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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368288

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Osteogênese Imperfeita (OI) é uma doença genética rara com fragilidade óssea. A classificação inclui muitos tipos. Além do risco de recorrência, o manejo pode variar com o tipo de OI. Relato do caso: Apresentamos um paciente do sexo masculino nascido com 39 semanas, de pais não consanguíneos e saudáveis. A hidrocefalia foi diagnosticada no pré-natal. Com 50 dias de vida, detectamos muitas fraturas e calos ósseos. O teste molecular identificou uma deleção em homozigose do éxon 4 do gene WNT1. Considerações finais: Concluímos que o caso apresentado tinha características clínicas de OI XV, e o teste molecular foi fundamental para o diagnóstico preciso e aconselhamento genético.


Introduction: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disease with bone fragility. The classification includes many types. In addition, the risk of a recurrence, the management can vary with the kind of OI. Case report: We report a male patient born at 39 weeks from non-consanguineous healthy parents. The patient was diagnosed with Hydrocephalus at prenatal. At 50 days of life, we detected many fractures and bone calluses. The molecular test identified a homozygous deletion of exon 4 of the WNT1 gene. Final considerations: We conclude this case had clinical features of OI XV, and the molecular test was fundamental for the precise diagnosis and the genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Osteogenesis , Patients , Prenatal Care , Sex , Infant, Premature , Fractures, Bone , Genetic Counseling , Genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydrocephalus , Men
2.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 15-18, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396180

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad heterogénea que presenta fenotipos clínicos diversos, todos con hiperglucemia. Históricamente se han utilizado cuatro factores para identificar esta diversidad: la edad de inicio, la gravedad de la enfermedad o grado de pérdida de la función de la célula beta, el grado de resistencia a la insulina y la presencia de autoanticuerpos asociados a la enfermedad. Actualmente, los parámetros empleados para clasificar los diferentes tipos de DM dificultan el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los pacientes. Las distintas presentaciones clínicas requieren una clasificación diagnóstica más eficaz para un abordaje terapéutico más preciso, valiéndose del avance de la inmunogenética y la bioquímica clínica. Esta guía está orientada a clasificar con precisión las presentaciones clínicas que a menudo generan incertidumbre dentro de los dos tipos principales de DM.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous disease, with diverse clinical phenotypes, all with hyperglycemia. Historically, four factors have been used to identify this diversity: the age at onset, the severity of the disease, that is, the degree of loss of beta cell function and insulin resistance, and the presence of circulating autoantibodies. Currently, the parameters used to classify the different types of DM make it difficult to diagnose and treat patients. The different clinical manifestations require an accurate diagnosis to achieve an effective therapeutic approach through the use of immunogenetics and clinical biochemistry. This practical guide aims to accurately classify the often uncertain clinical presentations within the two main types of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , Genetics
4.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-7, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397079

ABSTRACT

Albinism is an inherited condition associated with significant depigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes. It occurs in every population with varying frequency, and narratives of people with albinism have been recorded since 200 BC. In southern Africa albinism is common, about 1 in 4000 people are affected, but it remains a poorly understood condition surrounded by myths and superstition. This article provides a historical background on oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in southern Africa and presents relevant information from the literature regarding epidemiology, genetics and genetic counselling, health, psychosocial and cultural issues, and medical care. There are several recessively inherited types of OCA and a mutation, responsible for about 80%of South African variants, has been identified in OCA type 2. The physical characteristics associated with albinism, that is, sun-sensitive skin and low vision, can be managed. However, people with OCA in Africa also experience psychosocial issues, such as discrimination, because of the various superstitious beliefs and attitudes held in the community. Management should include medical care for health problems, appropriate adjustment of the schooling context and genetic counseling. In addition, widespread public awareness programs are required to increase the knowledge of the genetic causes of OCA and of the nature of genetic counselling, to address the negative attitudes in the community, to reduce the marginalization and stigmatization of people with albinism and to improve their quality of life.


Subject(s)
Psychology , Developmental Disabilities , Albinism , Health , Albinism, Oculocutaneous , Epidemiology , Genetics
5.
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 4(1): 43-61, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1391370

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las sorderas o hipoacusias prelinguales son de etiología genética entre el 60 y el 68% de los casos; de estos, del 20 al 40% son malformaciones del oído interno. De los casos de hipoacusia no sindrómica ligada al X se han descrito siete tipos. De las malformaciones de oído interno, la partición coclear incompleta tipo III es la menos frecuente.Objetivo. Presentar el reporte clínico-genético de una familia mexicana, con indi-viduos varones afectados por sordera neurosensorial congénita con malformación de oído interno. Material y Métodos. Se realizó estudio de una familia en la que nueve miembros presentaban sordera. Se estudiaron cuatro de ellos y una madre sin manifestaciones, a través del estudio clínico general por médico genetista, el estudio audiológico (otos-copía y audiometría) por médico audiólogo y el estudio de tomografía computada (TC) por médico radiólogo.Resultados. Los pacientes estudiados presentaron sordera neurosensorial congéni-ta, de severa a profunda bilateral. A través de la TC, se evidenció malformación de oído interno. Tres pacientes presentaron partición coclear incompleta tipo III y un paciente partición incompleta tipo I. Debido al estudio clínico y al árbol genealógico, se definió diagnóstico de hipoacusia neurosensorial no sindrómica ligada al X. La TC de la madre sin manifestaciones no presentó evidencia de malformaciones en oído interno (MOI).Conclusión. El estudio de imagen es fundamental para definir presencia o no de MOI en todos los pacientes con hipoacusia y así poder guiar la terapéutica y el aseso-ramiento genético, así como realizar los estudios moleculares más adecuados


