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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248656, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.


Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Lakes , Bayes Theorem
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

ABSTRACT

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lizards , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245865, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Resumo Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) é uma tremenda ameaça aos vegetais em todo o mundo, inclusive no Paquistão. O presente trabalho foi conduzido para investigar a variabilidade genética de isolados de CMV infectando vegetais de ervilha e espinafre na região de Pothwar, Paquistão. Pesquisas com base em sorologia durante 2016-2017 revelaram 31,70% da incidência geral da doença por CMV em safras de ervilha e espinafre. O ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática em sanduíche de anticorpo triplo (TAS-ELISA) revelou que todos os isolados positivos pertencem ao subgrupo II do CMV. Dois cDNA selecionados de amostras positivas para ELISA representando cada safra de ervilha e espinafre foram amplificados por PCR (ca.1100 pb) e sequenciados correspondendo ao gene CMV CP que compartilhou 93,7% de identidade de nucleotídeo um com o outro. Ambas as sequências de isolados de ervilha CMV (AAHAP) e espinafre (AARS) do Paquistão foram submetidas ao GenBank como nos de acesso. MH119071 e MH119073, respectivamente. A análise BLAST revelou 93,4% de identidade de sequência do isolado AAHAP com SpK (KC763473) do Irã, enquanto o isolado AARS compartilhou a identidade máxima (94,5%) com a cepa 241 (AJ585519) da Austrália e agrupada com alguns isolados de referência do subgrupo II de CMV do Reino Unido (Z12818) e EUA (AF127976) em uma reconstrução filogenética vizinha. Um total de 59 sítios polimórficos (segregantes) (S) com diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) de 0,06218 foi evidente, enquanto nenhum evento INDEL foi observado em isolados do Paquistão. A distância evolutiva de isolados de CMV do Paquistão foi registrada como 0,0657 entre si e 0,0574-0,2964 com outros isolados de CMV relatados em outras partes do mundo. Um fluxo gênico frequente (Fst = 0,30478 < 0,33) foi observado entre os isolados de CMV do Paquistão e relatados anteriormente. Na análise de diferenciação genética, os valores de três testes estatísticos baseados em permutação viz, Z (84,3011), Snn (0,82456) e Ks * (4,04042) não foram significativos. A análise estatística revelou os valores 2,02535, 0,01468 e 0,71862 de Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F * e D * respectivamente, demonstrando que a população de CMV está sob seleção de balanceamento.


Subject(s)
Cucumovirus/genetics , Cucumis sativus , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases , Genetic Variation , Spinacia oleracea , Peas
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256451, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355849

ABSTRACT

Abstract Selenicereus megalanthus H. is a tropical fruit belonging to the family Cactaceae, is rich in essential nutrients, antioxidants and bioactive components. It presents wide variability in different characteristics and a great demand in the market; however, genetic studies in Colombia are scarce. The main of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of 76 yellow pitahaya genotypes with eight ISSR markers. Genetic parameters expected average heterozygosity (He), percentage of polymorphic loci, genetic distances and Fst were estimated with TFPGA. The analysis of the population genetic structure was carried out with the STRUCTURE 2.3.4. As a result, 225 alleles were generated and the number of polymorphic loci ranged 85 (CT, AG) to 90 (GT). High genetic diversity was found, with an average value of heterozygosity was 0.34 with a genetic differentiation coefficient (Fst) of 0.26, indicating that there was a great genetic diversity, similar values than those reported in other studies of pitahaya genetic diversity in Colombia. The 76 genotypes were grouped into K=3 according to geographic location, however, in some groups a mixture of individuals from different origins was observed. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed higher variation (75%) within groups than among groups (25%). These results provide information that can be used to develop conservation strategies for dragon fruit and breeding programs to obtain more productive pitahaya genotypes with superior quality, high yield and with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors.


