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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00288920, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355970

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding tools against a reference method. A subsample of 300 handwritten addresses from hospital records was geocoded using Bing, Google Earth, and Google Maps. Match rates were higher (> 80%) for Google Maps and Google Earth compared with Bing. However, the accuracy of the addresses was better for Bing with a larger proportion (> 70%) of addresses with positional errors below 20m. Generally, performance did not vary for each method for different socioeconomic status. Overall, the methods showed an acceptable, but heterogeneous performance, which may be a warning against the use of automatic methods without assessing quality in other municipalities, particularly in Chile and Latin America.


Resumen: Los métodos automáticos de geocodificación se han convertido en algo popular durante los últimos años para facilitar el estudio de la asociación entre resultados de salud y lugar para vivir. No obstante, más bien pocos estudios han evaluado la calidad de la geocodificación, siendo realizados la mayoría de ellos en EE.UU. y Europa. El objetivo de este artículo es comparar la calidad de tres herramientas automáticas de geocodificación en línea frente a un método de referencia. La submuestra de 300 direcciones escritas a mano, procedentes del registro hospitalario, se geocodificaron usando Bing, Google Earth y Google Maps. Los porcentajes de coincidencia fueron mayores (> 80%) en el caso de Google Maps y Google Earth comparados con Bing. Sin embargo, la precisión de las direcciones fue mejor con Bing, en una proporción más grande (> 70%) de direcciones que tenían errores de posición por debajo de 20m. En general, el rendimiento no varió en cada método para diferentes niveles estatus socioeconómico. En general, los métodos mostraron un rendimiento aceptable, pero heterogéneo. Esto previene contra el uso de métodos automáticos sin evaluar la calidad en otras ciudades, particularmente en Chile y Latinoamérica.


Resumo: Os métodos de geocodificação automática se tornaram populares nos últimos anos para facilitar o estudo da associação entre desfechos de saúde e lugar de residência. Entretanto, poucos estudos avaliaram a qualidade da geocodificação, e a maioria dos estudos existentes foi realizada nos Estados Unidos e Europa. O estudo teve como objetivo comparar a qualidade de três ferramentas de geocodificação eletrônica automática em relação a um método de referência. Foi geocodificada uma subamostra de 300 endereços anotados à mão em prontuários hospitalares, usando Bing, Google Earth e Google Maps. As taxas de correspondência dos registros foram mais altas (> 80%) com Google Maps e Google Earth, comparado com Bing. Entretanto, a acurácia dos endereços foi melhor com Bing, com uma proporção maior (> 70%) de endereços com erros de localização menores que 20 metros. Em geral, o desempeno não variou para cada método de acordo com condição socioeconômica. Os métodos apresentaram desempenho geral aceitável, porém heterogêneo. Os resultados servem de alerta contra o uso de métodos automáticos sem avaliar a qualidade em outras cidades, particularmente no Chile e no resto da América Latina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospital Records , Geographic Mapping , Brazil , Chile , Geographic Information Systems
2.
Medisan ; 25(6)2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1356475

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades no transmisibles representan un importante problema sanitario a nivel mundial, sobre todo para los países en vías de desarrollo. Objetivo: Identificar la variación de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, de pulmón y de próstata y su posible asociación con la contaminación ambiental. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio ecológico a nivel nacional, desde 2000 hasta 2010, tomando como unidad de análisis el municipio. Las enfermedades seleccionadas fueron los tumores malignos, en específico los de mama, de próstata y de pulmón, y se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad acumuladas y tipificadas relacionadas con estos durante este período. Asimismo, se empleó el Sistema de Información Geográfica para confeccionar los mapas de estratificación de riesgo tomando como referencia la tasa nacional y se escogieron las principales fuentes fijas contaminantes de tipo industrial para el análisis de la contaminación atmosférica. Resultados: Fueron elaborados los mapas de estratificación de riesgo de morir por cada una de las enfermedades seleccionadas y se obtuvo el mapa de las principales fuentes fijas contaminantes de tipo industrial; de igual modo, se realizaron otros mapas integrales para explorar la posible asociación entre dichas entidades clínicas y la contaminación ambiental. Conclusiones: El análisis integral de la estratificación del riesgo epidemiológico y ambiental reflejó que los municipios más afectados fueron Mariel, Nuevitas y Moa, así como Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Camagüey y Santiago de Cuba. En Ciudad de La Habana sobresalieron los municipios de Habana Vieja, Regla, Cotorro, San Miguel del Padrón, Arroyo Naranjo, Marianao y Centro Habana.


Introduction: The non communicable diseases represent an important sanitary problem at world level, mainly for the developing countries. Objective: To identify the variation of mortality due to lung, breast and prostate cancer and their possible association with the environmental contamination. Methods: An ecological study at national level was carried out, from 2000 to 2010, taking as analysis unit the municipality. The selected diseases were malignant tumors, specifically those of breast, prostate and lung, and the accumulated typified mortality rates related with these were calculated during this period. Also, the System of Geographical Information was used to make the risk stratification maps, taking as reference the national rate and the main fixed pollutants sources of industrial type were chosen for the analysis of the atmospheric contamination. Results: Maps stratification risk of dying were elaborated for each of the selected diseases and the map of the main fixed pollutants sources of industrial type was obtained; in the same way, other comprehensive maps were elaborated to explore the possible association between these clinical entities and the environmental contamination. Conclusions: The comprehensive analysis of the stratification of the epidemiological and environmental risk reflected that the most affected municipalities were Mariel, Nuevitas and Moa, as well as Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba. In Havana the municipalities of Old Havana, Cotorro, San Miguel del Padrón, Arroyo Naranjo, Marianao and Centro Habana stood out.


