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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237849, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) was previously accepted to be a subspecies of M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). However, it was later suggested that they are geographically isolated from each other. Although hybridological studies and differences in certain external characteristics support the idea that M. dahli is a separate species, there are still doubts on its species status, and the exact range of its distribution is not known. In this paper, we provide some taxonomic information about the species, and compare these with the information given in previous studies. We argue that some differences exist among Armenian population regarding external measurements. Recent studies indicate that M. dahli is currently only distributed in Turkey, as an endemic mammal species. We provide predictions about the distribution of M. dahli, and report the estimated population size to its maximum value. Food preference studies for this species, conducted under laboratory conditions, are also introduced for the first time. We discuss the ecological data obtained from field studies, and emphasize that the habitat of M. dahli is about to disappear. Consequently, the protection status of this species should urgently be changed to the CR category and conservation studies must be carried out immediately.


Resumo Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) foi previamente aceito como uma subespécie de M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). No entanto, mais tarde, foi sugerido que eles estão geograficamente isolados um do outro. Embora estudos hibridológicos e diferenças em certas características externas apoiem ​​a ideia de que M. dahli é uma espécie separada, ainda há dúvidas sobre o status de sua espécie, e a extensão exata de sua distribuição não é conhecida. Neste artigo, fornecemos algumas informações taxonômicas sobre as espécies e as comparamos com as informações fornecidas em estudos anteriores. Argumentamos que existem algumas diferenças entre a espécie armênia em relação às medidas externas. Estudos recentes indicam que M. dahli está atualmente distribuído apenas na Turquia como uma espécie endêmica de mamífero. Fornecemos previsões sobre a distribuição de M. dahli e relatamos o tamanho estimado da população em seu valor máximo. Estudos de preferência alimentar para essa espécie, conduzidos em condições de laboratório, também são introduzidos pela primeira vez. Discutimos sobre os dados ecológicos obtidos em estudos de campo e enfatizamos que o habitat de M. dahli está prestes a desaparecer. Consequentemente, o status de proteção dessa espécie deve ser alterado com urgência para a categoria CR, e estudos de conservação devem ser realizados imediatamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Diet , Gerbillinae , Population Density
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1719-1726, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131563

ABSTRACT

Neospora caninum is the main etiologic agent of neosporosis in domestic animals and its pathogenesis comprises two characteristic phases: acute and chronic. Rodents are used as experimental models to mimic acute and chronic bovine neosporosis. In this study, we inoculated a total of 27 female gerbils, with different doses of N. caninum tachyzoites aiming to induce chronic disease. DNA was extracted from different organs of each animal after spontaneous death or euthanasia. Encephalic tissues were submitted to a highly sensitive real time PCR aiming to detect chronically infected animals. All the other samples were submitted to standard PCR. A total of 11 gerbils died due to acute neosporosis, as confirmed by N. caninum DNA detection in organs. 5x103 tachyzoites/mL of N. caninum was the dosage of antigen that can induce chronic infection in gerbils. In the encephalon sections of some animals that showed clinical signs of persistent infection, we found 70% positive for the anterior encephalon section, suggesting this area as preferential for cyst formation. Therefore, we determined the doses of tachyzoites that cause acute or chronic infection and detection of positive tissues, preferably, systemic organs during acute and encephalon in chronic phases.(AU)


Neospora caninum é o principal agente etiológico da neosporose em animais domésticos, e sua patogênese compreende duas fases características: aguda e crônica. Roedores são usados como modelos experimentais para simular neosporose bovina aguda e crônica. Neste estudo, foi inoculado um total de 27 gerbilos, fêmeas, com diferentes doses de taquizoítos de N. caninum, visando induzir doença crônica. O DNA foi extraído de diferentes órgãos de cada animal após a morte espontânea ou a eutanásia. Os tecidos encefálicos foram submetidos à PCR em tempo real de alta sensibilidade para detecção de animais com infecção crônica. Todas as outras amostras foram submetidas à PCR padrão. Um total de 11 gerbilos morreu devido à neosporose aguda, como confirmado pela detecção de DNA de N. caninum nos órgãos. A dosagem de antígeno que pode induzir infecção crônica foi de 5x103 taquizoítos/mL de N. caninum. Em seções do encéfalo de alguns animais, que apresentaram sinais clínicos de infecção persistente, encontraram-se 70% de positividade para a seção do encéfalo anterior, sugerindo essa área como preferencial para a formação de cisto. Assim, foram determinadas,, em gerbilos, as dosagens de taquizoítos capazes de induzir infecção crônica ou aguda, bem como foram detectados tecidos positivos, preferencialmente, em órgãos sistêmicos, na fase aguda, e no encéfalo, na crônica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Gerbillinae/parasitology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Trophozoites
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058013

