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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MnO₂-diatom microbubbler (DM) on the surface of prosthetic materials as a mouthwash by comparing the biofilm removal effect with those previously used as a mouthwash in dental clinic.MATERIALS AND METHODS: DM was fabricated by doping manganese dioxide nanosheets to the diatom cylinder surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of DM and to analyze the composition of doped MnO₂. Stereomicroscope was used to observe the reaction of DM in 3% hydrogen peroxide. Non-precious metal alloys, zirconia and resin specimens were prepared to evaluate the effect of biofilm removal on the surface of prosthetic materials. And then Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms were formed on the specimens. When 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and DM were treated on the biofilms, the decontamination effect was compared with chlorhexidine gluconate and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution by crystal violet staining.RESULTS: Manganese dioxide was found on the surface of the diatom cylinder, and it was found to produce bubble of oxygen gas when added to 3% hydrogen peroxide. For all materials used in the experiments, biofilms of the DM-treated groups got effectively removed compared to the groups used with chlorhexidine gluconate or 3% hydrogen peroxide alone.CONCLUSION: MnO₂-diatom microbubbler can remove bacterial membranes on the surface of prosthetic materials more effectively than conventional mouthwashes.


Subject(s)
Alloys , Biofilms , Chlorhexidine , Decontamination , Dental Clinics , Dental Plaque , Diatoms , Gentian Violet , Hydrogen Peroxide , In Vitro Techniques , Manganese , Membranes , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Mouthwashes , Oral Hygiene , Oxygen , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(1): 15-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001499

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sub-MICs of CIP were determined using growth curve experiments. The biofilm-forming capacity of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 treated or untreated with sub-MICs of CIP was assessed using a crystal violet staining assay. The biofilm structure of E. coli isolate was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were measured using quantification RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in E. coli isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922. Results: Based on our results, the sub-MICs of CIP were 1/4 MICs. Sub-MICs of CIP significantly inhibited biofilm formation of E. coli clinical isolates and E. coli ATCC 25922 (p < 0.01). SEM analyses indicated that the biofilm structure of the E. coli changed significantly after treatment with sub-MICs of CIP. Expression levels of the virulence genes fim, usp, and iron and the biofilm formation genes of the pgaABCD locus were also suppressed. Conclusions: The results revealed that treatment with sub-MICs of CIP for 24 h inhibited biofilm formation and reduced the expression of virulence genes and biofilm formation genes in E. coli.


Subject(s)
Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Virulence Factors , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gentian Violet
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro. METHODS: ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth. RESULTS: ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of p75(NTR) demonstrated no difference among groups. CONCLUSION: From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and p75(NTR). In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System , Neurilemmoma , Physiological Phenomena , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Receptor, trkA , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , RNA, Messenger
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine methods of dental caries prevention by investigating the use of compounds of Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) peel, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), and Canavalia gladiata (C. gladiata) extracts to limit the cariogenic traits of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), such as their ability to proliferate and adhere to the tooth surface. METHODS: Broth microdilution and the agar spreading assay were used to determine the antimicrobial effect and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. mutans extracts. In order to identify the adhesive ability of S. mutans at varying concentrations, culture plates were first stained with 1 ml of 0.01% crystal violet for 15 minutes at room temperature, and then eluted with 1 ml of EtOH:Acetone (8:2) solution for 15 minutes in a 37℃ incubator. Eluted solutions were then evaluated by use of a spectrophotometer at 575 nm. RESULTS: Experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata extracts on limiting the proliferation of S. mutans. The MIC was measured as an indication of whether the antibacterial activity of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata extracts had a significant bacteriostatic effect on S. mutans. M. charantia extract was effective for growth inhibition on S. mutans at a minimum concentration of 0.25%. From the adhesion ability assay, M. charantia extract had an anti-adhesive effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that M. charantia extract demonstrates antibacterial activity and has an anti-adhesive effect on S. mutans. Due to these properties, M. charantia extract may be used to prevent dental caries.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Agar , Canavalia , Dental Caries , Diospyros , Gentian Violet , Incubators , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Momordica charantia , Momordica , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Thiram , Tooth
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation is critical to dental caries initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nicotine exposure on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation concomitantly with the inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium iodide (KI) salts. This study examined bacterial growth with varying concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI salts and nicotine levels consistent with primary levels of nicotine exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A preliminary screening experiment was performed to investigate the appropriate concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and KI to use with nicotine. With the data, a S. mutans biofilm growth assay was conducted using nicotine (0–32 mg/mL) in Tryptic Soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose with and without 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI. The biofilm was stained with crystal violet dye and the absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation. RESULTS: The presence of 0.45 M of NaCl, 0.23 M of KCl, and 0.113 M of KI significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) nicotine-induced S. mutans biofilm formation by 52%, 79.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence regarding the biofilm-enhancing effects of nicotine and demonstrate the inhibitory influence of these salts in reducing the nicotine-induced biofilm formation. A short-term exposure to these salts may inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Dental Caries , Gentian Violet , Mass Screening , Nicotine , Potassium Chloride , Potassium Iodide , Salts , Sodium Chloride , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus , Sucrose
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788824

