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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e248656, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345542

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several species of Cichla successfully colonized lakes and reservoirs of Brazil, since the 1960's, causing serious damage to local wildlife. In this study, 135 peacock bass were collected in a reservoir complex in order to identify if they represented a single dominant species or multiple ones, as several Cichla species have been reported in the basin. Specimens were identified by color pattern, morphometric and meristic data, and using mitochondrial markers COI, 16S rDNA and Control Region (CR). Overlapping morphological data and similar coloration patterns prevented their identification using the taxonomic keys to species identification available in the literature. However, Bayesian and maximum likelihood from sequencing data demonstrated the occurrence of a single species, Cichla kelberi. A single haplotype was observed for the 16S and CR, while three were detected for COI, with a dominant haplotype present in 98.5% of the samples. The extreme low diversity of the transplanted C. kelberi evidenced a limited number of founding maternal lineages. The success of this colonization seems to rely mainly on abiotic factors, such as increased water transparency of lentic environments that favor visual predators that along with the absence of predators, have made C. kelberi a successful invader of these reservoirs.


Resumo Muitas espécies de Cichla colonizaram com sucesso lagos e reservatórios do Brasil desde os anos 1960, causando graves prejuízos à vida selvagem nesses locais. Neste estudo, 135 tucunarés foram coletados em um complexo de reservatórios a fim de identificar se representavam uma espécie dominante ou múltiplas espécies, uma vez que diversas espécies de Cichla foram registradas na bacia. Os espécimes foram identificados com base na coloração, dados morfométricos e merísticos, e por marcadores mitocondriais COI, 16S rDNA e Região Controle (RC). A sobreposição dos dados morfométricos e o padrão similar de coloração impediram a identificação utilizando as chaves de identificação disponíveis na literatura. Entretanto, as análises bayesiana e de máxima verossimilhança de dados moleculares demonstraram a ocorrência de uma única espécie, Cichla kelberi. Um único haplótipo foi observado para o 16S e RC, enquanto três foram detectados para o COI, com um haplótipo dominante presente em 98,5% das amostras. A baixa diversidade nos exemplares introduzidos de C. kelberi evidenciou um número limitado de linhagens maternas fundadoras. O sucesso da invasão parece depender de fatores abióticos, como a maior transparência da água de ambientes lênticos que favorece predadores visuais que, atrelado à ausência de predadores, fez do C. kelberi um invasor bem-sucedido nesses reservatórios.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cichlids/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Lakes , Bayes Theorem
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254253, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350308

ABSTRACT

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Resumo Durante o presente estudo, os espécimes foram coletados em locais selecionados do deserto do Cholistan e da Reserva de Caça de Kalabagh, província de Punjab, Paquistão. Cada espécime capturado foi etiquetado com o número do comprovante e medidas morfométricas foram realizadas. O comprimento médio do focinho à cloaca foi de 172,559 ± 1,40 mm, e o peso médio foi de 92,1 ± 1,30 g. O DNA de Uromastyx hardwickii foi amplificado e sequenciado usando o conjunto de primer 16S rRNA. A sequência de DNA obtida mostrou identificação de espécies confiável e clara. Após o corte de bases ambíguas, o fragmento de rRNA 16S obtido tinha 520 pb, enquanto os fragmentos de rRNA 16S alinhados com a sequência próxima do NCBI composta por 510 pb. Sequências semelhantes do gênero Uromastyx foram recuperadas do NCBI em pesquisas de explosão. A árvore de união de vizinhos do gênero Uromastyx foi construída com base na distância-p usando MEGA X. A variação intraespecífica média foi de 0,095 ± 0,01, enquanto a variação intraespecífica foi de 0-1%. Da mesma forma, a variação interespecífica de Uromastyx hardwikii com Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti foi de 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19%, respectivamente. O DNA recém-produzido foi submetido ao NCBI e o número de acesso foi obtido (MW052563.1). Os resultados do estudo atual forneceram informações sobre a identificação molecular e morfológica do Gênero Uromastyx. Em nossa recomendação, a identificação de base molecular abrangente de répteis do Paquistão é necessária para relatar qualquer nova ou subespécie do país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lizards , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
3.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200894, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339655

