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1.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(4): 237-245, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289692

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Mitochondrial and oxidative stress has been related to obesity and breast cancer being this cancer more frequent and more aggressive in postmenopausal women with obesity. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women with breast cancer and obesity present different somatic mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) when compared to women with normal body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods We included six Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women bearing breast cancer and who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. BMI was determined in each case. Patients’ genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes and tumor tissue samples. Whole mtDNA sequence was determined by MitoChip v2.0 mitochondrial resequencing array, and data were analyzed using the GeneChip Sequence Analysis Software. Tumor mtDNA sequence was compared with matched leukocyte mtDNA sequence. Results Three women had a normal BMI and three presented obesity. Overall, we found 64 genetic variants: 53.1% were somatic mutations and 46.9% were polymorphisms; 44.1% were in the non-coding region and 55.9% were in genes that encode for mitochondrial proteins. Among the somatic mutations, 67.7% were in patients with normal BMI and 32.3% in patients with obesity. Conclusions We did not find a higher frequency of mitochondrial somatic mutations in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and obesity compared to those with normal BMI. However, results could be due to the small number of women studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Postmenopause , Genome, Mitochondrial , Obesity/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Mastectomy, Segmental/methods , Body Mass Index , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Mastectomy/methods , Mexico
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742304

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to determine the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of Spirometra ranarum, and to compare it with those of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The aim of this study was to provide information of the species level taxonomy of Spirometra spp. using the mitochondrial genomes of 3 Spirometra tapeworms. The S. ranarum isolate originated from Myanmar. The mitochondrial genome sequence of S. ranarum was compared with that of S. erinaceieuropaei (GenBank no. KJ599680) and S. decipiens (Gen-Bank no. KJ599679). The complete mtDNA sequence of S. ranarum comprised 13,644 bp. The S. ranarum mt genome contained 36 genes comprising 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The mt genome lacked the atp8 gene, as found for other cestodes. All genes in the S. ranarum mitochondrial genome are transcribed in the same direction and arranged in the same relative position with respect to gene loci as found for S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens mt genomes. The overall nucleotide sequence divergence of 12 protein-coding genes between S. ranarum and S. decipiens differed by 1.5%, and 100% sequence similarity was found in the cox2 and nad6 genes, while the DNA sequence divergence of the cox1, nad1, and nad4 genes of S. ranarum and S. decipiens was 2.2%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Cestoda , Classification , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genes, vif , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Myanmar , RNA, Transfer , Spirometra
3.
Blood Research ; : 240-249, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations may regulate the progression and chemosensitivity of leukemia. Few studies regarding mitochondrial aberrations and haplogroups in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and their clinical impacts have been reported. Therefore, we focused on the mtDNA length heteroplasmies minisatellite instability (MSI), copy number alterations, and distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups in Korean patients with AML. METHODS: This study investigated 74 adult patients with AML and 70 controls to evaluate mtDNA sequence alterations, MSI, mtDNA copy number, haplogroups, and their clinical implications. The hypervariable (HV) control regions (HV1 and HV2), tRNA(leu1)gene, and cytochrome b gene of mtDNA were analyzed. Two mtDNA minisatellite markers, 16189 poly-C (¹⁶¹⁸⁴CCCCCTCCCC¹⁶¹⁹³, 5CT4C) and 303 poly-C (³⁰³CCCCCCCTCCCCC³¹⁵, 7CT5C), were used to examine the mtDNA MSI. RESULTS: In AML, most mtDNA sequence variants were single nucleotide substitutions, but there were no significant differences compared to those in controls. The number of mtMSI patterns increased in AML. The mean mtDNA copy number of AML patients increased approximately 9-fold compared to that of controls (P < 0.0001). Haplogroup D4 was found in AML with a higher frequency compared to that in controls (31.0% vs. 15.7%, P=0.046). None of the aforementioned factors showed significant impacts on the outcomes. CONCLUSION: AML cells disclosed more heterogeneous patterns with the mtMSI markers and had increased mtDNA copy numbers. These findings implicate mitochondrial genome instability in primary AML cells. Therefore, mtDNA haplogroup D4 might be associated with AML risk among Koreans.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cytochromes b , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Minisatellite Repeats
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742270

ABSTRACT

Triatoma rubrofasciata is a wide-spread vector of Chagas disease in Americas. In this study, we completed the mitochondrial genome sequencing of T. rubrofasciata. The total length of T. rubrofasciata mitochondrial genome was 17,150 bp with the base composition of 40.4% A, 11.6% G, 29.4% T and 18.6% C. It included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. We constructed a phylogenetic tree on the 13 protein-coding genes of T. rubrofasciata and other 13 closely related species to show their phylogenic relationship. The determination of T. rubrofasciata mitogenome would play an important role in understanding the genetic diversity and evolution of triatomine bugs.


