an unfavorable lifestyle and a high genetic risk had the highest risk of incident gastric cancer (HR = 4.99 [95% CI, 1.55-16.10], P = 0.007) compared to those with both a favorable lifestyle and a low genetic risk.@*CONCLUSION@#These results indicate that the fPRS-125 derived from fSNPs may act as an indicator to measure the genetic risk of gastric cancer in the European population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Risk Factors , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1469-1480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010613

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Although hundreds of ASD risk genes, implicated in synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation, have been identified through human genetic studies, the East Asian ASD cohorts are still under-represented in genome-wide genetic studies. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to 369 ASD trios including probands and unaffected parents of Chinese origin. Using a joint-calling analytical pipeline based on GATK toolkits, we identified numerous de novo mutations including 55 high-impact variants and 165 moderate-impact variants, as well as de novo copy number variations containing known ASD-related genes. Importantly, combined with single-cell sequencing data from the developing human brain, we found that the expression of genes with de novo mutations was specifically enriched in the pre-, post-central gyrus (PRC, PC) and banks of the superior temporal (BST) regions in the human brain. By further analyzing the brain imaging data with ASD and healthy controls, we found that the gray volume of the right BST in ASD patients was significantly decreased compared to healthy controls, suggesting the potential structural deficits associated with ASD. Finally, we found a decrease in the seed-based functional connectivity between BST/PC/PRC and sensory areas, the insula, as well as the frontal lobes in ASD patients. This work indicated that combinatorial analysis with genome-wide screening, single-cell sequencing, and brain imaging data reveal the brain regions contributing to the etiology of ASD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/metabolism , Autistic Disorder , Exome Sequencing , DNA Copy Number Variations , East Asian People , Brain/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2476-2483, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Several studies have reported that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can enhance risk prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) in European populations. However, research on this topic is far from sufficient in non-European countries, including China. We aimed to evaluate the potential of PRS for predicting CAD for primary prevention in the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#Participants with genome-wide genotypic data from the China Kadoorie Biobank were divided into training ( n = 28,490) and testing sets ( n = 72,150). Ten previously developed PRSs were evaluated, and new ones were developed using clumping and thresholding or LDpred method. The PRS showing the strongest association with CAD in the training set was selected to further evaluate its effects on improving the traditional CAD risk-prediction model in the testing set. Genetic risk was computed by summing the product of the weights and allele dosages across genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Prediction of the 10-year first CAD events was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) and measures of model discrimination, calibration, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Hard CAD (nonfatal I21-I23 and fatal I20-I25) and soft CAD (all fatal or nonfatal I20-I25) were analyzed separately.@*RESULTS@#In the testing set, 1214 hard and 7201 soft CAD cases were documented during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. The HR per standard deviation of the optimal PRS was 1.26 (95% CI:1.19-1.33) for hard CAD. Based on a traditional CAD risk prediction model containing only non-laboratory-based information, the addition of PRS for hard CAD increased Harrell's C index by 0.001 (-0.001 to 0.003) in women and 0.003 (0.001 to 0.005) in men. Among the different high-risk thresholds ranging from 1% to 10%, the highest categorical NRI was 3.2% (95% CI: 0.4-6.0%) at a high-risk threshold of 10.0% in women. The association of the PRS with soft CAD was much weaker than with hard CAD, leading to minimal or no improvement in the soft CAD model.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this Chinese population sample, the current PRSs minimally changed risk discrimination and offered little improvement in risk stratification for soft CAD. Therefore, this may not be suitable for promoting genetic screening in the general Chinese population to improve CAD risk prediction.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Biological Specimen Banks , East Asian People , Risk Assessment/methods , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Risk Factors , Genome-Wide Association Study
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244123, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278562

ABSTRACT

Abstract Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an important component of the innate immune system and have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in TLR9 gene in a Brazilian SLE patients group and their association with clinical manifestation, particularly Jaccoud's arthropathy (JA). We analyzed DNA samples from 204 SLE patients, having a subgroup of them presenting JA (n=24). A control group (n=133) from the same city was also included. TLR9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (−1237 C>T and +2848 G>A) were identified by sequencing analysis. The TLR9 gene genotype frequency was similar both in SLE patients and the control group. In the whole SLE population, an association between the homozygosis of allele C at position −1237 with psychosis and anemia (p < 0.01) was found. Likewise, the homozygosis of allele G at position +2848 was associated with a discoid rash (p < 0.05). There was no association between JA and TLR9 polymorphisms. These data show that TLR9 polymorphisms do not seem to be a predisposing factor for SLE in the Brazilian population, and that SNPs are not associated with JA.