ABSTRACT

Seed germination is a complex process controlled by many factors, in which physical and biochemical mechanisms are involved and the mobilization of reserves is crucial for this process to occur. Although, seed reserve mobilization is usually thought to be a post-germination process, seed reserve proteins mobilization occurs during germination. This study quantified seed proteins of bean genotypes during different hydration times, in order to understand the process of protein mobilization and whether there is relationship of this biochemical component with seed vigor. This study was conducted using seeds with different levels of vigor, genotypes with highest (13, 42, 55 and 81) and lowest (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) physiological quality. High vigor genotypes showed greater efficiency in hydrolysis and mobilization of protein component, because they presented low globulins content in cotyledons at radicle protrusion in relation to low vigor genotypes (07, 23 and 50). The protein alpha-amylase inhibitor, observed in all genotypes, is involved with the longer time needed for radicle protrusion, according to the band intensity difference in genotypes 07, 44 and Iapar 81.


A germinação de sementes é um processo complexo controlado por muitos fatores, nos quais mecanismos físicos e bioquímicos estão envolvidos e a mobilização de reservas é decisiva para que esse processo ocorra. Embora a mobilização de reservas de sementes seja considerada um processo pós-germinativo, a mobilização das proteínas de reserva de sementes ocorre durante a germinação. Este estudo teve como objetivo quantificar as proteínas de sementes de genótipos de feijão durante os diferentes tempos de hidratação, a fim de compreender o processo de mobilização proteica e se há relação desse componente bioquímico com o vigor das sementes. Este estudo foi realizado utilizando sementes com diferentes níveis de vigor, genótipos com maior (13, 42, 55 e 81) e menor (07, 23, 44, 50, IPR-88-Uirapurú e Iapar 81) qualidade fisiológica. Os genótipos de alto vigor apresentaram maior eficiência na hidrólise e mobilização do componente proteico, pois apresentaram baixo teor de globulinas nos cotilédones na protrusão radicular em relação aos genótipos de baixo vigor (07, 23 e 50). A proteína inibidora da alfa-amilase, observada em todos os genótipos, está envolvida com o maior tempo necessário para a protrusão da radícula, de acordo com a diferença de intensidade da banda nos genótipos 07, 44 e Iapar 81.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Genetic Variation/genetics , Proteins/analysis , Phaseolus/embryology , Mass Spectrometry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 928-933, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammtidae) are frequently used as biological control agents against Lepidoptera, but practical application of these egg endoparasitoids are complicated because of their complex taxonomy. This study aimed to compare sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) of Trichogramma accessions with those deposited in GenBank in order to access the reliability of the ITS2 as a barcode for discriminating species and evaluating the genetic diversity. ITS2-rDNA sequences obtained from seventeen specimens of Trichogramma confirmed previous identifications based on morphological characteristics. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the existence of highly conserved regions in ITS2 sequences while the neighbour-joining dendrogram indicated that the specimens formed three clusters comprising T. manicobai and T. marandobai (group I), T. galloi (group II) and T. pretiosum (group III). The ITS2 marker was shown to be a powerful DNA barcode for discriminating Trichogramma species and could be used to complement the morphological approach.


Resumo Espécies de Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) são freqüentemente usadas como agentes de controle biológico contra Lepidoptera, esses endoparasitóides de ovos apresentam taxonomia complexa, o que dificulta sua aplicação prática. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar seqüências de regiões espaçadoras internas transcritas de DNA ribossômico (ITS2-rDNA) de acessos de Trichogramma com aquelas depositadas no GenBank, a fim de avaliar a confiabilidade do ITS2 barcode para discriminar espécies e avaliar a diversidade genética. As seqüências de ITS2-rDNA obtidas de dezessete espécimes de Trichogramma confirmaram identidades anteriores com base em características morfológicas. O alinhamento de múltiplas sequências revelou a existência de regiões altamente conservadas nas sequências ITS2, enquanto o dendrograma indicou que os espécimes formavam três grupos compreendendo T. manicobai e T. marandobai (grupo I), T. galloi (grupo II) e T. pretiosum (grupo III). O marcador ITS2 mostrou ser um poderoso DNA barcode para discriminar espécies de Trichogramma podendo ser usado como complemento da abordagem morfológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 917-927, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.