Resumo Selenicereus megalanthus H. é uma fruta tropical pertencente à família Cactaceae, rica em nutrientes essenciais, antioxidantes e componentes bioativos. Apresenta grande variabilidade em diferentes características e uma grande demanda no mercado; no entanto, os estudos genéticos na Colômbia são escassos. O principal deste estudo foi caracterizar a diversidade genética de 76 genótipos de pitahaya amarela com oito marcadores ISSR. Parâmetros genéticos esperados de heterozigosidade média (He), porcentagem de locos polimórficos, distâncias genéticas e Fst foram estimados com TFPGA. A análise da estrutura genética da população foi realizada com a ESTRUTURA 2.3.4. Como resultado, 225 alelos foram gerados e o número de loci polimórficos variou de 85 (CT, AG) a 90 (GT). Foi encontrada alta diversidade genética, com um valor médio de heterozigosidade de 0,34 com coeficiente de diferenciação genética (Fst) de 0,26, indicando que havia uma grande diversidade genética, valores semelhantes aos relatados em outros estudos de diversidade genética de pitahaya na Colômbia. Os 76 genótipos foram agrupados em K = 3 de acordo com a localização geográfica, porém, em alguns grupos foi observada uma mistura de indivíduos de diferentes origens. A análise de variância molecular (AMOVA) mostrou maior variação (75%) dentro dos grupos do que entre os grupos (25%). Esses resultados fornecem informações que podem ser utilizadas para desenvolver estratégias de conservação da fruta do dragão e programas de melhoramento para a obtenção de genótipos de pitahaya mais produtivos, com qualidade superior, alto rendimento e com resistência a fatores bióticos e abióticos.


Subject(s)
Microsatellite Repeats , Cactaceae/genetics , Genetic Variation , Colombia , Fruit
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
6.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200894, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339655

ABSTRACT

Seed germination is a complex process controlled by many factors, in which physical and biochemical mechanisms are involved and the mobilization of reserves is crucial for this process to occur. Although, seed reserve mobilization is usually thought to be a post-germination process, seed reserve proteins mobilization occurs during germination. This study quantified seed proteins of bean genotypes during different hydration times, in order to understand the process of protein mobilization and whether there is relationship of this biochemical component with seed vigor. This study was conducted using seeds with different levels of vigor, genotypes with highest (13, 42, 55 and 81) and lowest (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) physiological quality. High vigor genotypes showed greater efficiency in hydrolysis and mobilization of protein component, because they presented low globulins content in cotyledons at radicle protrusion in relation to low vigor genotypes (07, 23 and 50). The protein alpha-amylase inhibitor, observed in all genotypes, is involved with the longer time needed for radicle protrusion, according to the band intensity difference in genotypes 07, 44 and Iapar 81.


A germinação de sementes é um processo complexo controlado por muitos fatores, nos quais mecanismos físicos e bioquímicos estão envolvidos e a mobilização de reservas é decisiva para que esse processo ocorra. Embora a mobilização de reservas de sementes seja considerada um processo pós-germinativo, a mobilização das proteínas de reserva de sementes ocorre durante a germinação. Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar as proteínas de sementes de genótipos de feijão durante os diferentes tempos de hidratação, a fim de compreender o processo de mobilização proteica e se há relação desse componente bioquímico com o vigor das sementes. Este estudo foi realizado utilizando sementes com diferentes níveis de vigor, genótipos com maior (13, 42, 55 e 81) e menor (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú e Iapar 81) qualidade fisiológica. Os genótipos de alto vigor apresentaram maior eficiência na hidrólise e mobilização do componente proteico, pois apresentaram baixo teor de globulinas nos cotilédones na protrusão radicular em relação aos genótipos de baixo vigor (07, 23 e 50). A proteína inibidora da alfa-amilase, observada em todos os genótipos, está envolvida com o maior tempo necessário para a protrusão da radícula, de acordo com a diferença de intensidade da banda nos genótipos 07, 44 e Iapar 81.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Genetic Variation/genetics , Proteins/analysis , Phaseolus/embryology , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 917-927, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.