Introduction. The pre-lingual deafness or hearing loss are of genetic cause in be-tween 60% and 68% of cases, among these, between 20% and 40% are malforma-tion of the inner ear. From the non-syndromic hearing loss cases that are linked to the X chromosome, seven types have been described. Among these inner ear malforma-tions, incomplete cochlear partition type III is the less frequent.Objective. Present the clinical genetical report of a Mexican family, with male in-dividuals affected by congenital neurosensory deafness with inner ear malformation.Materials and methodology. A study on a family in which nine members were affected by deafness was done. Four of them, plus a mother without manifestation, were studied through a general clinical study by a geneticist, an audiological study (otoscopy and audiometry) by an audiologist, and a computed tomography (CT) scan by a radiologist.Results. The studied patients presented congenital neurosensory deafness, from se-vere to deep bilateral. Via the CT, the inner ear malformation was made clear. Three of the patients presented incomplete cochlear partition type III and one patient in-complete cochlear partition type I. Due to the clinical study and the family tree, it was diagnosed non-syndromic neurosensory deafness linked to X. The CT of the mother without manifestation did not show evidence of inner ear malformations.Conclusion. The study by image is fundamental to define whether there is or not a presence of inner ear malformations in any patient with heading loss to be able to guide the therapeutics and the genetic counseling, as well as to make more accurate molecular studies


Subject(s)
Humans , Congenital Abnormalities , Deafness , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Ear, Inner , Patients , Polysorbates , Audiometry , X Chromosome , Audiologists , Genetics
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e233513, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356596

ABSTRACT

A fibrose cística é uma doença genética, ainda sem cura, provocada por mutações cromossômicas, que pode afetar vários sistemas, dentre os quais o respiratório e o digestivo são os mais comumente atingidos. O adoecimento crônico traz alterações psicológicas para os pacientes e seus cuidadores. Com o objetivo de avaliar problemas internalizantes e externalizantes, e também competências de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística, foram entrevistados 31 cuidadores familiares, majoritariamente mães de pacientes na faixa etária de 6 a 18 anos, em salas de espera de três centros de referência no tratamento da doença na cidade de São Paulo. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Inventário de Comportamentos da Infância e da Adolescência e diário de campo. Os resultados apontaram a prevalência de problemas internalizantes em adolescentes com fibrose cística. A análise do diário de campo indicou dificuldades na adesão ao tratamento e demandas de atendimento psicológico não assistidas em pacientes e seus cuidadores familiares. A ausência de profissional de Psicologia nas equipes multiprofissionais configurou-se como um prejuízo frente as condições psicológicas dos pacientes de fibrose cística e seus cuidadores familiares.(AU)


Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease, still without cure, caused by chromosomal mutations that can affect various systems, the respiratory and digestive systems being the most common. Chronic illness brings psychological changes to patients and their caregivers. Aiming to evaluate internalizing and externalizing problems, and competences of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis, we interviewed 31 family caregivers, mostly mothers, of patients aged 6 to 18 years in waiting rooms of three Reference Centers in the treatment of the disease in the municipality of São Paulo, state of São Paulo. The instruments used were: Child behavior checklist and Field Diary. The results pointed out the prevalence of internalizing problems in patients with cystic fibrosis in adolescence. Field diary analysis indicated difficulties in adherence to treatment and unassisted demands for psychological care in patients and their family caregivers. The absence of a Psychology professional in the multiprofessional teams showed to be prejudicial to the psychological conditions of cystic fibrosis patients and their family caregivers.(AU)


La fibrosis quística es una enfermedad genética, aún sin cura, causada por mutaciones cromosómicas y que puede afectar varios sistemas, entre ellos los sistemas respiratorio y digestivo son los más comunes. La enfermedad crónica trae cambios psicológicos a los pacientes y sus cuidadores. Para evaluar los problemas de internalización y externalización, así como las competencias de niños y adolescentes con fibrosis quística, se entrevistó a 31 cuidadores familiares, en su mayoría madres de pacientes de 6 a 18 años de edad, en salas de espera de tres centros de referencia en el tratamiento de la enfermedad en la ciudad de São Paulo. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Inventario del Comportamiento de Niños y Adolescentes y diario de campo. Los resultados mostraron la prevalencia de problemas de internalización en pacientes con fibrosis quística en la adolescencia. El análisis del diario de campo indicó dificultades en la adherencia al tratamiento y demandas de asistencia psicológica no asistida en pacientes y sus cuidadores familiares. Se hace necesario un profesional de psicología en los equipos multiprofesionales ante las condiciones psicológicas de los pacientes con fibrosis quística y sus cuidadores familiares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Social Behavior , Child Behavior , Cystic Fibrosis , Psychology, Developmental , Internal-External Control , Psychology , Behavior , Chronic Disease , Disease , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Genetics
7.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 347-352, 202112.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353591

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare inherited calcium metabolism disorder in which an alteration of the parathyroid hormone secretion set-point causes hypercalcemia with relative hypocalciuria. Some data suggest that its prevalence is around 74.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Often, patients are asymptomatic. However, they can develop mild symptoms and an overactive parathyroid adenoma, its main differential diagnosis. The objective was to describe a patient's case and highlight the importance of clinical suspicion and diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgical neck explorations for parathyroid adenomas. Case report. This is the case of a 40-year-old man with a biochemical profile compatible with primary hyperparathyroidism with anatomical and functional images negative for adenoma and a calcium/creatinine clearance ratio below 0.001, considering familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Genetic studies evidence a mutation in the calcium sensor receptor gene and confirm the diagnosis. Discussion. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia's main differential diagnosis is an overactive parathyroid adenoma. For both, mild or no symptoms may be present; serum calcium exceeds the upper limit, and parathormone is more than 25pg/ml. The calcium/creatinine clearance ratio should be used to differentiate one from the other and avoid unnecessary surgical neck explorations. Besides the lack of information on this topic, evidence supports the use of calcimimetics to treat symptomatic hypercalcemia. Conclusions. Patients with mild hypercalcemia with parathyroid hormone readings above 25pg/ml and a calcium/creatinine clearance ratio below 0.001, or patients with primary hyperparathyroidism with negative imaging, should not undergo surgical neck explorations. In these cases, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a reliable diagnosis; Cinacalcet may be administered in cases of symptomatic hypercalcemia.


