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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880329


BACKGROUND@#Current studies on the COVID-19 depicted a general incubation period distribution and did not examine whether the incubation period distribution varies across patients living in different geographical locations with varying environmental attributes. Profiling the incubation distributions geographically help to determine the appropriate quarantine duration for different regions.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study mainly applied big data analytics and methodology, using the publicly accessible clinical report for patients (n = 543) confirmed as infected in Shenzhen and Hefei, China. Based on 217 patients on whom the incubation period could be identified by the epidemiological method. Statistical and econometric methods were employed to investigate how the incubation distributions varied between infected cases reported in Shenzhen and Hefei.@*RESULTS@#The median incubation period of the COVID-19 for all the 217 infected patients was 8 days (95% CI 7 to 9), while median values were 9 days in Shenzhen and 4 days in Hefei. The incubation period probably has an inverse U-shaped association with the meteorological temperature. The warmer condition in the winter of Shenzhen, average environmental temperature between 10 °C to 15 °C, may decrease viral virulence and result in more extended incubation periods.@*CONCLUSION@#Case studies of the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen and Hefei indicated that the incubation period of COVID-19 had exhibited evident geographical disparities, although the pathological causality between meteorological conditions and incubation period deserves further investigation. Methodologies based on big data released by local public health authorities are applicable for identifying incubation period and relevant epidemiological research.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878879


This paper established the identification technology of the main root origin of three-year-old spring Panax notoginseng aiming at providing theoretical basis for the protection and traceability of geographical indication products of P. notoginseng. Forty-four samples of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng from Guangxi Baise, Yunnan Wenshan, Yunnan new cultivating regions. The stable isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were determined by elemental analysis and stable isotope mass spectrometer. Combined with Duncan multiple comparative analysis, fisher discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis, a origin discriminant model for the main root of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng was established for 3 production areas of P. notoginseng. The geographical climate and environment of three production areas of P. notoginseng are obviously different. From Guangxi Baise-Yunnan Wenshan-Yunnan new cultivating regions, the longitude, average annual temperature and annual precipitation gradually decrease, and the elevation and latitude are increasing. The results of multiple comparative analysis showed that there were significant or very signi-ficant differences in the δ~(13)C,δ~(15)N,δ~2H,δ~(18)O of the main roots of P. notoginseng in three regions. The results of fisher's discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis showed that the correct discriminant rates of the main roots of P. notoginseng for three regions were 80.05%,76.47% and 90.91%, respectively, based on four stable isotope ratios, with an average of 84.09%. Using stable isotope fingerprint and chemometrics method, we can distinguish the origin of the main raw materials and products of P. notoginseng.

China , Geography , Isotopes , Panax notoginseng , Seasons
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881


Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.

Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879063


The research on the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs is of great value to the quality evaluation, production base and protection for geographic indications of Dao-di herbs. Current studies mostly focused on the sorting of written sources, but neglected the excavation of image records such as historical maps and topographic maps. This paper aims at exploreing the geographical scope and evolution mode of historical production area of the Dao-di herbs by combining the method of historical map labelling with the traditional literature and historical research methods. It can be divided into three steps: production area name extraction, historical map labelling and textual research on the historical production area of Dao-di herbs. This method may provide a better way to show the geographical scope and topographic features of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs through historical maps labelling, which is essential to further explore the evolution of production areas of Dao-di herbs from ancient times to the present by comparing historical maps of different periods, and may be helpful to discover the reasons for the formation and evolution of historical producing areas of Dao-di herbs from different perspectives such as environment, climate, humanities, economy, policy, etc. In addition, the historical map database can be used for map labelling to help establish the relationship between the dynasties, historical names, and change cha-racteristics of the scope of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs in the following research.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Geography , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(2): 461-472, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102876


Em entrevista à Reciis, o geógrafo e sanitarista, Christovam Barcellos, reflete sobre a influência das condições socioambientais no estado de saúde das populações, um tema que adquiriu ainda mais relevância depois de uma sequência de desastres ambientais ocorridos recentemente no Brasil. A pandemia da Covid-19 o fez retomar alguns estudos, que podem contribuir para pensar de forma ampla sobre as diversas questões sociais e de saúde envolvidas nas situações de emergência sanitária que alteram o cotidiano das pessoas e da sociedade. Contribuindo para as ações de controle à pandemia do novo coronavírus no estado do Rio de Janeiro e no Brasil, o vice-diretor de pesquisa do Instituto de Comunicação, Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Icict/Fiocruz) relata o desafio de propor decisões oportunas e baseadas em dados que, apesar da ideia geral de preservar a vida, conforme o uso podem pôr em risco as pessoas mais vulneráveis num contexto de profundas incertezas relacionadas à Covid-19 e às desigualdades sociais históricas do Brasil. O pesquisador revela que esta pandemia produzirá uma nova organização socioespacial com a formação de grupos que podem ser mais solidários ou, ao contrário, individualistas. Para Barcellos, a pandemia também reforçará a relevância da ciência e da saúde pública para a sociedade, de modo que, na pós-pandemia, o direito às tecnologias de informação e comunicação qualificadas será pauta necessária para uma agenda de combate às desigualdades.