Resumo A traíra - Hoplias malabaricus- é uma espécie válida, embora recentes estudos citogenéticos e moleculares tenham indicado a existência de um complexo de espécies. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou o marcador mitocondrial COI para determinar os níveis de diversidade genética dos espécimes do estado do Maranhão e verificar a ocorrência de linhagens distintas dentro da área de estudo. As amostras foram coletadas nas bacias dos rios Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru e Parnaíba. As análises filogenéticas indicaram a existência de três linhagens distintas nas populações do Maranhão. Obteve-se um fragmento de 630 pb de 211 espécimes, com 484 sítios conservados, 108 variáveis e 60 haplótipos (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). As análises filogenéticas indicaram a ocorrência de três linhagens distintas de H. malabaricus do Maranhão. Distâncias genéticas de 1.5 a 8.2% foram encontradas entre todas as populações analisadas, enquanto a variação entre os haplogrupos variou de 2.1% a 7.7%. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação molecular foi entre os grupos, com altos valores de FST. Os altos níveis de variabilidade genética encontrados no presente estudo são suportados pelos dados citogenéticos disponíveis. Essas descobertas reforçam a necessidade de desenvolver programas de conservação e manejo independentemente para cada bacia hidrográfica, a fim de preservar a variabilidade genética encontrada neste táxon.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Characiformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Rivers
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 928-933, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammtidae) are frequently used as biological control agents against Lepidoptera, but practical application of these egg endoparasitoids are complicated because of their complex taxonomy. This study aimed to compare sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) of Trichogramma accessions with those deposited in GenBank in order to access the reliability of the ITS2 as a barcode for discriminating species and evaluating the genetic diversity. ITS2-rDNA sequences obtained from seventeen specimens of Trichogramma confirmed previous identifications based on morphological characteristics. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the existence of highly conserved regions in ITS2 sequences while the neighbour-joining dendrogram indicated that the specimens formed three clusters comprising T. manicobai and T. marandobai (group I), T. galloi (group II) and T. pretiosum (group III). The ITS2 marker was shown to be a powerful DNA barcode for discriminating Trichogramma species and could be used to complement the morphological approach.


Resumo Espécies de Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) são freqüentemente usadas como agentes de controle biológico contra Lepidoptera, esses endoparasitóides de ovos apresentam taxonomia complexa, o que dificulta sua aplicação prática. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar seqüências de regiões espaçadoras internas transcritas de DNA ribossômico (ITS2-rDNA) de acessos de Trichogramma com aquelas depositadas no GenBank, a fim de avaliar a confiabilidade do ITS2 barcode para discriminar espécies e avaliar a diversidade genética. As seqüências de ITS2-rDNA obtidas de dezessete espécimes de Trichogramma confirmaram identidades anteriores com base em características morfológicas. O alinhamento de múltiplas sequências revelou a existência de regiões altamente conservadas nas sequências ITS2, enquanto o dendrograma indicou que os espécimes formavam três grupos compreendendo T. manicobai e T. marandobai (grupo I), T. galloi (grupo II) e T. pretiosum (grupo III). O marcador ITS2 mostrou ser um poderoso DNA barcode para discriminar espécies de Trichogramma podendo ser usado como complemento da abordagem morfológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1237-1242, Sept.-Oct. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345252

ABSTRACT

A hepatite E é uma zoonose emergente que afeta diversas espécies de mamíferos, inclusive o ser humano. É ocasionada por um vírus da espécie Orthohepevirus A que possui diversos genótipos e subgenótipos. No Brasil é descrito o genótipo HEV-3, cujo principal reservatório é o porco doméstico. Testes moleculares e sorológicos demonstram o HEV-3 em diferentes estados, tanto em animais quanto em humanos. No estado de São Paulo, existem diversos estudos sobre a epidemiologia da hepatite E em humanos, mas faltam informações sobre o HEV-3 em suínos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de HEV por meio da técnica de RT-PCR e posterior sequenciamento em um banco de amostras de fezes de suínos colhidas entre 2008 e 2009, na região metropolitana de Campinas. Das 89 amostras analisadas, foi possível detectar o HEV-3 em sete e, pela reconstrução filogenética, foram encontrados os subgenótipos HEV-3b, HEV-3h, e HEV-3j. Uma amostra disponível no GenBank, proveniente de São Paulo, que ainda não havia sido subgenotipada, foi agrupada ao HEV-3i. Os subgenótipos HEV-3j e HEV-3i ainda não tinham sido relatados no país. O estudo demonstra uma grande diversidade genética do HEV no estado de São Paulo e reforça o caráter zoonótico da HEV-3.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Sus scrofa/virology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation , Hepatitis E/veterinary
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 601-610, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153382