Introducción. La hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar es un trastorno hereditario poco común del metabolismo del calcio en donde una alteración del punto de ajuste de la secreción de hormona paratiroidea ocasiona hipercalcemia con hipocalciuria relativa. Algunos datos sugieren que su prevalencia es de alrededor de 74.1 por 100,000 habitantes. Los pacientes muchas veces son asintomáticos. Sin embargo, pueden desarrollar síntomas leves y un adenoma paratiroideo hiperactivo, que representa su principal diagnóstico diferencial. El objetivo fue describir el caso de un paciente y resaltar la importancia de la sospecha y el diagnóstico clínico para evitar exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales innecesarias en búsqueda de adenomas paratiroideos. Reporte de caso. Este es el caso de un hombre de 40 años con un perfil bioquímico compatible con hiperparatiroidismo primario, con imágenes anatómicas y funcionales negativas para adenoma, además de una relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina menor a 0.001, con consideración de hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar. Los estudios genéticos evidencian una mutación en el gen del receptor sensor del calcio y confirman el diagnóstico. Discusión. El principal diagnóstico diferencial de la hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar es un adenoma paratiroideo hiperactivo. En ambos casos, es posible que no haya síntomas o que estos sean leves; el calcio sérico excede al límite superior, y la paratohormona es mayor de 25pg/ml. Se debe usar la relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina para diferenciar entre estas patologías y evitar exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales innecesarias. Aparte de la falta de información sobre este tema, la evidencia apoya el uso de calciomiméticos para tratar la hipercalcemia sintomática. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con hipercalcemia leve, con valores de hormona paratiroidea mayores de 25pg/ml y con una relación de depuración de calcio/creatinina menor de 0.001, o los pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo primario con imágenes negativas, no deben ser sometidos a exploraciones quirúrgicas cervicales. En estos casos, la hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar representa un diagnóstico confiable; se puede administrar Cinacalcet en casos de hipercalcemia sintomática.


Introdução. A hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar é um distúrbio hereditário raro do metabolismo do cálcio, no qual uma alteração no ponto de ajuste da secreção do hormônio da paratireóide causa hipercalcemia com hipocalciúria relativa. Alguns dados sugerem que sua prevalência gira em torno de 74.1 por 100,000 habitantes. Os pacientes geralmente são assintomáticos. No entanto, eles podem desenvolver sintomas leves e um adenoma de paratireoide hiperativo, que representa seu principal diagnóstico diferencial. O objetivo foi descrever o caso de um paciente e destacar a importância da suspeita clínica e do diagnóstico para evitar exploração cirúrgica cervical desnecessária em busca de adenomas de paratireoide. Relato de caso. É o caso de um homem de 40 anos com perfil bioquímico compatível com hiperparatireoidismo primário, com imagens anatômicas e funcionais negativas para adenoma, além de relação depuração de cálcio/creatinina menor que 0.001, considerando hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar. Estudos genéticos revelam uma mutação no gene receptor da sensibilidade ao cálcio e confirmam o diagnóstico. Discussão. O principal diagnóstico diferencial da hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar é um adenoma de paratireoide hiperativo. Em ambos os casos, os sintomas podem estar ausentes ou leves; o cálcio sérico excede o limite superior e o hormônio da paratireóide é superior a 25pg/ml. A relação depuração de cálcio/creatinina deve ser usada para diferenciar entre essas patologias e evitar exploração cirúrgica cervical desnecessária. Além da falta de informações sobre esta questão, as evidências apoiam o uso de calcimiméticos para tratar a hipercalcemia sintomática. Conclusões. Pacientes com hipercalcemia leve, com valores de hormônio da paratireóide maiores que 25pg/ml e uma relação de depuração de cálcio/creatinina menor que 0.001, ou pacientes com hiperparatireoidismo primário com imagens negativas, não devem ser submetidos a exploração cirúrgica cervical. Nesses casos, a hipercalcemia hipocalciúrica familiar representa um diagnóstico confiável; Cinacalcet pode ser administrado em casos de hipercalcemia sintomática.


Subject(s)
Hypercalcemia , Case Reports , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary , Cinacalcet , Genetics
8.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(3): 1-7, 30 de diciembre del 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352450

ABSTRACT

Introducción: No existe un mecanismo plausible del trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) como causa de epilepsia, sin embargo, su coocurrencia es seguramente el resultado de factores predisponentes para ambas condiciones, incluyendo factores genéticos y ambien-tales. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer la prevalencia de epilepsia en pacientes con TEA y encontrar asociación con otros factores. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal retrospectivo basado en las historias clínicas del Centro de Enfermedades Neurológicas y Nutricionales en Niños y Adolescentes (CENNA) de 81 pacientes (3-19 años) con diagnóstico de TEA, en donde se identificaron a los pacientes con coexistencia epilepsia durante un periodo de 6 años, y las diferentes variables en este grupo. Resultados: Se identificaron 81 pacientes con diagnóstico de TEA, de los cuales 12 pacientes (15%) presentaban coexistencia de epilepsia. Al analizar el grado de TEA, se evidenció que la comorbilidad en ambas entidades es más común en el TEA grado 3 (58.33%). La edad inicio de la epilepsia en el rango entre 5 a 10 años (42%). Se evidencio que el 25% de los pacientes tienen antecedentes familiares de epilepsia, mientras que sólo el 8% tiene ante-cedente familiar de TEA. Todos los tipos de crisis epiléptica se presentaron en los pacientes con TEA, pero las más comunes fueron las crisis de tipo focal (58%), específicamente moto-ras con alteración de la conciencia (33%). Además, existió un 100% de mejoría en el comportamiento autista en los pacientes que recibieron su tratamiento antiepiléptico, y sólo el 8% presentó epilepsia de difícil control. Conclusiones: El estudio mostró una prevalencia significativa de epilepsia en la población con diagnóstico de TEA. El estudio logró observar la distribución de población con comorbilidad de TEA y epilepsia, para en un futuro encontrar una variable común entre ambas patologías. A nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer estudio retrospectivo en Ecuador que analiza la comorbilidad de TEA y epilepsia en la población ecuatoriana