Subject(s)
Americas , Base Composition , Chagas Disease , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Variation , Genome, Mitochondrial , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer , Trees , Triatoma
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742246

ABSTRACT

Human sparganosis was diagnosed by morphological and genetic analyses in Korea. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens isolated in Korea have been recorded. Present study was performed to provide information to diagnose the etiologic agent of sparganosis by multiplex PCR using mitochondrial genome sequences of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. In an effort to examine the differential diagnosis of spirometrid tapeworms, multiplex PCR assays were performed on plerocercoid larvae of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The PCR products obtained using species-specific primers were positively detected in all PCR assays on mixture of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens DNA. S. erinaceieuropaei-specific bands (239 bp and 401 bp) were obtained from all PCR assays using a mixture of S. erinaceieuropaei-specific primers (Se/Sd-1800F and Se-2018R; Se/Sd-7955F and Se-8356R) and S. erinaceieuropaei template DNA. S. decipiens-specific bands (540 bp and 644 bp) were also detected in all PCR assays containing mixtures of S. decipiens-specific primers (Se/Sd-1800F and Sd-2317R; Se/Sd-7955F and Sd-8567R) and S. decipiens template DNA. Sequence analyses on these species-specific bands revealed 100% sequence identity with homologous regions of the mtDNA sequences of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens. The multiplex PCR assay was useful for differential diagnosis of human sparganosis by detecting different sizes in species-specific bands.


Subject(s)
Cestoda , Diagnosis, Differential , DNA , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Sparganosis , Sparganum , Spirometra
6.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2018. 59 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026261

ABSTRACT

As espécies de simulídeos são vetores de filárias, como as do gênero Onchocerca e Mansonella, que são os agentes etiológicos da oncocercose e mansonellose, respectivamente. Essas duas filárias ocorrem na região Amazônica brasileira e são transmitidas pelas seguintes espécies de vetores: Simulium incrustatum, S. limbatum, S. oyapockense, S. exiguum, S. guianense, e S. roraimense. As espécies de Simulium tem sido designada com base em caracteres morfológicos, os quais, em alguns casos, não são bem discriminativos. Recentemente, o gene mitocondrial Citocromo c-oxidase 1 (CO1) e a região nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) tem sido utilizados para descriminar espécies e definir populações dentro deste gênero. Entretanto, existe um grande gap acerca da informação genética de Simulium, o qual é considerado a linha de base para estudos ecológicos e populacionais. Considerando este cenário, nosso objetivo foi aplicar a metagenômica para recuperar genomas mitocondriais de amostras brasileiras S. incrustatum e S. oyapockense do foco de oncocercose e também a informação genética a respeito de seus microbiomas. O DNA total de dez simulídeos, morfologicamente identificados como S. incrustatum (3) e S. oyapockense (7) foram sequenciados randomicamente na plataforma Illumina HiSeq 2500. Nós recuperamos dez genomas mitocondriais com cobertura média de 15,591 bp e conteúdo médio de GC de 22,94 %, apresentando o mesmo conteúdo gênico e em sintenia. Baseado nestes mitogenomas, no gene mitocondrial CO1, e também na região nuclear (ITS), realizamos análises filogenéticas que mostraram a presença de três espécies conhecidas dentre as amostras: S. incrustatum, S. oyapockense e S. guianense, e também um grupo de amostras pertencentes à Simulium spp. Nós também recuperamos um genoma mitocondrial de Onchocerca volvulus da amostra aqui identificada como S. guianense.