ABSTRACT

Abstract The role of rodents as reservoirs of helminths of public health importance is not well known. The zoonotic potential of Syphacia spp. has been confirmed; therefore, the study aimed to estimate the occurrence of oxyurid nematodes in small rodents from pet shops and breeding clubs in Slovakia. Fecal samples of 586 pet rodents kept in 133 cages were collected between 2016 and 2018 and examined by Faust´s flotation method. Four species of oxyurid nematodes, Syphacia muris, S. obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Paraspidodera uncinata were detected. A. tetraptera was found in the faecal samples of all rodent species included in this survey. The number of positive boxes varied from 5.4% in hamsters to 70.0% with mice. The prevalence of Syphacia muris was highest in Mongolian gerbils where up to 75.0% boxes were positive; S. obvelata was found in 26.7% of boxes with mice, 25.0% of boxes with Mongolian gerbils and 3.2% of boxes with rats. The high prevalence of Syphacia spp. in all animal species points out the infection risk for humans. Animals offered for sale are often in close contact with human beings; therefore they should be regularly tested for parasites and then effectively dewormed.


Resumo O papel dos roedores como reservatórios de helmintos de importância para a saúde pública não é bem conhecido. O potencial zoonótico de Syphacia spp. foi confirmado; portanto, o estudo teve como objetivo estimar a ocorrência de nematóides oxiurídeos em pequenos roedores de pet shops e clubes de reprodução na Eslováquia. Amostras fecais de 586 roedores mantidos em 133 gaiolas foram coletadas entre 2016 e 2018 e examinadas pelo método de flotação de Faust. Foram detectadas quatro espécies de nematódeos oxiurídeos, Syphacia muris, S. obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera e Paraspidodera uncinata, A. tetraptera foi encontrado nas amostras fecais de todas as espécies de roedores incluídas nesta pesquisa. O número de gaiolas positivas variou de 5,4% em hamsters a 70,0% em camundongos. A prevalência de Syphacia muris foi maior nos gerbilos da Mongólia, onde até 75,0% das gaiolas foram positivas; S. obvelata foi encontrada em 26,7% das gaiolas com camundongos, 25,0% das gaiolas com gerbilos da Mongólia e 3,2% das gaiolas com ratos. A alta prevalência de Syphacia spp. em todas as espécies animais aponta o risco de infecção para os seres humanos. Animais oferecidos para venda estão frequentemente em contato próximo com seres humanos; portanto, eles devem ser regularmente testados quanto a parasitas e, então, efetivamente desparasitados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxyuriasis/veterinary , Oxyuroidea/isolation & purification , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Pets/parasitology , Neglected Diseases/veterinary , Oxyuriasis/diagnosis , Oxyuriasis/epidemiology , Oxyuroidea/classification , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/diagnosis , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gerbillinae/parasitology , Cricetinae/parasitology , Slovakia/epidemiology , Pets/classification , Neglected Diseases/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Guinea Pigs/parasitology , Mice/parasitology
4.
Medisan ; 23(1)ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990175

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y experimental, a partir de la inducción de un trauma isquémico cerebral permanente, mediante sección de la carótida derecha, en 24 gerbils de Mongolia, procedentes del Centro Nacional para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio, con vistas a identificar los posibles cambios en las poblaciones de neuronas de la fascia dentada del hipocampo durante la isquemia. Los resultados revelaron que la isquemia cerebral permanente produce destrucción progresiva y total de las neuronas en la fascia dentada durante las primeras 72 horas del proceso isquémico y muestra 3 momentos durante su evolución con características específicas para cada uno, así como cambios en las proporciones entre las neuronas en proceso de muerte celular, las aparentemente sanas y aquellas con diferentes cantidades de nucléolos en la zona dañada por el proceso isquémico.