Humans , Interview , Coronavirus Infections , Health Communication , Pandemics , Geography , Unified Health System , Brazil , Environment , Population Health
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 194-200, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136176


SUMMARY BACKGROUND To describe the current distribution and historical evolution of undergraduate courses in medicine in Brasil. METHODS Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data. Through the Ministry of Education, the data of the medical courses were obtained, and through the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the population and economic data of the Brazilian states were obtained. RESULTS In Brasil, there were 298 medical courses (1,42 courses / million inhabitants) in January 2018, totaling 31,126 vacancies per year, with 9,217 gratuitous vacancies (29.6%) and 17,963 vacancies in the hinterland (57, 7%). In Brazilian states, there are positive and statistically significant (p <0.001) correlations of the variables: "vacancies" and "population" (R 0.92); "vacancies" and "gross domestic product" ("GDP") (R 0.83); "percentage of vacancies in the hinterland" and "population in the hinterland" (R 0.71) and "percentage of vacancies in the hinterland" and "GDP" (R 0.64). There was a negative and statistically significant correlation between "gratuitous vacancy percentage" and "GDP" (R -0.54, p = 0.003). More paid courses than gratuitous courses and more courses in the hinterland than in the capitals have been created since 1964, in proportions that have remained similar since then, but in higher numbers since 2002. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of medical courses in Brasil correlates with the population and economical production of each state. The expansion of Brazilian medical education, which has been accelerated since 2002, is based mainly on paid courses in the hinterland, in the same pattern since 1964.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever a distribuição e evolução histórica das vagas em cursos de graduação em medicina no Brasil. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal analítico de dados secundários. No Ministério da Educação obtiveram-se dados dos cursos de medicina e no Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística foram obtidos dados populacionais e econômicos dos estados. RESULTADOS Havia no Brasil, até janeiro de 2018, 298 cursos de medicina (1,42 curso/milhão de habitantes), totalizando 31.126 vagas anuais, com 9.217 vagas gratuitas (29,6%) e 17.963 vagas no interior do País (57,7%). Nos estados há correlações positivas e significativas (p<0,001) das variáveis: "vagas em medicina" e "população" (R 0,92); "vagas em medicina" e "produto interno bruto" ("PIB") (R 0,83); "percentual de vagas em medicina no interior" e "população no interior" (R 0,71) e "percentual de vagas em medicina no interior" e "PIB" (R 0,64). Há correlação negativa e significativa entre "percentual de vagas gratuitas" e "PIB" (R -0,54, p=0,003). Passaram a ser criados mais cursos pagos do que gratuitos e mais cursos no interior do que nas capitais a partir de 1964 (p <0,001), e a relação curso/milhão de habitantes aumentou a partir de 2002 (p<0,001). CONCLUSÕES A distribuição de vagas em cursos de medicina no Brasil correlaciona-se à população e à produção econômica de cada estado. A expansão do ensino médico brasileiro, acelerada além do crescimento populacional a partir de 2002, é baseada principalmente em cursos pagos no interior dos estados brasileiros, característica inalterada desde 1964.

Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Schools, Medical/history , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/history , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Demography/history , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Geography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880312


PURPOSE@#Geographical analysis is becoming a powerful tool for evaluating the quality of medical services and acquiring fundamental data for medical decision-making. Using geographical analysis, we evaluated the impact of the distance from patients' homes to the hospital on their participation in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (OCR).@*METHODS@#All patients hospitalized for percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, valvular surgery, congestive heart failure, and aortic diseases were advised to participate in an OCR program after discharge. Using the dataset of our cohort study of OCR from 2004 to 2015 (n = 9,019), we used geographical analysis to investigate the impact of the distance from patients' homes to hospital on their participation in our OCR program.@*RESULTS@#Patients whose road distance from home to hospital was 0-10 km, 10-20 km, and 20-30 km participated more in OCR than those whose road distance was ≧ 30 km (OR 4.34, 95% CI 3.80-4.96; OR 2.98, 95% CI 2.61-3.40; and OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.61-2.23, respectively). Especially in patients with heart failure, the longer the distance, the lesser the participation rate (P < .001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Using geographical analysis, we successfully evaluated the factors influencing patients' participation in OCR. This illustrates the importance of using geographical analysis in future epidemiological and clinical studies.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN000028435.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Geography , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Spatial Analysis
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127248