Subject(s)
Risk , Mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality , Geographic Information Systems
3.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 500-509, 01-dic-2021. grap, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355278

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la diabetes mellitus (DM) y las enfermedades del corazón, entre las que se incluye la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA), se han posicionado entre las primeras causas de mortalidad en México, lo que plantea retos importantes para las diferentes instituciones de salud. Objetivo: analizar la tendencia espacio-temporal de DM e HTA con base en las detecciones realizadas en unidades de primero y segundo nivel del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), durante el periodo 2004-2019. Material y métodos: estudio ecológico en el que se calcularon las tasas de detección de ambos padecimientos por mil derechohabientes según año, trienio y representación. La tendencia espacio-temporal se analizó mediante estadística espacial utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Resultados: de 2004 a 2019 hubo 9 399 889 y 11 862 069 detecciones en promedio de DM e HTA, respectivamente. Referente al primer padecimiento, la tasa de deteccion osciló de 203.4 (2004) a 384.4 (2019) por mil derechohabientes, cuya tendencia aumentó en Tamaulipas. Mientras que la HTA disminuyó de 1140.2 (2004) a 352 (2019) detecciones por mil derechohabientes en Veracruz Sur y Tamaulipas, respectivamente. Conclusiones: la tendencia espacio-temporal observada puede contribuir a organizar y orientar, según su representación y nivel de atención, los programas institucionales, protocolos de atención, guías de práctica clínica y demás instrumentos de políticia pública disponibles en el IMSS para mejorar la detección oportuna, atención, control y acceso a medicamentos para DM e HTA.


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and heart diseases, which include Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH), have been positioned as the two main causes of mortality in Mexico, which represents important challenges for the different health institutions. Objective: To analyze the spatio-temporal trend of DM and SAH based on the detections made in first and and second level units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, during the period 2004-2019. Material and methods: Ecological study in which detection rates of both diseases were calculated per 1,000 persons according to year, triennium and representation. The spatio-temporal trend was analyzed by spatial statistics using Geographic Information Systems. Results: During 2004-2019 therere were 9 399 889 and 11 862 069 detections on average of DM and SAH, respectively. Regarding DM, the detection rate ranged from 203.4 (2004) to 384.4 (2019) per 1000 persons, this trend increased in Tamaulipas. While SAH decreased from 1140.2 (2004) to 352 (2019) per 1000 persons in Veracruz Sur and Tamaulipas, respectively. Conclusions: The observed spatio-temporal trend can contribute to organizing and guiding, according to representation and level of care, institutional programs, integrated care protocols, clinical practice guidelines and other public policy instruments available at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social to improve early detection, care, control and access to medications for DM and SAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clinical Protocols , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Research , Hypertension , Social Security , Epidemiology , Cause of Death , Geographic Information Systems , Mexico
4.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 297-304, set. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291403

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: aplicar o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social para o Distrito Federal e compará-lo com a distribuição espacial da cobertura dos Núcleos Ampliados de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Método: trata-se de estudo ecológico com base nos dados do censo demográfico, da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal, bem como de outros disponibilizados pela Gerência de Apoio à Saúde da Família. Resultados: verificou-se que 31,4% dos setores censitários do Distrito Federal foram classificados com baixo nível de vulnerabilidade social, 47,8% médio, 12,2% elevado e 8,3% muito elevado. Apenas 37,17% do território do cenário de estudo apresentavam cobertura Núcleo Ampliado de Saúde da Família e Atenção Básica. Ao comparar a distribuição espacial desses desfechos, observou-se elevada extensão de vazios assistenciais de cobertura desse serviço, tanto em setores rurais quanto urbanos, e estes frequentemente classificados em maior estrato de vulnerabilidade. Conclusão: Recomenda-se a utilização de ferramentas de gestão de políticas públicas, como o Índice de Vulnerabilidade Social, para o redesenho da Rede de Atenção à Saúde, tendo em vista o enfrentamento das iniquidades sociais. (AU)


Objective: Apply the Social Vulnerability Index for the Federal District and compare it with the spatial distribution of coverage of the Extended Family Health and Primary Care Centers. Methods: This is an ecological study based on data from the demographic census, from the State Department of Health of the Federal District, as well as others made available by the Family Health Support Management. Results: It was found that 31.4% of the census sectors in the Federal District were classified as having a low level of social vulnerability, 47.8% medium, 12.2% high and 8.3% very high. Only 37.17% of the territory in the study scenario had coverage of the Extended Family Health and Primary Care coverage. When comparing the spatial distribution of these outcomes, a high extent of care gaps in the coverage of this service was observed, both in rural and urban sectors, and these are often classified into a greater stratum of vulnerability. Conclusion: It is recommended to use public policy management tools, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, for the redesign of the Health Care Network, with a view to tackling social inequities. (AU)


Objetivo: Aplicar el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social del Distrito Federal y compararlo con la distribución espacial de cobertura de los Centros de Salud Familiar Extendida y Atención Primaria. Método: Se trata de un estudio ecológico basado en datos del censo demográfico, del Departamento de Salud del Estado del Distrito Federal, así como otros puestos a disposición por la Gerencia de Apoyo a la Salud de la Familia. Resultados: Se encontró que 31.4% de los sectores censales del Distrito Federal fueron clasificados como de bajo nivel de vulnerabilidad social, 47.8% medio, 12.2% alto y 8.3% muy alto. Solo el 37,17% del territorio en el escenario de estudio tenía cobertura de la cobertura de Salud Familiar Extendida y Atención Primaria. Al comparar la distribución espacial de estos resultados, se observó un alto grado de brechas de atención en la cobertura de este servicio, tanto en el sector rural como en el urbano, y estos suelen ser clasificados como de mayor nivel de vulnerabilidad. Conclusión: Se recomienda utilizar herramientas de gestión de políticas públicas, como el Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social, para el rediseño de la Red de Atención de Salud, con miras a abordar las inequidades sociales. (AU)


Subject(s)
Social Vulnerability , Primary Health Care , Family Health , Nursing , Geographic Information Systems
5.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 13(1): e401, ene.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251736