A prospective and experimental study was carried out, from the induction of a permanent cerebral ischemic trauma, by means of a cut to the right carotid vein, in 24 gerbils from Mongolia, obtained from the National Center for Laboratory Animals Production, with the aim of identifying the possible changes in the neurons populations of the hypocampus dentate fascia during ischemia. The results revealed that the permanent cerebral ischemia produces progressive and total destruction of the neurons in the dentate fascia during the first 72 hours of the ischemic process and it shows 3 moments during its course, each of them with specific characteristics, as well as changes in the proportions among the neurons during cellular death, those apparently healthy and those with different quantities of nucleolous in the area damaged by the ischemic process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cerebral Infarction , Brain Ischemia/cerebrospinal fluid , Gerbillinae/metabolism , Mice/metabolism , Epidemiology, Experimental , Prospective Studies , Stroke
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776868

ABSTRACT

To examine the effects of Populus tomentiglandulosa (PT) extract on the expressions of antioxidant enzymes and neurotrophic factors in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus at 5 min after inducing transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI) in gerbils, TGCI was induced by occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. Before ischemic surgery, 200 mg·kg PT extract was orally administrated once daily for 7 d. We performed neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B staining. Furthermore, we determined in situ production of superoxide anion radical, expression levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as antioxidant enzymes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as neurotrophic factors. Pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract prevented neuronal death (loss). Furthermore, pretreatment with 200 mg·kg PT extract significantly inhibited the production of superoxide anion radical, increased expressions of SODs and maintained expressions of BDNF and IGF-I. Such increased expressions of SODs were maintained in the neurons after IRI. In summary, pretreated PT extract can significantly increase levels of SODs and protect the neurons against TGCI, suggesting that PT can be a useful natural agent to protect against TGCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Genetics , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Gerbillinae , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Genetics , Metabolism , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Plant Extracts , Populus , Chemistry , Pyramidal Cells , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Genetics , Metabolism , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715046

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we compared the cell-specific expression and changes protein levels in the glucose transporters (GLUTs) 1 and 3, the major GLUTs in the mouse and gerbil brains using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In both mouse and gerbils, GLUT1 immunoreactivity was mainly found in the blood vessels in the dentate gyrus, while GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the subgranular zone and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. GLUT1-immunoreactivity in blood vessels and GLUT1 protein levels were significantly decreased with age in the mice and gerbils, respectively. In addition, few GLUT3-immunoreactive cells were found in the subgranular zone in aged mice and gerbils, but GLUT3-immunoreactivity was abundantly found in the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus in mice and gerbils with a dot-like pattern. Based on the double immunofluorescence study, GLUT3-immunoreactive structures in gerbils were localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that GLUT3 expression in the hippocampal homogenates was slightly, although not significantly, decreased with age in mice and gerbils, respectively. These results indicate that the reduction in GLUT1 in the blood vessels of dentate gyrus and GLUT3 in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus may be associated with the decrease in uptake of glucose into brain and neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus. In addition, the expression of GLUT3 in the astrocytes in polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus may be associated with metabolic changes in glucose in aged hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Astrocytes , Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Brain , Dentate Gyrus , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gerbillinae , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucose Transporter Type 1 , Glucose , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Mice
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758834

ABSTRACT

In Mongolian gerbils, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) for several minutes induces ischemia, due to an incomplete circle of Willis, resulting in delayed neuronal cell death in the Cornet d'Ammon 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus. Neuronal cell death in the hippocampus and changes in behavior were examined after BCCAO was performed for 5 min in the gerbils. One day after BCCAO, the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus showed degenerative changes (clumped chromatin in nuclei). At 5 and 10 days after BCCAO, extensive neuronal cell death was observed in the hippocampal CA1 region. Cognitive performance was evaluated by using the radial maze and passive avoidance tests. In the radial maze test, which examines win-stay performance, the number of errors was significantly higher in ischemic gerbils than in sham-operated gerbils on days 1 and 2 post-operation. In the passive avoidance test, the latency and freezing times were significantly shorter in ischemic gerbils than in sham-operated gerbils on the days 1, 2, and 4–6 post-operation. These results indicate that transient forebrain ischemia impairs cognitive performance, even immediately after the ischemic insult when there are only subtle signs of neuronal cell death.


