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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443622

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Due to the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, health systems worldwide have suffered interferences, with the interruption of sexual health clinics, limitation of ambulatory consults, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several diseases, especially syphilis, altering their epidemiology.Objective: To investigate the impact of the pandemic on syphilis diagnosis in Brazil, the main goal of this study was to update and reevaluate data from the Brazilian Unified Health System on the number of syphilis cases reported in all five Brazilian geographic regions and verify the response of the Brazilian health care to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The data were retrieved from the National Disease Notification System and the Department of Chronic Conditions Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections and represent syphilis diagnosis in Brazil, from March to December 2017 to 2019, 2020, and 2021. Results: The increase in the number of syphilis cases was minor compared to 2020, keeping the Southeast region as the most impacted (+146.1%) and an increase of 22,633 cases throughout Brazil (+54.3%). Conclusion:Syphilis disease control measures were ineffective in 2021 as the drop in the number of cases was irrelevant compared to the years before the pandemic. The association between the increase in syphilis cases in Brazil and the COVID-19 pandemic should be further investigated to assist in decision-making processes and in the programming of health actions in addition to finding measures to raise the control of this disease.


Introdução: Em consequência da pandemia de COVID-19, os sistemas de saúde em todo o mundo sofreram interferências, com interrupção de clínicas de saúde sexual, limitação de consultas ambulatoriais, de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento de diversas doenças, principalmente a sífilis, alterando sua epidemiologia. Objetivo: Para investigar o impacto da pandemia no diagnóstico da sífilis no Brasil, o objetivo principal do presente estudo foi atualizar e reavaliar os dados do Sistema Único de Saúde sobre o número de casos de sífilis notificados nas cinco regiões geográficas brasileiras e verificar a resposta da atenção básica à saúde brasileira diante da pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: Os dados foram retirados do Sistema Nacional de Notificação de Agravos e do Departamento de Doenças Crônicas e Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis e representam o diagnóstico de sífilis no Brasil, de março a dezembro de 2017 a 2019, 2020 e 2021. Resultados: O aumento no número de casos de sífilis foi menor em relação a 2020, mantendo-se a Região Sudeste como a mais impactada (+146,1%) e havendo aumento de 22.633 casos em todo o Brasil (+54,3%). Conclusão: As medidas de controle da sífilis foram ineficazes em 2021, pois a queda no número de casos foi irrelevante em comparação aos anos anteriores à pandemia. A associação entre o aumento dos casos de sífilis no Brasil e a pandemia de COVID-19 deve ser mais bem investigada para auxiliar nos processos de tomada de decisão e na programação das ações de saúde, além de se encontrarem medidas para elevar o controle desta doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Syphilis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Unified Health System , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography
2.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e35, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424257

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To document the evolution of socioeconomic and geographical inequalities in childhood vaccination in Mexico from 2012 to 2021. Methods. Repeated cross-sectional analysis using three rounds of National Health and Nutrition Surveys (2012, 2018, and 2021). Dichotomous variables were created to identify the proportion of children who received no dose of each vaccine included in the national immunization schedule (BCG; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus-containing; rotavirus; pneumococcal conjugate; and measles, mumps, and rubella [MMR]), and the proportion completely unvaccinated. The distribution of unvaccinated children was analyzed by state, and by socioeconomic status using the concentration index. Results. The prevalence of completely unvaccinated children in Mexico was low, with 0.3% children in 2012 and 0.8% children in 2021 receiving no vaccines (p = 0.070). Notwithstanding, for each vaccine, an important proportion of children missed receiving any dose. Notably, the prevalence of MMR unvaccinated children was 10.2% (95% CI 9.2-11.1) in 2012, 22.3% (95% CI 20.9-23.8) in 2018, and 29.1% (95% CI 26.3-31.8) in 2021 (p < 0.001 for the difference between 2012 and 2021). The concentration index indicated pro-rich inequalities in non-vaccination for 2 of 5 vaccines in 2012, 3 of 5 vaccines in 2018, and 4 of 5 vaccines in 2021. There were marked subnational variations. The percentage of MMR unvaccinated children ranged from 3.3% to 17.9% in 2012, 5.5% to 36.5% in 2018, and 13.1% to 72.5% in 2021 across the 32 states of Mexico. Conclusions. Equitable access to basic childhood vaccines in Mexico has deteriorated over the past decade. Vigilant equity monitoring coupled with tailored strategies to reach those left out is urgently required.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Documentar la evolución de las inequidades socioeconómicas y geográficas en la vacunación infantil en México del 2012 al 2021. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo un análisis transversal repetido con tres rondas (2012, 2018 y 2021) de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT). Se crearon variables dicotómicas para determinar la proporción de la población infantil que no había recibido cada una de las vacunas incluidas en el calendario nacional de vacunación (BCG; difteria, tos ferina y tétanos; rotavirus; conjugado neumocócico; y sarampión, parotiditis y rubéola [triple viral]) y la proporción de la población infantil completamente sin vacunar. La distribución de la población infantil sin vacunar se analizó por estado y nivel socioeconómico mediante el índice de concentración. Resultados. La prevalencia de la población infantil completamente sin vacunar en México fue baja, con 0,3% en el 2012 y 0,8% en el 2021 de la población infantil que no recibió ninguna vacuna (p = 0,070). No obstante, en relación con cada vacuna, una gran proporción de población infantil no recibió ninguna dosis. En particular, la prevalencia de la población infantil sin vacunarse con la triple viral fue de 10,2% (IC del 95% 9,2-11,1) en el 2012, 22,3% (IC del 95% 20,9-23,8) en el 2018 y 29,1% (IC del 95 % 26,3-31,8) en el 2021 (p < 0,001 para la diferencia entre el 2012 y el 2021). El índice de concentración reveló desigualdades que favorecen a los estratos más ricos en la probabilidad de no estar vacunado para 2 de las 5 vacunas en 2012, en 3 de las 5 vacunas en 2018, y en 4 de las 5 vacunas en el 2021. Asimismo, hubo marcadas variaciones subnacionales: el porcentaje de la población infantil que no recibió la vacuna triple viral osciló entre 3,3% y 17,9% en el 2012, entre 5,5% y 36,5% en el 2018 y entre 13,1% y 72,5% en el 2021 en los 32 estados de México. Conclusiones. El acceso equitativo a las vacunas infantiles básicas en México se ha deteriorado en el último decenio. Es urgentemente necesario un monitoreo vigilante de la equidad, así como estrategias adaptadas, para poder vacunar a la población al margen.