Introduction: Compared to the general population, there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with an indecency of approximately 20%. There is no plausible mechanism for ASD as a cause of epilepsy; however, its cooccurrence is surely the result of predisposing factors for both conditions, including genetic and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in patients with ASD and find a correlation with other factors, such as sex, etiology, type of seizure or epileptic syndrome, age of onset of epilepsy, EEG abnormalities, and therapeutic response. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was carried out based on the clinical records of the Center for Neurological and Nutritional Diseases in Children and Adolescents (CENNA) of 81 patients (3-19 years) with a diagnosis of ASD, where patients coexisted with epilepsy for a period of 6 years, and the different variables in this group. Results: Eighty-one patients with a diagnosis of ASD were identified, of whom 12 patients (15%) had coexisting epilepsy. When analyzing the degree of ASD, it was evidenced that comorbidity in both entities is more common in ASD grade 3 (58.33%). The age of onset of epilepsy ranged between 5 and 10 years (42%). Twenty-five percent of patients had a family history of epilepsy, while only 8% had a family history of ASD. All types of epileptic seizures occurred in patients with ASD, but the most common were focal-type seizures (58%), specifically motor seizures with altered consciousness (33%). In addition, there was a 100% improvement in autistic behavior in the patients who received their antiepileptic treatment, and only 8% had difficult-to-control epilepsy. Conclusion: The study showed a significant prevalence of epilepsy in the population diagnosed with ASD. The study managed to observe the distribution of the population with comorbidities of ASD and epilepsy to find a common variable between both pathologies in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first retrospective study in Ecuador that analyzes the comorbidity of ASD and epilepsy in the Ecuadorian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autistic Disorder , Epilepsy , Child Behavior , Environment , Genetics
9.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(3): 133-138, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El parkinsonismo constituye un conjunto de signos y síntomas clínicos caracterizados por bradicinesia y temblor en reposo o rigidez, cuya causa más frecuente es la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP). La gran mayoría de los casos de EP son esporádicos, sin embargo, existe una minoría en la cual la etiología se debe a una mutación heredada, ya sea autosómica dominante (AD), autosómica recesiva (AR) o herencia ligada al X. La identificación de estas causas heredables es importante para una adecuada consejería genética y tratamiento. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con EP de inicio temprano en el que se identificó una mutación AD en el gen GIGYF2 o PARK11, asociado a una breve revisión de la literatura


SUMMARY Parkinsonism constitutes a set of clinical signs and symptoms characterized by bradykinesia and tremor at rest and / or rigidity. The main etiology is Parkinson's disease (PD), but there are other causes such as atypical parkinsonism. The vast majority of PD cases are sporadic, however, there is a minority where the etiology is due to an inherited mutation, either autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (RA), or X-linked inheritance. Identifying these heritable causes is important for proper genetic counseling and treatment. We present the case of a patient with early-onset PD where an AD mutation in the GIGYF2 gene (PARK11) was identified. We subsequently present a brief review of the literature.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Genetic Loci , Genetics
10.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(2): 137-149, mayo-ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1352099

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los polimorfismos genéticos asociados con las caseínas de la leche son de gran importancia, ya que pueden ser usados como marcadores genéticos para mejorar el rendimiento productivo en los hatos lecheros. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la diversidad y estructura genética de 5 SNP de caseínas de la leche, obtenidos con chips genómicos en vacas y toros de raza Holstein en Antioquia (Colombia). Fueron muestreados 113 animales de raza Holstein en 3 regiones del departamento de Antioquia (norte, centro y oriente) y un cuarto grupo de sementales comerciales. Los animales fueron genotipificados con chips genómicos de alta densidad (Illumina BovineHD e Illumina SNP50 v2), a partir de los cuales se identificaron 5 SNP (ARS-BFGL-NGS-8140, BTA-77380-no-rs, BTA-32346-no-rs, BTB-00821654 y ARS-BFGL-NGS-15809). Para cada SNP se realizó un análisis genético mediante un análisis de varianza molecular (amova) usando el software GenAIEx 6.501. Los SNP con mayor heterocigosidad total (HT) fueron ARS-BFGL-NGS-8140 y BTA-32346-no-rs, con resultados cercanos al 45%; sin embargo, la Ht para ARS-BFGL-NGS-15809, BTA-77380-no-rs y BTB-00821654 estuvo por debajo del 15%. El SNP con mayor diversidad genética fue BTA-32346-no-rs (Ho-He = 0,06; p < 0,05). En esta investigación se evaluó una subpoblación de toros comerciales extranjeros, en la cual se obtuvieron frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas similares a las obtenidas para las subpoblaciones locales, sugiriendo que los alelos de los toros muy posiblemente están fijados en dichas subpoblaciones, por lo que la estructura y diversidad genética tienden a ser bajas en la muestra de estudio.


ABSTRACT Genetic polymorphisms associated with milk caseins have a great importance since they can be used as genetic markers to improve productive performance in dairy herds. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of 5 SNPs of milk caseins, obtained with genomic chip in Holstein cows and bulls from Antioquia (Colombia). 113 Holstein animals were sampled in 3 regions of Antioquia (north, center, and east), and a fourth group of commercial sires. Animals were geno-typed with high-density SNP chips (Illumina BovineHD and Illumina SNP50 v2), from which 5 SNPs were identified (ARS-BFGL-NGS-8140, BTA-77380-no-rs, BTA-32346-no-rs, BTB-00821654 and ARS-BFGL-NGS-15809). For each SNP, a genetic analysis was performed by means of an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using the GenAIEx 6.501 software. The SNPs with the highest total heterozygosity (Ht) were ARS-BFGL-NGS-8140 and BTA-32346-no-rs, with results close to 45%; however, the HT for ARS-BFGL-NGS-15809, BTA-77380-no-rs, and BTB-00821654 were below 15%. The SNP with the highest genetic diversity was BTA-32346-no-rs (Ho-He = 0,06; p < 0,05). In this research a subpopulation of foreign commercial bulls was evaluated, in which similar allelic and genotypic frequencies to those for local subpopulations were obtained, suggesting that the alleles of the bulls are very possibly fixed in these subpopulations, so that the structure and genetic diversity tend to be low in the study sample.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Caseins , Genetic Markers , Milk , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Arum maculatum , Analysis of Variance , Population Density , Colombia , Genetic Structures , Alleles , Genetics , Nucleotides
11.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(1): e456, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251723