Subject(s)
CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Carotid Artery, Common , Cell Death , Chromatin , Circle of Willis , Freezing , Gerbillinae , Hippocampus , Ischemia , Neurons , Prosencephalon , Pyramidal Cells
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#: To investigate the effects of cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor (CysLTR) antagonists on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury in gerbils, and to explore its mechanism.@*METHODS@#: Totally 40 gerbils weighting 45-65 g were randomized into sham, saline, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 groups with 10 animals in each. The CI/R model was established in gerbils by bilateral common carotid occlusion for 10 min followed by reperfusion. After ischemia, the CysLTR antagonists Pranlukast (0.1 mg/kg) and HAMI 3379 (0.1 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days in the last two groups,while the former two groups were injected with saline only (10 mL/kg). After 24 h or 14 d reperfusion, neurological deficit score was evaluated and the behavioral dysfunction was assessed, respectively. And 14 d after reperfusion, the neuron morphology of cerebral cortex was observed in brain sections stained with Cresyl violet. In addition, the Iba-1 (microgila) and GFAP (astrocyte) positive cells in cerebral cortex were observed by using immunohistochemitry method.@*RESULTS@#: CI/R models were successfully established in 21 out of 30 gerbils with 7 in saline group, 6 in Pranlukast group, and 8 in HAMI 3379 group. Compared with saline group, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 significantly attenuated neurological deficits, improved the behavioral function 24 h after reperfusion(all 0.05). In addition, Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 also inhibited the neuron loss and injury, suppressed microgila and astrocyte activation 14 d after reperfusion(all <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#: CysLTR antagonists Pranlukast and HAMI 3379 have long-term neuroprotective effect on chronic brain injury induced by global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in gerbils.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal , Brain Injury, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Brain Ischemia , Gerbillinae , Leukotriene Antagonists , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Random Allocation , Receptors, Leukotriene , Metabolism , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 75-83, ene. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008594

ABSTRACT

Background: Helicobacter pylori is considered as the main risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. In the present study, we performed a detailed characterization of the probiotic properties and the anti-H. pylori activity of a previously isolated lactobacillus strain ­ Lactobacillus fermentum UCO-979C ­ obtained from human gut. Results: The strain tolerated pH 3.0; grew in the presence of 2% bile salts; produced lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide; aggregated in saline solution; showed high hydrophobicity; showed high adherence to glass; Caco-2 and gastric adenocarcinoma human cells (AGS) cells; showed an efficient colonization in Mongolian Gerbils; and potently inhibited the growth and urease activity of H. pylori strains. L. fermentum UCO-979C significantly inhibited H. pylori-induced IL-8 production in AGS cells and reduced the viability of H. pylori. With regard to innocuousness, the strain UCO-979C was susceptible to several antibiotics and did not produce histamine or beta-haemolysis in blood agar containing red blood cells from various origins. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that L. fermentum UCO-979C is a very good candidate as a probiotic for the protection of humans against H. pylori infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Probiotics/pharmacology , Lactobacillus fermentum/physiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control , Urease/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-8/antagonists & inhibitors , Gerbillinae , Disease Models, Animal , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 24(1): 12-17, jan.-mar.2017. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-966947