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to assess population structure and phylogenetic relationships of nine subspecies of Brassica rapa L. represented with thirty-five accessions cover a wide range of species distribution area using isozyme analysis in order to select more diverse accessions as supplementary resources that can be utilized for improvement of B. napus. Enzyme analysis resulted in detecting 14 putative polymorphic loci with 27 alleles. Mean allele frequency 0.04 (rare alleles) was observed in Cat4A and Cat4B in sub species Oleifera accession CR 2204/79 and in subspecies trilocularis accessions CR 2215/88 and CR 2244/88. The highest genetic diversity measures were observed in subspecies dichotoma, accession CR 1585/96 (the highest average of observed (H0) and expected heterozygosity (He), and number of alleles per locus (Ae)). These observations make this accession valuable genetic resource to be included in breeding programs for the improvement of oilseed B. napus. The average fixation index (F) is significantly higher than zero for the analysis accessions indicating a significant deficiency of heteozygosity. The divergence among subspecies indicated very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8972) which means that about 90% of genetic diversity is distributed among subspecies, while 10% of the diversity is distributed within subspecies. This coincides with low value of gene flow (Nm = 0.0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape) and B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) were grouped under one cluster which coincides with the morphological classification.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura populacional e as relações filogenéticas de nove subespécies de Brassica rapa L. representadas com 35 acessos, cobrindo uma ampla gama de áreas de distribuição de espécies usando análise isoenzimática, a fim de selecionar acessos mais diversos como recursos suplementares que podem ser utilizados para melhoria de B. napus. A análise enzimática resultou na detecção de 14 loci polimórficos putativos com 27 alelos. A frequência média de 0,04 alelo (alelos raros) foi observada em Cat4A e Cat4B, nas subespécies Oleifera CR 2204/79 e nas subespécies trilocularis CR 2215/88 e CR 2244/88. As maiores medidas de diversidade genética foram observadas na subespécie dicotômica CR 1585/96 (a média mais alta observada (H0) e heterozigosidade esperada (He) e número de alelos por locus (Ae). Essas observações tornam esse acesso um valioso recurso genético a ser incluído em programas de melhoramento de oleaginosas B. napus. O índice médio de fixação (F) é significativamente maior que 0 para os acessos à análise, indicando uma deficiência significativa de heterozigose. A divergência entre as subespécies indicou uma grande diferenciação genética (FST = 0,8972), o que significa que cerca de 90% da diversidade genética é distribuída entre as subespécies, enquanto 10% da diversidade é distribuída nas subespécies. Isso coincide com o baixo valor do fluxo gênico (Nm = 0,0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (nabo) e B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) foram agrupados conforme a classificação morfológica.


Subject(s)
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Plant Breeding , Isoenzymes/genetics
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 1-7, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms of the CCKAR gene and their relationship with the growth and development of Qinchuan cattle which could be used as molecular markers for the improvement of the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. RESULTS: Here, we have identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at loci g. 1463 C>G; g. 1532 T>A; g. 1570 G>A; g. 1594 C>A; g. 1640 T>C; g. 1677 G>C; and g. 1735 C>T in the coding region of the bovine CCKAR gene. The frequencies identified on allelic and genotypic characteristics have shown that all seven SNPs diverged from the Hardy-Weinberg-Equilibrium. The SNP2, SNP3, SNP6 and SNP7 had the lowest polymorphism information content values, and remaining SNPs were found to be moderate (0.25 < PIC < 0.50). The genotype CG in SNP1 at loci g.1463 C>G had the greatest association with WH, HW, CD and CCF, while the genotype TA at the very same loci was associated with BFT, ULA and IMF content in Qinchuan cattle. The CCKAR gene expression level in adipose tissue, small intestine, liver and skeleton muscle was found to be higher, whereas, the expression level of mRNA in organs of other digestive system including reticulum, abomasum and omasum was moderate. Some expression of CCKAR mRNA was found in the large intestine, kidney and rumen. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our finding suggested that the CCKAR gene could be used as a potential candidate for the improvement of carcass quality and body measurements of Qinchuan cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , Receptor, Cholecystokinin A/genetics , Genetic Variation , Linkage Disequilibrium , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Digestive System , Livestock , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , Meat Products
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 58-66, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95) plays a role in male fertility. Previous studies showed that genes with a significant impact on reproductive traits can also affect the growth traits of livestock. Thus, we speculated that the genetic variation of TMEM95 gene may have effects on growth traits of cattle. RESULTS: Two SNPs were genotyped. The rs136174626 and rs41904693 were in the intron 4 and 30 -untranslated region, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium analysis illustrated that these two loci were not linked. The rs136174626 was associated with six growth traits of Nanyang cattle, four traits of Luxi cattle, and three traits of Ji'an cattle. For rs41904693 locus, the GG individuals had greater body height and abdominal girth in Ji' an cattle than TT and TG individuals. In Jinnan cattle, GG and TT individuals had greater body height, height at hip cross, body length, and heart girth than TG individuals. The potential splice site prediction results suggest that the rs136174626 may influence the splicing efficiency of TMEM95, and the miRNA binding site prediction results showed that the rs41904693 may influence the expression of TMEM95 by affecting the binding efficiency of Bta-miR-1584 and TMEM95 30 -UTR. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggested that the two SNPs in TMEM95 could be a reliable basis for molecular breeding in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Cattle/growth & development , DNA Shuffling , Livestock , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 37-44, Mar. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short Tandem repeats (STRs) existed as popular elements in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the characteristics, distributions, and motif features of STRs within whole-genomes of 140 plant species. The results showed that STR density was negatively correlated with the genome size. Hexanucleotide repeat was the most abundant type of STRs. The distribution of algae shows a preference different from that of other plants. By analyzing GC contents of STRs and genome, it was concluded that STR motif was influenced by GC contents. Analysis of the long STRs in genome (length 1000 bp) found that dicots have the more long STRs. For STR types, di- and tri-nucleotide accounted for the highest proportion. Analyzing and designing long STRs in CDS (length 500 bp) was to verify the role of long STRs in Gossypium hirsutum TM-1 and Solanum tuberosum. By comparing the long STRs found in Fragaria x ananassa with other species, some evolutionary characteristics of the long STRs were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: We got the characteristics, distribution, and motif features of STRs in the whole genome of 140 plants and obtained some evolutionary characteristics of long STRs. The study provides useful insights into STR preference, characteristics, and distribution in plants.