RESUMO Objetivo. Documentar a evolução das desigualdades socioeconômicas e geográficas na vacinação infantil no México, no período entre 2012 e 2021. Métodos. Foi realizada a análise repetida de dados transversais obtidos em três ciclos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde e Nutrição do México (2012, 2018 e 2021). Variáveis dicotômicas foram elaboradas para estimar o percentual de crianças que não receberam nenhuma dose de cada uma das vacinas do calendário nacional de vacinação (a saber: vacina BCG, vacina contra difteria, coqueluche e tétano, vacina contra rotavírus, vacina pneumocócica conjugada e vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola [SCR]) e a proporção de crianças totalmente não vacinadas. O índice de concentração foi usado para analisar a distribuição das crianças não vacinadas por estado e condição socioeconômica. Resultados. A prevalência de crianças totalmente não vacinadas foi baixa no país (0,3% em 2012 e 0,8% em 2021, p = 0,070). Porém, um percentual significativo deixou de receber alguma dose de vacina. A prevalência de crianças não vacinadas com a vacina SCR foi 10,2% (IC 95% 9,2-11,1) em 2012, 22,3% (IC 95% 20,9-23,8) em 2018 e 29,1% (IC 95% 26,3-31,8) em 2021 (p < 0,001 para a diferença entre 2012 e 2021). O índice de concentração indicou desigualdade de renda entre vacinados e não vacinados com relação a 2 das 5 vacinas em 2012, 3 das 5 vacinas em 2018 e 4 das 5 vacinas em 2021. Houve uma grande variação geográfica na vacinação infantil. Em particular, o percentual de não vacinados com a vacina SCR nos 32 estados do país variou de 3,3% a 17,9% em 2012, 5,5% a 36,5% em 2018 e 13,1% a 72,5% em 2021. Conclusões. Ocorreu uma piora no acesso equitativo à vacinação básica infantil na última década no México. É imprescindível monitorar atentamente a equidade e implementar estratégias específicas para garantir a cobertura vacinal de todos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Health Inequities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health , Geography , Sociodemographic Factors , Mexico
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(2): 361-377, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385071

ABSTRACT

Resumen El artículo analiza el rol que jugó el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional en la expansión territorial de Chile a fines del siglo XIX, a través de la relación que sostuvo con tres exploraciones geográficas asociadas a este proceso. Se propone que el Observatorio cumplió un papel central para estas exploraciones geográficas, ayudando a obtener coordenadas geográficas precisas en pos de producir mapas exactos de los territorios anexados al norte y sur de Chile. Los resultados permiten afirmar que el Observatorio Astronómico Nacional fue una institución que prestó servicios estratégicos durante la expansión territorial y, a su vez, que la geografía fue parte importante de sus trabajos científicos institucionales.


Abstract The article analyzes the role played by the National Astronomical Observatory (Observatorio Astronómico Nacional) in the territorial expansion of Chile at the end of the nineteenth century, through the relationship with three geographical explorations associated with this process. It is proposed that the Observatory played a central role in these geographic explorations, helping to obtain precise geographic coordinates to produce accurate maps of the territories annexed to the north and south of Chile. The results allow us to affirm that the National Astronomical Observatory provided strategic services during territorial expansion, and geography was an important part of its institutional scientific work.