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se descrever e sistematizar as artérias da base do encéfalo. Foram utilizados dez gerbils que se encontravam armazenados em freezer no laboratório de Morfofisiologia Animal Aplicada da Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Os animais foram descongelados, incisados na linha mediana para identificação do ventrículo esquerdo, o qual foi perfurado e injetados 3ml de Látex Neoprene 650 na concentração de 20% e no pigmento vermelho. Posteriormente aguardou-se cerca de 1 minuto em virtude da polimerização do Látex e logo após foram fixados por imersão em solução aquosa de Formaldeído a 3,7% e após 72 horas, tiveram os encéfalos removidos da calota craniana para análise de sua superfície ventral. Foi visto que o sistema vertebrobasilar e carótico estiveram presentes em todos os animais analisados, mostrando-se responsável pela vascularização do encéfalo caudal e rostral, respectivamente. As principais artérias observadas no modelo padrão incluem as ímpares: basilar, espinhal ventral, ramo medial da artéria cerebral rostral e as pares: vertebral, cerebelar caudal, cerebelar média, trigeminal, cerebelar rostral, ramo terminal da basilar, carótida interna, cerebral caudal, hipofisária, cerebral média, cerebral rostral, lateral do bulbo olfatório e etmoidal interna. Conclui-se com base nos resultados que a irrigação da superfície ventral encefálica do gerbil foi suprida pelos sistemas vertebro-basilar e carótico de forma equivalente, pertencendo assim ao modelo do tipo II. O circuito arterioso apresentou-se aberto caudalmente e fechado rostralmente, fato que difere do relatado em roedores como capivara, cutia, preá, chinchila e nutria.


The objective was to describe and systematize the arteries of the base of the brain. Ten gerbils were used, which were stored in a freezer in the Laboratory of Applied Animal Morphophysiology of the Federal Rural Semi-Arid University. The animals were thawed, incised in the midline to identify the left ventricle, which was punctured and injected 3 ml of Latex Neoprene 650 at a concentration of 20% and red pigment. After about one minute the polymerization of the Latex was delayed and afterwards fixed by immersion in 3.7% aqueous Formaldehyde solution and after 72 hours the brain was removed from the skull cap for analysis of its ventral surface. It was observed that the vertebro-basilar and carotid system were present in all animals analyzed, being responsible for the vascularization of the caudal and rostral encephalon, respectively. The main arteries observed in the standard model include the odd: basilar, ventral spinal, medial branch of the rostral cerebral artery and, the pairs: vertebral, cerebellar caudal, cerebellar medial, trigeminal, cerebellar rostral, terminal branch of the basilar, internal carotid, caudal cerebral, Pituitary, middle cerebral, rostral, lateral, olfactory and internal ethmoidal. Based on the results, the irrigation of the ventral brain surface of the gerbil was supplied by the vertebro-basilar and carotic systems in an equivalent way, thus belonging to the type II model. The arterial circuit was open caudally and closed rostrally, a fact that differs from that reported in rodents such as capybara, agouti, cavy, chinchilla and nutria


Subject(s)
Animals , Gerbillinae
11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 284-292, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47824

ABSTRACT

The genus Populus (poplar) belonging to the Salicaceae family has been used in traditional medicine, and its several species show various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. No study regarding protective effects of Populus species against cerebral ischemia has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we examined neuroprotective effects of ethanol extract from Populus tomentiglandulosa (Korea poplar) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA1) area of gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of P. tomentiglandulosa extract effectively protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemia. In addition, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 immunoreactive microglia were significantly diminished in the ischemic CA1 area by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of P. tomentiglandulosa extract. Briefly, our results indicate that pretreatment with P. tomentiglandulosa extract protects neurons from transient cerebral ischemic injury and diminish cerebral ischemia-induced reactive gliosis in ischemic CA1 area. Based on these results, we suggest that P. tomentiglandulosa can be used as a potential candidate for prevention of ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes , Brain Ischemia , Calcium , Ethanol , Gerbillinae , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Gliosis , Hippocampus , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Microglia , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Populus , Pyramidal Cells , Salicaceae
12.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 237-243, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101375

ABSTRACT

Myelin degeneration is one of the characteristics of aging and degenerative diseases. This study investigated age-related alterations in expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the hippocampal subregions (dentate gyrus, CA2/3 and CA1 areas) of gerbils of various ages; young (1 month), adult (6 months) and aged (24 months), using western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot results showed tendencies of age-related reductions of MBP levels. MBP immunoreactivity was significantly decreased with age in synaptic sites of trisynaptic loops, perforant paths, mossy fibers, and Schaffer collaterals. In particular, MBP immunoreactive fibers in the dentate molecular cell layer (perforant path) was significantly reduced in adult and aged subjects. In addition, MBP immunoreactive mossy fibers in the dentate polymorphic layer and in the CA3 striatum radiatum was significantly decreased in the aged group. Furthermore, we observed similar age-related alterations in the CA1 stratum radiatum (Schaffer collaterals). However, the density of MBP immunoreactive fibers in the dentate granular cell layer and CA stratum pyramidale was decreased with aging. These findings indicate that expression of MBP is age-dependent and tissue specific according to hippocampal layers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Blotting, Western , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Gerbillinae , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Myelin Basic Protein , Myelin Sheath , Perforant Pathway
13.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 135-142, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21761