Resumo O receptor Toll-like 9 (TLR9) é um componente importante do sistema imunológico inato e tem sido associado a várias doenças autoimunes, como o Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar polimorfismos no gene TLR9 em um grupo de pacientes brasileiros com LES e sua associação com a manifestação clínica, particularmente a artropatia de Jaccoud (JA). Foram analisadas amostras de DNA de 204 pacientes com LES, e um subgrupo com JA (n=24). Um grupo de controle (n=133) da mesma cidade também foi incluído. Os polimorfismos de nucleotídeos únicos TLR9 (SNPs) (−1237 C>T e +2848 G>A) foram identificados pela análise de sequenciamento. A frequência do genótipo genético TLR9 foi semelhante tanto em pacientes com LES quanto no grupo controle. Em toda a população de LES, foi encontrada associação entre a homozigose do alelo C na posição −1237 com psicose e anemia (p < 0,01). Da mesma forma, a homozigose do alelo G na posição +2848 foi associada a uma erupção cutânea discoide (p < 0,05). Não houve associação entre polimorfismos JA e TLR9. Esses dados mostram que os polimorfismos TLR9 não parecem ser um fator predisponível para o LES na população brasileira, e que os SNPs não estão associados ao JA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 9/genetics , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Gene Frequency/genetics
5.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 115-125, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D receptor gene ( VDR) with circulating lipids considering gender differences.@*METHODS@#Of the Han Chinese adults recruited from a health examination center for inclusion in the study, the circulating lipids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and other parameters were measured. The VDR SNPs of Cdx2 (rs11568820), Fok1 (rs2228570), Apa1 (rs7975232), and Taq1 (rs731236) were genotyped with a qPCR test using blood DNA samples, and their associations with lipids were analyzed using logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#In the female participants ( n = 236 with dyslipidemia and 888 without dyslipidemia), multiple genotype models of Fok1 indicated a positive correlation of B (not A) alleles with LDLC level ( P < 0.05). In the male participants ( n = 299 with dyslipidemia and 564 without dyslipidemia), the recessive model of Cdx2 and the additive and recessive models of Fok1 differed ( P < 0.05) between the HDLC-classified subgroups, respectively, and Fok1 BB and Cdx2 TT presented interactions with 25OHD in the negative associations with HDLC ( P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In the Chinese Han adults included in the study, the Fok1 B-allele of VDR was associated with higher LDLC in females, and the Fok1 B-allele and the Cdx2 T-allele of VDR were associated with lower HDLC in males. The interaction of VD and Fok1 BB or Cdx2 TT in males synergistically decreased HDLC levels.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alleles , Asian People/genetics , China/ethnology , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , Lipids/blood , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Calcitriol/genetics , Sex Factors , Vitamin D/blood
6.
Biol. Res ; 55: 20-20, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Driver mutations are the genetic components responsible for tumor initiation and progression. These variants, which may be inherited, influence cancer risk and therefore underlie many familial cancers. The present study examines the potential association between SNPs in driver genes SF3B1 (rs4685), TBX3 (rs12366395, rs8853, and rs1061651) and MAP3K1 (rs72758040) and BC in BRCA1/2-negative Chilean families. METHODS: The SNPs were genotyped in 486 BC cases and 1258 controls by TaqMan Assay. RESULTS: Our data do not support an association between rs4685:C > T, rs8853:T > C, or rs1061651:T > C and BC risk. However, the rs12366395-G allele (A/G + G/G) was associated with risk in families with a strong history of BC (OR = 1.2 [95% CI 1.0-1.6] p = 0.02 and OR = 1.5 [95% CI 1.0-2.2] p = 0.02, respectively). Moreover, rs72758040-C was associated with increased risk in cases with a moderate-to-strong family history of BC (OR = 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7] p = 0.02 and OR = 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.8] p = 0.03 respectively). Finally, risk was significantly higher in homozygous C/C cases from families with a moderate-to-strong BC history (OR = 1.8 [95% CI 1.0-3.1] p = 0.03 and OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.1-3.4] p = 0.01, respectively). We also evaluated the combined impact of rs12366395-G and rs72758040-C. Familial BC risk increased in a dose-dependent manner with risk allele count, reflecting an additive effect (p-trend = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that germline variants in driver genes TBX3 (rs12366395) and MAP3K1 (rs72758040) may influence BC risk in BRCA1/2-negative Chilean families. Moreover, the presence of rs12366395-G and rs72758040-C could increase BC risk in a Chilean population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Chile/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genomics
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 500-504, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339102