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 ha desatado una emergencia internacional en Salud Pública al afectar millones de personas, provocar muertes, y causar una crisis humanitaria nunca antes vista. Esto ha saturado los sistemas de información en salud de los países afectados, donde resultan de utilidad las herramientas informáticas para el manejo de un gran número de casos, al menor costo económico posible. En este contexto resalta el paquete de programas epidemiológicos Epi InfoTM, que permite crear formularios electrónicos para la recolección de datos. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo describir las ventajas y facilidades de implementar Epi InfoTM para los casos de COVID-19. Con módulos para analizar la información mediante cálculos y representaciones de medidas epidemiológicas, además de crear mapas de casos sospechosos o confirmados, Epi InfoTM cuenta también con complementos para dispositivos móviles y la web; todos con experiencias probadas en situaciones de epidemias como la del Ébola, VIH y el MERS. Por lo que Epi InfoTM es una aplicación robusta y libre de costo muy útil para su implementación en los sistemas de información en salud para el manejo adecuado de casos de COVID-19(AU)


COVID-19 has unleashed an international Public Health emergency by affecting millions of people, causing deaths, and a humanitarian crisis never seen before. This has saturated the health information systems of the affected countries, where computer tools are useful for managing a large number of cases, at the lowest possible economic cost. In this context, the Epi InfoTM package of epidemiological programs which allows creating electronic forms for data collections, stands out in addition with modules to analyze the information through calculations and representations of epidemiological measures. It also allows creating maps of suspected or confirmed cases and has applications for mobile devices and web; all with proven experiences in epidemic situations such as Ebola, HIV, and the previous outbreaks of Coronavirus. Therefore, Epi InfoTM is a robust and free of cost application, very useful for its implementation in health information systems for the adequate management of COVID-19 cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Geographic Information Systems/standards , Epidemics/history , Epidemiological Monitoring , Health Information Systems/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.1): 2471-2482, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278846

ABSTRACT

Abstract To describe a general overview of health services delivery in Mexico and geospatially analyze the current distribution and accessibility of Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities to contribute to new approaches to improve healthcare planning in Mexico. We performed a spatial analysis of official data to analyze current distances from health facilities to population, to determine the underserved areas of health services delivery in three selected states using a ranking of indicators. We estimated service area coverage of PHC facilities with road networks of three Mexican states (Chiapas, Guerrero, and Oaxaca). Our estimations provide an overview of spatial access to healthcare of the Mexican population in Mexico's three most impoverished states. We did not consider social security nor private providers. Geospatial access to health facilities is critical to achieving PHC and adequate coverage. Countries like Mexico must measure this to identify underserved areas with a lack of geospatial access to healthcare to solve it. This type of analysis provides critical information to help decision-makers decide where to build new health facilities to increase effective geospatial access to care and to achieve Universal Health Coverage.


Resumo Descrever uma visão geral da prestação de serviços de saúde no México e analisar geoespacialmente a atual distribuição e acessibilidade das unidades de APS para contribuir com novas abordagens para melhorar o planejamento da saúde no México. Realizamos uma análise espacial de dados oficiais para analisar as distâncias atuais das unidades de saúde à população, para determinar as áreas descobertas de prestação de serviços de saúde em 3 estados selecionados usando uma classificação de indicadores. Estimamos a cobertura da área de serviço das unidades de APS com redes viárias de 3 estados do México (Chiapas, Guerrero e Oaxaca). Nossas estimativas fornecem uma visão geral do acesso espacial à saúde da população mexicana nos três estados mais pobres do México. Não consideramos seguridade social nem prestadores privados. O acesso geoespacial às unidades de saúde é fundamental para alcançar a cobertura universal de saúde e uma cobertura eficaz. Países, como o México, devem medir isso para identificar áreas não merecidas com falta de acesso geoespacial à saúde para resolvê-lo. Os governos devem gerar políticas e mecanismos para distribuir efetivamente novas instalações de saúde para aumentar o acesso geoespacial efetivo à saúde, bem como para evitar instalações de saúde não planejadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Geographic Information Systems , Health Services Accessibility , Universal Health Insurance , Health Facilities , Mexico
7.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2326, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289569

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La baja accesibilidad a los servicios de la atención primaria en Conakry afecta la salud de su población. El sector sanitario ante las restricciones financieras se propone establecer prioridades para la extensión progresiva de la cobertura de instalaciones de atención primaria, como primer paso hacia la cobertura universal de salud. Objetivo: Establecer prioridades entre los cinco distritos de la ciudad de Conakry, República de Guinea, para la extensión progresiva de la cobertura de instalaciones de atención primaria. Métodos: Se estableció una prioridad para cada distrito partiendo del análisis lógico-deductivo de dos variables: nivel de salud y nivel de accesibilidad a instalaciones de atención primaria. El nivel de salud se definió según dos criterios: vulnerabilidad sociodemográfica y nivel de morbimortalidad, con la combinación de sistemas de información geográfica con la evaluación multicriterio. El nivel de accesibilidad se midió con el sistema de información geográfica, evaluando la proporción de habitantes por distritos y su recorrido en intervalos, desde 1 km hasta más de 4 km, se asumió 2 km como distancia máxima permisible en transporte público. Resultados: El distrito con la mayor prioridad correspondió a Ratoma, seguido de Matoto, Kaloum, Matam y Dixinn, en este mismo orden Conclusiones: La priorización de distritos en Conakry, según necesidades de atención primaria, puede apoyar al gobierno en la toma de decisiones para la implementación de políticas de salud que permitan avanzar hacia su cobertura universal(AU)


