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3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 186 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397348

ABSTRACT

Os avanços metodológicos e instrumentais decorrentes do Projeto Genoma Humano formaram o arcabouço necessário para o surgimento das tecnologias de sequenciamento de DNA de Nova Geração, as quais se caracterizam por um custo reduzido, uma baixa demanda operacional e a produção de um grande volume de dados por experimento. Concomitantemente a isso, o aumento no poder de processamento computacional permitiu o desenvolvimento de análises genéticas em larga escala, de modo que, atualmente, é possível estudar características genômicas individualizadas e, até então, pouco ou nunca exploradas. Dentre essas características, aquelas relacionadas às variações estruturais em genomas têm recebido bastante atenção. Os pseudogenes processados, ou retrocópias, são variações estruturais causadas pela duplicação de genes codificadores mediante à transposição de seu RNA mensageiro maduro pela maquinaria enzimática de LINE- 1. As retrocópias podem estar fixadas, ou seja, presentes em todos os genomas de uma dada espécie, os quais são representados pela montagem modelo do genoma de referência, ou podem não estar fixadas, sendo polimórficas, germinativas ou somáticas. No entanto, o conhecimento acerca das retrocópias não fixadas ainda é limitado devido à falta de ferramentas de bioinformática dedicadas a sua identificação e anotação em dados de sequenciamento de DNA. Posto isso, este trabalho apresenta o sideRETRO um programa computacional especializado na detecção de pseudogenes processados ausentes do genoma de referência, mas presentes em dados de sequenciamento de genoma completo e exoma de outros indivíduos. Além de apontar para a presença de retrocópias não fixadas, o sideRETRO é capaz de anotar várias outras características relacionadas a esses evento, tais como: a coordenada genômica de inserção do pseudogene processado, a qual constitui o cromossomo, o ponto de inserção e a fita de DNA (líder or retardada); o contexto genômico do evento (exônico, intrônico ou intergênico); a genotipagem (presente ou ausente) e a haplotipagem (em homozigose ou heterozigose). Para atestar a eficiência da ferramenta, o sideRETRO foi executado para dados simulados e para dados reais validados experimentalmente por um grupo independente. Portanto, em resumo, nesta tese são descritos o desenvolvimento e o uso do sideRETRO uma ferramenta computacional robusta e eficiente, designada para identificar e anotar pseudogenes processados não fixados. Por fim, vale destacar que o sideRETRO preenche uma lacuna metodológica e possibilita novas hipóteses e investigações sistemáticas no campo de chamada de variantes estruturais


The methodological and instrumental advances resulting from the Human Genome Project have created the necessary framework to the emergence of Next Generation DNA sequencing technologies, which are characterized by a reduced cost, low operational demand and the generation of a large volume of data per experiment. Concomitantly with this, the increase in computational processing power has driven the development of large-scale genetic analyses, which allowed us to study individualized genomic traits little or never explored before. Among these characteristics, those related to structural variations in genomes have received much attention. Processed pseudogenes, or retrocopies, are structural variations caused by the duplication of coding genes through the transposition of their mature messenger RNA by the LINE-1 enzymatic machinery. Retrocopies can be fixed (i.e., present in all genomes of a given species and included into the assembly of the reference genome) or unfixed, being polymorphic, germinal or somatic. However, knowledge about unfixed retrocopies is still limited due to the lack of bioinformatics tools dedicated to their identification and annotation in DNA sequencing data. Therefore, this work presents sideRETRO a computer program specialized in the detection of processed pseudogenes absent from the reference genome, but present in whole genome and exome sequencing data from other individuals. In addition to pointing out the presence of unfixed retrocopies, sideRETRO is able to annotate several other characteristics related to these events, such as: the genomic coordinate of the processed pseudogene insetion, which constitutes the chromosome, the insertion point and the DNA strand (leader or retard); the genomic context of the event (exonic, intronic or intergenic); genotyping (present or absent) and haplotyping (homozygous or heterozygous). To certify the sideRETRO efficiency, it was run on simulated data and on real data experimentally validated by an independent group. Therefore, in summary, this thesis describes the development and use of sideRETRO a robust and efficient computational tool, designed to identify and annotate unfixed processed pseudogenes. Finally, it is worth noting that sideRETRO fills a methodological gap and allows new hypotheses and systematic investigations in the field of structural variant calling