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The occurrence of fractures in young individuals is frequently overlooked by physicians, especially when associated with exercise or trauma. Nevertheless, multiple fractures should always be investigated since underlying conditions can predispose to such events. We describe here the case of a young, healthy woman who sustained multiple fractures in the lower limbs, which were initially considered to be "stress fractures". Further investigation, including a panel of genes associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, revealed that the patient is a heterozygous carrier of a SERPINF1 variant. According to criteria recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology, this variant is classified as likely benign (PM2, PP3, PP4, BP1, and BP4). The patient's mother and brother were also asymptomatic carriers of the variant and had sustained previous minor fractures. The patient had normal biochemical profile and bone density. This condition has been rarely described and is not associated with low bone mineral density or altered bone turnover markers. This case highlights the importance of investigating multiple fractures in young patients who are otherwise healthy since these may be a warning sign of rare genetic conditions associated with fragility fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/genetics , Fractures, Stress/genetics , Fractures, Stress/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 443-449, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339107

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Globally developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence as a major health problem can be related to multiple factors of genetic and environmental. Dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) is the main enzyme implicated in the cardiovascular system, which regulates the nitric oxide pathway. This study investigated the association of DDAH2 polymorphism −499C/G (rs805305) with the risk of MetS among the Azar-Cohort population. Subjects and methods: The occurrence of SNP rs805305 in the DDAH2 gene was tested using the PCR-RFLP method in 332 MetS cases and 294 healthy controls. Afterward, the association of the allele and genotypes with the risk of MetS and its components were examined. Results: The G allele and GC genotype were significantly associated with a reduced risk of MetS (P ≤ 0.001). Also, the dominant genetic model (GG+GC) significantly decreased the risk of MetS (P = 0.001), however, in sex subtypes MetS risk was significantly reduced in males before and in females after adjustment for age (P ≤ 0.02). Conclusion: The −499C/G polymorphism of DDAH2 may play a protective role and reduce MetS risk among the Azar-Cohort population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics , Amidohydrolases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Case-Control Studies , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Protective Factors , Genotype
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1138-1145, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-associated genes and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can contribute to human disease. To comprehensively investigate the contribution of lncRNAs to breast cancer, we performed the first genome-wide lncRNA association study on Han Chinese women.@*METHODS@#We designed an lncRNA array containing >800,000 SNPs, which was incorporated into a 96-array plate by Affymetrix (CapitalBio Technology, China). Subsequently, we performed a two-stage genome-wide lncRNA association study on Han Chinese women covering 11,942 individuals (5634 breast cancer patients and 6308 healthy controls). Additionally, in vitro gain or loss of function strategies were performed to clarify the function of a novel SNP-associated gene.@*RESULTS@#We identified a novel breast cancer-associated susceptibility SNP, rs11066150 (Pmeta = 2.34 × 10-8), and a previously reported SNP, rs9397435 (Pmeta = 4.32 × 10-38), in Han Chinese women. rs11066150 is located in NONHSAT164009.1 (lncHSAT164), which is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. lncHSAT164 overexpression promoted colony formation, whereas lncHSAT164 knockdown promoted cell apoptosis and reduced colony formation by regulating the cell cycle.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based on our lncRNA array, we identified a novel breast cancer-associated lncRNA and found that lncHSAT164 may contribute to breast cancer by regulating the cell cycle. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Asian People/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1031-1042, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878118