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family and plays a vital role in the physiological processes of organisms, especially in the nervous system. Many recent studies have reported that NGF is also involved in the regulation of tumourigenesis by either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, which depends on the location and type of tumor. However, little is known regarding the effect of NGF on interspinal schwannoma (IS). In the present study, we aimed to explored whether mouse nerve growth factor (mNGF), which is widely used in the clinic, can influence the growth of interspinal schwannoma cells (ISCs) isolated from IS in vitro.METHODS: ISCs were isolated, cultured and identified by S-100 with immunofluorescence analysis. S-100-positive cells were divided into five groups, and separately cultured with various concentrations of mNGF (0 [phosphate buffered saline, PBS], 40, 80, 160, and 320 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Western blot and quantantive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in each group. Crystal violet staining was selected to assess the effect of mNGF (160 ng/mL) on ISCs growth.RESULTS: ISCs growth was enhanced by mNGF in a dose-dependent manner. The result of crystal violet staining revealed that it was significantly strengthened the cells growth kinetics when cultured with 160 ng/mL mNGF compared to PBS group. Western blot and quantantive real time PCR discovered that TrkA receptor and mRNA expression were both up-regualated under the condition of mNGF, expecially in 160 ng/mL, while the exoression of p75(NTR) demonstrated no difference among groups.CONCLUSION: From these data, we conclude that exogenous mNGF can facilitate ISC growth by activating both TrkA receptor and p75(NTR). In addition, patients who are suffering from IS should not be administered mNGF in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Mice , Nerve Growth Factor , Nervous System , Neurilemmoma , Physiological Phenomena , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Receptor, trkA , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor , RNA, Messenger
7.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-201, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cronobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen is considered as a major concern to infants and neonates fed on reconstituted powdered infant milk formula. In conjunction with many other factors, biofilm forming capacity adds to its pathogenic potential. In view of the facts that infants are at highest risk to C. sakazakii infections, and emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogens, it is imperative to evaluate probiotic cultures for their efficacy against C. sakazakii. Therefore, pure probiotic strains were isolated from commercial probiotic products and tested for their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against C. sakazakii. METHODS: A total of 6 probiotic strains were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility followed by antimicrobial activity using cell-free supernatant (CFS) against C. sakazakii. The inhibitory activity of CFS against biofilm formation by C. sakazakii was determined using standard crystal violet assay and microscopic observations. RESULTS: All the probiotic strains were sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin and carbenicillin whereas most of the strains were resistant to erythromycin and novobiocin. Four of the 6 probiotic derived CFS possessed antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii at a level of 40 μL. A higher biofilm inhibitory activity (>80%) was observed at initial stages of biofilm formation with weaker activity during longer incubation upto 48 hours (50%–60%). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the efficacy of isolated commercial probiotics strains as potential inhibitor of biofilm formation by C. sakazakii and could be further explored for novel bioactive molecules to limit the emerging infections of C. sakazakii.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Biofilms , Carbenicillin , Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Erythromycin , Gentian Violet , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Milk , Novobiocin , Probiotics , Tetracycline , Vancomycin
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180278, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041586