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Computational Biology/classification , Computational Biology/instrumentation , Costs and Cost Analysis , Genomics/instrumentation , Sequence Analysis, DNA/instrumentation , Clinical Coding
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#There are clinical reports of nerve injury caused by ropivacaine. The mechanism for nerve injury induced by ropivacaine has not been fully clarified. This study aims to investigate the changes of pain threshold and L3 spinal cord genomics at 6 h and 24 h after intrathecal injection of 0.5% and 1.0% ropivacaine, and to explore the underlying mechanisms for nerve injury caused by ropivacaine.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-260 g were successfully implanted with microspinal catheter. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (each n=6): a control group (given saline), a ropivacaine group 1 and a ropivacaine group 2 (both given 1% ropivacaine), a ropivacaine group 3 and a ropivacaine group 4 (both given 0.5% ropivacaine). The rats received continuous intrathecal injection of corresponding drugs at 8.3 μL/h for 24 h via an implanted intrathecal catheter followed by 24 h-pause of injection for the ropivacaine group 2, the ropivacaine group 4 and the control group, 6 h-pause of injection for the ropivacaine group 1 and the ropivacaine group 3. For each group, the observation of behavioral change and the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) was conducted immediately after the injection and again after the pause of injection. After the PWMT observation, the rats were dissected to acquire L3 spinal cords. Illumina sequencing was applied to construct gene libraries. Then the statistical methods were used to find out differentially expressed genes between the groups. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway analysis were conducted for those genes. Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine different expressions of some of those genes.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, the PWMT got higher in the ropivacaine group 1-4 and was positively correlated with concentration, negatively correlated with discontinuation duration. Compared with control group, the ropivacaine group 1 had 488 differentially expressed genes, of which 456 were up-regulated and 32 were down-regulated; the ropivacaine group 2 had 1 194 differentially expressed genes, of which 1 092 were up-regulated and 102 were down-regulated; the ropivacaine group 3 had 518 differentially expressed genes, of which 384 were up-regulated and 134 were down-regulated; and the ropivacaine group 4 had 68 differentially expressed genes, of which 46 were up-regulated and 22 were down-regulated. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that most of these differentially expressed genes were related to signaling pathways of inflammatory response.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After intrathecal injection of 0.5% ropivacaine and 1.0% ropivacaine for 24 h, the differentially expressed genes in L3 spinal cord of rats are mainly related to signaling pathways of inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genomics , Injections, Spinal , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ropivacaine , Spinal Cord/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the genomic variation characteristics of fetal with abnormal serological screening, and to further explore the value of copy number variation (CNV) detection technology in prenatal diagnosis of fetal with abnormal serological screening.@*METHODS@#7617 singleton pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis solely due to abnormal Down's serological screening were selected. According to the results of serological screening, the patients were divided into high risk group, borderline risk group and single abnormal multiple of median (MOM) group. CMA and CNV-Seq were used to detect the copy number variation of amniotic fluid cell genomic DNA and combined with amniotic fluid cell karyotype analysis for prenatal diagnosis. Outpatient revisit combined with telephone inquiry was used for postnatal follow-up.@*RESULTS@#Among 7617 amniotic fluid samples, aneuploidy was detected in 138cases (1.81%) by CMA and CNV-Seq, 9 cases of aneuploid chimerism were detected by amniotic fluid cell karyotype analysis, and 203 cases of fetus carrying pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV (P/LP CNV) were detected, the variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was detected in 437 cases (5.7%), the overall abnormal detection rate was 10.33%. The detection rate of aneuploidy by CMA and CNV-Seq in three group were 123 cases (2.9%), 13 cases (1.3%) and 2 cases (0.4%), respectively,and showing no significant difference (χ 2=7.469, P=0.024). The detection rate of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV in three group were 163cases (2.6%); 24 cases (2.6%) and 16 cases (3.3%), respectively, and showing no significant difference (χ 2=0.764, P=0.682). The CMA reported 2.9% (108/3729)P/LP CNV, and CNV-seq reported 2.4% (95/3888)P/LP CNV, both tests showed similar detective capabilities (χ 2=1.504, P=0.22).The most popular P/LP CNV in this cohort were Xp22.31 microdeletion, 16p13.11 microduplication /microdeletion, 22q11.21 microduplication /microdeletion. In fetuses with P/LP CNV CNV, 59 fetuses were terminated pregnancy, and 32 of 112 fetuses born had abnormal clinical manifestations. Non-medically necessary termination of pregnancy occurred in 11 fetuses carrying VUS CNV, 322 fetuses carrying VUS CNV were born, 4 of them presented abnormal clinical manifestations.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the traditional chromosome karyotype, CMA and CNV-Seq can improve the detection rate of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNV. CMA and CNV-seq can be used for first tier diagnosis of pregnant women in the general population with abnormal Down's serological screening.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Aneuploidy , Chromosome Aberrations , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Genomics , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Pregnant Women , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , Technology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical and genetic features of a patient with mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD).@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the proband. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the MVK gene, including a c.248C>T (p.Phe83Cys) variant derived from his father and a c.971C>T (p.Ala324Val) variant from his mother. Based on the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, both variations were predicted to be likely pathogenic (PM1 + PM2 + PM3 + PP3).@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the MVK gene probably underlay the MKD in the proband. Above findings have enriched the mutational spectrum of the MVK gene.