Subject(s)
Astronomy , Science/history , Space Flight , Geography , Chile , History, 19th Century
4.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e59012, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376057

ABSTRACT

RESUMO. Neste texto, nossa atenção está voltada para entender como as relações de cuidado entre pais, filhos e filhas se materializam nos espaços. A intenção é compreender como as relações de cuidar se espacializam e como uma geografia dos cuidados engendrada pelos pais constitui uma geografia das parentalidades. Trazemos para o debate as pesquisas de Aitken (2019a, 2019b) sobre as famílias eslovenas que foram apagadas pela história, pelos instrumentos oficiais de cidadania e pela Lei de Estrangeiros e como isso afetou as relações de cuidado dos pais com seus filhos e suas filhas. Dando continuidade ao texto, apresentamos um tema que tem sido recorrente em nossas investigações, agora em território brasileiro: as práticas das benzedeiras e benzedores. Os trabalhos de Pereira e Gomes (2018) e Lopes (1998) nos ajudam a compreender melhor esses sujeitos que exercem os rituais de cura - que podem ser considerados práticas de cuidado - em que o benzedor vai forjando ao seu redor uma teia de proteção. Relacionando a figura do pai com a do benzedor, analisamos o personagem Zeca Chapéu Grande, do romance Torto arado, de Itamar Vieira Junior (2020), como uma representação possível desse sujeito que cuida de seus próprios filhos e filhas, ao mesmo tempo em que exerce uma paternidade que se expande para além de sua casa, abarcando todos aqueles que o procuram em busca de cuidado e proteção. Assim, ao longo do texto, a intenção foi evidenciar as relações entre pais e filhos e filhas que se dão nos espaços de suas vidas e como os pais vão criando uma geografia de cuidado em seu entorno.


RESUMEN. En este texto nuestra atención se centra en comprender cómo se materializan en los espacios las relaciones de cuidado entre padres, hijos e hijas. La intención es comprender cómo las relaciones de cuidado se vuelven espaciales, comprender cómo una geografía del cuidado engendrada por los padres constituye una geografía de la paternidad. Traemos al debate la investigación de Aitken (2019a, 2019b) sobre las familias eslovenas que fueron borradas por la historia, los instrumentos oficiales de ciudadanía y la Ley de Extranjería y cómo afectó las relaciones de cuidado de los padres con sus hijos e hijas. Continuando con el texto, presentamos un tema que ha venido siendo recurrente en nuestras investigaciones, ahora en territorio brasileño: las prácticas de los curanderos y bendectores. Los trabajos de Pereira y Gomes (2018) y Lopes (1998) nos ayudan a comprender mejor a estos sujetos que ejercen rituales curativos, que pueden considerarse prácticas de cuidado, en las que el bendector forja a su alrededor una red de protección. Relacionando la figura del padre con la de lo bendector, analizamos al personaje Zeca Chapéu Grande, de la novela Torto arado, de Itamar Vieira Junior (2020), como una posible representación de este sujeto que cuida a sus propios hijos e hijas al mismo tiempo que tiene una paternidad en expansión más allá de hogar, abrazando a todos aquellos que buscan cuidado y protección. Así, a lo largo del texto, la intención fue resaltar las relaciones entre padres e hijos e hijas que se dan en los espacios de sus vidas y cómo los padres están creando una geografía del cuidado en su entorno.


ABSTRACT. In this text, our attention is focused on understanding how the care relationships between parents, sons and daughters materialize in spaces. The objective is to understand how care relationships become spatial, to understand how a geography of care generated by parents constitutes a geography of parenting. We submit to the discussion Aitken's research (2019a, 2019b) on the Slovenian families that were erased by history, by the official instruments of citizenship and by the Foreigners' Law and how this affected care relationships between parents and their children. Further on, a recurrent topic is addressed in our research, now in Brazilian territory: the practices of healers and blessers. The works of Pereira and Gomes (2018) and Lopes (1998) help us to better understand these subjects who perform healing rituals—which can be considered care practices—in which the blesser raises around them a web of protection. Relating the figure of the father to that of the blesser, we analyze the character Zeca Chapéu Grande, from the novel Torto arado, by Itamar Vieira Junior (2020), as a possible representation of this subject who takes care of his own children while expanding paternity beyond his home, embracing all those who seek care and protection from him. Thus, throughout the text, the intention is to highlight the relationships between parents and children that occur in their living spaces and how parents are creating a geography of care in their surroundings.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Parent-Child Relations , Religion , Ceremonial Behavior , Child , Parenting , Paternity , Territoriality , Family/psychology , Nuclear Family/psychology , Culture , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Ethnic Violence/ethics , Cultural Rights , Geography/ethics
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381874

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la relación entre las habilidades psicolingüísticas y el rendimiento escolar. El presente estudio es de tipo cuantitativo, con alcance descriptivo correlacional, de tipo transversal no experimental. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 35 estudiantes de 4° año básico de un colegio particular subvencionado de la ciudad de Chillán, Chile. La recolección de datos se obtuvo mediante la aplicación del Test de Illinois de Aptitudes Psicolingüísticas (ITPA) y el promedio final de las asignaturas de Lenguaje, Matemáticas, Ciencias Sociales e Historia y Geografía. Dentro de los resultados se pudo determinar la existencia de una correlación positiva, de fuerza relativamente moderada y estadísticamente significativa entre la Integración Visual y el promedio en la asignatura de Ciencias y el Rendimiento Académico Total, así como la Asociación Auditiva y el promedio en la asignatura de Ciencias y la Expresión Verbal con el promedio en la asignatura de Lenguaje. Por medio de la presente investigación se concluye que se logra establecer una relación parcial entre las Habilidades Psicolingüísticas y el Rendimiento Académico