Introduction: Low accessibility to primary care services in Conakry affects the health of its population. The health sector, in view of the financial constraints, aims to prioritize the progressive extension of coverage of primary care facilities, as a first step towards universal health coverage. Objective: Prioritize the five districts of Conakry city, in the Republic of Guinea, for the progressive extension of primary care facilities´ coverage. Methods: A priority was established for each district based on the logical-deductive analysis of two variables: health level and accessibility level to primary care facilities. The health level was defined according to two criteria: socio-demographic vulnerability and morbidity and mortality level, with the combination of geographic information systems with multicriteria assessment. The level of accessibility was measured with the geographic information system, assessing the proportion of inhabitants by district and their route at intervals, from 1km to more than 4km; it was assumed 2km as the maximum permissible distance by public transport. Results: The district with the highest priority was Ratoma, followed by Matoto, Kaloum, Matam and Dixinn, in this same order. Conclusions: Prioritization of districts in Conakry city, according to primary care needs, can support the government in making decisions for the implementation of health policies that allow progress towards universal health coverage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Geographic Information Systems , Health Priorities , Health Services Accessibility
8.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2672, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cuba comenzó de manera temprana sus preparativos ante la emergencia por COVID-19 y ha desplegado muchas capacidades científico-técnicas para su enfrentamiento, entre ellas la gestión de sistemas de información geográfica, a cargo de la empresa GEOCUBA. Objetivo: Identificar posibles sitios de riesgo geoespacial relacionados con la transmisión de COVID-19 en Santiago de Cuba. Métodos: Se desarrolló un estudio ecológico. Se identificaron grupos de transmisión de COVID-19 y riesgos epidemiológicos. Se resumieron variables epidemiológicas, sociales y espaciales. Se realizaron análisis espaciales y sobrevuelos de dron como técnicas de telepidemiología. Resultados: Se identificaron cinco grupos espaciales de transmisión, uno en el municipio Palma Soriano, uno en Contramaestre y tres en Santiago de Cuba. Las distancias espaciales entre casos y confirmados se relacionaron con la forma de transmisión de la COVID-19. Se identificaron bajas tasas de incidencia. Se apreció baja movilidad, cumplimiento de medidas de distanciamiento y protección social. Conclusiones: La creación de un grupo multidisciplinario en Santiago de Cuba, a propuesta de las máximas estructuras del partido y el gobierno, garantizó el despliegue de recursos tecnológicos para el uso de la telepidemiología, lo que permitió la identificación espacial y posterior gestión integral de riesgos ecoepidemiológicos relacionados con la transmisión de COVID-19 en Santiago de Cuba. Las acciones gubernamentales diferenciadas, la percepción de riesgo de la población y la respuesta comunitaria influyeron en las bajas tasas de transmisión y dispersión espacial de la enfermedad, lo que muestra la importancia de la concepción de la salud como producto social(AU)


Introduction: Cuba early started its preparations to face the emergency due to COVID-19 and it has made a deployment of several scientific-technical capacities for it, among them the management of geographical information's systems by GEOCUBA company. Objective: Identify posible sites of geospatial risk related with the transmission of COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba province. Methods: It was developed an ecologic study. There were identified groups of COVID-19 transmission and epidemiological risks. Epidemiological, social and spatial variables were resumed. Also there were made spatial analyses and overflights of drones as teleepidemiology techniques. Results: There were identified five spatial groups of transmission: one in Palma Soriano municipality, one in Contramaestre municipality and three in Santiago de Cuba municipality. The spatial distances among the cases and confirmed cases were related with the form of transmission of COVID-19. There were identified low incidence rates. It was noticed low mobility, accomplishment of the social distancing rules and social protection. Conclusions: The creation of a multidisciplinary group in Santiago de Cuba province, as a proposal of the highest level of the Communist Party and the Government, secured the deployment of technologic resources for the use of telepidemiology, and this allowed the spatial identification and further comprehensive management of ecoepidemiologic risks related with the transmission of COVID-19 in Santiago de Cuba. The different governmental actions, the perception of risk of the population, and the community response impacted in the low rates of transmission and spatial spreading of the disease, which shows the importance of worthing health as a social productAU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Mobility , Population Concentration , Geographic Information Systems , COVID-19/transmission , Cuba
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210003, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1144142

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify environmental factors present in areas with high density of road traffic accidents (RTA) in Leon, Nicaragua. Methods: The analysis included all accidents recorded by the Police Department in León City, from January to June 2017. All crashes were georeferenced, and data were collected from the environment elements within a perimeter of 20 meters from the site in which accidents occurred with a pre-tested data collection instrument. We specified a Poisson regression model to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine environmental factors associated with the event incidence. For the identification areas with high, medium, and low occurrences of crashes, kernel density around points in which RTA occurred were estimated. Results: Out of 667 recorded crashes, 90% involved men aged 15-40, and motorcycle accidents represented 60% of injuries or deaths. Environmental factors that were positively associated with RTA included good road conditions (adjusted IRR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.13 - 1.63) and the existence of bicycle lanes (adjusted IRR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.29 - 2.10). Environmental characteristics associated with higher speeds and heavier accidents can increase their incidence. Conclusion: We found that high-foot-traffic commercial or touristic centers are three areas with high density of crashes. Local authorities can use these findings to promote road safety measures in high-incidence areas in León City.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar os fatores ambientais presentes em áreas com alta densidade de acidentes de trânsito rodoviário (ATR) em León, Nicarágua. Métodos: Foram incluídos na análise todos os acidentes registrados pelo Departamento de Polícia da cidade de León de janeiro a junho de 2017. Georreferenciamos todos os acidentes e coletamos dados dos elementos ambientais em um perímetro de 20 metros do local até os acidentes ocorridos por meio de um instrumento de coleta de dados pré-testado. Foi especificado um modelo de regressão de Poisson para estimar as razões das taxas de incidência (TI) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para determinar os fatores ambientais associados à incidência do evento. Para identificar áreas com alta, média e baixa ocorrência de acidentes, estimamos a densidade do núcleo em torno dos pontos onde o ATR ocorreu. Resultados: Dos 667 acidentes registrados, 90% envolveram homens com idades entre 15 e 40 anos, e os acidentes de motocicleta representaram 60% dos ferimentos ou mortes. Os fatores ambientais que foram associados positivamente aos ATR incluíram boas condições da estrada (TI ajustada = 1,36; IC95% 1,13 - 1,63) e a existência de ciclovias (TI ajustada = 1,64; IC95% 1,29 - 2,10). Características ambientais associadas a velocidades mais altas e acidentes mais pesados podem aumentar a incidência deles. Conclusão: Constatamos que os centros comerciais ou turísticos com tráfego intenso são três áreas com alta densidade de acidentes. As autoridades locais podem usar essas descobertas para promover medidas de segurança no trânsito em áreas de alta incidência na cidade de León.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Attention , Risk Factors , Geographic Information Systems , Environment , Nicaragua/epidemiology
10.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(3): 37-45, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347064