Subject(s)
Child , Genomics , Humans , Immunoglobulin D/genetics , Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency/genetics , Mutation , Whole Exome Sequencing
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a male with breast cancer and a sister who had deceased of the disease.@*METHODS@#Medical and family history of the proband was collected. Next-generation sequencing was carried out to detect potential variant associated with breast cancer, and Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a novel heterozygous c.6018dupT variant of the BRCA2 gene which may cause premature termination of mRNA translation, resulting in a truncated protein. Combined with the family history, the variant was deduced to be a germline mutation. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, c.6018dupT variant of BRCA2 gene was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM1/2+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The germline variant of the BRCA2 gene probably underlay the breast cancer in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Breast Neoplasms, Male/genetics , Genes, BRCA2 , Genomics , Germ Cells , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Male
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic etiology and clinical outcome of a child with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and diffuse mesangial sclerosis.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of the proband and his parents. Targeted capture - next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out. Candidate variant was verified by segregation analysis in his family.@*RESULTS@#A heterozygous missense variant of the TRPC6 gene, namely c.325G>A (p.Gly109Ser), was detected in the proband. The same variant was not detected in either parent. According to the guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants developed by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the variant was predicted as pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The missense variant of the TRPC6 gene probably underlay the diffuse mesangial sclerosis in this patient. Above finding has expanded the phenotypic spectrum of the TRPC6 gene.


Subject(s)
Child , Genomics , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Nephrotic Syndrome/genetics , Sclerosis , TRPC6 Cation Channel/genetics
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing for a patient with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the patient and his parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Trio-based whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out thereafter.@*RESULTS@#The proband and his father were found to harbor a heterozygous c.4781G>A (p.Arg1594Gln) variant of the CACNA1I gene. In addition, the proband was also found to harbor a de novo c.268C>T (p.Arg90Trp) missense variant of the MTRR gene. Based on guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.4781G>A (p.Arg1594Gln) variant of the CACNA1I gene was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1, PM1, PM2, PP3), while the c.268C>T (p.Arg90Trp) variant of the MTRR gene was predicted to be of uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#Variants of the CACNA1I and MTRR genes, together with the chromosomal mosaicism, may have predisposed to the susceptibility to the ASD in this patient.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Genomics , Heterozygote , Humans , Mosaicism , Whole Exome Sequencing
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical phenotype and genetic characteristics of a child with Perlman syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples from the patient and her parents. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was carried out to detect potential variant in the proband. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. The pathogenicity of candidate variants was evaluated according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG).@*RESULTS@#The results of WES showed that the proband has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the DIS3L2 gene, namely c.2109delC and c.1829.c.1830insC, which were respectively inherited from her mother and father. The results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Based on the ACMG guidelines, the two novel variants were both predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PS2+PM2).@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the DIS3L2 gene probably underlay the Perlman syndrome in this patient. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of DIS3L2 gene mutations.