Resumo A traíra - Hoplias malabaricus- é uma espécie válida, embora recentes estudos citogenéticos e moleculares tenham indicado a existência de um complexo de espécies. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou o marcador mitocondrial COI para determinar os níveis de diversidade genética dos espécimes do estado do Maranhão e verificar a ocorrência de linhagens distintas dentro da área de estudo. As amostras foram coletadas nas bacias dos rios Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru e Parnaíba. As análises filogenéticas indicaram a existência de três linhagens distintas nas populações do Maranhão. Obteve-se um fragmento de 630 pb de 211 espécimes, com 484 sítios conservados, 108 variáveis e 60 haplótipos (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). As análises filogenéticas indicaram a ocorrência de três linhagens distintas de H. malabaricus do Maranhão. Distâncias genéticas de 1.5 a 8.2% foram encontradas entre todas as populações analisadas, enquanto a variação entre os haplogrupos variou de 2.1% a 7.7%. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação molecular foi entre os grupos, com altos valores de FST. Os altos níveis de variabilidade genética encontrados no presente estudo são suportados pelos dados citogenéticos disponíveis. Essas descobertas reforçam a necessidade de desenvolver programas de conservação e manejo independentemente para cada bacia hidrográfica, a fim de preservar a variabilidade genética encontrada neste táxon.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Characiformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Rivers
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 601-610, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153382

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study aimed to assess population structure and phylogenetic relationships of nine subspecies of Brassica rapa L. represented with thirty-five accessions cover a wide range of species distribution area using isozyme analysis in order to select more diverse accessions as supplementary resources that can be utilized for improvement of B. napus. Enzyme analysis resulted in detecting 14 putative polymorphic loci with 27 alleles. Mean allele frequency 0.04 (rare alleles) was observed in Cat4A and Cat4B in sub species Oleifera accession CR 2204/79 and in subspecies trilocularis accessions CR 2215/88 and CR 2244/88. The highest genetic diversity measures were observed in subspecies dichotoma, accession CR 1585/96 (the highest average of observed (H0) and expected heterozygosity (He), and number of alleles per locus (Ae)). These observations make this accession valuable genetic resource to be included in breeding programs for the improvement of oilseed B. napus. The average fixation index (F) is significantly higher than zero for the analysis accessions indicating a significant deficiency of heteozygosity. The divergence among subspecies indicated very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8972) which means that about 90% of genetic diversity is distributed among subspecies, while 10% of the diversity is distributed within subspecies. This coincides with low value of gene flow (Nm = 0.0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape) and B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) were grouped under one cluster which coincides with the morphological classification.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura populacional e as relações filogenéticas de nove subespécies de Brassica rapa L. representadas com 35 acessos, cobrindo uma ampla gama de áreas de distribuição de espécies usando análise isoenzimática, a fim de selecionar acessos mais diversos como recursos suplementares que podem ser utilizados para melhoria de B. napus. A análise enzimática resultou na detecção de 14 loci polimórficos putativos com 27 alelos. A frequência média de 0,04 alelo (alelos raros) foi observada em Cat4A e Cat4B, nas subespécies Oleifera CR 2204/79 e nas subespécies trilocularis CR 2215/88 e CR 2244/88. As maiores medidas de diversidade genética foram observadas na subespécie dicotômica CR 1585/96 (a média mais alta observada (H0) e heterozigosidade esperada (He) e número de alelos por locus (Ae). Essas observações tornam esse acesso um valioso recurso genético a ser incluído em programas de melhoramento de oleaginosas B. napus. O índice médio de fixação (F) é significativamente maior que 0 para os acessos à análise, indicando uma deficiência significativa de heterozigose. A divergência entre as subespécies indicou uma grande diferenciação genética (FST = 0,8972), o que significa que cerca de 90% da diversidade genética é distribuída entre as subespécies, enquanto 10% da diversidade é distribuída nas subespécies. Isso coincide com o baixo valor do fluxo gênico (Nm = 0,0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (nabo) e B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) foram agrupados conforme a classificação morfológica.