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The promising non-clinical antileishmanial effects of gentian violet (GV) encouraged us to evaluate the additive effect of GV on cryotherapy. METHODS: For 8 weeks, 59/161 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients/lesions underwent cryotherapy alone (group 1) or cryotherapy accompanied by 1% GV application (group 2). The primary endpoint was clinical response. RESULTS: Ultimately, 54.7% and 45.3% of the significantly cured lesions belonged to groups 1 and 2, respectively, which was not statistically significant. The clinical response was significantly different between the two groups at the end of the fourth week. CONCLUSIONS: Although the clinical response of the two groups was significantly different at the end of the fourth week, application of GV did not increase the efficacy of cryotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Cryotherapy/methods , Gentian Violet/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Single-Blind Method , Pilot Projects , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766048

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to develop and validate a standardized in vitro pathogenic biofilm attached onto saliva-coated surfaces. METHODS: Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) strains were grown under anaerobic conditions as single species and in dual-species cultures. Initially, the bacterial biomass was evaluated at 24 and 48 hours to determine the optimal timing for the adhesion phase onto saliva-coated polystyrene surfaces. Thereafter, biofilm development was assessed over time by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The data showed no significant difference in the overall biomass after 48 hours for P. gingivalis in single- and dual-species conditions. After adhesion, P. gingivalis in single- and dual-species biofilms accumulated a substantially higher biomass after 7 days of incubation than after 3 days, but no significant difference was found between 5 and 7 days. Although the biomass of the F. nucleatum biofilm was higher at 3 days, no difference was found at 3, 5, or 7 days of incubation. CONCLUSIONS: Polystyrene substrates from well plates work as a standard surface and provide reproducible results for in vitro biofilm models. Our biofilm model could serve as a reference point for studies investigating biofilms on different surfaces.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Adhesion , Biofilms , Biomass , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Fusobacterium , Gentian Violet , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polystyrenes , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas
10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 534-540, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717976

ABSTRACT

From dye-assisted conventional chromoendoscopy to novel virtual chromoendoscopy, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is continuously evolving to meet clinical needs and improve the quality of colonoscopy. Dye-assisted chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine or crystal violet, although slightly old-fashioned, is still useful to emphasize the pit patterns of the colonic mucosa and predict the histological structures of relevant lesions. Equipment-based virtual chromoendoscopy has the advantage of being relatively easy to use. There are several types of virtual chromoendoscopy that vary depending on the manufacturer and operating principle. IEE plays distinctive roles with respect to histologic characterization of colorectal polyps and prediction of the invasion depth of colorectal cancers. In addition, the newest models of IEE have the potential to increase adenoma and polyp detection rates in screening colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Colon , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gentian Violet , Image Enhancement , Indigo Carmine , Mass Screening , Mucous Membrane , Polyps
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739612

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lapatinib is a candidate drug for treatment of trastuzumab-resistant, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive gastric cancer (GC). Unfortunately, lapatinib resistance renders this drug ineffective. The present study investigated the implication of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) signaling in the acquired lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive GC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lapatinib-resistant GC cell lines (SNU-216 LR2-8) were generated in vitro by chronic exposure of lapatinib-sensitive, HER2-positive SNU-216 cells to lapatinib. SNU-216 LR cells with FOXO1 overexpression were generated by stable transfection of a constitutively active FOXO1 mutant (FOXO1A3). HER2 and MET in SNU-216 LR cells were downregulated using RNA interference. The sensitivity of GC cells to lapatinib and/or cisplatin was determined by crystal violet assay. In addition, Western blot analysis, luciferase reporter assay and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction were performed. RESULTS: SNU-216 LR cells showed upregulations of HER2 and MET, but downregulation of FOXO1 compared to parental SNU-216 cells. FOXO1 overexpression in SNU-216 LR cells significantly suppressed resistance to lapatinib and/or cisplatin. In addition, FOXO1 negatively controlled HER2 and MET at the transcriptional level and was negatively controlled by these molecules at the post-transcriptional level. A positive crosstalk was shown between HER2 and MET, each of which increased resistance to lapatinib and/or cisplatin. CONCLUSION: FOXO1 serves as an important linker between HER2 and MET signaling pathways through negative crosstalks and is a key regulator of the acquired lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive GC cells. These findings provide a rationale for establishing a novel treatment strategy to overcome lapatinib resistance in a subtype of GC patients.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cisplatin , Down-Regulation , Drug Resistance , Gentian Violet , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Luciferases , Parents , ErbB Receptors , Receptor, ErbB-2 , RNA Interference , Stomach Neoplasms , Transfection , Up-Regulation
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of irregular astigmatism caused by a free flap during laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery that was treated with a flap rotation based on postoperative topography. CASE SUMMARY: A 21-year-old female underwent LASIK, which was complicated by a free cap on her right eye. Because the gentian violet markings were no longer present, the exact orientation of the cap was unknown. At 3 months after surgery, the astigmatism of the right eye was −3.00 diopters (D) with an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) of 0.4, and the astigmatism of the left eye was −0.75 D with an UCVA of 1.0. The corneal topography was analyzed in order to return to the existing position. Free cap repositioning was performed and irregular astigmatism was corrected to improve the UCVA to 1.0. CONCLUSIONS: If the preoperative markings cannot be identified on a free flap during LASIK, secondary postoperative corneal topographic analysis can be performed to restore the corneal free flap to its original position to minimize astigmatism with good visual outcomes.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Corneal Topography , Female , Free Tissue Flaps , Gentian Violet , Humans , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20160594, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893697