Análises taxonômicas do microbioma dos simulídeos revelaram Proteobacteria e Ascomycota como os filos mais abundantes. A análise funcional revelou que a família de enzimas das Transcriptases Reversas são as mais abundantes. Portanto, nós contribuímos com informação genética original preenchendo parte do viés a respeito das espécies de Simulium associadas ao foco brasileiro de oncocercose. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Onchocerciasis , Simuliidae , Onchocerca volvulus , Genome, Mitochondrial , Metagenomics
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1078-1080, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87976

ABSTRACT

A 3-year-old girl presented with congenital orbital fibrosis. We performed molecular genetic analysis by whole exome and mitochondrial genome sequencing. No pathologic mutation was identified in the present case. To our best knowledge, this study presents the first report on the findings of mutational analysis of a patient with congenital orbital fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Exome , Female , Fibrosis , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Molecular Biology , Orbit
8.
Biol. Res ; 50: 34, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950877

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reveal the mitochondrial genomes (mtgenomes) of Tetrix japonica and Alulatettix yunnanensis, and the phylogenetics of Orthoptera species. METHODS: The mtgenomes of A. yunnanensis and T. japonica were firstly sequenced and assembled through partial sequences amplification, and then the genome organization and gene arrangement were analyzed. Based on nucleotide/amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes and whole mtgenomes, phylogenetic trees were established on 37 Orthoptera species and 5 outgroups, respectively. RESULTS: Except for a regulation region (A+T rich region), a total of 37 genes were found in mtgenomes of T. japonicaand A. yunnanensis, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, which exhibited similar characters with other Orthoptera species. Phylogenetic tree based on 13 concatenated protein-coding nucleotide sequences were considered to be more suitable for phylogenetic reconstruction of Orthoptera species than amino acid sequences and mtgenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of Caelifera species were Acridoidea and Pamphagoidea > Pyrgomorphoidea > Pneumoroidea > Eumastacoidea > Tetrigoidea > Tridactyloidea. Besides, a sister-group relationship between Tettigonioidea and Rhaphidophoroidea was revealed in Ensifera. CONCLUSION: Concatenated protein-coding nucleotide sequences of 13 genes were suitable for reconstruction of phylogenetic relationship in orthopteroid species. Tridactyloidea was a sister group of Tetrigoidea in Caelifera, and Rhaphidophoroidea was a sister group of Tettigonioidea in Ensifera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics , Grasshoppers/genetics , Phylogeny , Base Sequence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Grasshoppers/classification
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287162

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze changes in gene amplification in the mitochondrial genome and in the ID4 gene promoter methylation region in patients with chronic aplastic anemia (CAA) suffering from Kidney (Shen) yin deficiency or Kidney yang deficiency.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Bone marrow and oral epithelium samples were collected from CAA patients with Kidney yin deficiency or Kidney yang deficiency (20 cases). Bone marrow samples were collected from 20 healthy volunteers. The mitochondrial genome was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were used for sequencing and analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Higher mutational rates were observed in the ND1-2, ND4-6, and CYTB genes in CAA patients suffering from Kidney yin deficiency. Moreover, the ID4 gene was unmethylated in bone marrow samples from healthy individuals, but was methylated in some CAA patients suffering from Kidney yin deficiency (positive rate, 60%) and Kidney yang deficiency (positive rate, 55%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These data supported that gene mutations can alter the expression of respiratory chain enzyme complexes in CAA patients, resulting in energy metabolism impairment and promoting the physiological and pathological processes of hematopoietic failure. Functional impairment of the mitochondrial respiration chain induced by gene mutation may be an important reason for hematopoietic failure in patients with CAA. This change is closely related to maternal inheritance and Kidney yin deficiency. Finally, these data supported the assertion that it is easy to treat disease in patients suffering from yang deficiency and difficult to treat disease in patients suffering from yin deficiency.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia, Aplastic , Genetics , Base Sequence , Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Pathology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Chronic Disease , DNA Methylation , Genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Female , Genome, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Humans , Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins , Genetics , Kidney , Pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Yin Deficiency , Genetics , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57434