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that resulted from the severe destruction of the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreases of individuals with a genetic predisposition. Genome-wide studies have identified HLA and other risk genes associated with T1D susceptibility in humans. However, evidence obtained from the incomplete concordance of diabetes incidence among monozygotic twins suggests that environmental factors also play critical roles in T1D pathogenesis. Epigenetics is a rapidly growing field that serves as a bridge to link T1D risk genes and environmental exposures, thereby modulating the expression of critical genes relevant to T1D development beyond the changes of DNA sequences. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that epigenetic changes induced by environmental insults are implicated in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we sought to summarize the recent progress in terms of epigenetic mechanisms in T1D initiation and progression, and discuss their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the T1D setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Incidence , Twins, Monozygotic
11.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 2-2, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#We performed an updated meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between the CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism and the childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALL) susceptibility.@*METHODS@#All the case-control studies were updated on October 5, 2020, through Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) electronic database. The heterogeneity in the study was tested by the Q test and I@*RESULTS@#A total of 20 case-control studies were selected, including 7014 patients and 16,428 controls. There was no association of CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism with CALL (CC vs CT + TT: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.94-1.26; CC + CT vs TT: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.94-1.30; C vs T: OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92-1.13). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, there is no significant association of this polymorphism and CALL risks among Asian and Caucasian populations in the three genetic models (CC vs CT + TT, CC + CT vs TT, and C vs T).@*CONCLUSION@#This meta-analysis found no significant association between the CEBPE rs2239633 polymorphism and susceptibility to CALL.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
13.
Clinics ; 76: e2837, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In breast cancer (BC) patients, the frequency of germline BRCA mutations (gBRCA) may vary according to the ethnic background, age, and family history of cancer. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) is the second most common somatic mutated gene in BC; however, the association of mutations in both genes with cancer has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, our aims were to investigate gBRCA mutation frequency in a cohort of postmenopausal Brazilian BC patients and the association of gBRCA1/BRCA2 and PIK3CA somatic mutations. METHODS: Forty-nine postmenopausal (>55 years) and forty-one young (≤35 years) BC patients were included in this study. The postmenopausal group included patients who reported a positive family history of cancer. For these patients, gBRCA1/BRCA2 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) or Sanger sequencing. Data for gBRCA in young patients were already available from a previous study. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors was obtained from 27 postmenopausal and 41 young patients for analyzing exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA. The association between gBRCA1/BRCA2 and somatic mutations in PIK3CA was investigated. RESULTS: The overall frequency of gBRCA1/BRCA2 among the 49 postmenopausal patients was 10.2%. The frequencies of somatic mutations in PIK3CA in the postmenopausal and young patients were 37% and 17%, respectively (ns). The most common PIK3CA mutation was found to be E454A. Nonsense and frameshift mutations, which may counteract the oncogenic potential of PIK3CA were also detected. Regardless of age, 25% of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers , each, had PIK3CA somatic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing may be considered for postmenopausal patients with BC who have a family history of cancer. Although some of them are not considered pathogenic, somatic variants of PIK3CA are frequently observed in BC patients, especially in postmenopausal patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Brazil , Postmenopause , Germ-Line Mutation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Germ Cells , Mutation
14.
Biol. Res ; 54: 26-26, 2021. mapas, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505795