ABSTRACT

Abstract Denture adhesives (DA) improve the retention and stability of ill-fitting dentures, especially for older adults. These materials should be biocompatible, i.e., they cannot cause undesired biological responses and be non-cytotoxic to oral tissues. However, in vitro testing of DA biocompatibility employing primary cell culture may possibly be affected by other factors, such as the donor age. Objective To compare the cytotoxicity of three different denture adhesives when assessed in primary gingival fibroblasts from a young donor or from an older donor, as well as the release of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and the inflammatory response marker interleukin-6 (IL-6). Material and Methods Gingival fibroblasts isolated from a 30- and a 62-year-old donor were assayed for proliferation (1-7 days) and sensitivity to latex (positive control). Fibroblasts were indirectly exposed to Corega Ultra (cream), Corega powder and Fixodent Original for a 24 h period and assayed by XTT and Crystal Violet tests. The release of IL-6 and bFGF by exposed cells was determined by ELISA. Results While cells from the young donor presented higher cell growth after 7 days, the sensitivity to increasing concentrations of latex extracts was very similar between young and older cells. Both XTT and CVDE detected no difference between the DA and the control group. All materials induced higher levels of IL-6 and bFGF compared to control. Cells from the older donor exposed to Corega Ultra released lower levels of cytokine and growth factor. Conclusions All materials were considered non-cytotoxic, but affected cytokine and growth factor release. The biological differences found between fibroblasts from both donors could be due to individual or age-related factors. The authors suggest the use of cells from older donors on studies of dental products aimed at older patients, to better simulate their physiological response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Polymers/toxicity , Dental Cements/toxicity , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gingiva/cytology , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Count , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Age Factors , Interleukin-6/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Formazans , Gentian Violet , Gingiva/drug effects , Middle Aged
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893689

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering oral diseases, antibiofilm compounds can decrease the accumulation of pathogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans at micro-areas of teeth, dental restorations or implant-supported prostheses. Objective To assess the effect of thirteen different novel lactam-based compounds on the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. Material and methods We synthesized compounds based on γ-lactones analogues from rubrolides by a mucochloric acid process and converted them into their corresponding γ-hydroxy-γ-lactams by a reaction with isobutylamine and propylamine. Compounds concentrations ranging from 0.17 up to 87.5 μg mL-1 were tested against S. mutans. We diluted the exponential cultures in TSB and incubated them (37°C) in the presence of different γ-lactones or γ-lactams dilutions. Afterwards, we measured the planktonic growth by optical density at 630 nm and therefore assessed the biofilm density by the crystal violet staining method. Results Twelve compounds were active against biofilm formation, showing no effect on bacterial viability. Only one compound was inactive against both planktonic and biofilm growth. The highest biofilm inhibition (inhibition rate above 60%) was obtained for two compounds while three other compounds revealed an inhibition rate above 40%. Conclusions Twelve of the thirteen compounds revealed effective inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation, with eight of them showing a specific antibiofilm effect.