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present a methodology for apportioning Union resources to the federative units (FU - 26 states and one federal district) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) based on health needs measured by demographic, socioeconomic, epidemiological and geographical dimensions. METHODS The apportionment methodology proposal prioritizes the health needs axis, based on Law 141/2012. We adopted a proxy of needs that measures relative inequalities between, socioeconomic, geographic demographic and epidemiological conditions of the populations of the Brazilian Federative Units (FU) for 2015. We first used an adjustment so that the populations of the 27 FU are corrected by their relative needs regarding age and gender. To calculate the health needs axis, the multivariate techniques factorial analysis and principal components were used, and, based on such correction, we applied the health needs index. Subsequently, this index was applied to simulate the resources that should be transferred by the Ministry of Health to states in 2015. RESULTS As we made the methodological choice of transferring a single per capita amount to all states, so the proposal required population correction. Thus, in the analysis of health needs, the FUs that had their population corrected by a factor higher than the national average because of their greater relative need, were the states of: Maranhão, Piauí, Alagoas, Paraíba, Ceará, Pará, Bahia, Acre, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Amazonas, Tocantins and Roraima. For the simulation aggregating all the financing blocks, without reducing the resources already distributed to the remaining states in 2015, indicated the additional need of R$ 4.6 billion. CONCLUSIONS The proposal addresses the absence of studies presenting quantitative simulations of federal resources distribution within the scope of SUS to the FUs, based on the apportionment criteria defined by Law 141/2012, in order to contribute to the reduction health inequalities and mitigate the effects of the economic crisis.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Apresentar o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de rateio dos recursos da União para os estados no Sistema Único de Saúde, baseada em necessidades de saúde medidas pelas dimensões demográfica, socioeconômica, epidemiológica e geográfica. MÉTODOS A proposta de metodologia de rateio prioriza o eixo necessidades de saúde, baseado na Lei nº 141/2012. Adota-se um proxy de necessidades que dimensiona desigualdades relativas entre condições demográficas, epidemiológicas, socioeconômicas e geográficas das populações dos estados brasileiros para o ano de 2015. Primeiramente, utiliza-se um ajuste para que as populações dos 27 estados sejam corrigidas pela necessidade relativa referente a idade e sexo. Para o cálculo do eixo necessidades de saúde, recorreu-se às técnicas multivariadas de análise de componentes principais e fatorial e, com base na população ajustada pelo fator de correção populacional por idade e sexo para cada estado, aplicou-se o índice de necessidades de saúde. Posteriormente, aplicamos esse índice para simular recursos que deveriam ser repassados pelo Ministério da Saúde aos estados em 2015. RESULTADOS Como metodologicamente decidiu-se pela transferência de um valor per capita único para todos os entes federados, a proposta exige a correção populacional. Assim, na análise por necessidades de saúde, os estados que tiveram sua população corrigida por um fator superior à média nacional, por terem necessidade relativa maior, foram: Maranhão, Piauí, Alagoas, Paraíba, Ceará, Pará, Bahia, Acre, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Amazonas, Tocantins e Roraima. No caso da simulação agregando todos os blocos de financiamento, sem reduzir os recursos já distribuídos aos demais estados em 2015, seriam necessários R$ 4,6 bilhões de recursos adicionais. CONCLUSÕES A proposta preenche a ausência de estudos que apresentem simulações quantitativas de distribuição de recursos federais, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde, para os demais entes federados, baseada nos critérios de rateio definidos pela Lei nº 141/2012, de forma a contribuir na redução das desigualdades de saúde e mitigar os efeitos da crise econômica.

Health Resources , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Geography
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 61, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101876


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To verify the associations of leisure walking with perceived and objective measures of neighborhood environmental factors stratified by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 1,130 high school students (47.3% girls; aged 14 to 20 years old) from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Leisure walking and SES were self-reported by the adolescents. Perceived environmental factors were assessed through Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Objective measures were evaluated using Geographic Information Systems, with road network calculated around the adolescent's residential address, using 0.5km and 1.0km buffers. Data collection was carried out in 2017 and generalized linear regression models were used. RESULTS Leisure walking was positively associated with access to services (0.5 km buffers [Odds ratio (OR) = 2.22] 1.0 km buffers [OR = 2.17]) and lower distance to parks and squares (0.5 km [OR=2.80] 1.0 km [OR = 2.73]) in girls from low SES. Residential density (0.5 km [OR = 1.57] 1.0 km [OR = 1.54]) and walkability index (0.5 km [OR = 1.17] 1.0 km [OR = 1.20]) were associated with leisure walking in girls from middle SES. Boys from low SES showed an inverse association between crime safety and leisure walking (0.5 km [OR = 0.59] 1.0 km [OR = 0.63]). Neighborhood recreation facilities was positively associated with leisure walking in middle SES (0.5 km [OR = 1.55] 1.0 km [OR = 1.60]). Land use mix (0.5 km [OR = 1.81] 1.0 km [OR = 1.81]), neighborhood recreation facilities (0.5 km [OR = 2.32] 1.0 km [OR = 2.28]) and places for walking (0.5 km [OR=2.07] 1.0 km [OR=2.22]) were positively associated with leisure walking in high SES. CONCLUSION Environmental factors (objectively and subjectively measured) and leisure walking show association in boys and girls of different SES.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Social Class , Walking/statistics & numerical data , Leisure Activities , Students/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Linear Models , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Self Report , Sports and Recreational Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Geography
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 58, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101875


