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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339409

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/genetics , Genome, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Base Composition , Genome Size
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880484

ABSTRACT

The dynamic activity of transposable elements (TEs) contributes to the vast diversity of genome size and architecture among plants. Here, we examined the genomic distribution and transposition activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and three of its relatives, Arabidopsis lyrata (Aly), Eutrema salsugineum (Esa), and Schrenkiella parvula (Spa), in Brassicaceae. Our analyses revealed the distinct evolutionary dynamics of Gypsyretrotransposons, which reflects the different patterns of genome size changes of the four species over the past million years. The rate of Gypsy transposition in Aly is approximately five times more rapid than that of Ath and Esa, suggesting an expanding Aly genome. Gypsy insertions in Esa are strictly confined to pericentromeric heterochromatin and associated with dramatic centromere expansion. In contrast, Gypsy insertions in Spa have been largely suppressed over the last million years, likely as a result of a combination of an inherent molecular mechanism of preferential DNA removal and purifying selection at Gypsy elements. Additionally, species-specific clades of Gypsy elements shaped the distinct genome architectures of Aly and Esa.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Retroelements , Species Specificity
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764240

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is one of the pathogens which is transmitted world widely, but there are no effective drugs and vaccines. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of viruses could be applied to viral pathogen characterization, diagnosis, molecular surveillance, and even finding novel pathogens. We established an improved method using direct RNA sequencing with Nanopore technology to obtain WGS of ZIKV, after adding poly (A) tails to viral RNA. This established method does not require specific primers, complimentary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based enrichment, resulting in the reduction of biases as well as of the ability to find novel RNA viruses. Nanopore technology also allows to read long sequences. It makes WGS easier and faster with long-read assembly. In this study, we obtained WGS of two strains of ZIKV following the established protocol. The sequenced reads resulted in 99% and 100% genome coverage with 63.5X and 21,136X, for the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains, respectively. The sequence identities of the ZIKV PRVABC59 and MR 766 strains for each reference genomes were 98.76% and 99.72%, respectively. We also found that the maximum length of reads was 10,311 bp which is almost the whole genome size of ZIKV. These long-reads could make overall structure of whole genome easily, and WGS faster and easier. The protocol in this study could provide rapid and efficient WGS that could be applied to study the biology of RNA viruses including identification, characterization, and global surveillance.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biology , Diagnosis , DNA , Genome , Genome Size , Methods , Nanopores , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Viruses , RNA , RNA, Viral , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Tail , Vaccines , Zika Virus
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29886

ABSTRACT

The emergence of regenerative medicine has raised the hope of treating an extraordinary range of disease and serious injuries. Understanding the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation and pattern formation in regenerative organisms could help find ways to enhance the poor regenerative abilities shown by many other animals, including humans. Recently, planarians have emerged as an attractive model in which to study regeneration. These animals are considering as in vivo plate, during which we can study the behavior and characristics of stem cells in their own niche. A variety of characteristic such as: simplicity, easy to manipulate experimentally, the existence of more than 100 years of literature, makes these animals an extraordinary model for regenerative medicine researches. Among planarians free-living freshwater hermaphrodite Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a suitable model system because it displays robust regenerative properties and, unlike most other planarians, it is a stable diploid with a genome size of about 4.8x108 base pairs, nearly half that of other common planarians. Planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of anybody region. neoblasts represent roughly 25~30 percent of all planarian cells and are scattered broadly through the parenchyma, being absent only from the animal head tips and the pharynx. Two models for neo-blast specification have been proposed; the naive model posits that all neoblasts are stem cells with the same potential and are a largely homogeneous population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Pairing , Cell Proliferation , Diploidy , Fresh Water , Genome Size , Head , Hope , Humans , Muscle Cells , Pharynx , Planarians , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cells
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1086-1087, 12/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732603

ABSTRACT

The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs. .


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Base Composition , Brazil , Cross Infection/microbiology , Genome Size , Open Reading Frames , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162998

ABSTRACT

Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is a spherical plant virus that has a single 6.3 kb positive strand RNA as a genome. Previously, we have made the recombinant TYMV construct containing a 0.7 kb eGFP gene or a 1.8 kb GUS gene. The genomic RNAs from these constructs were efficiently encapsidated. To examine in more detail whether size constraint exists for replication and packaging of TYMV, we have inserted into the TY-GUS an extra sequence derived from either eGFP or GUS. We also made a recombinant containing RNA1 sequence of Flock house virus. These TYMV recombinants were introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by agroinfiltration. Northern blot analysis of the viral RNAs in the agroinfiltrated leaves showed that the genomic RNA band from the recombinant TYMV became weaker as longer sequence was inserted. The result also showed that the efficiency of genomic RNA encapsidation decreased sharply when an extra sequence of 2.2 kb or more was inserted. In contrast, the recombinant subgenomic RNA containing an extra sequence of up to 3.2 kb was efficiently encapsidated. Overall, these results show that size constraint exists for replication and encapsidation of TYMV RNA.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Northern , Genome , Genome Size , Plant Viruses , Product Packaging , RNA , RNA, Viral , Tobacco , Tymovirus
7.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 87-97, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91765