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC), a heterogeneous, aggressive illness with high mortality, is essentially a genomic disease. While the high-penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 play important roles in tumorigenesis, moderate- and low-penetrance genes are also involved. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) genes have recently been identified as BC risk factors. miRNA genes are currently classified as low-penetrance. SNPs are the most common variations in the human genome. While the role of miRNA SNPs in BC susceptibility has been studied extensively, results have been inconsistent. This review analyzes the results of association studies between miRNA SNPs and BC risk from countries around the world. We conclude that: (a) By continent, the largest proportion of studies to date were conducted in Asia (65.0 %) and the smallest proportion in Africa (1.8 %); (b) Association studies have been completed for 67 different SNPs; (c) 146a, 196a2, 499, 27a, and 423 are the most-studied miRNAs; (d) The SNPs rs2910164 (miRNA-146a), rs11614913 (miRNA-196a2), rs3746444 (miRNA-499) and rs6505162 (miRNA-423) were the most widely associated with increased BC risk; (e) The majority of studies had small samples, which may affect the precision and power of the results; and (f) The effect of an SNP on BC risk depends on the ethnicity of the population. This review also discusses potential explanations for controversial findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(3): 370-375, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132588

ABSTRACT

Abstract Instruction: Noise-induced hearing loss is a leading occupational disease caused by gene-environment interaction. The Grainy Like 2, GRHL2, is a candidate gene. In this regard, many studies have evaluated the association between GRHL2 and noise-induced hearing loss, although the results are ambiguous and conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify a precise estimation of the association between rs3735715 polymorphism in GRHL2 gene and susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss. Methods: A comprehensive search was performed to collect data up to July 8, 2018. Finally, 4 eligible articles were included in this meta-analysis comprising 2410 subjects. The pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the strength of the association. Results: Significant association was found in the overall population in the dominant model (GA/AA vs. GG, odds ratio = 0.707, 95% confidence interval = 0.594-0.841) and allele model (G allele vs. A allele, odds ratio = 1.189, 95% confidence interval = 1.062-1.333). When stratified by source of the subjects, we also found association between rs3735715 and noise-induced hearing loss risk in the dominant model (GA/AA vs. GG, odds ratio = 0.634, 95% confidence interval = 0.514-0.783) and allele model (G allele vs. A allele, odds ratio = 1.206, 95% confidence interval = 1.054-1.379). Conclusion: Rs3735715 polymorphism in GRHL2 gene may influence the susceptibility of noise-induced hearing loss. Additional large, well-designed and functional studies are needed to confirm this association in different populations.


Resumo Introdução: Perda auditiva induzida por ruído é uma das principais doenças ocupacionais causadas pela interação gene-ambiente. O Grainy Like 2, ou GRHL2 é um gene que tem sido considerado como candidato. Nesse sentido, muitos estudos avaliaram a associação entre o GRHL2 e perda auditiva induzida por ruído, embora os resultados sejam ambíguos e conflitantes. Objetivo: Identificar uma estimativa precisa da associação entre o polimorfismo rs3735715 no gene GRHL2 e a suscetibilidade à perda auditiva induzida por ruído. Método: Uma pesquisa abrangente foi feita para coletar dados até 8 de julho de 2018. No fim, quatro artigos elegíveis foram incluídos nesta metanálise, abrangeram 2.410 indivíduos. As odds ratios agrupadas com intervalos de confiança de 95% foram usadas para avaliar a força da associação. Resultados: Uma associação significante foi encontrada na população geral no modelo de dominância (GA/AA vs. GG, odds ratio = 0,707, intervalo de confiança 95% = 0,594-0,841) e modelo de alelo (alelo G vs. alelo A; odds ratio = 1,189, intervalo de confiança 95% = 1,062 a 1,333). Quando estratificados pelo local de trabalho dos indivíduos, também encontramos associação entre rs3735715 e risco de perda auditiva induzida por ruído no modelo de dominância (GA/AA vs. GG, odds ratio = 0,634, intervalo de confiança 95% = 0,514 ± 0,783) e modelo de alelo (alelo G vs. alelo A; odds ratio = 1,206, intervalo de confiança 95% = 1,054- 1,379). Conclusão: O polimorfismo Rs3735715 no gene GRHL2 pode influenciar a suscetibilidade à perda auditiva induzida por ruído. Estudos adicionais, amplos, bem desenhados e funcionais são necessários para confirmar essa associação em diferentes populações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcription Factors/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced/genetics , Genotype , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/genetics
17.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 91-99, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The role of -251A>T polymorphism in the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene in gastric cancer was intensively evaluated, but the results of these studies were inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive data on the association of IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism with gastric cancer. METHODS: All eligible studies were identified in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang and CNKI databases before September 01, 2019. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from a fixed effect or random effect model. RESULTS: A total of 33 case-control studies with 6,192 cases and 9,567 controls were selected. Overall, pooled data showed that IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer under all five genetic models, i.e., allele (A vs T: OR=1.189, 95% CI 1.027-1.378, P=0.021), homozygote (AA vs TT: OR=1.307, 95% CI 1.111-1.536, P=0.001), heterozygote (AT vs TT: OR=1.188, 95% CI 1.061-1.330, P=0.003), dominant (AA+AT vs TT: OR=1.337, 95% CI 1.115-1.602, P=0.002) and recessive (AA vs AT+TT: OR=1.241, 95% CI 1.045-1.474, P=0.014). The stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed an increased risk of gastric cancer in Asians and mixed populations, but not in Caucasians. Moreover, stratified by country found a significant association in Chinese, Korean and Brazilian, but not among Japanese. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that the IL-8 -251T>A polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, especially by ethnicity (Asian and mixed populations) and country (Chinese, Korean and Brazilian).