ABSTRACT

Cuando Gregor Mendel descubrió las leyes de la herencia, la primera acogida fue la incomprensión. Más de treinta años después, la reacción fue dividida: algunos comenzaron a aplicar su enfoque hasta lograr gigantescos avances en los estudios genéticos durante toda la primera mitad del siglo XX, otros proclamaron a la genética como una pseudociencia. La cabeza visible de esta segunda tendencia fue el ingeniero agrónomo soviético Trofim Denísovich Lysenko (1898-1976), quien afirmaba que los seres vivos podían ser modificados únicamente por el ambiente, sin tener en cuenta su herencia genética. El gran perdedor de aquella polémica fue Lysenko, y con él, la ciencia soviética, y todo lo que ello pudo implicar para el desarrollo de la medicina y la agricultura de aquel gran país. A partir de 1952 los avances de la genética y la biología molecular han marchado a pasos agigantados, y nuestro país no se ha quedado atrás: las vacunas cubanas son resultado de la aplicación de la biotecnología al combate contra el horrendo flagelo de la Covid-19. Crucial en ese avance fue el éxito del proyecto del genoma humano, cuando se lograron descifrar 3200 millones de pares de bases de ADN que contienen unos 20,500 genes. Con la culminación del proyecto del genoma humano en 2003, y en concordancia con las ideas prevalecientes entre los biólogos de aquel momento, se anticipaba que los novedosos métodos genómicos permitirían encontrar las causas y sugerir el tratamiento para las enfermedades crónicas responsables de la mayor parte de la mortalidad entre los seres humanos. Como resultado, se impulsaron estudios de asociación a escala genómica (genome-wide association studies, GWAS). Sin embargo, los resultados de tales estudios fueron bastante modestos. Así, en gemelos se encontró que las bases genéticas comunes podían explicar solamente el 8 por ciento...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tooth, Deciduous , Exposome , Genetics , Molecular Biology
12.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3718, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280433

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers se caracteriza por hiperpigmentación mucocutánea y hamartomas gastrointestinales que pueden aparecer desde el estómago hasta el ano. Tiene un patrón de herencia autosómico dominante y expresividad variable. El diagnóstico se basa en los hallazgos clínicos y la apariencia histológica de los pólipos. No ha sido reportado hasta ahora asociación de esta entidad a telangiectasias y prolapso de la válvula mitral. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos que permitieron establecer el diagnóstico de Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers en un paciente y brindar asesoramiento genético. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad con antecedentes de prolapso de la válvula mitral que acude a consulta de genética clínica con su esposa para solicitar asesoramiento genético, debido a que tienen una hija con diagnóstico de Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers y desean conocer el riesgo de tener otro hijo afectado. Al examen físico se observa mácula hiperpigmentada en labio inferior y varias de estas en encías. Con tales hallazgos y el antecedente de tener la hija Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers se emite el mismo diagnóstico en el padre. Como dato de interés se constatan en este individuo múltiples telangiectasias en tórax, cuello y espalda. Los estudios realizados en busca de la causa de estas fueron negativos. Conclusiones: Los antecedentes y los hallazgos encontrados en el paciente permitieron realizar el diagnóstico de Peutz-Jeghers y brindar asesoramiento genético. Se presenta el primer reporte de esta enfermedad asociada a telangiectasias y prolapso de la válvula mitral en la literatura científica(AU)


Introduction: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation and gastrointestinal hamartomas that can appear from the stomach to the anus. It has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and variable expressiveness. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and histological appearance of the polyps. No association between this entity and telangiectasias and mitral valve prolapse has been reported so far. Objective: To describe the findings that made it possible to establish the diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in a patient and to provide genetic counseling. Case presentation: Thirty-six-year-old male patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse who attends a clinical genetics consultation with his wife to request genetic counseling due to the fact that their daughter was diagnosed with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and they want to know about the risk of having another affected child. On physical examination, a hyperpigmented macule on the lower lip and several of these on the gums were observed. With such findings and the antecedent of having a daughter with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, the same diagnosis is made in the father. As data of interest, multiple telangiectasias on the thorax, neck and back were found in this individual. The studies carried out to identify the same cause were negative. Conclusions: The history and findings in this patient allowed us to make the diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome as well as to provide genetic counselling. The first report of this disease associated with telangiectasias and mitral valve prolapse is presented in the scientific literature(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Telangiectasis/diagnosis , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome/genetics , Mitral Valve Prolapse , Hyperpigmentation , Genetic Counseling/ethics , Genetics , Inheritance Patterns/physiology
13.
Rev. Assoc. Méd. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 65(2): 01022105, Abr. - Jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367450

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: As doenças genéticas, em crianças, abrangem uma ampla gama de condições e causas variadas. Objetivo: Verificar a frequência de doenças neurogenéticas em pacientes pediátricos de 0 a 5 anos atendidos em um ambulatório universitário, e os fatores associados. Métodos: estudo de coorte retrospectivo, realizado com pacientes pediátricos atendidos em 2017, em um ambulatório materno infantil da Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina. Os dados foram obtidos dos prontuários físicos dos pacientes, exclusivos do serviço de neurogenética. Resultados: Foram analisados 82 prontuários de crianças acompanhadas pelo serviço de neurogenética em 2017. A idade das crianças variou entre um mês e um dia e 5,42 anos, sendo 28,0% com um ano completo. A consanguinidade dos pais foi reportada em cinco (6,1%) casos. As principais intercorrências maternas citadas durante a gestação resumiram-se em infecção por citomegalovírus, rubéola, toxoplasmose (2,4%) e infecção do trato urinário (19,5%). Os registros de complicações no ato do nascimento, foram PCR (2,4%), anóxia (1,2%) e Apgar baixo (3,7%). Quanto às intercorrências do neonato no pós-parto, as principais citações foram infecções (19,5%), traumas (20,7%), cirurgia (36,6%) e EIM (30,5%), sendo que um mesmo paciente pode ter apresentado mais de uma intercorrência. Como queixa principal, 23 (28,05%) dos pais referiam atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor das crianças. Como diagnóstico principal, 15,9% constaram Síndrome de Down e 12,3% Transtorno do Espectro Autista. Conclusão: O conhecimento do perfil de crianças acometidas por doenças neurogenéticas é imprescindível para a obtenção do diagnóstico precoce, do tratamento efetivo e melhor prognóstico da doença. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Doenças do sistema nervoso, genética, pré-escolar, estudos epidemiológicos