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma hortense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is one of the intestinal flukes with medical importance in humans. However, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of this fluke has not been known yet. The present study has determined the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense and assessed the phylogenetic relationships with other digenean species for which the complete mt genome sequences are available in GenBank using concatenated amino acid sequences inferred from 12 protein-coding genes. The mt genome of E. hortense contained 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region. The length of the mt genome of E. hortense was 14,994 bp, which was somewhat smaller than those of other trematode species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequence datasets for all 12 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) method showed that E. hortense and Hypoderaeum conoideum gathered together, and they were closer to each other than to Fasciolidae and other echinostomatid trematodes. The availability of the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, population genetics, and evolutionary studies of digeneans.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Dataset , Echinostoma , Echinostomatidae , Fasciolidae , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Markers , Genetics, Population , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , RNA, Transfer , Trematoda
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, the association between pediatric AML and mitochondrial aberrations has not been studied. We investigated various mitochondrial aberrations in pediatric AML and evaluated their impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Sequencing, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number determination, mtDNA 4,977-bp large deletion assessments, and gene scan analyses were performed on the bone marrow mononuclear cells of 55 pediatric AML patients and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 55 normal controls. Changes in the mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were also examined. RESULTS: mtDNA copy numbers were about two-fold higher in pediatric AML cells than in controls (P<0.0001). Furthermore, a close relationship was found between mtDNA copy number tertiles and the risk of pediatric AML. Intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial mass, and mitochondrial membrane potentials were all elevated in pediatric AML. The frequency of the mtDNA 4,977-bp large deletion was significantly higher (P< 0.01) in pediatric AML cells, and pediatric AML patients harboring high amount of mtDNA 4,977-bp deletions showed shorter overall survival and event-free survival rates, albeit without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate an association between mitochondrial genome alterations and the risk of pediatric AML.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Gene Deletion , Gene Dosage , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Male , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Minisatellite Repeats/genetics , Odds Ratio , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Survival Rate
12.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 90-95, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117342

ABSTRACT

Nuclear mitochondrial DNA segment (Numt) insertion describes a well-known phenomenon of mitochondrial DNA transfer into a eukaryotic nuclear genome. However, it has not been well understood, especially in plants. Numt insertion patterns vary from species to species in different kingdoms. In this study, the patterns were surveyed in nine plant species, and we found some tip-offs. First, when the mitochondrial genome size is relatively large, the portion of the longer Numt is also larger than the short one. Second, the whole genome duplication event increases the ratio of the shorter Numt portion in the size distribution. Third, Numt insertions are enriched in exon regions. This analysis may be helpful for understanding plant evolution.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial , Exons , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Plants
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72751

ABSTRACT

Toxascaris leonina is a common parasitic nematode of wild mammals and has significant impacts on the protection of rare wild animals. To analyze population genetic characteristics of T. leonina from South China tiger, its mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced. Its complete circular mt genome was 14,277 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A and T. The most common start codon and stop codon were TTG and TAG, and 4 genes ended with an incomplete stop codon. There were 13 intergenic regions ranging 1 to 10 bp in size. Phylogenetically, T. leonina from a South China tiger was close to canine T. leonina. This study reports for the first time a complete mt genome sequence of T. leonina from the South China tiger, and provides a scientific basis for studying the genetic diversity of nematodes between different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Bias , China , Codon, Initiator , Codon, Terminator , DNA, Intergenic , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Variation , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Mammals , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis , Tigers , Toxascaris
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92515

ABSTRACT

Armillifer agkistrodontis (Ichthyostraca: Pantastomida) is a parasitic pathogen, only reported in China, which can cause a zoonotic disease, pentastomiasis. A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was 16,521 bp comprising 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (NCR). A phylogenetic tree drawn with the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 6 conserved PCGs (atp6, cox1-3, and nad2) showed that A. agkistrodontis and Armillifer armillatus constituted a clade Pentastomida which was a sister group of the Branchiura. The complete mt genome sequence of A. agkistrodontis provides important genetic markers for both phylogenetic and epidemiological studies of pentastomids.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , China , Epidemiologic Studies , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Markers , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Pentastomida , RNA, Transfer , Siblings , Tongue , Trees , Zoonoses
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166318