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the human resources for health and analyze the inequality in its distribution in Mexico. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on the National Occupation and Employment Survey (ENOE in Spanish) for the fourth quarter of 2018 in Mexico. Graduated physicians and nurses, and auxiliary/technician nurses with completed studies were considered as human resources for health. States were grouped by degree of marginalization. Densities of human resources for health per 1,000 inhabitants, Index of Dissimilarity (DI) and Concentration Indices (CI) were estimated as measures of unequal distribution. RESULTS The density of human resources for health was 4.6 per 1,000 inhabitants. We found heterogeneity among states with densities from 2.3 to 10.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. Inequality was higher in the states with a very low degree of marginalization (CI = 0.4) than those with high marginalization (CI = 0.1), and the inequality in the distribution of physicians (CI = 0.5) was greater than in graduated nurses (CI = 0.3) among states. In addition, 17 states showed a density above the threshold of 4.5 per 1,000 inhabitants proposed in the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health. That implies a deficit of nearly 60,000 human resources for health among the 15 states below the threshold. For all states, to reach a density equal to the national density of 4.6, about 12.6% of human health resources would have to be distributed among states that were below national density. CONCLUSIONS In Mexico, there is inequality in the distribution of human resources for health, with state differences. Government mechanisms could support the balance in the labor market of physicians and nurses through a human resources policy.

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Describir los recursos humanos en salud y analizar la desigualdad en su distribución en México. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo del cuarto trimestre de 2018 en México. Se consideraron como recursos humanos en salud médicos y enfermeras con licenciatura, y personal de enfermería auxiliar/técnica con estudios concluidos. Se agrupó a los estados por grado de marginación y se estimó densidades de recursos humanos en salud por 1.000 habitantes, Índices de Disimilitud e Índices de Concentración (IC) como medidas de desigualdad en la distribución. RESULTADOS La densidad de recursos humanos en salud fue de 4,6 por 1.000 habitantes; se observó heterogeneidad entre los estados con que van 2,3 hasta 10,5 por 1.000 habitantes. La desigualdad fue mayor en los estados con muy bajo grado de marginación (IC = 0,4) que en los estados de muy alto grado (IC = 0,1), y fue mayor la desigualdad en la distribución de los médicos (IC = 0,5) que en las enfermeras profesionales (IC = 0,3) entre los estados. Para que todos los estados tuvieran una densidad igual a la nacional de 4,6, se tendrían que distribuir alrededor de 12,6% de los recursos humanos en salud entre los estados que estuvieron por debajo de la densidad nacional. Adicionalmente, 17 estados tuvieron una densidad superior al umbral de 4,5 por 1.000 habitantes propuesto en la Estrategia Global en Recursos Humanos para la Salud. Eso implica un déficit de casi 60 mil recursos humanos en salud entre los 15 estados por debajo del umbral. CONCLUSIONES En México existe desigualdad en la distribución de recursos humanos en salud, diferenciada en los estados. Mecanismos gubernamentales a través de una política de recursos humanos podrían incentivar el equilibrio en el mercado de laboral de los médicos y enfermeras.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Physicians/supply & distribution , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/supply & distribution , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Density , Age Distribution , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Geography , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Mexico , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200041, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101601


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brazil has registered more than 62,000 confirmed cases of leptospirosis between 2001 and 2017, with more than 2,000 cases confirmed in the State of Pará. Despite a large number of cases, no study has been conducted to trace the spatio-temporal profile of the disease. Methodology: Confirmed cases of leptospirosis from 2001 to 2017 from the state of Pará were the basis for this space-time study. The database of the Department of Informatics of the Ministry of Health was used to access data on leptospirosis. The spatio-temporal analysis was performed in the SaTScan software for the detection of clusters, and maps were generated in the QGIS software. Results: The municipalities of Belém and Santarém were among the ones with the highest incidence rates of leptospirosis for the whole study period. Increased number of cases in Soure, Inhangapi, São João da Ponta and Magalhães Barata, Ponta de Pedras, Breves, Bragança, Castanhal, and São Domingos do Capim were identified in different time periods. Santarém and Belém are the main foci of leptospirosis because they are the most urbanized and densely populated municipalities in the State. The cases found in smaller municipalities may be associated with periods of more frequent rainfall and circulation of Leptospira sp. in marsupials and cattle, in the northeastern part of the State. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to help identify the risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of leptospirosis in the State of Pará, particularly in areas with lower population density.

RESUMO: Introdução: O Brasil registrou mais de 62 mil casos de leptospirose confirmados entre 2001 e 2017, com mais de 2.000 casos confirmados no estado do Pará. Apesar da grande quantidade de casos, nenhum estudo até este momento traçou o perfil espaço-temporal da doença. Metodologia: Este é um estudo espaço-temporal com base nos casos confirmados de leptospirose entre 2001 a 2017 no estado do Pará. O banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Ministério da Saúde foi utilizado para acessar os dados de leptospirose. A análise espaço-temporal foi realizada no software SaTScan para detecção de clusters e os mapas foram gerados no software QGIS. Resultados: O município de Belém e Santarém se mantiveram entre as maiores taxas de incidência de leptospirose durante todo o período estudado. O aumento no número de casos em Soure, Inhangapi, São João da Ponta e Magalhães Barata, Ponta de Pedras, Breves, Bragança, Castanhal e São Domingos do Capim foram identificados em diferentes períodos. Santarém e Belém são os principais focos de leptospirose por serem os municípios mais urbanizados e com maior densidade populacional do estado. Os casos observados em municípios menores podem estar associados a períodos de maior pluviosidade e circulação de Leptospira sp. em marsupiais e em gado no nordeste do estado. Conclusão: Com o exposto, torna-se necessário mais estudos visando o conhecimento dos fatores que contribuem com a ocorrência da leptospirose no estado do Pará, particularmente em áreas com menor adensamento populacional.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Time Factors , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Monte Carlo Method , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cities , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Risk Assessment , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(8): e00038319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124320