The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between psycholinguistic skills and school performance. The present study is quantitative, with a correlational descriptive scope, of a non-experimental cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 35 students in the 4th grade, of a non-experimental cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 35 students in the 4th year of a private subsidized school in the city of Chillán, Chile. Data collection was obtained through the application of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Aptitudes (ITPA) and the final average of the subjects of Language, Mathematics, Social Sciences, and History and Geography. Within the results, it was possible to determine the existence of a positive correlation, of relatively moderate strength and statistically significant between Visual Integration and the average in the Science subject and the Total Academic Performance, as well as the Auditory Association and the average in the subject. of Sciences and Verbal Expression with the average in the Language course. Using the present investigation, it is concluded that it is possible to establish a partial relationship between Psycholinguistic Skills and Academic Performance


Subject(s)
Humans , Psycholinguistics , Association , Academic Performance , Aptitude , Schools , Social Sciences , Data Collection , Geography , History , Language , Mathematics
6.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 1079-1085, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1434455

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una encuesta transversal de dos muestras separadas por conveniencia de enero a marzo de 2021 a fin de comparar la prevalencia de percepción de riesgo e identificar diferentes estrategias de afrontamiento en enfermeros de la costa y la sierra ecuatoriana. Las muestras incluyeron dos grupos de profesionales de enfermería para un total de 518. El 49,0% (n= 254) de los participantes laboraban en la sierra ecuatoriana y el 50,8% (n= 263) prestaban sus servicios en la costa ecuatoriana. Muestreados provenientes de varias clínicas, tanto en la costa como en la sierra ecuatoriana, fueron abordados aleatoriamente por el entrevistador para participar en el estudio. Se examinaron y compararon los resultados de las pruebas de las tres muestras. Los grupos se eligieron en función de la conveniencia del muestreo y la supuesta conciencia de los factores de riesgo de COVID-19. En cuanto a la percepción de riesgo, su prevalencia es significativamente mayor para las enfermeras de la costa que las de la sierra. Las enfermeras que prefieren trabajar en equipo durante la crisis sanitaria tenían probabilidades alrededor de 0,30 más bajas, lo que puede interpretarse como un factor protector. Respecto al miedo al contagio no se hallaron diferencias entre enfermeras de la costa o la sierra(AU)


A cross-sectional survey of two samples separated by convenience was carried out from January to March 2021 to compare the prevalence of risk perception and identify different coping strategies in nurses from the Ecuadorian coast and highlands. The samples included two groups of nursing professionals for a total of 518. 49.0% (n= 254) of the participants worked in the Ecuadorian highlands and 50.8% (n= 263) provided their services on the ecuadorian coast. Samples from various clinics, both on the coast and in the Ecuadorian highlands, were randomly approached by the interviewer to participate in the study. The test results of the three samples were examined and compared. Groups were chosen based on sampling convenience and presumed awareness of COVID-19 risk factors. Regarding the perception of risk, its prevalence is significantly higher for nurses from the coast than those from the mountains. Nurses who prefer to work in a team during the health crisis had probabilities around 0.30 lower, which can be interpreted as a protective factor. Regarding the fear of contagion, no differences were found between nurses from the coast or the mountains(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Risks , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humanitarian Crisis , Nursing Staff/psychology , Perception , Risk-Taking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Occupational Health , Ecuador/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Personal Protective Equipment , Geography
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 755-760, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935455

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the research focus on determinants of chronic non-communicable diseases has shifted from non-spatial factors (e.g., lifestyle behaviors) to spatial factors (e.g., natural and built environments). As the intersection of lifecourse epidemiology and spatial epidemiology, spatial lifecourse epidemiology is a research area in the field of health geography. It combines advanced spatial technologies, including geographic information systems, surveying, remote sensing, location-based services and artificial intelligence, to accurately retrace, measure, and simulate individuals' exposures across the life course (i.e., exposome); and adopts lifecourse models, including the accumulation of risk model and critical/sensitive period models, to investigate the impact of individuals' exposures in the past on their health status at different stages of life. This paper introduces the theories, main analysis approaches and focus of spatial lifecourse epidemiology in the research of chronic non-communicable diseases for the purpose of better understanding and applications of spatial lifecourse epidemiology in the research of determinants of chronic non-communicable diseases, providing important reference for future research, facilitating the development of health geography to eventually achieve precise health management over the lifecourse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Epidemiology , Forecasting , Geography , Health Status , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 51-60, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285244

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos As doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) são a primeira causa de mortes dentre as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). Objetivo Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e analisar tendência da taxa de mortalidade por DIC, segundo sexo e por faixa etária, nos estados da região Nordeste do Brasil, 1996-2016. Métodos Estudo ecológico envolvendo a mortalidade por DIC nos estados do Nordeste. Variáveis analisadas: sexo, idade, escolaridade, estado civil, categoria do CID-10 e estado de residências. Foram calculadas taxas brutas e padronizadas. Os dados de óbitos foram coletados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade; e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Nas análises temporais, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, com cálculo do percentual de variação anual (APC, Annual Percent Change) e do percentual de variação médio do período (AAPC, Average Annual Percent Change). Considerou-se intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. Resultados Registrou-se 405.916 óbitos por DIC na região Nordeste durante o período estudado. O perfil de óbitos caracteriza-se por homens (n=229.006; 56,42%), idosos (n=301.379; 74,25%), raça/cor parda (n=197.936; 48,76%), fundamental ou <4 anos na escola (n=232.599; 57,30%) e casados (n=179.599; 44,25%). Houve destaque incomum para o aumento na taxa de incremento anual na faixa etária de adolescentes (AAPC: 5,2%, p<0,01). A taxa de mortalidade regional padronizada cresceu de 30,7/100 mil habitantes, em 1996, para 53,8/100 mil, em 2016 (AAPC:2,8%; p<0,01). Todos os nove estados apresentaram tendência estatisticamente significante de crescimento, com ênfases para o Maranhão (AAPC:7,6%; p<0,01) e o Piauí (AAPC:6,0%; p<0,01). Conclusão O perfil prevalente observado foi de homens, idosos, raça/cor parda, baixa escolaridade e casados. A mortalidade por DIC apresentou tendência de crescimento em todos os estados, ainda que com padrão desigual entre as unidades federadas.