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Utilizar los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) como herramienta complementaria para caracterizar la ganadería bovina realizada en la región de la Orinoquia. Materiales y métodos. A través del uso de tecnologías espaciales se recopiló la información concerniente a la orientación ganadera, fisiografía, cobertura vegetal y catastro de la zona de estudio para su posterior análisis a través del software ACCESS de Microsoft. Resultados. En un alto porcentaje de los predios ganaderos ubicados en los cuatro departamentos de la Orinoquía (Casanare:72.7%, Meta:49.5%, Arauca:42% y Vichada:32%) predominan las coberturas de pastos, herbazales y vegetación secundaria, confirmando la expansión en la frontera agropecuaria que es promovida por la actividad ganadera en el país. Conclusiones. El uso de los SIG, permite realizar una mejor planificación y distribución eficiente de los recursos destinados a mejorar el funcionamiento de los sistemas de producción. Por ejemplo, en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas predominante son los pastizales y herbazales, las estrategias en pro de la sostenibilidad pueden enfocarse en la implementación de sistemas silvopastoriles, contrario a lo que pasaría en zonas donde la matriz de coberturas tenga un alto porcentaje de bosques naturales.


ABSTRACT Objective. Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a complementary tool to characterize cattle farming in the Orinoquia region. Materials and methods. Through the use of space technologys, information concerning the livestock orientation, physiography, vegetation cover and land registry of the study zone was collected for further analysis over Microsoft ACCESS software. Results. In a high percentage of the cattle ranches located in the four departments (Casanare: 72.7%, Meta: 49.5%, Arauca: 42% and Vichada: 32%) the cover of pastures, grasslands and secondary vegetation predominates, confirming the expansion in the agricultural border that has had the cattle activity in the country. Conclusions. The use of complementary tools such as GIS allows for better planning and efficient distribution of resources to improve the functioning of production systems, for example, in zones where the predominant coverage matrix is grasslands, strategies in pro of sustainability can focus on the implementation of silvopastoral systems, contrary to what would happen in areas where the matrix has a high percentage of natural forests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Geographic Information Systems , Data Analysis , Animal Husbandry
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 111-125, jan.-mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087268

ABSTRACT

A informação pública, garantida por lei no Brasil, é base para a geração de conhecimento adaptativo em situações adversas, como a extrema vulnerabilidade socioambiental e seus impactos na saúde humana. O presente artigo avalia a transparência da informação pública nas áreas de saúde humana (com foco no Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS), mudanças produtivas (uso do solo) e mudanças climáticas (chuva e temperatura), utilizando dados de 5.570 municípios brasileiros, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos. A experiência da construção de uma base nacional de dados (Data Lake) a partir de informações disponibilizadas em bases públicas (ou público-privadas) ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (Inmet) e Hidroweb da Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) ­ confirmou que, na prática, a acessibilidade da informação pública no Brasil apresenta entraves importantes. Incluímos recomendações sobre como ela pode ser aprimorada para tornar os direitos de acesso à informação uma realidade mais concreta para o cidadão brasileiro.


The transparency of public information, a right that is entitled by law in Brazil, is the basis to generate adaptive knowledge in adverse situations, such as extreme socio-environmental vulnerability and its impacts on human health. This article evaluates the transparency of public information in three areas ­ i) human health, focusing on the Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS (Unified Health System); ii) productive changes (land use indicators); and iii) climate changes (rain and temperature indicators) ­ using data from all the 5,570 Brazilian municipalities over the last 20 years. The experience of building a national database (Data Lake) from available information in public (or public-private) databases ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia ­ Inmet (National Institute of Meteorology), and Hidroweb of the Agência Nacional de Águas ­ ANA (National Water Agency) ­ confirmed that, in practice, the accessibility of public information in Brazil suffers from significant shortcomings. We include some recommendations for and how it could be improved so that the access rights to information becomes a more concrete reality for the Brazilian citizen.


La información pública, garantizada por ley en Brasil, es la base para la generación de conocimiento adaptativo en situaciones adversas, como la extrema vulnerabilidad socioambiental y sus impactos en la salud humana. Este artículo evalúa la transparencia de la información pública en las áreas de salud humana (dirigindo la atención hacia el Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS (Sistema Único de Salud), cambios productivos (uso del suelo) y cambios climáticos (lluvia y temperatura), con datos de los 5.570 municipios brasileños, durante los últimos 20 años. La experiencia de la construcción de una base nacional de datos (Data Lake) a partir de informaciones disponibles en bases públicas (o público-privadas) ­ DATASUS, MapBiomas, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Inmet) e Hidroweb de la Agência Nacional de Águas ­ ANA (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) ­ confirmó que, en la práctica, la accesibilidad de la información pública en Brasil presenta obstáculos importantes. Incluimos recomendaciones acerca de como la transparencia puede ser perfeccionada para hacer de los derechos de acceso a la información una realidad más concreta para el ciudadano brasileño.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Access to Information/legislation & jurisprudence , Decision Making , Environment and Public Health , Big Data , Unified Health System , Brazil , Public Information , Social Vulnerability , Geographic Information Systems , Health Policy , Health Information Systems
12.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-6, 20200101. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123727

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a distribuição espacial da COVID-19 segundo fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Método: trata-se de um estudo do ecológico, transversal, utilizando dados secundários, de uso e acesso públicos, oriundos do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, por meio das informações disponíveis no open DataSUS com casos confirmados da COVID-19 e que possuíam, em suas respectivas fichas cadastrais, os bairros de residência. Resultados: a média de idade dos casos confirmados pela COVID-19 foi de 38,83 (±14,29) anos, as faixas etárias mais atingidas foram entre 20 a 29 anos (23,2%), 30 a 39 anos (27,7%), 40 a 49 anos (22,5%), 50 a 59 anos (13,7%) e 70 a 79 anos (5,7%). Todos os setores apresentaram casos da COVID-19, sendo o oeste o mais atingido. Entre os 20 bairros com o maior número de infecção, 11 possuem renda per capita média abaixo de um salário-mínimo, oito bairros com renda per capita média de até dois salários-mínimos e apenas um bairro com renda per capita média acima de dois salários mínimos. Conclusões: o número de casos da COVID-19 foi elevado, espalhando-se rapidamente para todos os setores, afetando, principalmente, bairros de baixa renda per capita. Nos bairros com renda per capita média da população abaixo de um salário-mínimo, concentram-se os piores cenários da COVID-19. A crise global de saúde pública ocasionada pela COVID-19 revelou as desigualdades e as injustiças que ameaçam o bem-estar, a segurança e a vida das pessoas.


Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 according to socioeconomic and demographic factors in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Method: This is an ecological, cross-sectional study, using secondary data, of public use and access, from the Ministry of Health of Brazil, based on the information available in the open DataSUS with confirmed cases of COVID-19 and that had, in their respective records, the neighborhoods of residence. Results: The average age of the cases confirmed by COVID-19 was 38.83 (± 14.29) years old, the most affected age groups were between 20 to 29 years old (23.2%), 30 to 39 years old (27 , 7%), 40 to 49 years old (22.5%), 50 to 59 years old (13.7%) and 70 to 79 years old (5.7%). All sectors presented cases of COVID-19, being the west the most affected. Among the 20 neighborhoods with the highest number of infections, 11 have an average per capita income below one minimum wage, eight neighborhoods with an average per capita income of up to two minimum wages and only one neighborhood with an average per capita income above two minimum wages. Conclusions: The number of COVID-19 cases was high, spreading rapidly to all sectors, affecting mainly neighborhoods with low per capita income. In neighborhoods with average per capita income below one minimum wage, the worst scenarios of COVID-19 are concentrated. The global public health crisis caused by COVID-19 revealed the inequalities and injustices that threaten people's well-being, security and lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Socioeconomic Factors , Demography , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Brazil/epidemiology , Per Capita Income , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Geographic Information Systems , Pandemics
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200287, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136808

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency with lethality ranging from 1% to 5%. This study aimed to identify active high-risk transmission clusters of COVID-19 in Sergipe. METHODS: We performed a prospective space-time analysis using confirmed cases of COVID-19 during the first 7 weeks of the outbreak in Sergipe. RESULTS: The prospective space-time statistic detected "active" and emerging spatio-temporal clusters comprising six municipalities in the south-central region of the state. CONCLUSIONS: The Geographic Information System (GIS) associated with spatio-temporal scan statistics can provide timely support for surveillance and assist in decision-making.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Coronavirus Infections , Geographic Information Systems , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Middle Aged
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200043, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The number of malaria cases in Roraima nearly tripled from 2016 to 2018. The capital, Boa Vista, considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, reported an increasing number of autochthonous and imported cases. OBJECTIVES This study describes a spatial analysis on malaria cases in an urban region of Boa Vista, which sought to identify the autochthonous and imported cases and associated them with Anopheles habitats and the potential risk of local transmission. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at the Polyclinic Cosme e Silva, 520 individuals were interviewed and diagnosed with malaria by microscopic examination. Using a global positional system, the locations of malaria cases by type and origin and the breeding sites of anopheline vectors were mapped and the risk of malaria transmission was evaluated by spatial point pattern analysis. FINDINGS Malaria was detected in 57.5% of the individuals and there was a disproportionate number of imported cases (90.6%) linked to Brazilian coming from gold mining sites in Venezuela and Guyana. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Travel , Miners/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/transmission , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium/classification , Urban Population , Venezuela , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis , Gold , Guyana , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles/classification , Middle Aged
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828404

ABSTRACT

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Subject(s)
China , Geographic Information Systems , Geology , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Medicine, Traditional , Temperature
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2461-2468, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101061

ABSTRACT

Resumo A distribuição geográfica da COVID-19 por meio de recursos de Sistemas de Informação Geográfica é pouco explorada. O objetivo foi analisar a distribuição de casos da COVID-19 e de leitos de terapia intensiva exclusivos para a doença no estado do Ceará, Brasil. Estudo ecológico, com distribuição geográfica do coeficiente de detecção de casos da doença em 184 municípios. Construíram-se mapas dos valores brutos e estimados (método bayesiano global e local), com cálculo do índice de Moran e utilização do "BoxMap" e "MoranMap" Os leitos foram distribuídos por meio de pontos geolocalizados. Estudaram-se 3.000 casos e 459 leitos. As maiores taxas encontram-se na capital Fortaleza, região metropolitana (RM) e ao sul dessa região. Há autocorrelação espacial positiva na taxa bayesiana local (I = 0,66). A distribuição dos leitos de terapia intensiva sobreposta ao "BoxMap" evidenciou aglomerados com padrão Alto-Alto apresentando número de leitos (capital, RM, porção noroeste); porém, há o mesmo padrão (extremo leste) e em áreas de transição com insuficiência de leito. O "MoranMap" evidenciou "clusters" estatisticamente significativos no estado. A interiorização da COVID-19 no Ceará demanda medidas de contingência voltadas à distribuição dos leitos de terapia intensiva específicos para casos de COVID19 para atender à demanda.