Resumo: O objetivo foi aplicar as redes neurais artificiais para classificar os municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de acordo com sua vulnerabilidade social. Estudo ecológico que utilizou 17 variáveis que refletissem os indicadores epidemiológicos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e educacionais para o ano de 2010. As fontes pesquisadas foram o Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil e o Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para a classificação dos municípios, foram aplicadas as redes neurais artificiais, dos tipos PNN e Multilayer feedforward, resultando a classificação em cinco categorias de vulnerabilidade: muito alta, alta, média, baixa e muito baixa. A fase de treinamento das redes utilizou os valores de mínimo, máximo, percentis 25 e 75 e mediana das 17 variáveis selecionadas. A rede Multilayer feedforward com seis nós apresentou os melhores resultados. Os municípios da região metropolitana (Natal, Parnamirim), das microrregiões do Seridó oriental e ocidental (Caicó, Currais Novos, São José do Seridó, Jardim do Seridó, Parelhas, Carnaúba dos Dantas) apresentaram níveis mais baixos de vulnerabilidade. Os municípios de alta e muito alta vulnerabilidade encontram-se na mesorregião do Leste potiguar: nas microrregiões do Litoral Nordeste (municípios de João Câmara, Touros, Caiçara do Rio dos Ventos) e do Litoral Sul (Nísia Floresta, São José do Mipibu, Arês, Canguaretama). A rede neural classificou os municípios com elevada precisão, destacando os que possuem extrema vulnerabilidade daqueles que detêm os melhores indicadores sociais.

Abstract: The objective was to apply artificial neural networks to classify municipalities (counties) in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, according to their social vulnerability. This was an ecological study using 17 variables that reflected epidemiological, demographic, socioeconomic, and educational indicators for the year 2010. The sources were the Human Development Atlas for Brazil and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For classification of the municipalities, the study applied the artificial neural networks of the PNN and Multilayer feedforward types, resulting in a classification in five categories of vulnerability: very high, high, medium, low, and very low. The networks' training phase used the minimum and maximum values, 25th and 75th percentiles, and medians for the 17 selected variables. The Multilayer feedforward network with six nodes showed the best results. The municipalities from the Metropolitan Area (Natal, Parnamirim) and the eastern and western Seridó micro-regions (Caicó, Currais Novos, São José do Seridó, Jardim do Seridó, Parelhas, Carnaúba dos Dantas) showed the lowest levels of vulnerability. The municipalities with high and very high vulnerability were located in the East of the state, in the micro-regions of the Northeast Coast (João Câmara, Touros, Caiçara do Rio dos Ventos) and Southern Coast (Nísia Floresta, São José do Mipibu, Arês, Canguaretama). The neural network classified the municipalities with high precision, distinguishing those with extreme vulnerability from those with better social indicators.

Resumen: El objetivo fue aplicar las redes neuronales artificiales para clasificar los municipios del estado de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de acuerdo con su vulnerabilidad social. Se realizó un estudio ecológico que utilizó 17 variables que reflejaron los indicadores epidemiológicos, demográficos, socioeconómicos y educacionales durante el año 2010. Las fuentes investigadas fueron: el Atlas de Desarrollo Humano en Brasil y el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Para la clasificación de los municipios, se aplicaron las redes neuronales artificiales de los tipos PNN y Multilayer feedforward, resultando la clasificación en cinco categorías de vulnerabilidad: muy alta, alta, media, baja y muy baja. La fase de entrenamiento de las redes utilizó los valores: mínimo, máximo, percentiles 25 y 75 y mediana de las 17 variables seleccionadas. La red Multilayer feedforward con seis nudos presentó los mejores resultados. Los municipios de la región metropolitana (Natal, Parnamirim), de las microrregiones del Seridó oriental y ocidental (Caicó, Currais Novos, São José do Seridó, Jardim do Seridó, Parelhas, Carnaúba dos Dantas) presentaron niveles más bajos de vulnerabilidad. Los municipios de alta y muy alta vulnerabilidad se encuentran en la mesorregión del este potiguar: en las microrregiones del litoral nordeste (municipios de João Câmara, Touros, Caiçara do Rio dos Ventos) y del litoral sur (Nísia Floresta, São José do Mipibu, Arês, Canguaretama). La red neuronal clasificó los municipios con elevada precisión, destacando los que poseen extrema vulnerabilidad de aquellos que ostentan los mejores indicadores sociales.

Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Environment , Brazil , Cities , Geography
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1482-1488, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057088


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological profile and the Spatio-temporal distribution of mortality in motorcycle accidents in Alagoas before (2001-2007) and after the "Lei seca" (2008-2015). METHODS This is a mixed ecologic study. All deaths in the state with the codes V20-V29 (ICD-10) as the basic cause were included in the study. Sociodemographic variables and mortality rates per sex were analyzed. For the temporal analysis, the inflection point regression model was used. For spatial analysis, the rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayesian Model and, subsequently, the Global and Local Moran statistic was used to identify the spatial clusters of risk. RESULTS There were 1458 deaths caused by motorcycle accidents in the period studied; the following characteristics about the victims stand out: male (91.29%), economically active age (82.93%), and brown race (78.12%). In the male population, there was a growth trend between 2001 and 2007 (19.0%, p<0.001), and a decline from 2008 (-11.2%, p<0.001). Spatial modeling showed that the areas with the highest risk of mortality are located in the agreste and sertão of the state (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION Mortality in motorcycle accidents is an important public health problem in Alagoas, with an emphasis on male mortality and geographic concentration within the state.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar o perfil epidemiológico e a distribuição espaço-temporal da mortalidade em acidentes motociclísticos em Alagoas antes (2001-2007) e após a lei seca (2008-2015). MÉTODOS Estudo ecológico misto. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os óbitos ocorridos no estado que tiveram como causa básica os códigos V20-V29 (CID-10). Foram analisadas as variáveis sociodemográficas e as taxas de mortalidade calculadas segundo sexo. Para a análise temporal, empregou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão. Para análise espacial, as taxas foram suavizadas pelo Modelo Bayesiano Empírico Local e, posteriormente, foi empregada a estatística de Moran Global e Local para a identificação dos aglomerados espaciais de risco. RESULTADOS Foram registrados 1.458 óbitos em acidentes motociclísticos no período estudado, destacando-se: sexo masculino (91,29%), idade economicamente ativa (82,93%) e raça parda (78,12%). Na população masculina, verificou-se tendência de crescimento entre 2001 e 2007 (19,0%; p<0,001) e de declínio a partir de 2008 (-11,2%; p<0,001). A modelagem espacial mostrou que as áreas de maior risco de mortalidade estão situadas no agreste e sertão do estado (p=0,01). CONCLUSÃO A mortalidade em acidentes motociclísticos é um importante problema de saúde pública em Alagoas, com destaque para a mortalidade masculina e concentração geográfica no interior do estado.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Risk Factors , Bayes Theorem , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 548-562, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057986


Abstract Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858), the New World screwworm, causes primary myiasis in wild and domestic animals in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil. Although this species is considered to occur throughout the country, organized information about its recorded distribution has not been available until now. This article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the historical and current data published on both immature (myiasis) and adult stages of C. hominivorax in Brazil. A total of 174 articles were found; of these, 141 articles reported myiasis cases in cattle (146 records), humans (68 records), and other mammalian hosts (40 records), and captures of adult flies were reported in 33 articles. C. hominivorax is widespread in Brazil, having been recorded in 208 municipalities in all major biomes of the country.

Resumo Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858), a mosca-da-bicheira, causa miíase primária em animais silvestres e domésticos em regiões tropicais e subtropicais do Brasil. Embora esta espécie seja considerada de ocorrência em todo o país, informações organizadas sobre sua distribuição com base em registros não estavam disponíveis até o momento. Este artigo teve como objetivo fornecer uma revisão abrangente dos dados históricos e atuais publicados sobre o registro de estágios imaturos (miíase) e adultos de C. hominivorax, no Brasil. De 174 artigos encontrados, 141 relataram casos de miíase em bovinos (146 relatos), humanos (68 relatos) e outros mamíferos hospedeiros (40 relatos) e capturas de adultos de C. hominivorax foram registradas em 33 artigos. C. hominivorax encontra-se amplamente distribuída no Brasil, tendo sido registrada em 208 municípios brasileiros em todos os principais biomas do país.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Screw Worm Infection/epidemiology , Diptera/classification , Screw Worm Infection/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Geography
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 599-606, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058086


Resumen Introducción: Las zoonosis son enfermedades o infecciones causadas por todo tipo de agentes etiológicos transmisibles desde animales vertebrados a humanos. Durante las últimas décadas, el riesgo para la salud ocasionado por diferentes zoonosis, ha sido generado por la distribución natural de los distintos agentes etiológicos y por la emergencia y reemergencia de estas enfermedades. Objetivo: Estudiar la distribución del riesgo de mortalidad de las cuatro principales zoonosis en Chile continental, basados en datos nacionales de mortalidad, con el objetivo de visualizar geográficamente donde focalizar los esfuerzos de control de estas enfermedades. Metodología: Se estima el riesgo relativo de las principales zoonosis en Chile, mediante estadística Bayesiana. Resultados: Se obtuvo la distribución de las cuatro principales zoonosis de Chile. Discusión/Conclusión: Se obtuvo la distribución de las cuatro principales zoonosis de Chile. Los mapas de riesgo obtenidos muestran una enfermedad parasitaria transmitida por vectores de alto riesgo en el norte, la enfermedad de Chagas; una enfermedad parasitaria de comunidades biológicas en que el hombre es un hospedero accidental, asociada a zonas ganaderas, prevalente en el sur, la hidatidosis; una enfermedad bacteriana transmitida por vertebrados, especialmente por roedores, donde el agua es un vehículo importante, dominante en el centro, la leptospirosis; y una enfermedad viral transmitida por roedores, muy dominante en el sur, la infección por hantavirus.