Subject(s)
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Plant Breeding , Isoenzymes/genetics
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00282020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143882

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study intraspecific variation in Triatoma costalimai, a potential vector of Chagas disease present in Brazil and Bolivia. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic (connexivum color patterns, wing morphometrics) and genetic variation (16S mtDNA) of three Brazilian T. costalimai populations. We compared 16S sequences with those of putative Bolivian T. costalimai and its sister species, T. jatai. RESULTS: Brazilian populations had different connexivum color patterns and forewing shapes. A 16S mtDNA haplotype network showed a clear separation of Brazilian T. costalimai from both T. jatai and Bolivian T. costalimai. CONCLUSIONS: We report considerable variability in T. costalimai populations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/genetics , Chagas Disease , Genetic Variation/genetics , Bolivia , Brazil , Insect Vectors/genetics
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200441, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A previous phylogeographic study revealed two Aedes aegypti African-related mitochondrial lineages distributed in Colombian's cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to dengue virus (DENV). It has been proposed these lineages might indicate independent invasion sources. OBJECTIVES Assessing to Colombian population structure and to support evidence of its probable source origin. METHODS We analysed a total of 267 individuals from cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which 241 were related to the West and East African mitochondrial lineages (termed here as WAL and EAL, respectively). Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed aiming population structure. FINDINGS Results indicate substantial gene flow among distant and low-connected cities composing a panmictic population with incipient local differentiation of Ae. aegypti is placed in Colombia. Likewise, genetic evidence indicates no significant differences among individuals related to WAL and EAL is placed. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Minimal genetic differentiation in low-connected Ae. aegypti populations of Colombia, and lack concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genealogies suggest that Colombian Ae. aegypti shared a common demographic history. Under this scenario, we suggest current Ae. aegypti population structure reflects a single origin instead of contemporary migration, which founding populations have a single source from a mitochondrial polymorphic African ancient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/genetics , Dengue , Genetic Variation/genetics , Colombia , Phylogeography
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200584, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250360

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax metacaspase 1 (PvMCA1) catalytic domain in two municipalities of the main malaria hotspot in Brazil, i.e., the Juruá Valley, and observed complete sequence identity among all P. vivax field isolates and the Sal-1 reference strain. Analysis of PvMCA1 catalytic domain in different P. vivax genomic sequences publicly available also revealed a high degree of conservation worldwide, with very few amino acid substitutions that were not related to putative histidine and cysteine catalytic residues, whose involvement with the active site of protease was herein predicted by molecular modeling. The genetic conservation presented by PvMCA1 may contribute to its eligibility as a druggable target candidate in vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Malaria, Vivax , Genetic Variation/genetics , Brazil , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Catalytic Domain
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 283-288, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that produces non-scarring hair loss around the body. Gene variants of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, a negative regulator of T-cell response, have been associated with a predisposition to autoimmune diseases in different populations; however, the involvement of these genetic variants in the development of AA is controversial. Objective: The present study evaluated the potential association of two CTLA4 gene variants with alopecia areata in a Mexican population. Methods: We genotyped +49AG (rs231775) and CT60 (rs3087243) variants in 50 AA patients and 100 healthy control participants through PCR-RFLP. Results: No statistical difference was observed for either of the gene variants regarding allele or genotype frequencies between AA patients and the controls when the parameters of family/personal history of autoimmune diseases or gender were considered (p > 0.05). Study limitations: Small sample size of patients and the data were obtained from Northeast Mexico population. Conclusion: The genetic variants rs231775 and rs3087243 of the CTLA4 gene are not a risk factor for the development of alopecia areata in the analyzed Mexican population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Genetic Variation/genetics , Alopecia Areata/genetics , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetic Association Studies , Genotyping Techniques , Gene Frequency , Mexico , Middle Aged
12.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190117, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098417