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , beta-Lactams/pharmacology , Lactones/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plankton/growth & development , Plankton/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , beta-Lactam Resistance/drug effects , beta-Lactams/chemical synthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Gentian Violet , Lactones/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199187

ABSTRACT

There exist some restrictions and difficulties in performing follicular unit extraction (FUE) in white-haired patients, for several reasons. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for visualizing white hair during the punching procedure and graft preparation in FUE for white-haired patients. In white-haired older male patients, we dyed the surrounding scalp skin purple with a gentian violet solution-stained toothpick. Our method has several advantages: surgeons can easily focus on the center of the follicular unit and rapidly perform punching, they can recognize the condition of the harvested follicular units during FUE, and the hair transplant team can secure a clear view for trimming and loading into the implanter. We suggest that scalp dyeing in difficult FUE procedures, especially in patients with white hair, may be a simple method that provides a good visualization for donor site harvesting and for microdissection.


Subject(s)
Alopecia , Gentian Violet , Gentiana , Hair , Hair Color , Humans , Male , Methods , Microdissection , Scalp , Skin , Surgeons , Tissue Donors , Transplants
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent cause of symptomatic vaginitis. In the Philippines, prevalence of BV is at 28.16%. The mainstay for the treatment of BV is Metronidazole. Although antibiotic therapy has been shown to eliminate BV associated organisms, there is extremely high recurrence rate.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of metronidazole and metronidazole plus lactobacilli tablet in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis among non-pregnant patients seen at the outpatient department of a tertiary medical center.METHODOLOGY: The population included non-pregnant women ages 15 t0 44 years old, with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Amsel's criteria and Nugent's scoring. The participants were randomly assigned to their treatment group, one is Metronidazole only and other received Metronidazole plus Lactobacillus tablet. All participants followed up on day 8,15,22 and 56 from initiation of treatment resolution or persistence of symptoms and collection of vaginal specimen for gram stain and inquire on adverse effects.RESULTS: On day 8 treatment, there were significantly more participant in the metronidazole plus probiotic arm with an estimated lactobacilli count of more than 30/hpf as comapred to metronidazole alone. On day 15 post treatment, there was no statistically significant difference with the estimated Gardnerella vaginalis count, lactobacilli count, presence or absence of malodorous vaginal discharge between the metronidazole plus probiotic and the metronidazole alone arm. With metronidazole plus probiotic group, the proportion of women with less than 30 per hpf Gardnella vaginalis count and absent foul smelling vaginal discharge were accounted among 100% of the participants from day 8 to 56 post treatment. The early reduction in the causative agent and symptoms can be attributed to an increase in the estimated lactobacilli count sustained until 56 days post treatment metronidazole plus probiotic. However, from day 15 to 22 and 56 post- treatment, the proportion of participants who had a nugent's score of less than 4 were greater for both the metronidazole plus probiotic (100%) and metronidazole alone (95%) arm, when compared to day 8 post-treatment. This finding for the metronidazole plus probiotic group is due to sustained reduction in the Gardnella vaginalis count and increase in lactobacilli counts. Potentially , the metronidazole plus probiotic treatment was found to be more favorable in sustaining the normal flora and probiotic can be used as an adjunct may enhance the efficacy of metronidazole in the treatment of BV.CONCLUSION: Metronidazole plus probiotic and metronidazole only treatment are comparable in treating bacterial vaginosis. In terms of restoring and maintaining the normal flora, metronidazole plus probiotic appears to be more significantly efficacious. Probiotic in the form of lactobacilli is a promising adjunct to enhance the efficacy of metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Adolescent , Gardnerella vaginalis , Vaginosis, Bacterial , Metronidazole , Lactobacillus , Gardnerella , Probiotics , Vaginal Discharge , Gentian Violet , Phenazines , Tablets , Anti-Bacterial Agents
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786723

ABSTRACT

Carcinogenesis is a complex process involved in genotoxic and non-genotoxic pathways. The carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been predicted by examining their genotoxic effects using several in vitro and in vivo models. However, there is no little information regarding the non-genotoxic effects of AgNPs related to carcinogenesis. The in vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) provides specific and sensitive evidence for predicting the tumorigenic potential of a chemical, which cannot be obtained by genotoxicity testing. Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of AgNPs. Colony-forming efficiency and crystal violet assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. A cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and CTA were performed using Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to predict the in vitro carcinogenic potential of AgNPs. In the CBMN assay, AgNPs (10.6 μg/mL) induced a significant increase in micronucleus formation indicating a genotoxic effect. Thus, AgNPs could be an initiator of carcinogenesis. In the CTA, used to assess the carcinogenic potential of AgNPs, cells exposed to AgNPs for 72 hours showed significantly induced morphological neoplastic transformation at all tested doses (0.17, 0.66, 2.65, 5.30, and 10.60 μg/mL), and the transformation frequency was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that short-term exposure (72 hours) to AgNPs had in vitro carcinogenetic potency in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carcinogenesis , Gentian Violet , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Mutagenicity Tests , Nanoparticles , Silver
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 454-459, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787556