Abstract The geographical distribution of COVID-19 through Geographic Information Systems resources is hardly explored. We aimed to analyze the distribution of COVID-19 cases and the exclusive intensive care beds in the state of Ceará, Brazil. This is an ecological study with the geographic distribution of the case detection coefficient in 184 municipalities. Maps of crude and estimated values (global and local Bayesian method) were developed, calculating the Moran index and using BoxMap and MoranMap. Intensive care beds were distributed through geolocalized points. In total, 3,000 cases and 459 beds were studied. The highest rates were found in the capital Fortaleza, the Metropolitan Region (MR), and the south of this region. A positive spatial autocorrelation has been identified in the local Bayesian rate (I = 0.66). The distribution of beds superimposed on the BoxMap shows clusters with a High-High pattern of number of beds (capital, MR, northwestern part). However, a similar pattern is found in the far east or transition areas with insufficient beds. The MoranMap shows clusters statistically significant in the state. COVID-19 interiorization in Ceará requires contingency measures geared to the distribution of specific intensive care beds for COVID-19 cases in order to meet the demand.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Geographic Mapping , Betacoronavirus , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Geographic Information Systems
17.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 28: e3343, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1126971

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the association between the occurrence of new tuberculosis cases and the Adapted Living Condition Index, and to describe the spatial distribution in an endemic municipality. Method: this is an analytical and ecological study that was developed from new cases in residents of an endemic municipality in the North Region of Brazil. The data were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases Information System and from the 2010 Demographic Census. The Adapted Living Conditions Index was obtained by factor analysis and its association with the occurrence of the disease was analyzed by means of the chi-square test. The type I error was set at 0.05. Kernel estimation was used to describe the density of tuberculosis in each census sector. Results: the incidence coefficient was 97.5/100,000 inhabitants. The data showed a statistically significant association between the number of cases and socioeconomic class, with the fact that belonging to the highest economic class reduces the chance of the disease occurring. The thematic maps showed that tuberculosis was distributed in a heterogeneous way with a concentration in the Southern region of the municipality. Conclusion: tuberculosis, associated with precarious living conditions, reinforces the importance of discussion on social determinants in the health-disease process to subsidize equitable health actions in risk areas, upon a context of vulnerability.


Objetivo: analisar a associação entre a ocorrência dos casos novos de tuberculose e o Índice Adaptado de Condição de Vida e descrever a distribuição espacial em um município endêmico. Método: estudo analítico, ecológico desenvolvido a partir dos casos novos em residentes de um município endêmico da região Norte do Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação e do Censo Demográfico 2010. O Índice Adaptado de Condição de Vida foi obtido por análise fatorial e sua associação com a ocorrência da doença foi analisada pelo teste qui-quadrado. Fixou-se erro tipo I igual a 0,05. Foi utilizada estimativa Kernel para descrever a densidade da tuberculose por setor censitário. Resultados: o coeficiente de incidência foi 97,5/100.000 habitantes. Os dados mostraram associação estatisticamente significativa entre número de casos e classe socioeconômica, sendo que pertencer à classe econômica mais alta reduz a chance de ocorrência da doença. Os mapas temáticos mostraram que a tuberculose se distribuiu de forma heterogênea com concentração na região sul do município. Conclusão: a tuberculose, associada às condições de vida precárias, reforça a importância de discussão sobre determinantes sociais no processo saúde-doença, para subsidiar ações equânimes de saúde nas áreas risco, mediante contexto de vulnerabilidade.


Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre la incidencia de nuevos casos de tuberculosis y el Índice Adaptado de Condición de Vida y describir la distribución espacial en un municipio endémico. Método: estudio analítico y ecológico desarrollado a partir de nuevos casos en residentes de un municipio endémico en el Norte de Brasil. Los datos se obtuvieron del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria y del Censo Demográfico 2010. El Índice Adaptado de Condición de Vida se obtuvo mediante análisis factorial y su asociación con la incidencia de la enfermedad se analizó mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado. Se fijó el error tipo I igual a 0,05. La estimación de Kernel se utilizó para describir la densidad de tuberculosis por sección censal. Resultados: el coeficiente de incidencia fue de 97,5/100.000 habitantes. Los datos mostraron una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el número de casos y la clase socioeconómica, siendo que pertenecer a la clase económica más alta reduce la posibilidad de desarrollar la enfermedad. Los mapas temáticos mostraron que la tuberculosis se distribuía de manera heterogénea, con mayor concentración en la región sur del municipio. Conclusión: la tuberculosis, asociada con condiciones de vida precarias, refuerza la importancia de discutir los determinantes sociales en el proceso de salud-enfermedad, a fin de subsidiar acciones de salud equitativas en áreas de riesgo, a través del contexto de vulnerabilidad.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Social Conditions , Tuberculosis , Information Systems , Residence Characteristics , Health-Disease Process , Epidemiology , Incidence , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Disease Notification , Disaster Vulnerability , Geographic Information Systems , Spatial Analysis
18.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03565, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1115164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze the spatial distribution of Acute Chagas Disease (ACD) cases in a riverside municipality and make relationships with the notifying health services. Method: Longitudinal, ecological, quantitative study with use of geoprocessing techniques, conducted with cases of acute Chagas disease in the municipality of Abaetetuba/Pará. Results: Inclusion of 204 disease cases. Predominance of the male sex, mixed race and primary education as educational level. The highest incidence of cases was found in rural areas and the infection via oral transmission predominated. ACD is not randomly distributed in the geographic space and the diagnosis is centralized in the Epidemiological Surveillance service of the municipality. Conclusion: Acute Chagas disease is closely related to the sociodemographic conditions of the population. The spatial analysis of cases allowed to observe the disease spatial pattern and the need for Primary Care network organization for timely care near the residence of people affected.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar la distribución espacial de los casos de enfermedad de Chagas aguda en un municipio ribereño y relacionar con los servicios sanitarios notificadores. Método: Estudio ecológico, longitudinal, con abordaje cuantitativo, que utilizó técnicas de geoprocesamiento, llevado a cabo con casos de enfermedad de Chagas aguda en el municipio de Abaetetuba/Pará. Resultados: Fueron estudiados 204 casos. Predominó el sexo masculino, la piel morena y la educación básica como nivel de escolaridad. La mayor incidencia de casos se constató en la zona rural y el modo de infección predominante fue por la transmisión oral. La Enfermedad de Chagas Aguda no se distribuye de modo aleatorio en el espacio geográfico, y el diagnóstico se centraliza en el servicio de Vigilancia Epidemiológica del municipio. Conclusión: La enfermedad de Chagas aguda está íntimamente relacionada con las condiciones sociodemográficas de la población. El análisis espacial de los casos permitió visualizar el estándar espacial de la enfermedad y la necesidad de la organización de la red de Atención Primaria de Salud para atención oportuna a las proximidades de los domicilios de los casos.