ABSTRACT

Historical information on the probable type-locality of Pimelodus quelen and of its four junior synonyms that share the same neotype, Pimelodus namdia, Pimelodus sebae, Heterobranchus sextentaculatus, and Silurus rivularis, is presented and discussed. The neotype designation for those four species is deemed invalid for not complying with the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, making it technically possible to revalidate any of the four taxa from the synonymy of Rhamdia quelen without having to address the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. The type-locality of both Curimata gilbert and Callichthys asper are also restricted to rio Macacu at the village of Japuíba, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.(AU)


São apresentadas e discutidas informações históricas sobre as prováveis localidades-tipo de Pimelodus quelen e seus quatro sinônimos juniores que compartilham o mesmo neótipo, Pimelodus namdia, Pimelodus sebae, Heterobranchus sextentaculatus e Silurus rivularis. A designação do neótipo para essas quatro espécies é considerada inválida por não estar em conformidade com as disposições do Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica, tornando tecnicamente possível revalidar qualquer um dos quatro táxons da sinonímia de Rhamdia quelen sem ter que apelar à Comissão Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica. As localidades-tipo de Curimata gilbert e Callichthys asper também são restringidas ao rio Macacu na vila de Japuíba, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation/genetics , Catfishes/genetics , Zoology
13.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(4): e200081, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135407

ABSTRACT

Fourteen novel microsatellite loci are described and characterized in two species of electric eels, Electrophorus variiand E. voltaifrom floodplains and rivers of the Amazon rainforest. These loci are polymorphic, highly informative, and have the capacity to detect reliable levels of genetic diversity. Likewise, the high combined probability of paternity exclusion value and low combined probability of genetic identity value obtained demonstrate that the new set of loci displays suitability for paternity studies on electric eels. In addition, the cross-amplification of electric eel species implies that it may also be useful in the study of the closely related E. electricus, and to other Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes) species as tested herein.(AU)


Catorze novos loci microsatélites são descritos e caracterizados em duas espécies de poraquês, Electrophorus varii e E. voltai de planícies alagadas e rios da floresta amazônica. Esses loci são polimórficos, altamente informativos e têm a capacidade de detectar níveis confiáveis de diversidade genética. Da mesma forma, o alto valor de exclusão de paternidade combinado com a baixa probabilidade de identidade genética demonstra que o novo conjunto de loci exibe adequação para estudos de paternidade em poraquês. Além disso, a amplificação cruzada de espécies de peixes elétricos implica que também pode ser útil no estudo da espécie intimamente relacionada E. electricus, e de outras espécies de peixes elétricos neotropicais (Gymnotiformes).(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Gymnotiformes/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879496

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen for Vel- rare blood type donors and determine the frequency of SMIM1 c.64_80del allele in Yili Prefecture of Xinjiang, China.@*METHODS@#DNA pooling and PCR-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) was conducted to screen individuals carrying the SMIM1 c.64_80del variant, and Sanger sequencing of SMIM1 exon 3 was carried out to verify the genotype of those with the variation. SMIM1 intron 2 was also sequenced to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect the expression of Vel antigen.@*RESULTS@#Among 3328 blood donors, 14 were identified as heterozygotes for the SMIM1 c.64_80del allele, its allele frequency was 0.21%; no homozygous SMIM1 c.64_80 deletions was found. For SNP rs1175550, all of the 14 individuals had an AA genotype, among whom 5 carried heterozygous 7111ins GCA variant in intron 2.@*CONCLUSION@#The allelic frequency of SMIM1 c.64_80del in Yili area is approximately 0.21%, which is reported for the first time.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , China , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
15.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 155-169, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348111