Subject(s)
Exoribonucleases , Female , Fetal Macrosomia , Genetic Testing , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Whole Exome Sequencing , Wilms Tumor
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928350

ABSTRACT

Copy number variants (CNVs) are common causes of human genetic diseases. CNVs detection has become a routine component of genetic testing, especially for pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, multiple congenital abnormalities, prenatal evaluation of fetuses with structural anomalies detected by ultrasound. Although the technologies for CNVs detection are continuously improving, the interpretation is still challenging, with significant discordance across different laboratories. In 2020, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) developed a guideline for the interpreting and reporting of constitutional copy number variants, which introduced a quantitative, evidence-based scoring framework. Here, we detailed the key points of interpreting the copy number gain based on the guideline, used six examples of different categories to illuminate the scoring process and principles. We encourage a professional understanding and application of this guideline for the detected copy number gains in China in order to further improve the clinical evaluation accuracy and consistency across different laboratories.


Subject(s)
Child , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Genetic Testing , Genetics, Medical , Genome, Human/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Pregnancy , United States
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928039

ABSTRACT

Clarifying the mechanisms of Chinese medicinal processing is pivotal to the modernization of Chinese medicine. Research on Chinese medicinal processing gives priority to the mechanisms of the processing in enhancing efficacy, reducing toxicity, and repurposing medicinals. During the past 20 years, scholars have carried out in-depth studies on the mechanisms of Chinese medicinal processing via modern system biology. They mainly focused on the changes of medicinal properties and efficacy caused by processing using techniques of modern pharmacology and molecular biology, spectrum-efficacy correlation, and biophoton emission. However, these techniques fail to reflect the holistic view of traditional Chinese medicine. With the introduction of system biology, multi-omics techno-logies(genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have surged, which have been applied to the research on the mec-hanisms of Chinese medicinal processing. These multi-omics technologies have advantages in the research on holism. This study aims to summarize the research techniques and approaches in system biology for mechanisms of Chinese medicinal processing in the past 20 years and analyze the limitations and advantages of them. It is concluded that the multi-omics techniques of system biology can reconstruct the mechanisms of Chinese medicinal processing. This study provides a new direction for further research on the mechanisms of Chinese medicinal processing.


Subject(s)
China , Genomics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics/methods , Proteomics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 460-477, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927722

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the interaction mechanisms underpinning the synthetic microbial co-culture systems have gained increasing attention due to their potentials in various biotechnological applications. Exploration of the inter-species mechanisms underpinning the synthetic microbial co-culture system could contribute to a better understanding of the theoretical basis to further optimize the existing co-culture systems, and design new synthetic co-culture system for large-scale application. OMICS technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics could analyze the biological processes in a high throughput manner. Multi-omics analysis could achieve a "global view" of various members in the microbial co-culture systems, which presents opportunities in understanding synthetic microbial consortia better. This article summarizes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of synthetic microbial co-culture systems using omics technologies, from the aspects of metabolic network, energy metabolism, signal transduction, membrane transport, stress response, community stability and structural rationality. All these findings could provide important theoretical basis for future application of the microbial co-culture systems with the aids of emerging biotechnologies such as synthetic biology and genome editing.