Abstract Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Objective To describe the sociodemographic profile and analyze the trend in the mortality rate due to IHD, according to sex and by age group, in the states of the Northeast region of Brazil, from 1996 to 2016. Methods Ecological study involving IHD mortality in the northeastern states. Variables analyzed: sex, age, education, marital status, ICD-10 category and state of residence. Crude and standardized rates were calculated. Death data were collected from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). In temporal analyzes the regression model by inflection points was used, with the calculation of annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change of the period (AAPC). A 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5% were considered. Results 405916 deaths due to IHD were registered in the northeast region during the study period. The death profile is characterized by men (n=229006; 56,42%), elderly (n=301379; 74,25%), race/color brown (n=197936; 48,76%), elementary or <4 years at school (n=232599; 57,30%) and married (n=179599; 44,25%). There was an unusual highlight to the increase in the annual growth rate in the age group of adolescents (AAPC: 5,2%, p <0.01). The standardized regional mortality rate grew from 30,7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1996 to 53.8 per 100,000 in 2016 (AAPC 2.8%; p<0.01). All nine states presented a statistically significant growth trend, with emphasis on Maranhão (AAPC 7,6%; p<0.01) and Piauí (AAPC 6,0%; p<0.01). Conclusion The prevalent observed profile was male, elderly, race/color brown, low education level and married. Mortality due to IHD presented an upward trend in all states, although with an uneven pattern among the federated units.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Ischemia , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Educational Status , Geography
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 89-99, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152977

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As doenças cerebrovasculares (DCBV) constituem a segunda causa de mortes no mundo. Objetivo Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por DCVB no Brasil (1996-2015) e associação com o índice de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) e o índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS). Métodos Trata-se de estudo ecológico envolvendo as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por DCBV. Os dados dos óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e os dados populacionais, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para as análises temporais, foi utilizado o modelo de regressão por pontos de inflexão, sendo calculado o percentual de variação anual (annual percent change [APC]) e médio do período (average annual percent change [AAPC]), com intervalo de confiança de 95% e significância de 5%. As tendências foram classificadas em crescente, decrescente ou estacionária. O modelo de regressão multivariada foi utilizado para testar a associação entre a mortalidade por DCBV, IDH e IVS. Resultados Foram registrados 1.850.811 óbitos por DCBV no período estudado. Observou-se redução da taxa de mortalidade nacional (APC: -2,4; p = 0,001). Vinte unidades federativas apresentaram tendências significativas, sendo 13 de redução, incluindo todos das regiões Centro-Oeste (n = 4), Sudeste (n = 4) e Sul (n = 3). O IDH teve associação positiva e o IVS, associação negativa com a mortalidade (p = 0,046 e p = 0,026, respectivamente). Conclusão O estudo mostrou comportamento epidemiológico desigual da mortalidade entre as regiões, sendo maior nos estados do Sudeste e Sul, porém com tendência significativa de redução, e menor nos estados do Norte e Nordeste, mas com tendência significativa de crescimento. O IDH e o IVS associaram-se com a mortalidade. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Abstract Background Cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) are the second major cause of death in the world. Objective To analyze the mortality trend of CBVD in Brazil (1996 to 2015) and its association with Human Development Index (HDI) and the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Methods This is an ecological study. We analyzed the mortality rate standardized by CBVD. Death data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and populational data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The model of regression by inflection points (Joinpoint regression) was used to perform the temporal analysis, calculating the Annual Percent Change (APC) and Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC), with 95% of confidence interval and a significance of 5%. Trends were classified as increasing, decreasing or stationary. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between mortality by CBVD, HDI and SVI. Results During this period, 1,850,811 deaths by CBVD were recorded. We observed a reduction in the national mortality rate (APC -2.4; p = 0.001). Twenty federation units showed a significant trend, of which 13 showed reduction, including all states in the Midwest (n=4), Southeast (n=4) and South (n=3). The HDI was positively associated and the SVI was negatively associated with mortality (p = 0.046 and p = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion An unequal epidemiological course of mortality was observed between the regions, being higher in the Southeast and South states, with a significative tendency of reduction, and lower in the North and Northeast states, but with a significative tendency of increase. HDI and SVI showed an association with mortality. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):89-99)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Abstracting and Indexing , Geography
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1574-1579, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879063