ABSTRACT

El aguacate es un cultivo de consumo a nivel mundial, y según teorías recientes, se sugiere a la región de la Sierra Nevada, en California, como centro de origen y, a Guatemala, como uno de los principales centros de domesticación. Mediante caracterizaciones morfológicas se ha reportado una alta diversidad genética en el país, pero debido al comportamiento de polinización cruzada e hibridaciones interraciales, no se ha podido detallar el estado genético actual de la especie. Sin embargo, los marcadores moleculares son útiles para este tipo de estudios al enfocarse en las diferencias a nivel del ADN. Este estudio analizó la diversidad genética del aguacate nativo guatemalteco de siete poblaciones geográficas con el marcador molecular AFLP. Los datos de estructura poblacional mostraron un alto grado de diversidad a nivel de individuos (Ht = 0.1933, Hw = 0.1872) y baja diferenciación entre poblaciones (Hb = 0.0061). Los resultados sugieren una alta tasa de migración que influye directamente en el grado de mezcla genética de los materiales analizados. El bajo índice de estructura poblacional apunta a un alto flujo genético entre las poblaciones, por lo que la especie no presenta mayor riesgo ante la deriva genética, minimizándose el riesgo de pérdida de alelos por fijación. Se sugiere el resguardado del recurso fitogénetico total y no únicamente de materiales promisorios, evitando así el riesgo de erosión genética de la especie y garantizando la permanencia de la diversidad genética, la cual será la base de futuros programas de mejoramiento.


Avocado is one of the most widely consumed crops worldwide and according to new theories, the Sierra Nevada region in California is suggested as the center of origin and Guatemala as one of the main domestication cen-ters. Through morphological characterizations, a high genetic diversity has been reported in the country, but due to the behavior of cross pollination and interracial hybridizations, it has not been possible to detail the current genetic status of the species. Molecular markers are useful for this type of study by focusing on differences at DNA level. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of the native Guatemalan avocado from seven geographic populations with AFLP molecular marker. Population structure data showed a high degree of diversity at the individual level (Ht = 0.1933, Hw = 0.1872) and low differentiation between populations (Hb = 0.0061). The results suggest a high rate of migration that directly influences the degree of genetic mixing of the analyzed materials. The low index of population structure points to a high genetic flow between populations, so that the species does not present a greater risk due to genetic drift, minimizing the risk of loss of alleles due to fixation. The protection of the total genetic resource is suggested, and not only of promising materials, thus avoiding the risk of genetic erosion of the species and guaranteeing the permanence of genetic diversity, which will be the basis of future breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Plant Leaves/genetics , Persea/genetics , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis/classification , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Plant/analysis , Genetic Drift , Genetic Loci , Domestication
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(6): 453-459, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The underlying genetic causes of keratoconus are essentially unknown. Here, we conducted whole-exome sequencing in 2 Brazilian families with keratoconus. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 6 keratoconus-affected individuals of 2 unrelated pedigrees from Southern Brazil. Pathogenic variants were identified in a modified Trio analysis (1 parent and 2 children) using candidate gene filtering. All the affected subjects underwent detailed corneal tomographic evaluation. Clinically relevant variants that were present in affected individuals at minor allele frequencies <1% were examined in the 1000 Genomes Project single nucleotide polymorphism ABraOM and transcription gene (RefSeq and Ensembl) databases. Results: In family 1, a sequence variant in chromosome 1 (q21.3) was observed within the filaggrin gene. All the tested family members shared a heterozygous missense pathogenic variant in the c.4678C>T position. In family 2, exome analysis demonstrated a sequence variant in chromosome 16 (q24.2) within the gene encoding zinc finger protein 469 (ZNF469). Members of family 2 shared a heterozygous missense variant in the c.1489G>A position. In addition, the exomes of the 2 families were examined for shared genetic variants among all affected individuals. Filtering criteria did not identify any rare sequence variants in a single gene segregated in both families. Conclusion: Our findings show that a complete genotype-phenotype correlation could not be identified, suggesting that keratoconus is a genetically heterogeneous disease. In addition, we believe that whole-exome sequencing-based segregation analysis is probably not the best strategy for identifying variants in families with isolated keratoconus.