Subject(s)
Plants/genetics , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Base Sequence , Sequence Analysis
15.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 72-81, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Diospyros. In this study, genetic diversity and variations in persimmon genotypes were investigated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis. RESULTS: Ninety-five persimmon accessions grown in the Pear Research Institute, National Institute Horticultural and Herbal Science, were sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform and polymorphic SNPs were detected to develop molecular markers. These reliable SNPs were analyzed using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assay to discriminate among persimmon genotypes. GBS generated a total of 447,495,724 trimmed reads, of which 89.7% were raw reads. After demultiplexing and sequence quality trimming, 108,876,644 clean reads were mapped to the reference transcriptome. An average of 1,146,070 genotype reads were mapped. Filtering of raw SNPs in each sample led to selection of a total of 1,725,401 high-quality SNPs. The number of homozygous and heterozygous SNPs ranged from 1,933 to 6,834 and from 846 to 5,927, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 49 SNPs selected for development of an identification system for persimmons, 15 SNPs were used in the KASP assay to analyze 32 persimmon accessions. These KASP markers discriminated among all accessions.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Diospyros/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , Chromosome Mapping , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Alleles , Genotyping Techniques , Homozygote
16.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 50-55, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Euphorbia fischeriana Steud is a very important medicinal herb and has significant medical value for healing cancer, edema and tuberculosis in China. The lack of molecular markers for Euphorbia fischeriana Steud is a dominant barrier to genetic research. For the purpose of developing many simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, we completed transcriptome analysis with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. RESULTS: Approximately 9.1 million clean reads were acquired and then assembled into approximately 186.3 thousand nonredundant unigenes, 53,146 of which were SSR-containing unigenes. A total of 76,193 SSR loci were identified. Of these SSR loci, 28,491 were detected at the terminal position of ESTs, which made it difficult to design SSR primers for these SSR-containing sequences, and the residual SSRs were thus used to design primer pairs. Analyzing the results of these markers revealed that the mononucleotide motif A/T (44,067, 57.83% of all SSRs) was the most abundant, followed by the dinucleotide type AG/CT (9430, 12.38%). Using 100 randomly selected primer pairs, 77 primers were successfully amplified in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud, and 79 were successfully amplified in three other related species. The markers developed displayed relatively high quality and cross-species transferability. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of EST-SSRs exploited successfully in Euphorbia fischeriana Steud for the first time could provide genetic information for research on linkage maps, variety identification, genetic diversity analysis, and molecular marker-assisted breeding.