ABSTRACT

The research on the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs is of great value to the quality evaluation, production base and protection for geographic indications of Dao-di herbs. Current studies mostly focused on the sorting of written sources, but neglected the excavation of image records such as historical maps and topographic maps. This paper aims at exploreing the geographical scope and evolution mode of historical production area of the Dao-di herbs by combining the method of historical map labelling with the traditional literature and historical research methods. It can be divided into three steps: production area name extraction, historical map labelling and textual research on the historical production area of Dao-di herbs. This method may provide a better way to show the geographical scope and topographic features of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs through historical maps labelling, which is essential to further explore the evolution of production areas of Dao-di herbs from ancient times to the present by comparing historical maps of different periods, and may be helpful to discover the reasons for the formation and evolution of historical producing areas of Dao-di herbs from different perspectives such as environment, climate, humanities, economy, policy, etc. In addition, the historical map database can be used for map labelling to help establish the relationship between the dynasties, historical names, and change cha-racteristics of the scope of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs in the following research.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Geography , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 560-566, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878879

ABSTRACT

This paper established the identification technology of the main root origin of three-year-old spring Panax notoginseng aiming at providing theoretical basis for the protection and traceability of geographical indication products of P. notoginseng. Forty-four samples of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng from Guangxi Baise, Yunnan Wenshan, Yunnan new cultivating regions. The stable isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were determined by elemental analysis and stable isotope mass spectrometer. Combined with Duncan multiple comparative analysis, fisher discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis, a origin discriminant model for the main root of three-year-old spring P. notoginseng was established for 3 production areas of P. notoginseng. The geographical climate and environment of three production areas of P. notoginseng are obviously different. From Guangxi Baise-Yunnan Wenshan-Yunnan new cultivating regions, the longitude, average annual temperature and annual precipitation gradually decrease, and the elevation and latitude are increasing. The results of multiple comparative analysis showed that there were significant or very signi-ficant differences in the δ~(13)C,δ~(15)N,δ~2H,δ~(18)O of the main roots of P. notoginseng in three regions. The results of fisher's discriminant analysis and sequential discriminant analysis showed that the correct discriminant rates of the main roots of P. notoginseng for three regions were 80.05%,76.47% and 90.91%, respectively, based on four stable isotope ratios, with an average of 84.09%. Using stable isotope fingerprint and chemometrics method, we can distinguish the origin of the main raw materials and products of P. notoginseng.


Subject(s)
China , Geography , Isotopes , Panax notoginseng , Seasons
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4765-4773, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888183

ABSTRACT

In this study, data of amino acids of Cordyceps samples from Qinghai and Tibet was analyzed with self-organizing map neural network. A model of XY-Fused network was established with the content of 8 major amino acids and total amino acids for the identification of geographical origins of Cordyceps from Qinghai and Tibet. It had the prediction accuracy of 83.3% for the test set. In addition, data mining indicated that methionine was a special kind of amino acid in Cordyceps which could serve as a marker to identify its geographical origins. On this basis, the content ratio of methionine to total amino acids was proposed to be a quantifiable indicator to distinguish Cordyceps from Qinghai and Tibet.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Cordyceps/genetics , Geography , Neural Networks, Computer , Tibet
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3824-3831, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888104

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to provide the protection strategies for wild germplasm resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus and a theoretical basis for the sustainable use of Viticis Fructus. The genetic diversity and genetic structures of the 232 indivi-duals in 19 populations of Vitex rotundifolia and V. trifolia were analyzed by eight SSR markers with tools such as Popgene32, GenAlex 6.502, and STRUCTURE. Bottleneck effect was detected for the population with more than 10 individuals. The results indicated that 42 and 26 alleles were detected from the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia, respectively, with average expected heterozygo-sities of 0.448 6 and 0.583 9, which are indicative of low genetic diversity. AMOVA revealed the obvious genetic variation of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia within population(84.43%, P<0.01; 60.37%, P<0.01). Furthermore, in eight SSR loci, six from V. rotundifolia populations and two from V. trifolia populations failed to meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations(P<0.05), which confirmed that the populations experienced bottleneck effect. As assessed by Mantel test, geographical distance posed slight impacts on the genetic variation between the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia. Principal component analysis(PCA) and STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated evident introgression of genes among various populations. The original plants of Viticis Fructus were confirmed low in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation level. Therefore, the protection of wild resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus should be strengthened to ensure its sustainable use.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Geography , Microsatellite Repeats , Vitex/genetics
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200528, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154881

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811) is the triatomine with the largest geographic distribution in Latin America. It has been reported in 18 countries from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, including the Caribbean islands. Although most reports indicate that P. geniculatus has wild habitats, this species has intrusive habits regarding human dwellings mainly located in intermediate deforested areas. It is attracted by artificial light from urban and rural buildings, raising the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the wide body of published information on P. geniculatus, many knowledge gaps exist about its biology and epidemiological potential. For this reason, we analysed the literature for P. geniculatus in Scopus, PubMed, Scielo, Google Scholar and the BibTriv3.0 databases to update existing knowledge and provide better information on its geographic distribution, life cycle, genetic diversity, evidence of intrusion and domiciliation, vector-related circulating discrete taxonomic units, possible role in oral T. cruzi transmission, and the effect of climate change on its biology and epidemiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Panstrongylus/genetics , Panstrongylus/parasitology , Triatoma/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Panstrongylus/physiology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Biology , Genes, Insect , Ecology , Genotype , Geography , Insect Vectors/genetics , Latin America
16.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156025