ABSTRACT

The 2 species of the genus Anoplocephala (Anoplocephalidae), A. perfoliata and A. magna, are among the most important equine cestode parasites. However, there is little information about their differences at the molecular level. The present study revealed that the mitochondrial (mt) genome of A. magna was 13,759 bp in size and 700 bp shorter than that of A. perfoliata. The 2 species includes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 12 protein-coding genes each. The size of each of the 36 genes was the same as that of A. perfoliata, except for cox1, rrnL, trnC, trnS2(UCN), trnG, trnH, trnQ, and trnP. In the full mitochondrial genome, the sequence similarity was 87.1%. The divergence in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of individual protein-coding genes ranged from 11.1% to 16% and 6.8% to 16.4%, respectively. The 2 noncoding regions of the mt genome of A. magna were 199 bp and 271 bp in length, while the equivalent regions in A. perfoliata were 875 bp and 276 bp, respectively. The results of this study support the proposal that A. magna and A. perfoliata are separate species, consistent with previous morphological analyses.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cestoda , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Parasites , RNA, Transfer
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(1)2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794405

ABSTRACT

The complete mitogenome of Corydoras nattereri , a species of mailed catfishes from southeastern Brazil, was reconstructed using next-generation sequencing techniques. The mitogenome was assembled using mitochondrial transcripts from the liver transcriptomes of three individuals, and produced a circular DNA sequence of 16,557 nucleotides encoding 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and two noncoding control regions (D-loop, OrigL). Phylogeographic analysis of closely related sequences of Cytochrome Oxydase C subunit I (COI) demonstrates high diversity among morphologically similar populations of C. nattereri . Corydoras nattereri is nested within a complex of populations currently assigned to C. paleatus and C. ehrhardti . Analysis of mitogenome structure demonstrated that an insertion of 21 nucleotides between the ATPase subunit-6 and COIII genes may represent a phylogenetically informative character associated with the evolution of the Corydoradinae.


O mitogenoma completo de Corydoras nattereri , uma espécie de bagres encouraçados do sudeste do Brasil, foi reconstruído através de técnicas de sequencimento de DNA de próxima geração. O mitogenoma foi produzido a partir de produtos de transcrição mitocondrial dos transcriptomas hepáticos de três indivíduos, resultando numa sequência de DNA circular de 16.557 nucleotídeos abrangendo 22 genes de tRNA, dois genes de rRNA, 13 genes codificadores de proteínas e duas regiões de controle não codificadoras (D-loop, OrigL). A análise filogenética de sequências proximamente relacionadas da subunidade I do gene Citocrome Oxidase C (COI) demonstrou a existência de elevada diversidade entre populações morfologicamente similares de C. nattereri . Corydoras nattereri está inserida num complexo de populações atualmente identificadas como C. paleatus e C. ehrhardti . A análise da estrutura do mitogenoma demonstra que a inserção de uma sequência de 21 nucleotídeos entre os genes da subunidade 6 da ATPase e do COIII representa um caráter filogeneticamente informativo associado à evolução de Corydoradinae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics , Catfishes/genetics , DNA , RNA
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(6): 412-417, Nov. 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772284

ABSTRACT

Background The classification of diversity in germplasm collections is important for plant breeding. The repetitive element palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) technique was used to investigate inter-specific diversity within 17 species from the Euphorbiaceae family using REP and BOX primers. Results The agglomerative cluster analysis was used to evaluate the scoring data. BOX and REP gave amplification with polymorphism of 98.84% and 100% respectively. REP marker demarcated between the subgenus peltatae. Both markers confirmed Jatropha tanjorensis as a natural hybrid between Jatropha gossypifolia and Jatropha curcas. Five random sequences from the rep-PCR gels were chosen, cloned and sequenced. The blast results demonstrated that the amplified products were from the mitochondrial genomes. Conclusion The rep-PCR molecular tool can be used to characterize diversity in plants as they are suitable for distinguishing eukaryotic genomes effectively.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Euphorbiaceae/genetics , Jatropha/genetics , Genome, Mitochondrial
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 4-11, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748366

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Speciation , Genetic Variation , Ruminants/classification , Ruminants/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genetics, Population , Genome, Mitochondrial , Karyotype , Mitochondria/genetics , Phylogeny , Translocation, Genetic
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225151