Subject(s)
Coculture Techniques , Genomics , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Synthetic Biology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 328-342, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927714

ABSTRACT

Docynia longiunguis is a plant uniquely present in China and is of high edible and medicinal value. The analysis of its chloroplast genome will help clarify the phylogenetic relationship among Docynia and facilitate the development and utilization of D. longiunguis resources. Based on the alignment of chloroplast genome sequences of related species, the phylogeny and codon preference were analyzed. The total length of D. longiunguis chloroplast genome sequence was 158 914 bp (GenBank accession number is MW367027), with an average GC content of 36.7%. The length of the large single-copy (LSC), the small single-copy (SSC), and inverted repeats (IRs) are 87 020 bp, 19 156 bp, and 26 369 bp, respectively. A total of 102 functional genes were annotated, including 72 protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. The best model for constructing phylogenetic tree was TVM+F+R2. D. longiunguis and Docynia indica were clustered into a single group, while Docynia and Malus were clustered into a single group. Comparison of the chloroplast genome sequences of D. longiunguis and its five related species revealed that trnY (GUA)-psbD, ndhC-trnV (UAC), accD-psaI, psbZ-trnfM (CAU), ndhF-trnL gene regions varied greatly. The nucleic acid diversity analysis showed that there were 11 high variation areas with nucleotide variability > 0.01, all were located in the LSC and SSC regions. Except for D. longiunguis, the trnH genes in other sequences were located at the IRs/LSC junction and did not cross the boundary. Codon preference analysis showed that D. longiunguis chloroplast genome has the largest number of isoleucine (Ile) codons, up to 1 205. D. longiunguis has the closest genetic relationship with Malus baccata, Malus sieboldii, Malus hupehensis and Chaenomeles sinensis. Its chloroplast genome codon prefers to end with A/T. The chloroplast genome of D. longiunguis and other Rosaceae chloroplast genomes showed great differences in gene distribution in four boundary regions, while relatively small differences from the chloroplast genomes of Docynia delavayi and D. indica of the same genus were observed. The genome annotation, phylogenetic analysis and sequence alignment of chloroplast genome of D. longiunguis may facilitate the identification, development and utilization of this species.


Subject(s)
Codon Usage , Genome, Chloroplast , Genomics , Phylogeny , Rosaceae
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927678

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been engendering enormous hazards to the world. We obtained the complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from imported cases admitted to the Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, which was appointed by the Guangdong provincial government to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 diversity was analyzed, and the mutation characteristics, time, and regional trend of variant emergence were evaluated.@*Methods@#In total, 177 throat swab samples were obtained from COVID-19 patients (from October 2020 to May 2021). High-throughput sequencing technology was used to detect the viral sequences of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were used to evaluate the mutation characteristics and the time and regional trends of variants.@*Results@#We observed that the imported cases mainly occurred after January 2021, peaking in May 2021, with the highest proportion observed from cases originating from the United States. The main lineages were found in Europe, Africa, and North America, and B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 were the two major sublineages. Sublineage B.1.618 was the Asian lineage (Indian) found in this study, and B.1.1.228 was not included in the lineage list of the Pangolin web. A reasonably high homology was observed among all samples. The total frequency of mutations showed that the open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) protein had the highest mutation density at the nucleotide level, and the D614G mutation in the spike protein was the commonest at the amino acid level. Most importantly, we identified some amino acid mutations in positions S, ORF7b, and ORF9b, and they have neither been reported on the Global Initiative of Sharing All Influenza Data nor published in PubMed among all missense mutations.@*Conclusion@#These results suggested the diversity of lineages and sublineages and the high homology at the amino acid level among imported cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangdong Province, China.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 513-531, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939859

ABSTRACT

The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a destructive pest native to America and has recently become an invasive insect pest in China. Because of its rapid spread and great risks in China, understanding of FAW genetic background and pesticide resistance is urgent and essential to develop effective management strategies. Here, we assembled a chromosome-level genome of a male FAW (SFynMstLFR) and compared re-sequencing results of the populations from America, Africa, and China. Strain identification of 163 individuals collected from America, Africa and China showed that both C and R strains were found in the American populations, while only C strain was found in the Chinese and African populations. Moreover, population genomics analysis showed that populations from Africa and China have close relationship with significantly genetic differentiation from American populations. Taken together, FAWs invaded into China were most likely originated from Africa. Comparative genomics analysis displayed that the cytochrome p450 gene family is extremely expanded to 425 members in FAW, of which 283 genes are specific to FAW. Treatments of Chinese populations with twenty-three pesticides showed the variant patterns of transcriptome profiles, and several detoxification genes such as AOX, UGT and GST specially responded to the pesticides. These findings will be useful in developing effective strategies for management of FAW in China and other invaded areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Genomics , Humans , Male , Pesticides , Spodoptera/genetics , Transcriptome
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 137-146, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935988