Background: Zoonoses are infections caused by all types of etiological transmissible agents from vertebrate animals to humans. During the last decades, the risk to health caused by different zoonoses has been a consequence of the natural distribution of the different etiological agents and by the emergence and reemergence of these diseases. Aim: To study the distribution of the risk of mortality of the four main zoonoses in continental Chile, based on national mortality data, with the objective of visualizing geographically where to focus the control efforts of these diseases. Methods: Relative risk was estimated by means of Bayesian Statistics. Results: The distribution in Chile of the main zoonoses was obtained. Discussion/Conclusion: The risk maps obtained show a parasitic disease transmitted by high-risk vectors in the north, Chagas disease; a parasitic disease of biological communities in which man is an accidental host, associated with livestock areas, more prevalent in the south, hydatidosis; a bacterial disease transmitted by vertebrates, especially by rodents, where water is an important vehicle, dominant in the center, leptospirosis; and a viral disease transmitted by rodents, very dominant in the south, the hantavirus infection.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses/etiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/etiology , Risk Assessment , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/etiology , Echinococcosis/etiology , Geography , Leptospirosis/etiology
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 591-598, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058085


Resumen Introducción: En Chile, la hidatidosis, endémica a lo largo de todo el país e hiperendémica en algunas regiones, sigue siendo un problema de salud pública desatendido y poco abordado por el Estado. En la Región del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, los casos reportados y los egresos hospitalarios aún muestran valores elevados, siendo esta zona representativa de riesgo medio. Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de hidatidosis humana en esta región, estudiando la relación de las notificaciones y egresos con factores sociales y ambientales, tales como población, índice de pobreza, índice de escolaridad, alfabetización, temperatura media, precipitación media y masa ganadera ovina. Metodología: Se utilizaron regresiones de Poisson para estudiar los factores asociados a enfermedades de notificación obligatoria y egresos y el modelo Besag-York-Mollie para el riesgo relativo. Resultados: Los factores más relacionados con el riesgo absoluto fueron el índice de escolaridad como factor protector y las temperaturas medias como factor potenciador. La población ovina fue también un factor relevante especialmente al analizar la distribución del riesgo relativo. Las zonas de mayor riesgo en la región fueron La Estrella, Marchigüe, Litueche, Santa Cruz y Lolol según egresos, agregando a Pumanque y Peralillo según notificaciones. Éstas revelan una distribución de las zonas de riesgo de hidatidosis hacia la cordillera de la costa en esta región. Conclusiones: En esta región los principales predictores de riesgo de hidatidosis son el índice de escolaridad, la temperatura y la población ovina.

Background: In Chile, hydatidosis is endemic throughout the country and hyperendemic in some regions. It continues to be a public health problem that has been neglected and little addressed at the national level. In the Region of Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, reported cases and hospital discharges still show high values, this area being representative of medium risk. Aim: To estimate the risk of human hydatidosis in this region, studying the relationship of notifications and hospital discharge rates with social and environmental factors such as population, poverty index, schooling, literacy, average temperature, average rainfall and sheep population size. Methods: Poisson regressions were used to study the factors associated with reported cases and hospital discharge rates and the BYM model for relative risk. Results: We found that the factors most related to absolute risk were the schooling index as a protective factor and the average temperatures as an enhancing factor. The sheep population size was also a relevant factor, especially when analyzing the distribution of relative risk. The areas of greatest risk in the region were La Estrella, Marchigue, Litueche, Santa Cruz and Lolol according to discharge rates, adding Pumanque and Peralillo according to notifications. These reveal a distribution of the zones of risk of hydatidosis towards the coastal mountain range in this region. Discussion/Conclusion. The more relevant factors associated to hydatidosis were schooling index, temperature an sheep population.

Humans , Animals , Echinococcosis/etiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Rain , Socioeconomic Factors , Temperature , Time Factors , Sheep , Linear Models , Poisson Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(5): 380-388, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039103


Objectives: To analyze time trends of suicide rates in Brazil overall and in Brazilian states and compare the estimated suicide rates projected for 2020 with the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan target. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study from 1997 to 2015, stratified by Brazilian states, specific age groups, and sex. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade [SIM]) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Polynomial regression models were used to analyze the trends in suicide rates and to project suicide rates for 2020. Results: Considering 224 units of analysis, 21 (9.4%) showed a decreasing trend, 108 (48.2%) were stable, and 95 (42.4%) showed an increasing trend. Thus, 67% of units of analysis will not meet the WHO target in 2020. Mean suicide rates were higher in males than in females. People aged 60 years and older presented the highest suicide rates, while 84.7% of total deaths by suicide occurred among 15-to-59-year-olds. Conclusion: Overall, 90.6% of units of analysis had a stable or increasing trend in suicide rates from 1997 to 2015. If these trends remain, most of Brazil will fail to achieve the WHO-recommended reduction in suicide rates by 2020.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Suicide/trends , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Spatial Analysis , Geography , Middle Aged
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(10): 3825-3836, Oct. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039487