Subject(s)
Euphorbia/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Plants, Medicinal , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers
17.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 22-28, Jan. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vibrio species display variable and plastic fitness strategies to survive and interact with multiple hosts, including marine aquaculture species that are severely affected by pathogenic Vibrios. The culturable Vibrio sp. strain ArtGut-C1, the focus of this study, provides new evidence of such phenotypic plasticity as it accumulates polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer with anti-pathogen activity, particularly in the marine larviculture phase. The strain was isolated from the gut of laboratory-reared Artemia individuals, the live diet and PHB carrier used in larviculture. Its main phenotypic properties, taxonomic status and genomic properties are reported based on the whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Vibrio sp. ArtGut-C1 yielded 72.6% PHB of cells' dry weight at 25 C. The genomic average nucleotide identity (ANI) shows it is closely related to V. diabolicus (ANI: 88.6%). Its genome contains 5,236,997- bp with 44.8% GC content, 3,710 protein-coding sequences, 96 RNA, 9 PHB genes functionally related to PHB metabolic pathways, and several genes linked to competing and colonizing abilities. CONCLUSIONS: This culturable PHB-accumulating Vibrio strain shows high genomic and phenotypic variability. It may be used as a natural pathogen biocontrol in the marine hatchery and as a potential cell factory for PHB production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/microbiology , Vibrio/metabolism , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/metabolism , Hydroxybutyrates/metabolism , Genetic Variation , Vibrio/isolation & purification , Vibrio/classification , Aquaculture , Probiotics , Crustacea/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biological Variation, Population
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180869

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the possible association of a polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), 1958G>A, with the susceptibility to orofacial cleft in an Indonesian population. Material and Methods: A total of 200 stored secondary biological samples from 30 cases of orofacial cleft and 170 unaffected controls were analyzed to determine the polymorphism status at base 1958. The analysis was conducted using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique after digestion with the Msp1 restriction enzyme. The samples were then subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to investigate the presence or absence of the following fragments: genotype GG, 196, 86 and 40 base pairs (bp); genotype AA, 282 and 28 bp and genotype AG, 282, 196, 86, 40 and 28 bp. The test groups were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: The wild-type allele containing 1958G, as well as the genotype GG, were significantly more common in the control group than in the orofacial cleft group. Conclusion: The MTHFD1 1958G>A polymorphism was significantly associated with orofacial cleft susceptibility in the tested Indonesian population.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP) , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Chi-Square Distribution , Indonesia
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200441, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A previous phylogeographic study revealed two Aedes aegypti African-related mitochondrial lineages distributed in Colombian's cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to dengue virus (DENV). It has been proposed these lineages might indicate independent invasion sources. OBJECTIVES Assessing to Colombian population structure and to support evidence of its probable source origin. METHODS We analysed a total of 267 individuals from cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which 241 were related to the West and East African mitochondrial lineages (termed here as WAL and EAL, respectively). Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed aiming population structure. FINDINGS Results indicate substantial gene flow among distant and low-connected cities composing a panmictic population with incipient local differentiation of Ae. aegypti is placed in Colombia. Likewise, genetic evidence indicates no significant differences among individuals related to WAL and EAL is placed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Minimal genetic differentiation in low-connected Ae. aegypti populations of Colombia, and lack concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genealogies suggest that Colombian Ae. aegypti shared a common demographic history. Under this scenario, we suggest current Ae. aegypti population structure reflects a single origin instead of contemporary migration, which founding populations have a single source from a mitochondrial polymorphic African ancient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/genetics , Dengue , Genetic Variation/genetics , Colombia , Phylogeography
20.
Clinics ; 76: e2489, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278907

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Brazilian studies over a period of years (2000-2020), as well as point out relevant aspects of this enigmatic organism. We performed a literature search using six sources of international databases. The data were divided into diagnostic by parasitological and molecular techniques, and relevant aspects. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 52 studies were included in the final analysis. The occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in Brazil ranged from 0.5% to 86.6%, as determined using parasitological techniques. The highest occurrence was in the North (27.3%) and the lowest, in the Midwest region (13.4%). In Brazil, most studies have employed molecular techniques and are concentrated in the Southeast region. The Blastocystis sp. subtype ST3 had the highest average positivity, followed by ST1 and ST2. These findings represent a panorama that reflects the reality of Brazil; thus, we believe that the effectiveness of parasitological diagnosis should be considered with regard to making an appropriate choice of technique for detecting Blastocystis sp. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of further studies in the context of molecular epidemiology with regard to this genus. Blastocystis sp. is not well understood yet, and very little information regarding this genus is available; hence, further research regarding this genus is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blastocystis Infections/diagnosis , Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology , Blastocystis/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan , Feces
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