ABSTRACT

Objective: To isolate and purify a bacteriophage against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to analyze its genomic information and biological characteristics. Methods: The experimental research methods were adopted. MRSA (hereinafter referred to as host bacteria) solution was collected from the wound of a 63-year-old female patient with the median sternum incision infection admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University). The bacteriophage, named bacteriophage SAP23 was isolated and purified from the sewage of the Hospital by sewage co-culture method and double-layer agar plate method, and the plaque morphology was observed. The morphology of bacteriophage SAP23 was observed by transmission electron microscope after phosphotungstic acid negative staining. The whole genome of bacteriophage SAP23 was sequenced with NovaSeq PE15 platform after its DNA was prepared by sodium dodecyl sulfonate/protease cleavage scheme, and genomic analysis including sequence assembly, annotation, and phylogenetic tree were completed. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution for 4 h at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10.000 0, 1.000 0, 0.100 0, 0.010 0, 0.001 0, and 0.000 1, respectively, and then the bacteriophage titer was measured by the drip plate method to select the optimal MOI, with here and the following sample numbers of 3. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution at the optimal MOI for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively, and the bacteriophage titer was measured by the same method as mentioned above to select the optimal adsorption time. After the bacteriophage SAP23 solution was co-incubated with the host bacterial solution at the optimal MOI for the optimal adsorption time, the bacteriophage titers were measured by the same method as mentioned above at 0 (immediately), 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min after culture, respectively, and a one-step growth curve was drawn. The bacteriophage SAP23 solution was incubated at 4, 37, 50, 60, 70, and 80 ℃ and pH 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 for 1 h, respectively, to determine its stability. A total of 41 MRSA strains stored in the Department of Microbiology of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University) were used to determine the host spectrum of bacteriophage SAP23. Results: The bacteriophage SAP23 could form a transparent plaque on the host bacteria double-layer agar plate. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a polyhedral head with (88±4) nm in diameter and a tail with (279±21) nm in length and (22.6±2.6) nm in width. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a linear, double-stranded DNA with a full length of 151 618 bp and 11 681 bp long terminal repeats sequence in the sequence ends. There were 220 open reading frames predicted and the bacteriophage could encode 4 transfer RNAs, while no resistance genes or virulence factors were found. The annotation function of bacteriophage SAP23 genes could be divided into 5 groups. The GenBank accession number was MZ427930. According to the genomic collinearity analysis, there were 5 local collinear blocks in the whole genome between the bacteriophage SAP23 and the chosen 6 Staphylococcus bacteriophages, while within or outside the local collinear region, there were still some differences. The bacteriophage SAP23 belonged to the Herelleviridae family, Twortvirinae subfamily, and Kayvirus genus. The optimal MOI of bacteriophage SAP23 was 0.010 0, and the optimal adsorption time was 10 min. The bacteriophage SAP23 had a latent period of 20 min, and a growth phase of 80 min. The bacteriophage SAP23 was able to remain stable at the temperature between 4 and 37 ℃ and at the pH values between 4 and 9. The bacteriophage SAP23 could lyse 3 of the 41 tested MRSA strains. Conclusions: The bacteriophage SAP23 is a member of the Herelleviridae family, Twortvirinae subfamily, and Kayvirus genus. The bacteriophage SAP23 has a good tolerance for temperature and acid-base and a short latent period, and can lyse MRSA effectively. The bacteriophage SAP23 is a new type of potent narrow-spectrum bacteriophage without virulence factors and resistance genes.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Sternum
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 282-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935383