RESUMO Objetivos: As causas genéticas subjacentes do ceratocone são essencialmente desconhecidas. Aqui, realizamos o sequenciamento de todo exoma de duas famílias brasileiras com ceratocone. Métodos: O sequenciamento total do exoma foi realizado em 6 indivíduos com ceratocone de duas famílias distintas do sul do Brasil. Variantes patogênicas foram identificadas em uma análise no formato de trio-modificada (um dos pais e dois filhos) usando a filtragem de genes candidatos. Todos os indivíduos afetados passaram por avaliação de tomografia de córnea. Variantes clinicamente relevantes que estavam presentes em indivíduos afetados em menores frequências alélicas <1% foram avaliadas na base de dados de polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único do 1000 Genomes Project ABraOM e do gene de transcrição (RefSeq e Ensembl). Resultados: Na família 1, uma variante de sequência no cromossomo 1 (q21.3) foi observada dentro do gene da filagrina. Todos os membros dessa família compartilhavam uma mutação missense na posição c.4678C>T. Na família 2, a análise do exoma demonstrou uma variante alélica no cromossomo 16 (q24.2) dentro do gene que codifica a proteína de dedo de zinco 469 (ZNF469). Os membros dessa família compartilham uma mutação missense heterozigota na posição c.1489G>A. Além disso, os exomas das duas famílias foram avaliados para variantes genéticas compartilhadas entre todos os indivíduos afetados. Os critérios de filtragem não identificaram variantes de sequência rara em um único gene segregado em ambas as famílias. Conclusão: Nossos achados indicam que uma completa correlação genótipo-fenótipo não pode ser identificada, sugerindo que o ceratocone é uma doença geneticamente heterogênea. Além disso, acreditamos que análises de segregação baseadas no sequenciamento de todo exoma provavelmente não é a melhor estratégia para identificar variantes em famílias isoladas com ceratocone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Whole Exome Sequencing/methods , Keratoconus/genetics , Pedigree , Reference Values , Genetic Variation/genetics , Tomography/methods , Cornea/pathology , Cornea/diagnostic imaging , Genomics
17.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4709, 01 Fevereiro 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998221

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the DUSP6 gene mutation in three generations of Malaysian Malay subjects having Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Genetic analyses of DUSP6 gene were carried out in 30 subjects by selecting three individuals representing three generations, respectively, from ten Malaysian Malay families having Class III malocclusion and 30 healthy controls. They were submitted Clinical Evaluation to clinical examination, lateral cephalometric radiographs, dental casts, and/ or facial and intra-oral photographs. Buccal cell was taken from each participant of Class III malocclusion and control groups. DNA extractions from buccal cell were carried out using Gentra puregene buccal cell kit. Bio Edit Sequence Alignment Editor software was used to see the sequencing result. Results: A heterozygous missense mutation c.1094C>T (p. Thr 365 Ile) was identified in DUSP6 gene in three members of one family with Class III malocclusion, whereas no mutation was found in the control group. Conclusion: Current study successfully identified a missense mutation in DUSP6 gene among one Malaysian Malay family affected by Class III malocclusion. The outcome of this study broadened the mutation spectrum of Class III malocclusion and the importance of DUSP6 gene in skeletal functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Genetic Variation/genetics , Cephalometry/methods , Mutation, Missense , Malocclusion , Arabia , Case-Control Studies , Photography, Dental/instrumentation
18.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 70-78, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Short stature is a common feature, and frequently remains without a specific diagnosis after conventional clinical and laboratorial evaluation. Longitudinal growth is mainly determined by genetic factors, and hundreds of common variants have been associated to height variability among healthy individuals. Although isolated short stature may be caused by the combination of variants, with a deleterious impact on the growth of individuals with polygenic inheritance, recent studies have pointed out some monogenic defects as the cause of the growth disorder observed in nonsyndromic children. The majority of these defects are in genes related to the growth plate cartilage and in the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. Affected patients usually present the mildest spectrum of some forms of skeletal dysplasia, or subtle abnormalities of laboratory tests, suggesting hormonal resistance or insensibility. The lack of specific characteristics, however, does not allow formulation of a definitive diagnosis without the use of broad genetic studies. Thus, molecular genetic studies including panels of genes or exome analysis will become essential in investigating and identifying the causes of isolated short stature in children, with a crucial impact on treatment and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation/genetics , Body Height/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Human Growth Hormone/genetics , Growth Disorders/genetics
19.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 48: e20180080, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1014405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) exhibits extensive genotypic diversity, but the role of this variation is poorly understood. Objective To evaluate the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in preschoolers with and without early dental care and to associate it with dental caries experience. Material and method Twenty children, aged five year old, with history of dental care since they were one year old (G1) and 20 children without history of dental care (G2) were included. Their oral health status was assessed by the dmft index. S. mutans samples were isolated from the saliva and analysed by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 339 S. mutans isolates (173 from G1 and 166 from G2) were genotyped by random amplified polymorphic DNA with arbitrary primers OPA-02 and OPA-13. Result The results revealed 75 distinct genotypes of S. mutans in G1 and 73 in G2. Furthermore, G1 and G2 subjects harboured one to eight and one to seven distinct genotypes of S. mutans, respectively. A statistically significant association (P=0.021) and a moderate correlation (r= 0.503) were observed between dental caries experience and genotypic diversity of S. mutans in G1. Conclusion From the limitations of the study design, we just can hypothesize that actions of early dental care carried out by an educative-preventive program can contribute to a distinct oral microbiota.