ABSTRACT

The present study was performed to compare the mitochondrial genomes between 2 Spirometra tapeworms, Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and Spirometra decipiens (Cestoidea: Diphyllobothriidae), which larval stages are important etiological agents of sparganosis in humans. For each species, the full mitochondrial genome was amplified in 8 overlapping fragments using total genomic DNA purified from a single worm as the template. The mitochondrial genomes were 13,643 bp (S. erinaceieuropaei) and 13,641 bp (S. decipiens) in length and contained 36 genes; 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA, small and large subunits), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The 12 protein-coding genes constituted 10,083 bp (S. erinaceieuropaei) and 10,086 bp (S. decipiens) of their respective mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA genes, ranging in length from 56 to 70 bp, were identified based on putative secondary structures such as the typical cloverleaf shape. A total of 23 intergenic sequences, varying from 1 to 204 bp in size, were interspersed in S. erinaceieuropaei (total, 504 bp) and S. decipiens (total, 496 bp) mtDNA. The 12 protein-coding genes of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens differed by 12.4%, whereas the overall difference in mtDNA sequence between S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens was 12.9%. Thus, from the standpoint of the mitochondrial genome, S. decipiens represents a valid species that can be distinguished from S. erinaceieuropaei.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Cestode Infections/parasitology , DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry , Genome, Helminth , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Spirometra/chemistry
20.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2015. 136 p.
Thesis in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-942729

ABSTRACT

A malária humana é uma doença provocada por parasitas do gênero Plasmodium, os quais na natureza requerem de um mosquito anofelíno para completar o seu ciclo de vida e serem transmitidos a um hospedeiro humano. Nas Américas, o Brasil tem a maior incidência de malária, sendo responsável por 41% dos casos. Com o aparecimento do sequenciamento de nova geração e das ferramentas bioinformática relacionados, grandes avanços foram alcançados em relação à montagem de genomas e transcriptomas de anofelinos, assim como na exploração de estratégias de paratransgenesis para interromper a transmissão da malária. No entanto, os vetores neotropicais da malária encontram-se longe dos vetores da África e Ásia no que refere a estes conhecimentos. Este estudo é parte de um esforço contínuo para montar o genoma do Anopheles aquasalis, um vetor neotropical da malária humana, que atualmente posiciona-se como um excelente modelo de transmissão da malária no Brasil. Em paralelo ao sequenciamento do genoma, e para maximizar os dados gerados, optamos por focar em duas tarefas pontuais e viáveis: explorar a diversidade e composição do consórcio bacteriano associado ao anofelino; assim como montar e caracterizar o genoma mitocondrial desta espécie.


O sequenciamento metagenômico ̈shotgun ̈ e o programa MG-RAST foram utilizados para fazer um ̈screening ̈ das bactérias associadas à pupas de A .aquasalis criadas em laboratório. O consórcio bacteriano predito é composto por 74 gêneros contendo bactérias marinhas e bioluminescentes. No nível taxonômico de família bacteriana, identificamos 14 OTUs compartilhadas entre anofelinos americanos e africanos. Além disso, foram comparadas cinco comunidades bacterianas associadas a duas espécies de anofelinos: A. aquasalis e Anopheles gambiae. Foi identificada uma associação significativa (NPMANOVA p <0,05) entre a composição da comunidade bacteriana e o ambiente aquático (laboratório ou condições semi-naturais) nas quais cada hospedeiro anofelino foi criado. Atualmente, o entendimento da filogenia do gênero Anopheles é limitado e as informações sobre o tempo de divergência dentro da linhagem de mosquitos é escassa.


Apresentamos a sequencia de 15,393 pb correspondente ao genoma mitocondrial de A. aquasalis. Quando comparado com outros mitogenomas anofelinos relevantes, observou-se alta similaridade na composição dos genomas assim como características estruturais conservadas. Através de análises Bayesianas, reconstruímos as relações filogenéticas e estimamos a data de divergência entre 22 anofelinos e outras espécies de dípteros. Descobrimos que o mais recente ancestral entre as subfamílias Nyssorhynchus e Anopheles +Cellia existiu ~ 83 milhões anos atrás (MYA). Estimou-se que A. aquasalis divergiu do complexo do Anopheles albitarisis faz ~ 28 MYA, e faz ~ 38 MYA do Anopheles darlingi. A distribuição estreita e o peculiar nicho ecológico do A. aquasalis, além de considerar a sua adaptação a ambientes larvários com água salobra fizeram nos perguntar se a sua história evolutiva deixou uma marca na arquitetura do seu genoma, assim como sobre a estrutura da comunidade bacteriana associada a este anofelino.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Anopheles/genetics , Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics , Malaria/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , Plasmodium/genetics
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