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of sequencing technology brings the explosive growth of pathogen genetic data. The combination of genomic data and phylogenetic method is being used to elaborate the origin and evolution of pathogens, the time and space distribution and parameter changes in the prevalence process, and how phenotypes like antigen, virulence, and resistance change over time. This method is also being used to predict pathogen transmission trends. In this study, we described the aim of phylogeny and the process of the phylogenetic construction method. We elaborated the advantages and disadvantages and scope of application of tree-building methods including distance-based, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and bayesian methods. We have reviewed the application and the estimation methods of major epidemiological parameters of phylodynamics and phylogeography in domestic and foreign studies. We concluded that the time- and location-scaled phylogenetic trees are increasingly used for outbreak investigation and routine surveillance of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Epidemiologic Studies , Genomics , Humans , Phylogeny
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 167-179, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929172

ABSTRACT

Tumors are complex ecosystems in which heterogeneous cancer cells interact with their microenvironment composed of diverse immune, endothelial, and stromal cells. Cancer biology had been studied using bulk genomic and gene expression profiling, which however mask the cellular diversity and average the variability among individual molecular programs. Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomic sequencing have enabled a detailed dissection of tumor ecosystems and promoted our understanding of tumorigenesis at single-cell resolution. In the present review, we discuss the main topics of recent cancer studies that have implemented single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). To study cancer cells, scRNA-seq has provided novel insights into the cancer stem-cell model, treatment resistance, and cancer metastasis. To study the tumor microenvironment, scRNA-seq has portrayed the diverse cell types and complex cellular states of both immune and non-immune cells interacting with cancer cells, with the promise to discover novel targets for future immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Gene Expression Profiling , Genomics , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
20.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(5): e4040, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1352073

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El asesoramiento genético es un proceso de comunicación centrado en el paciente/cliente, con el objetivo de ayudarlo a entender, adaptarse y ajustarse a las consecuencias médicas y psicosociales de las contribuciones genéticas a la enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir la evolución del concepto, modelos de asesoramiento genético y de la profesión de asesor genético, desde su inicio hasta la etapa actual, denominada era genómica con sus nuevos retos. Material y Métodos: Se llevó a cabo una sistematización a partir de la lectura reflexiva y crítica sobre el tema, en publicaciones sin límite de tiempo anterior y hasta el 2020; se contó también con la experiencia individual en la docencia, la asistencia médica y la investigación sobre el tema. Desarrollo: Se hace un recorrido y valoraciones acerca de los nuevos conceptos y modelos prácticos de asesoramiento genético, la profesión de asesor genético y los servicios, el asesoramiento genético en la era genómica y aspectos éticos. Conclusiones: El asesoramiento genético, en más de medio siglo de práctica formal influenciada por una variedad de factores sociales, culturales, históricos, locales - regionales y técnicos, ha evolucionado en sus objetivos y alcance. Los nuevos asesores (genómicos) tendrán que enfrentar nuevos dilemas éticos como: la decisión de comunicar hallazgos secundarios, el potencial de incertidumbre a partir de la gran cantidad de datos generados por las tecnologías genómicas; así como la posible vulneración de la privacidad, la discriminación, la estigmatización y el abuso, basados en el uso de la información genómica(AU)


Introduction: Genetic counseling is a patient/client centered communication process with the aim of helping them understand, adapt and adjust to the medical and psychosocial consequences of genetic contributions to the disease. Objective: To describe the evolution of the concept, models of genetic counseling and the profession of the genetic counselor from its inception to the current stage called the "genomic era" and its new challenges. Material and Methods: A systematization was carried out on the basis of reflective and critical reading on the subject. Publications without previous time limit and until 2020 were selected. Individual experience in teaching, medical assistance and research on the subject was also taken into account. Development: Analyses and assessments are made in relation to new concepts and practical models of genetic counseling, the profession of genetic counselor and services, genetic counseling in the genomic era and ethical aspects. Conclusions: Genetic counseling, in more than half a century of formal practice influenced by a variety of social, cultural, historical, local - regional and technical factors has evolved in its objectives and scope. The new (genomic) counselors will have to face new ethical dilemmas such as: the decision to communicate secondary findings; the potential for uncertainty from the large amount of data generated by genomic technologies; and the possible violation of privacy, discrimination, stigmatization and abuse based on the use of genomic information(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genomics/education , Genetic Services , Genetic Counseling , Counselors
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