Resumo Introdução Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) apresentam ampla diversidade genotípica, mas o papel desta variação ainda é pouco compreendido. Objetivo Avaliar a diversidade genotípica de S. mutans em pré-escolares com e sem assistência odontológica precoce e associá-la à experiência de cárie dentária. Material e método Participaram da pesquisa 20 crianças, de cinco anos de idade, com história de assistência odontológica desde o primeiro ano de vida (G1) e 20 crianças sem história de assistência odontológica precoce (G2). A experiência de cárie dentária foi avaliada por meio do índice ceo-d. Amostras de S. mutans foram isoladas a partir da saliva dos participantes e analisadas pela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase para identificação molecular da espécie. Um total de 339 isolados bacterianos (173 do G1 e 166 do G2) foram genotipados através da Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico, utilizando-se os primers OPA-02 e OPA-13. Resultado Os resultados revelaram 75 diferentes genótipos de S. mutans no G1 e 73 no G2. Além disso, as crianças do G1 e G2 abrigaram em sua cavidade bucal de um a oito e de um a sete genótipos distintos de S. mutans, respectivamente. Foram observadas uma associação estatisticamente significante (P=0.021) e uma moderada correlação (r=0,503) entre a diversidade genotípica de S. mutans e a experiência de cárie somente no G1. Conclusão A partir das limitações do desenho do estudo, os resultados apenas sugerem que as ações realizadas por meio de um atendimento odontológico precoce podem estar contribuindo para o estabelecimento de uma microbiota bucal distinta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Streptococcus mutans , Genetic Variation/genetics , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries , Dental Care for Children
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190257, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057252

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Mozambique is one of three countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), TB/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection, and multidrug-resistant TB. We aimed to describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes circulating among drug resistant (DR) strains from Beira, Mozambique comparing them with genotypes in the country. METHODS: We performed spoligotyping of 79 M. tuberculosis suspected of DR-TB compared all spoligotype patterns published on the international database and PubMed. RESULTS: Both in Beira and Mozambique (n=578), the main clades were Latin-American-Mediterranean, East-African-Indian, Beijing and T, with no extensively DR TB cases. CONCLUSIONS: Beira and Mozambique share the same population genetic structure of M. tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetic Variation/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Phylogeny , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Genotype , Mozambique , Mutation/genetics
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