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O papel do polimorfismo -251A>T no gene anti-inflamatório citocina interleucina-8 (IL-8) no câncer gástrico foi intensamente avaliado, mas os resultados desses estudos foram inconsistentes. OBJETIVO: Portanto, realizamos uma meta-análise para fornecer dados abrangentes sobre a associação de IL-8 -251T>A polimorfismo com câncer gástrico. MÉTODOS: Todos os estudos elegíveis foram identificados nos bancos de dados PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Wanfang e CNKI antes de 01 de setembro de 2019. As relações de probabilidades agrupadas (ORs) com intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC) foram derivadas de um modelo de efeito fixo ou efeito aleatório. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 33 estudos de controle de caso com 6.192 casos e 9.567 controles. No geral, dados agrupados mostraram que o polimorfismo IL-8 -251T>A foi significativamente associado a um risco aumentado de câncer gástrico em todos os cinco modelos genéticos, isto é, alelo (A vs T: OR=1,189; 95% CI 1,027-1,378; P=0,021), homozigoto (AA vs TT: OR=1,307; 95% CI 1,111-1,536; P=0,001), heterozigoto (AT vs TT: OR=1,188; 95% CI 1,061-1,330; P=0,003), dominante (AA+AT vs TT: OR=1,337; 95% CI 1,115-1,602; P=0,002) e recessivo (AA vs AT+TT: OR=1,241; 95% CI 1,045-1,474; P=0,014). A análise estratificada por etnia revelou um risco aumentado de câncer gástrico em asiáticos e populações mistas, mas não em caucasianos. Além disso, estratificado por país. Encontrou-se uma associação significativa em chineses, coreanos e brasileiros, mas não entre os japoneses. CONCLUSÃO: Esta meta-análise sugere que o polimorfismo IL-8 -251T>A está associado a um risco aumentado de câncer gástrico, especialmente por etnia (populações asiáticas e mistas) e por país (chinês, coreano e brasileiro).