Resumo Objetivo: Analisar a distribuição espacial dos casos de doença de Chagas aguda em um município ribeirinho e relacionar com os serviços de saúde notificantes. Método: Estudo ecológico, longitudinal, com abordagem quantitativa, que utilizou técnicas de geoprocessamento, realizado com casos de doença de Chagas aguda no município de Abaetetuba/Pará. Resultados: Foram estudados 204 casos. Predominou o sexo masculino, a "raça" parda e o ensino fundamental como nível de escolaridade. A maior incidência de casos foi constatada na zona rural e o modo de infecção predominante foi pela transmissão oral. A Doença de Chagas Aguda não se distribui de forma aleatória no espaço geográfico, e o diagnóstico é centralizado no serviço de Vigilância Epidemiológica do município. Conclusão: A doença de Chagas aguda está intimamente relacionada às condições sociodemográficas da população. A análise espacial dos casos permitiu visualizar o padrão espacial da doença e a necessidade da organização da rede de Atenção Primária à Saúde para atendimento oportuno às proximidades dos domicílios dos casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Health Services , Primary Health Care , Public Health Nursing , Longitudinal Studies , Spatial Analysis
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 718-726, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058134

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess the change in the prevalence of anemia among under-five children attending public health services in Peru between 2012 and 2016, according to their place of residence, and to identify spatial clusters of districts with a high prevalence of anemia. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out, based on data from the Nutritional State Information System from 2012 and 2016. We calculated the spatial autocorrelation of anemia prevalence at the district level using a global and local Moran's I index. The prevalence of anemia was 34.4% (2012) and 40.3% (2016). In 2012 and 2016, 41.7% and 46.5% of districts, respectively, had a prevalence of anemia considered a severe public health problem acording WHO criteria. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found between the prevalence of anemia and the districts for both years (2012 Moran's I: 0.22; 2016: 0.31, both p <0.001). Of the total number of districts, 8.3% (2012) and 12.6% (2016) presented a high prevalence of anemia and were also surrounded by districts with high prevalence. Anemia is a public health problem among children under five in Peru attending public health services and we identified areas with a higher concentration of anemia prevalence. Spatial patterns of anemia should be considered in the development and implementation of health interventions.


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de anemia en menores de cinco anos atendidos en servidos de salud públicos en Perú entre 2012-2016 e identificar conglomerados espaciales de distritos de alta prevalencia de anemia. Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal, basado en los datos del Sistema de Información dei Estado Nutricional del Perú 2012 y 2016. La autocorrelación espacial de la prevalencia de anemia a nivel distrital se calculó utilizando el índice I de Moran global y local. Se encontro una prevalencia de anemia del 34.4% (2012) y 40.3% (2016), con41.7% (2012) y 46.5% (2016) de distritos con prevalencias de anemia consideradas como grave problema de salud pública según clasificación OMS. Se encontró una autocorrelación espacial positiva entre la prevalencia de anemia y los distritos (Moran's I 2012: 0.22; 2016: 0.31, ambos p <0.001), donde 8.3% (2012) y 12.6% (2016) de distritos con alta prevalencia se encontraban rodeados por distritos con alta prevalencia. La anemia es un problema de salud pública en menores de cinco años en el Perú atendidos en servicios de salud públicos. Existen áreas con mayor concentración de prevalencia de anemia. Los patrones espaciales de anemia deben considerarse en el desarrollo y la implementación de intervenciones de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Geographic Information Systems , Public Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Public Health , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases as Topic , Spatial Analysis
20.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 24: 1-7, out. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of the routes used for cycling according to gender on a sample of adolescents from the city of Curitiba, Brazil. The study was conducted in 2013 with 147 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, who wore accelerometer and Global Positioning System receivers to assess physical activity and geographic locations. A total of 38 participants (50.0% girls) presented at least one bicycle route and were included in the analytic sample. A total of 386 routes were identified. Nearly all routes included public transportation facilities, plazas, and parcels with residential, retail, food or recreational land use (> 97.0%) while bike lanes/paths (62.7%) and Fitness Zones were less frequent (71.8%). Bus rapid transit (BRT) stations, parks and vacant lots were the least frequent feature in the routes (37.3%; 17.1%; and 7.5%, respectively). Routes used by girls had fewer vacant lots (3.9%; p = 0.001) and more residential, retail, food services, and recreational uses (99.6%; p = 0.003; 99.1%; p = 0.011; 98.7%; p = 0.030, respectively) than those used by boys. The findings suggest that the routes used by adolescents have mixed and diverse land use and girls ride along routes with greater bicycling and service infrastructure and less physical disorder than boys


O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as características das rotas utilizadas para o uso de bicicleta de acordo com o sexo em uma amostra de adolescentes da cidade de Curitiba, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em 2013 com 147 adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos, que usaram acelerômetro e receptores de Sistema de Posicionamento Global para avaliar a atividade física e a localização geográfica. Um total de 38 participantes (50,0% meninas) apresentaram pelo menos uma rota em bicicleta e, por isso, foram incluídos na amostra analítica. Foram identificadas 386 rotas. Quase todas as rotas incluíam meios de transporte público, praças e áreas residencial, comercial, de alimentos ou de lazer (> 97,0%), enquanto ciclovias (62,7%) e academias ao ar livre eram menos frequentes (71,8%). As estações de ônibus de transporte rápido (BRT), parques e terrenos vazios foram as menos frequentes nas rotas (37,3%; 17,1%; e 7,5%, respectivamente). As rotas utilizadas pelas me-ninas tiveram menos terrenos vazios (3,9%; p = 0,001) e mais residenciais, varejo, serviços de alimentação e recreação (99,6% ; p = 0,003; 99,1%; p = 0,011; 98,7%; p = 0,030, respectivamente) quando comparado com meninos. Os resultados sugerem que as rotas utilizadas pelos adolescentes têm uso misto e diversificado do solo e que meninas trafegam por rotas com maior infraestrutura de bicicleta e serviços e menos terrenos vazios quando comparado com meninos


Subject(s)
Off-Road Motor Vehicles , Adolescent , Geographic Information Systems , Motor Activity
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