Resumo A escala geográfica tem sido amplamente discutida na tentativa de formar um conceito que dê conta de explicar as diferentes realidades do espaço. Nos diversos seguimentos de planejamento em saúde, faz-se uma adoção das categorias e conceitos geográficos sem entender os problemas inerentes à escala geográfica, o que afeta diretamente nas políticas públicas implantadas e, consequentemente, na vida das pessoas. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir o conceito de escala a partir dos seus diferentes níveis, e debater a dificuldade de articulá-los por meio da atuação dos órgãos de vigilância em saúde pública brasileira que lidam com a leishmaniose visceral. Realizamos uma revisão de literatura para demonstrar como o debate do conceito de escala geográfica com a saúde é ainda incipiente. Utilizamos conceitos geográficos, integrando as políticas municipais, estaduais e nacional sob a ótica da escala geográfica. Dessa forma, acreditamos que seja possível uma articulação dos órgãos dos sistemas de saúde com a sociedade na transposição de escalas, num acontecer solidário, produzindo um sistema de saúde mais eficaz. A discussão não será aqui esgotada, mas permitirá uma reflexão nas opções teórico-metodológicas em pesquisas e em saúde pública.

Abstract The geographical scale has been broadly discussed in an attempt to formulate a concept that succeeds in explaining different space-related realities. In the various sectors of health planning, geographic categories and concepts have been adopted without understanding the problems inherent to the geographical scale, which directly affects public policies implemented and, consequently, people's lives. The scope of this paper was to discuss the concept of scale based on the different scale levels and the difficulty of their implementation by means of the activities of the organs that operate in public health surveillance that deal with visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to show how the debate about geographical scale and health is still incipient. Geographical concepts were used, integrating municipal, state and national policies from the perspective of the geographic scale. Thus, the contention is that cooperation between health agencies and society is possible by the transposition of scales, creating an environment of solidarity and a more effective health system. The discussion does not end here, but it will make it viable to reflect on the theoretical and methodological options in research and in public health.

Humans , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Public Policy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Geography/methods
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 603-607, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054864


Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the trend of detection of the disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2016. The joinpoint regression model was used. There was a significant trend of decreased detection in the country (average annual percent change −1.8%) and in the South (average annual percent change = −3.5%) and Southeast regions (average annual percent change = −4.5%). The Northeast (average annual percent change = 0.2%), the Central-West (average annual percent change = −1.5%), and the North (average annual percent change = −2.6%) showed a stationary trend (p > 0.05). Eleven states showed a decreasing trend. Alagoas (average annual percent change = 2.1%) and Rio Grande do Norte (average annual percent change = 1.4%) presented significant increase (p < 0.001). The heterogeneous pattern of trend between regions and states shows that efforts are needed to eliminate the disease.

Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Geography
Licere (Online) ; 22(3)set.2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046406


O estudo teve o objetivo de elaborar o atlas dos espaços destinados ao esporte e ao lazer na cidade de Porto Velho, no Estado de Rondônia. A coleta dados se deu através de GPS de navegação e registros em diários de campo. Para a análise dos dados, utilizou-se de imagens de satélites acessíveis; e o aplicativo computacional ArcGIS. Foram localizados 42 espaços de esporte e lazer, distribuídos da seguinte forma: Zona 1: 3 espaços; Zona 2 e 5: 4 espaços respectivamente; Zona 3: 10 espaços; Zona 4: 14 espaços e Zonas NIs (Não identificadas por número pelo Banco de Dados dos Setores Censitários do IBGE de 2015); Urbana e Rural: 6 espaços e 1 espaço respectivamente. Os resultados apontam discrepâncias quantitativas na distribuição das áreas de esporte e lazer quando comparadas com o número de habitantes. Além disso, os locais situados em zonas centrais da cidade estão mais bem assistidos pelo poder público que os situados em zonas periféricas.

The objective of this study was to elaborate the atlas of spaces for sport and leisure in the city of Porto Velho, in the State of Rondônia. The data collection was given through GPS navigation and logs in field journals. For the analysis of the data, it was used of images of accessible satellites; and the ArcGIS computing application. There were 42 sports and leisure spaces, distributed as follows: Zone 1: 3 spaces; Zone 2 and 5: 4 spaces respectively; Zone 3: 10 spaces; Zone 4: 14 spaces and NIs Zones (Not identified by number by the IBGE Census Bureau Database of 2015); Urban and Rural: 6 spaces and 1 space respectively. The results point to quantitative discrepancies in the distribution of sports and leisure areas when compared to the number of inhabitants. In addition, public authorities had better serve sites located in central areas of the city than those located in peripheral areas.

Zoning , Urban Area , Geography , Leisure Activities