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 71-84, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008967

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T (MTHFR C677T) polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods A total of 6971 subjects including 2707 DR patients and 4264 controls from 23 studies were enrolled in the study. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the overall effects and the stratified effects of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on the risk of DR, and study quality was also assessed. Results Strong associations were observed between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and DR. The carries of MTHFR C677T were more likely to be found in the DR group in relative to the healthy control group with odds ratio 1.68, 2.55, and 2.31 respectively in allele contrast model (T vs. C, 95%CI: 1.29-2.18, P<0.001, I 2=78.4%), homozygous model (TT vs. CC, 95%CI: 1.70-3.83, P=0.008, I 2=54.4%) and dominant model (TT+CT vs. CC, 95%CI: 1.62-3.29, P<0.001, I 2=74.7%). This association can also be found in contrast to the Ncd (non-complicated diabetic mellitus) group (allele contrast, OR=1.50, 95%CI: 1.07-2.11, P=0.032, I 2=62.1%; homozygous, OR=2.39, 95%CI: 1.06-5.38, P=0.017, I 2=66.7%; dominant, OR=1.59, 95%CI: 0.97-2.62, P=0.056, I 2=56.5%). For the heterozygous model (CT vs. CC), the association was significant in contrast to the healthy control group (OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.64-3.69, P=0, I 2=77.3%), while in contrast to the Ncd control group the association was not statistically meaningful (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 0.87-2.18, P=0.131, I 2=43.7%). For the recessive model, 1.92-fold increased risk was found only in contrast to the Ncd control group (95%CI: 1.07-3.43, P=0.064, I 2=55.0%). There was no significant association found in the models in contrast to the DM control group. Conclusion In this meta-analysis, we found an association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and DR, especially in contrast to the Ncd control group. Further studies are required to establish more definite relationship.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alleles , Diabetic Retinopathy/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1607-1614, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore genetic mutation types and their correlation with clinical phenotypes in Uighur patients with aortic disease in Kashgar (Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China).@*METHODS@#We examined 37 pathogenic genes in 19 Uighur families with aortic diseases including Marfan syndrome from Kashgar using next generation sequencing, and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequence in the first relatives.@*RESULTS@#This study included 19 families with aortic diseases, in whom a total of 23 variants were identified, and 11 (57.89%) probands had one or more variants. Among them, definite pathogenic mutation was detected in one patient (5.26%), variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were found in 8 (42.11%), and benign/likely benign variants were detected in 7 (36.84%). The 23 variants identified included one (5.26%) pathogenic variant, 14 (60.87%) VUS, and 8 (34.78%) benign/likely benign variants. The 14 VUS were analyzed by prediction with SIFT and Polyphen2 HDIV, which identified 6 (42.86%) variants as deleterious/possibly damaging; all the 8 benign/likely benign variants were predicted to be deleterious/possibly damaging.@*CONCLUSIONS@#We detected 23 genetic variants in the 19 Uighur families with aortic diseases, and 22 of these variants remain to be verified by more patient data in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aortic Diseases , China , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation , Phenotype
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Biomphalaria glabrata snails are widely distributed in schistosomiasis endemic areas like America and Caribe, displaying high susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma mansoni. After the availability of B. glabrata genome and transcriptome data, studies focusing on genetic markers and small non-coding RNAs have become more relevant. The small RNAs have been considered important through their ability to finely regulate the gene expression in several organisms, thus controlling the functions like cell growth, metabolism, and susceptibility/resistance to infection. OBJECTIVE The present study aims on identification and characterisation of the repertoire of small non-coding RNAs in B. glabrata (Bgl-small RNAs). METHODS By using small RNA sequencing, bioinformatics tools and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we identified, characterised, and validated the presence of small RNAs in B. glabrata. FINDINGS 89 mature miRNAs were identified and five of them were classified as Mollusk-specific. When compared to model organisms, sequences of B. glabrata miRNAs showed a high degree of conservation. In addition, several target genes were predicted for all the mature miRNAs identified. Furthermore, piRNAs were identified in the genome of B. glabrata for the first time. The B. glabrata piRNAs showed strong conservation of uridine as first nucleotide at 5' end, besides adenine at 10th position. Our results showed that B. glabrata has diverse repertoire of circulating ncRNAs, several which might be involved in mollusk susceptibility to infection, due to their potential roles in the regulation of S. mansoni development. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Further studies are necessary in order to confirm the role of the Bgl-small RNAs in the parasite/host relationship thus opening new perspectives on interference of small RNAs in the organism development and susceptibility to infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology , Biomphalaria/genetics , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host-Parasite Interactions
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