ABSTRACT Introduction: Genetic diseases in children encompass a wide range of conditions and varied causes. Purpose: To verify the frequency of neurogenetic diseases in pediatric patients aged 0-5 years seen at a university outpatient clinic, and associated factors. Methods: A retrospective cohort study, carried out with pediatric patients seen at a maternal and child clinic at Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina in 2017. Data were obtained from the patients' physical records, exclusive to the neurogenetics service. Results: 82 medical records of children followed by the neurogenetics service in 2017 were analyzed. The children's age ranged from 01 month and one day to 5.42 years, 28.0% over one year old. Parental consanguinity was reported in five (6.1%) cases. The main maternal complications mentioned during pregnancy were cytomegalovirus infection, rubella, toxoplasmosis (2.4%) and urinary tract infections (19,5%). The records of complications at birth were CRP (2.4%), anoxia (1.2%) and Low Apgar (3.7%). As for the complications of the newborn in the postpartum period, the main citations were infections (19.5%), trauma (20.7%), surgery (36.6%) and IEM (30.5%), but a patient may have had more than one complication. As the main complaint, 23 (28.05%) of the parents reported delay in their children's neuropsychomotor development. As the main diagnosis, 15.9% had Down Syndrome and 12.3% had Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Conclusion: Knowledge of the profile of children affected by neurogenetic diseases is essential to obtain an early diagnosis, effective treatment and a better prognosis of the disease. KEYWORDS: Nervous system diseases, genetics, preschool, epidemiologic studies


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Epidemiologic Studies , Genetics , Nervous System Diseases
15.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(5): 238-244, mar.-abr. 2021. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1283917

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una revisión narrativa sobre la genética del hipotiroidismo congénito (HC). Se utilizaron las bases de datos Medline/PubMed, LILACS-BIREME y SciELO. Se identificaron los estudios originales publicados entre 2000 y agosto de 2020. Las palabras clave utilizadas durante la búsqueda fueron las siguientes: "hipotiroidismo congénito (congenital hypothyroidism)", "genética (genetic)", "polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNP) (single polymorphisms nucleotid)". Se revisaron 58 estudios originales que informan las bases moleculares del HC. Se ha definido el concepto básico del HC, así como las bases moleculares que están asociados con la aparición de dicho trastorno. La revisión de la literatura ha permitido identificar al menos 12 genes que codifican las proteínas, las cuales, al producirse mutaciones, están implicadas en el HC. De los 12 genes informados que desempeñan un papel importante en el HC, errores en 6 genes se han vinculado con el HC con disgenesia tiroidea, lo cual implica alteraciones en la morfogénesis de la glándula tiroides, mientras que mutaciones en otros 6 genes se han asociado con dishormonogénesis, que genera un bloqueo total o parcial de los procesos bioquímicos implicados en la síntesis y secreción de hormonas tiroideas. La prevalencia en Sudamérica varía aproximadamente desde 1 por cada 1170 hasta 1 por cada 8285 neonatos. El estudio de la genética molecular pone de manifiesto que, en el futuro, aportará datos importantes en cuanto a la identificación de nuevas mutaciones y asociaciones con fenotipos clínicos que podrían relacionarse con el HC, para, de esta manera, potenciar el diagnóstico y tratamiento


A narrative review was conducted on the genetics of congenital hypothyroidism. The Medline/PubMed, LILACS-BIREME, and SciELO databases were used. Original studies published between 2000 and August 2020 were identified. The keywords used during the search were as follows: "congenital hypothyroidism", "genetics", "polymorphisms SNPs". Fifty-eight original studies reviewing the molecular basis of congenital hypothyroidism were reviewed. The basic concept of congenital hypothyroidism has been defined as well as the molecular bases that are associated with the development of this disorder. The literature review has identified at least 12 genes encoding proteins that, when mutations occur, are involved in congenital hypothyroidism. Of the 12 genes reported to play an important role in congenital hypothyroidism, errors in 6 genes have been associated with congenital hypothyroidism with thyroid dysgenesis, which implies alterations in the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland. On the other hand, mutations in 6 other genes have been associated with dyshormonogenesis that generates a total or partial blockage of the biochemical processes involved in the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. The prevalence in South America is reported to vary from approximately 1 per 1000 to 1 per 8000 newborns. The study of molecular genetics shows that in the future it will contribute to the identification of new mutations and associations with clinical phenotypes that could be related to congenital hypothyroidism, thus enhancing diagnosis and treatment


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Epidemiology , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Genes , Genetics , Databases, Bibliographic
16.
Medisan ; 25(2)mar.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1250352

ABSTRACT

Se describe el caso clínico de un adolescente de 18 años con antecedente patológico de una operación por hipertelorismo en su primer año de vida, quien fue asistido en el Servicio de Nefrología del Hospital Infantil Docente Norte Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira de Santiago de Cuba, debido a una disminución marcada de la función renal, por lo cual requirió terapias sustitutivas. Su estado persistió por más de 3 meses y se consideró como una insuficiencia renal crónica en fase terminal. Se realizaron varios exámenes complementarios en busca de la causa y se interconsultó con otras especialidades, como la de Genética Clínica, por la presencia de trastornos dismórficos; finalmente, se diagnosticó el síndrome de Robinow. El paciente permaneció con hemodiálisis por 2 años hasta que su condición fue estable para recibir un trasplante de riñón.