ABSTRACT

Although the number of protein-coding genes is not highly variable between plant taxa, the DNA content in their genomes is highly variable, by as much as 2,056-fold from a 1C amount of 0.0648 pg to 132.5 pg. The mean 1C-value in plants is 2.4 pg, and genome size expansion/contraction is lineage-specific in plant taxonomy. Transposable element fractions in plant genomes are also variable, as low as ~3% in small genomes and as high as ~85% in large genomes, indicating that genome size is a linear function of transposable element content. Of the 2 classes of transposable elements, the dynamics of class 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons is a major contributor to the 1C value differences among plants. The activity of LTR retrotransposons is under the control of epigenetic suppressing mechanisms. Also, genome-purging mechanisms have been adopted to counter-balance the genome size amplification. With a wealth of information on whole-genome sequences in plant genomes, it was revealed that several genome-purging mechanisms have been employed, depending on plant taxa. Two genera, Lilium and Fritillaria, are known to have large genomes in angiosperms. There were twice times of concerted genome size evolutions in the family Liliaceae during the divergence of the current genera in Liliaceae. In addition to the LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and satellite DNAs contributed to the huge genomes in the two genera by possible failure of genome counter-balancing mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida , Classification , DNA , DNA Transposable Elements , DNA, Satellite , Epigenomics , Fritillaria , Genome , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Humans , Liliaceae , Lilium , Plants , Retroelements , Terminal Repeat Sequences
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 540-549, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342463

ABSTRACT

Single-cell prokaryotes represent a simple and primitive cellular life form. The identification of the essential genes of bacteria and the minimal genome for the free-living cellular life could provide insights into the origin, evolution, and essence of life forms. The principles, methodology, and recent progresses in the identification of essential genes and minimal genome and the creation of synthetic cells are reviewed and particularly the strategies for creating the minimal genome and the potential applications are introduced.


Subject(s)
Artificial Cells , Metabolism , Bacteria , Genetics , Genes, Essential , Genome Size , Genome, Bacterial , Genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Genetics , Synthetic Biology , Methods
9.
Korean Leprosy Bulletin ; : 47-56, 2001.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46957

ABSTRACT

The method of cell lysate preparation of M. leprae is an important technique in the study of leprosy. This report describes the optimization of method for cell lysate preparation of M. leprae obtained from infected nude mouse. After M. leprae isolated from nude mouse foot-pad was disrupted by sonication, it was centrifuged and then whole lysate was prepared. With this method it was possible to isolate 0.3 mg whole cell lysate using 20 mg of M. leprae. By SDS-PAGE and Coomassie blue staining, the number of protein in M. leprae is less than that of other bacteria, for example, E. coli and M. smegmatis. It is likely that this is due to the small genome size. This work will contribute to the analysis of new protein antigen of M. leprae and the basic study for the development of vaccine in leprosy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genome Size , Leprosy , Mice , Mice, Nude , Sonication
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89387

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of type B gastritis and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Strategies for the control of H. pylori- induced gastroduodenal diseases based on conventional measures are still of limited utility. Therefore, it seems worthwhile to make a break-through as an alternative strategy by reviewing the host-parasite relationship of H. pylori infection on the basis of genomic structure. In this study, we tried to construct a physical map of H. pylori genome. Chromosomal DNA from a Korean prototype strain, H. pylori 51 was digested with 42 restriction endonucleases to identify restriction patterns suitable for mapping the genome. We identified three enzymes, ApaI, NotI and Sfil, which gave a small number of DNA fragments of higher molecular weight that were well resolved after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The H. pylori chromosome contained 7 ApaI fragments ranging from 167 to 311 kb, 7 NotI fragments ranging from 5 to 516 kb and 2 SfiI fragments of 332 and 1,347 kb in size. The genome size of the strain is 1,679 kb. A circular physical map of the H. pylori chromosome was constructed by aligning 3 kinds of restriction fragments by Southern blot analysis of simple ApaI, NotI and SfiI digests or double NotI/ApaI and NotI/SfiI digests with the various probes. When the physical map of H. pylori strain 51 compared with that of strain 26695 of which the cornplete genome sequence was reported, completely different restriction patterns were shown, which suggests the genomic diversity in H. pylori.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Southern , DNA , DNA Restriction Enzymes , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Gastritis , Genome , Genome Size , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Host-Parasite Interactions , Molecular Weight , Peptic Ulcer , Stomach Neoplasms
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