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the entry of Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in Brazil and its federative units. Methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1980 and 2018 in databases and in the gray literature was performed using descriptors related to the years of entry of the DENV serotypes. Additionally, experts and official sources of information (Brazilian Ministry of Health) were consulted. Results: From 100 publications selected for the systematic review, 26 addressed the entry of DENV serotypes in the North region of the country, 33 in the Northeast, 24 in the Southeast, 14 in the Central-West, and five in the South. DENV-1 and DENV-4 were introduced in the North region in 1981. DENV-2 was introduced in the Southeast in 1990. DENV-3 was introduced in the North in 1999. Conclusion: The rapid expansion of dengue throughout the Brazilian territory was verified from the second half of the 1980s, with the gradual entry of the four serotypes, which resulted in the emergence of epidemics of arbovirus, which are currently verified in the country. Considering the epidemiology of the disease, more information should be disseminated and published in the wide-ranging scientific literature for a better understanding of the spread and circulation of DENV serotypes.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Descreveu-se a entrada de sorotipos do vírus da Dengue (DENV) no Brasil e em suas unidades federativas. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática de estudos publicados entre 1980 e 2018 em bancos de dados e na literatura cinzenta, utilizando-se descritores relacionados aos anos de entrada dos sorotipos do DENV. Além disso, consultou-se especialistas e fontes oficiais de informação (Ministério da Saúde do Brasil). Resultados: Das 100 publicações selecionadas para a revisão sistemática, 26 abordaram a entrada de sorotipos de DENV na região Norte do país, 33 no Nordeste, 24 no Sudeste, 14 no Centro-Oeste e cinco no Sul. O DENV-1 e o DENV-4 foram introduzidos na região Norte em 1981. O DENV-2 foi introduzido no Sudeste em 1990. O DENV-3 foi introduzido no Norte em 1999. Conclusão: A rápida expansão da dengue por todo o território brasileiro foi verificada a partir da segunda metade dos anos de 1980, com a entrada gradativa dos quatro sorotipos, o que resultou no surgimento de epidemias da arbovirose, que são atualmente verificadas no país. Considerando a epidemiologia da doença, mais informações devem ser divulgadas e publicadas na literatura científica de amplo alcance, para melhor entendimento da propagação e circulação dos sorotipos de DENV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Serogroup , Geography
17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210045, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288482