The case report of an 18 years adolescent is described with pathological history of a surgery due to hypertelorism in his first year of life who was assisted in the Nephrology Service of Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira Northern Teaching Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, due to a marked decrease of the renal function, reason why he required substitute therapies. His condition persisted for more than 3 months and it was considered as a chronic kidney failure in end stage. Several complementary exams were carried out to find out the cause and other specialties participated in the diagnosis, as Clinical Genetics, due to the presence of dysmorphic disorders; finally, Robinow syndrome was diagnosed. The patient remained with hemodialysis for 2 years until her condition was stable to receive a renal transplant.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Genetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Transplantation , Hypertelorism
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 61-77, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151421

ABSTRACT

A obesidade é caracterizada pelo aumento excessivo da gordura corporal e está ligada ao estilo de vida, ao meio ambiente e a genética do indivíduo. O equilíbrio entre ingestão e gasto energético é controlado por mecanismos neurais, hormonais, químicos e genéticos. Estudos sugerem que o gene FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) atua como regulador primário do acúmulo de gordura corporal, quando associado a SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) específicos, predispõe à obesidade. O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar a produção científica, analisar e catalogar os estudos de polimorfismos no gene FTO associados à obesidade e suas comorbidades. A busca por publicações entre 2009 e 2018 foi realizada na base de dados SciELO com a palavra-chave "FTO". Foram encontrados 23 artigos originais dentro dos critérios da pesquisa que correlacionam o FTO à obesidade. O nome do autor principal, país, idioma, ano de publicação, título, objetivo, polimorfismo associado e os resultados dos estudos foram extraídos e organizados para facilitar a tabulação dos dados. Também foram pesquisados os números de citações de cada artigo, utilizando-se a plataforma Google Acadêmico. Embora o Brasil se encontre em primeiro lugar em produção científica para o gene FTO na base de dados prospectada, o número de artigos originais ainda é muito modesto. Assim, os resultados encontrados podem servir de subsídio no delineamento de novas pesquisas sobre os polimorfismos do gene FTO e as causas da obesidade.


Obesity is characterized by the excessive increase in body fat and is correlated to the lifestyle, environment, and also to the genetics of the individual. The balance between energy intake and expenditure is controlled by neural, hormonal, chemical, and genetic mechanisms. Studies suggest that the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated), a gene associated with fat mass, plays a role as a primary regulator of body fat buildup, when associated to specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), causing predisposition to obesity. This paper aimed at reviewing, analyzing, and cataloguing the studies on FTO gene polymorphisms associated with obesity and its comorbidities. The search was carried out in SciELO database, checking articles published between 2009 and 2018 using the keyword "FTO". Twenty-three original articles, matching the research criteria, correlating FTO either positively or negatively with obesity, were found. The main author's name, country, language, year of publication, title, objective, associated polymorphism, and the study results were extracted and organized to facilitate data tabulation. The citation numbers for each article were also searched by using the Google Scholar platform. Although Brazil ranks first in scientific production on the FTO gene in the surveyed database, the number of original articles is still very modest. Therefore, the results found in this paper may be used as a basis for the design of new research on the FTO gene polymorphisms and the causes of obesity.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Obesity/genetics , Satiety Response , Energy Intake/genetics , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue , Lipid Metabolism/genetics , Nutrigenomics , Fats , Genotype , Life Style , Metabolism/genetics
18.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 51-57, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251521

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la enfermedad de Wilson es una enfermedad heterogénea causada por mutaciones en el gen ATP7B. La presentación clínica es variable, en fenotipos hepáticos y neuropsiquiátricos. El objetivo de este estudio es describir una cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes. Materiales y métodos: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe desde enero de 2004 a septiembre de 2017. Resultados: se reportaron 27 pacientes, 17 hombres y 10 mujeres. El tiempo de seguimiento medio fue de 2,18 años, el 40% presentó síntomas neurológicos; el 29%, psiquiátricos; y el 85%, alteración hepática. En el laboratorio, el 85% presentó ceruloplasmina baja; 55%, cobre urinario alto; en casos con biopsia hepática, 7 tenían depósito de cobre en coloraciones especiales. En neuroimágenes, el 84% presentó hallazgos sugestivos de enfermedad de Wilson y en 3 casos se documentó una mutación genética patogénica. Durante el seguimiento, el 51% mejoró clínica o bioquímicamente, el 11% se mantuvo estable y el 18% se deterioró. El 88% de los casos sobrevivió al final del seguimiento. Conclusiones: este estudio es la cohorte retrospectiva más grande de Colombia. Los resultados son base para nuevos estudios poblacionales buscando de manera activa la enfermedad para documentarla en su fase preclínica y, de este modo, impactar en el pronóstico.


Abstract Introduction: Wilson's disease is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Its clinical presentation is variable in hepatic and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. The aim of this study is to describe a retrospective cohort of patients. Materials and methods: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out in patients treated at the Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe from January 2004 to September 2017. Results: 27 patients were reported, 17 men and 10 women. The mean follow-up time was 2.18 years. 40% of the patients had neurological symptoms, 29% psychiatric symptoms, and 85% hepatic impairment. Lab tests showed that 85% had low ceruloplasmin and 55% had increased urinary copper. In cases that underwent liver biopsy, 7 had special copper colorations. Neuroimaging revealed that 84% had findings suggestive of Wilson's disease and a pathogenic genetic mutation was documented in 3 cases. During follow-up, 51% improved clinically or biochemically, 11% remained stable, and 18% deteriorated. 88% of cases survived at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: This study is the largest retrospective cohort carried out in Colombia. The results are the basis for new population-based studies actively seeking this disease to describe its preclinical development and thus impact prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Copper , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Signs and Symptoms , Disease , Retrospective Studies , Genetics , Liver
19.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 25: e1380, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1340532