ABSTRACT

In this study we evaluated the crystal violet decolorization assay (CVDA) for detection of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antituberculosis drugs. 53 isolates were tested in this study and 13 of them were multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. The antibiotics concentrations were 2-0.06 mg/L for isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) and were 16-0.25 mg/L for streptomycin (STM) and ethambutol (EMB). Crystal violet (CV-25 mg/L) was added into the microwells on the seventh day of incubation and incubation was continued until decolorization. Decolorization of CV was the predictor of bacterial growth. Overall agreements for four drugs were detected as 98.1%, and the average time was detected as 9.5 ± 0.89 day after inoculation. One isolate for INH and two isolates for STM were determined resistant in the reference method, but susceptible by the CVDA. One isolate was susceptible to EMB by the reference method, but resistant by the CVDA. All results were concordant for RIF. This study shows that CVDA is a rapid, reliable and suitable for determination of MIC values of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. And it can be used easily especially in countries with limited-sources.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Assay , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Ethambutol/administration & dosage , Ethambutol/pharmacology , Gentian Violet/chemistry , Indicators and Reagents/chemistry , Isoniazid/administration & dosage , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Rifampin/pharmacology , Streptomycin/administration & dosage , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology
19.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 133 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881837

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os efeitos de diferentes densidades de energia e irradiâncias do Laser de Baixa Intensidade (LBI), variando em função do tempo de irradiação e potência, na viabilidade e proliferação de fibroblastos derivados da polpa de dentes decíduos humanos (HPF). HPF foram cultivados em DMEM e usados entre a 4ª e 8ª passagem. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com diferentes densidades de energia, variando: Tempo de irradiação - Grupo I Ia (1,2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 10 s), Ib (2,5 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 20 s), Ic (3,7 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 30 s), Id (5,0 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 40 s), e Ie (6,2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 50 s); ou potência - Grupo II IIa (1,2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 10 s), IIb (2,5 J/cm2 - 10 mW - 10 s), IIc (3,7 J/cm2 - 15 mW - 10 s), IId (5,0 J/cm2 - 20 mW - 10 s), e IIe (6,2 J/cm2 - 25 mW - 10 s). Células não irradiadas - cultivadas em condições nutricionais regulares - 10% Soro Fetal Bovino (SFB) (If e IIf) e células não irradiadas - cultivadas em déficit nutricional - 1% SFB (Ig e IIg), foram consideradas controles positivos e negativos, respectivamente. A viabilidade e proliferação celular foram avaliadas, repesctivamente, pelas técnicas MTT e Cristal violeta (CV), nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas após a irradiação. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística por ANOVA 2 critérios, seguido pelo teste de Tukey (P<0,05). No ensaio MTT, os controles negativos, Ig e IIg, apresentaram significativamente menor viabilidade em relação aos correspondentes grupos experimentais: IIa e IIb, 24 horas após a irradiação; Ia, Ib, Ie, If e IIf no período de 48 horas; e Ib-If, assim como, IIa-IIf após 72 horas. Nos diferentes períodos de avaliação do ensaio CV, todos os grupos, exceto Ie, IIe e If, exibiram significativamente maior proliferação em comparação aos respectivos controles negativos. Dentro de um mesmo grupo nos diferentes períodos, os grupos If e IIe apresentaram menor viabilidade durante o período de 24 horas em comparação ao período de 72 horas pelo ensaio MTT. Na avaliação intragrupos, o ensaio CV revelou menor proliferação no período de 24 horas em comparação aos períodos de 48 e 72 horas, independente do grupo avaliado. Os diferentes protocolos de irradiação, grupos I e II, não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa na viabilidade e proliferação celular entre densidades de energia iguais com irradiâncias diferentes durante os períodos avaliados. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, as diferentes densidades de energia e irradiâncias propostas não prejudicaram a viabilidade e proliferação de fibroblastos pulpares de dentes decíduos humanos. A variação do protocolo de irradiação LBI, em função do tempo ou da potência, não interferiram nas respostas celulares após a aplicação da mesma densidade de energia com irradiâncias diferentes.(AU)