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar o impacto da Lei 11.705, conhecida por "Lei Seca" (LS-08), sobre a mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito (AT) em cada uma das 27 unidades federativas (UF) do Brasil. Método: Estudo ecológico de séries temporais interrompidas com dados de AT entre 2002 a 2015, totalizando 168 meses. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e do Departamento Nacional de Trânsito. Foram ajustados modelos auto-regressivos integrados de médias móveis (ARIMA) para analisar o impacto da LS-08 em cada UF. Resultados: Após a implantação da LS-08, a mortalidade por AT diminuiu significativamente no estado de Santa Catarina (pré-LS-08 = 2,60 ± 0,30 e pós-LS-08 = 2,32 ± 0,35; p < 0,001) e no Distrito Federal (pré-LS-08 = 2,22 ± 0,40 e pós-LS-08 = 1,76 ± 0,35; p = 0,002), aumentou significativamente nos estados do Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe e Mato Grosso e permaneceu estável nos demais. Análise de sensibilidade conduzida sob uma série temporal mais curta, com 24 meses, apresentou resultados semelhantes aos obtidos com a série de 168 meses para a maioria das 27 UF. Conclusão: A LS-08 exerceu impacto heterogêneo sobre a mortalidade por AT entre as UF.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the impact of 2008 Public Law number 11,705, also known as Dry Law (DL-08), on mortality from road traffic accidents (RTA), in each of the 27 Brazilian Federative Units (BFUs). Methods: Ecological study of interrupted time series with RTA data from 2002 to 2015, totalizing 168 months. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and from the National Traffic Department. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were adjusted to assess the impact of DL-08 in each BFUs. Results: After the implementation of the DL-08, there was a significant decrease in mortality from RTA in the state of Santa Catarina (pre DL-08 = 2.60 ± 0.30 and post DL-08 = 2.32 ± 0.35; p < 0.001) and in the Federal District (pre DL-08 = 2.22 ± 0.40 and post DL-08 = 1.76 ± 0.35; p = 0.002), a significant increase in mortality in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Mato Grosso, and a stability in the other states. The sensitivity analysis conducted over a shorter time series with 24 months showed results similar to those obtained with the 168-month series for most of the 27 BFUs. Conclusion: The DL-08 had a heterogeneous impact on mortality from traffic accidents on BFUs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Information Systems , Accidents, Traffic , Brazil/epidemiology , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Geography
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24(supl.1): e210016, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Aim: This research analyzed a joint spatial distribution and explored the possible associations between epidemiological aspects and feminicide rates, in towns of the Sergipe State in Northeastern Brazil. Methodology: An exploratory ecological study investigated the global spatial autocorrelation of epidemiological aspects with femicide rates from towns in Sergipe State, Brazil, (n = 75), in the 2013-2017 period, using the "global" and "local" Moran statistic method and a multiple spatial regression. The exposure variables included socioeconomic and demographic conditions, services and health condition, and femicide rates. We used the software Stata 11.0, SPSS 18.0 and GeoDa 0.95-i. Results: The spatial distribution of femicide rates was not random and showed high spatial autocorrelation and predominance of significant spatial groupings of towns with the highest mortality rates due to femicide in the central region of Sergipe State. In the multiple regression analysis, the percentage of women in charge of families and the Municipal Human Development Index were positively associated with the femicide rates in towns in Sergipe's municipalities in the studied period (p < 0.05). The opposite situation occurred between the Income Concentration Index (GINI) and the femicide rates. Conclusion: This is the first study that has analyzed the factors associated with the spatial clusters of femicide rates in a geographical space where there is a predominance of patriarchal culture. There was a femicide increase in locations with the lowest social inequality, the highest human development and authority exercised by women in the family environment.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Esta pesquisa analisou a distribuição espacial conjunta e explorou possíveis associações entre aspectos epidemiológicos e taxas de feminicídio, nos municípios do Estado de Sergipe, no nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: Um estudo ecológico exploratório investigou a autocorrelação espacial global de aspectos epidemiológicos com taxas de feminicídio em municípios do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil (n = 75), no período de 2013 a 2017, utilizando a estatística de Moran "global" e "local" e uma regressão espacial múltipla. As variáveis incluíram a condição socioeconômica, a situação demográfica, os serviços e estado de saúde e as taxas de feminicídio. Os softwares utilizados foram Stata 11.0, SPSS 18.0 e GeoDa 0.95-i. Resultados: A distribuição espacial das taxas de feminicídio não foi aleatória e apresentou elevada autocorrelação espacial e predomínio de agrupamentos espaciais significativos de municípios com as maiores taxas de mortalidade por feminicídio na região central do Estado de Sergipe. Na regressão múltipla, o percentual de mulheres chefes de família e o Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal associaram-se positivamente às taxas de feminicídio nos municípios sergipanos no período estudado (p < 0,05). Situação oposta ocorreu entre o Índice GINI e as taxas de feminicídio. Conclusão: Este é o primeiro estudo que analisou os fatores associados aos clusters espaciais das taxas de feminicídio em um espaço geográfico com predomínio da cultura patriarcal. Houve aumento do feminicídio em localidades em que há menor desigualdade social, maior desenvolvimento humano e maior autoridade exercida pelas mulheres no ambiente familiar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Family Characteristics , Income , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Geography
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 75-75, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Regional disparities in the working conditions of medical doctors have not been fully assessed in Japan. We aimed to clarify these differences in hospital characteristics: doctors' workload, wages, and popularity among medical students by city population sizes.@*METHODS@#We targeted 423 teaching hospitals certified by the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine and assessed the working conditions of physicians specializing in internal medicine. We calculated their workload (the annual number of discharged patients per physician) and retrieved data on junior residents' monthly wages from the Resinavi Book which is popular among medical students in Japan to know the teaching hospital's information and each hospital's website. Furthermore, we explored the interim matching rate of each hospital as its popularity among medical students. Next, we classified cities in which all hospitals were located into eight groups based on their population size and compared the characteristics of these hospitals using a one-way analysis of variance.@*RESULTS@#The average workload was 110.3, while the average workload in hospitals located in most populated cities (≥ 2,000,000) was 88.4 (p < 0.05). The average monthly wage was 351,199 Japanese yen, while that in most populated cities was 305,635.1 Japanese yen. The average popularity (matching rate) was 101.9%, and the rate in most populated areas was 142.7%, which was significantly higher than in other areas.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hospitals in most populated areas had significantly lower workloads and wages; however, they were more popular among medical students than those in other areas. This study was the first to quantify the regional disparities in physicians' working conditions in Japan, and such disparities need to be corrected.


Subject(s)
Cities/statistics & numerical data , Geography , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Japan , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Population Density , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Workload/statistics & numerical data
20.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 10-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Current studies on the COVID-19 depicted a general incubation period distribution and did not examine whether the incubation period distribution varies across patients living in different geographical locations with varying environmental attributes. Profiling the incubation distributions geographically help to determine the appropriate quarantine duration for different regions.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study mainly applied big data analytics and methodology, using the publicly accessible clinical report for patients (n = 543) confirmed as infected in Shenzhen and Hefei, China. Based on 217 patients on whom the incubation period could be identified by the epidemiological method. Statistical and econometric methods were employed to investigate how the incubation distributions varied between infected cases reported in Shenzhen and Hefei.@*RESULTS@#The median incubation period of the COVID-19 for all the 217 infected patients was 8 days (95% CI 7 to 9), while median values were 9 days in Shenzhen and 4 days in Hefei. The incubation period probably has an inverse U-shaped association with the meteorological temperature. The warmer condition in the winter of Shenzhen, average environmental temperature between 10 °C to 15 °C, may decrease viral virulence and result in more extended incubation periods.@*CONCLUSION@#Case studies of the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen and Hefei indicated that the incubation period of COVID-19 had exhibited evident geographical disparities, although the pathological causality between meteorological conditions and incubation period deserves further investigation. Methodologies based on big data released by local public health authorities are applicable for identifying incubation period and relevant epidemiological research.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Geography , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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