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento de enfermeiros em genética e genômica aplicado ao câncer de mama. Método: estudo transversal com a aplicação de um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores a enfermeiros assistenciais, maiores de 18 anos, atuantes na atenção secundária e terciária, no município de Belém do Pará, região Norte do Brasil. Realizada técnica de amostragem por conveniência em relação aos locais de coleta e amostragem aleatória simples para o número amostral mínimo de 71 participantes. Resultados: foram abordados 80 enfermeiros com idade média de 42 anos, sendo a maior parte de especialistas. Verificaram-se diferenças entre o nível da atenção em que os enfermeiros atuam e o primeiro contato com genética e/ou genômica (p<0,001); entre o conceito de DNA (p<0,0001); o conhecimento sobre o heredograma (p=0,004); conhecimento sobre a faixa etária do rastreamento mamográfico com risco familiar (p=0,027); o exame clínico realizado por um médico ou enfermeira treinados, anualmente, a partir de 40 anos (p=0,005). A maioria dos casos de CA de mama ocorre devido a alterações genéticas hereditárias (p=0,0004) e da menarca precoce, menopausa tardia, nuliparidade, alterações hormonais, sedentarismo, sobrepeso, tabagismo e terapia hormonal, que são os principais fatores de risco para o câncer de mama esporádico (p=0,0039). Conclusão: identificou-se uma lacuna de conhecimento sobre os conceitos de genética e genômica aplicados ao câncer de mama entre os dois grupos.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos de enfermeros en genética y genómica aplicadas al cáncer de mama. Método: estudio transversal con la aplicación de un cuestionario desarrollado por los autores a enfermeros asistenciales, mayores de 18 años, que trabajan en la atención secundaria y terciaria, en la ciudad de Belém do Pará, región norte de Brasil. Se realizó una técnica de muestreo por conveniencia con relación a los sitios de recolección y muestreo aleatorio simple para una muestra mínima de 71 participantes. Resultados: se abordó a 80 enfermeros con una edad promedio de 42 años, la mayoría especialistas. Hubo diferencias entre el nivel de atención en el que trabajan los enfermeros y el primer contacto con la genética y / o genómica (p <0,001); entre el concepto de ADN (p <0,0001); conocimiento sobre el árbol genealógica (p = 0,004); conocimiento sobre el grupo de edad de cribado mamográfico con riesgo familiar (p = 0,027); el examen clínico realizado por un médico o enfermero capacitado, anualmente, a partir de los 40 años (p = 0,005). La mayoría de los casos de CA de mama se producen por alteraciones genéticas hereditarias (p = 0,0004) y menarquia precoz, menopausia tardía, mujeres que nunca han parido, cambios hormonales, sedentarismo, sobrepeso, tabaquismo y terapia hormonal, que son los principales factores de riesgo de cáncer de mama esporádico (p = 0,0039). Conclusión: entre los dos grupos se identificó una brecha de conocimiento sobre los conceptos de genética y genómica aplicados al cáncer de mama.


ABSTRACT Objective: to identify nurse's knowledge in genetics and genomics applied to breast cancer. Method: a cross-sectional study with the application of a questionnaire developed by the authors to clinical nurses, over 18 years old, working in secondary and tertiary care, in the city of Belém do Pará, the northern region of Brazil. Convenience sampling technique was performed in the collection places and simple random sampling for a minimum sample number of 71 participants. Results: Eighty nurses with an average age of 42 years old were approached, most of the experts. There were differences between the level of care in which nurses work and the first contact with genetics and/or genomics (p<0.001); between the concept of DNA (p<0.0001); knowledge about the genogram (p=0.004); knowledge about the age group of mammographic screening with familial risk (p=0.027); the clinical examination performed by a trained physician or nurse, annually, from 40 years old (p=0.005). Most cases of breast cancer occur due to hereditary genetic changes (p=0.0004) and early menarche, late menopause, nulliparity, hormonal changes, sedentary lifestyle, overweight, smoking, and hormonal therapy, which are the main risks factors for sporadic breast cancer (p=0.0039). Conclusion: a knowledge gap about the concepts of genetics and genomics applied to breast cancer was identified between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Genomics , Genetics , Secondary Care , Tertiary Healthcare , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Nurses
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(1): e200082, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1287436

ABSTRACT

The migratory catfish Brachyplatystoma vaillantii is one of the most important fishery resources in the Amazon. Intense capture occurs associated to its life cycle. In order to know the genetic status, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region from 150 individuals of B. vaillantii, collected in five fishing landing locations, covering the length of the Solimões-Amazonas River in Brazil. Genetic diversity parameters suggest there is no genetic differentiation between the five localities. Population's expansion indicated by R 2 and Fu's Fs tests was also confirmed by the high number of unique haplotypes found. The Analyses of molecular variance indicated that nearly all variability was contained within locations (99.86%), and estimates of gene flow among B. vaillantii were high (F ST = 0.0014). These results suggest that Brachyplatystoma vaillantii forms a panmitic population along the Solimões-Amazonas River and, has greater genetic variability than other species of the Brachyplatystoma genus available so far. Although the influence of different tributaries on B. vaillantii migration patterns remains uncertain, a single population in the main channel should be consider in future policies for management of this resource. However, since the species' life cycle uses habitats in several countries, its management and conservation depend greatly of internationally joined efforts.(AU)


O bagre migrador, Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, é um dos mais importantes recursos pesqueiros da Amazônia. Intensa captura ocorre associada ao seu ciclo de vida. Para conhecer seu status genético, sequenciamos a região de controle do DNA mitocondrial de 150 indivíduos, coletados em cinco locais de desembarque pesqueiro, abrangendo toda a extensão do rio Solimões-Amazonas no Brasil. Os parâmetros de diversidade genética sugerem que não existe diferenciação genética entre as cinco localidades amostradas. A expansão populacional indicada pelos testes R 2 e Fs de Fu, também foi confirmada pelo elevado número de haplótipos únicos encontrados. A análise de variância molecular indicou que quase toda a variabilidade estava contida nas localidades (99,86%), e as estimativas de fluxo gênico desta espécie eram altas (F ST = 0,0014). Esses resultados sugerem que Brachyplatystoma vaillantii forma uma população panmítica ao longo do rio Solimões-Amazonas com maior variabilidade genética que outras espécies do gênero Brachyplatystoma disponíveis no momento. Embora a influência dos diferentes afluentes na migração de B. vaillantii permaneça incerta, em futuras políticas de gestão deste recurso deve-se considerá-lo como uma única população no canal principal. Entretanto, uma vez que seu ciclo de vida abrange habitats em vários países, seu manejo e conservação dependem muito de esforços internacionais em conjunto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Catfishes , Ecosystem , Fisheries , Forecasting , Genetics
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