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Low-level laser (LLL) with different energy densities and irradiances, varying according to the irradiation time and power, on cell viability and proliferation of pulp fibloblasts from human primary teeth (HPF). HPF were culture in DMEM and used between 4th and 8th passages. Groups were divided according to different energy densities, varying: Time of irradiation Ia (1.2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 10 s), Ib (2.5 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 20 s), Ic (3.7 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 30 s), Id (5.0 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 40 s), and Ie (6.2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 50 s); or output power - Grupo II IIa (1.2 J/cm2 - 5 mW - 10 s), IIb (2.5 J/cm2 - 10 mW - 10 s), IIc (3.7 J/cm2 - 15 mW - 10 s), IId (5.0 J/cm2 - 20 mW - 10 s), e IIe (6.2 J/cm2 - 25 mW - 10 s). Non-irradiated cells - grown in regular nutritional conditions - 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FSB) (If and IIf) and non-irradiated cells - grown in nutritional deficit - 1% FBS (Ig and IIg) were considered positive and negative controls, respectively. Cell viability and proliferation were respectively assessed through MTT and Crystal violet (CV) assays at 24, 48 and 72h after irradiation. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA 2 criteria, followed by Tukey test (P<0.05). In the MTT assay, the negative controls, Ig and IIg, showed significantly lower viability in relation to the corresponding groups: IIa and IIb 24 hours after irradiation; Ia, Ib, Ie, If and IIf at 48 hours period; and Ib-If, as IIa-IIf, after 72 hours. At different periods of evaluation of CV assay, all groups, except Ie, IIe and If, exhibited significantly higher proliferation compared to the respective negative controls. Within the same group at different periods, groups If and IIe showed lower viability during 24 hours compared to 72 hours period by MTT assay. In the intragroup evaluation, CV assay revealed lower proliferation at 24 hours compared to 48 and 72 hours periods, regardless of the evaluated group. Different irradiation protocols, groups I and II, showed no statistically significant differences on cell viability and proliferation among equals energy densities with different irradiances at the evaluated periods. According to these findings, different LLL energy densities and irradiances proposed did not impair viability and proliferation of pulp fibloblasts from human primary teeth. The variation of the LLL irradiation protocol, by the time or power, did not interfere in cellular responses after the application of the same energy density with different irradiances.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Pulp/cytology , Fibroblasts/radiation effects , Lasers, Solid-State , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Radiation Dosage , Analysis of Variance , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Dental Pulp/radiation effects , Gentian Violet , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/cytology
20.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-10, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium recognized as one of the most important foodborne pathogen. When ingested, V. parahaemolyticus causes a self-limiting illness (Vibriosis), characterized mainly by watery diarrhoea. Treatment is usually oral rehydration and/or antibiotics in complicated cases. Since 1996, the pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 serotype has spread worldwide, increasing the reported number of vibriosis cases. Thus, the design of new strategies for pathogen control and illness prevention is necessary. Lactobacillus sp. grouped Gram positive innocuous bacteria, part of normal intestinal microbiota and usually used as oral vaccines for several diarrheic diseases. Recombinants strains of Lactobacillus (RL) expressing pathogen antigens can be used as part of an anti-adhesion strategy where RL block the pathogen union sites in host cells. Thus, we aimed to express MAM-7 V. parahaemolyticus adhesion protein in Lactobacillus sp. to generate an RL that prevents pathogen colonization RESULTS: We cloned the MAM-7 gene from V. parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633 in Lactobacillus expression vectors. Recombinant strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus pSEC-MAM7 and L. rhamnosus pCWA-MAM7) adhered to CaCo-2 cells and competed with the pathogen. However, the L. rhamnosus wild type strain showed the best capacity to inhibit pathogen colonization in vitro. In addition, LDH-assay showed that recombinant strains were cytotoxic compared with the wild type isogenic strain CONCLUSIONS: MAM-7 expression in lactobacilli reduces the intrinsic inhibitory capacity of L. rhamnosus against V. parahaemolyticus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesins, Bacterial/analysis , Bacterial Adhesion/physiology , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/pathogenicity , Biofilms/growth & development , Cell Line , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Gene Expression , Gentian Violet , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vibrio Infections/prevention & control , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/growth & development , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/metabolism
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