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we examined change of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) in the adult and aged gerbil spinal cords. Significant change of morphological feature and neuronal cell loss were not observed in both adult and aged spinal cords of gerbil after NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluoresce staining. Iba-1–immunoreactive microglia broadly distributed in the spinal cord. Most of Iba-1–immunoreactive microglia showed ramified forms in the adult gerbil cervical and lumbar spinal cords. However, morphological changes of Iba-1–immunoreactive microglia were observed in the cervical and lumbar regions of the aged gerbil spinal cord. These microglia were showed a hypertrophied body with shortened swollen processes which was characteristic of activated microglia. In addition, Iba-1 protein level significantly higher in aged cervical and lumbar spinal cords than those in the adult gerbil. The present study showed an increase of activated forms of Iba-1–immunoreactive microglia and its protein level without marked changes in morphological features and neuronal loss in the aged spinal cord compared to those in the adult gerbil spinal cord. This result suggests that the increase of Iba-1 expression in the aged spinal cord may be closely associated with age-related changes in aged gerbil spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Adult , Gerbillinae , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lumbosacral Region , Microglia , Neurons , Spinal Cord
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(3): 713-720, may/june 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965513

ABSTRACT

The Mongolian gerbil, belonging to the Muridae family, is characterized as an economic asset in the pet market due to its easy management. Current research analyzes and describes the origin of the nerves that make up the lumbosacral plexus in the species, foregrounding comparative anatomy, especially among wild rodents. The experiment, approved by the Committee of Institutional Bioethics, involved 15 animals which had been used in other studies and were donated to the Laboratory of Applied Animal Morphophysiology of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The animals were fixed in a water solution of formaldehyde 10%. After 72 hours, they were dissected, the abdominal cavity was opened and eviscerated, and the psoas minor, psoas major and the quadratus lumborum muscles were removed to inspect the nerves that form the lumbosacral plexus. Results were given in percentages and grouped in tables. The lumbosacral plexus of the Mongolian gerbil frequently derived from the ventral roots of the last thorax nerves, from the seven lumbar nerves and from the four sacral nerves (Type II ­ T12-S4). The nerves of the gerbil´s lumbosacral plexus are the iliohypogastricus, ilioinguinalis, cutaneus femoris lateralis, genitofemoralis, femoralis, obturatorius, ischiadicus, gluteus cranialis, pudendus, gluteus caudalis and rectales caudales nerves. Information on the origin of the nerves of the gerbil´s lumbosacral plexus and their description is relevant for clinical and surgical studies, and for the application of techniques or anesthetic drugs.


O esquilo da Mongólia é um roedor pertencente à família Muridae, caracterizado por seu interesse econômico no mercado pet e por ser de fácil manejo. Esta pesquisa analisa e descreve a origem dos nervos que formam o plexo lombossacral da espécie. No experimento foram utilizados 15 animais, provenientes de outros estudos aprovados pelo Comitê de Bioética Institucional, que foram doados ao Laboratório de Morfofisiologia Animal Aplicada da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Os animais foram fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10%. Após 72 horas, os animais foram dissecados, realizando-se a abertura da cavidade abdominal, depois, eviscerados e em seguida, os músculos psoas maior, psoas menor e quadrado lombar foram removidos para visualização dos nervos que formam o plexo lombossacral. Os resultados foram expressos em percentagens e agrupados em tabelas. O plexo lombossacral do gerbil originou-se mais frequentemente das raízes ventrais do último nervo torácico, dos sete nervos lombares e dos quatro nervos sacrais (Tipo II ­ T12-S4). Os nervos que formaram o plexo lombossacral do gerbil foram: ílio-hipogástrico, ílioinguinal, cutâneo femoral lateral, genitofemoral, femoral, obturatório, isquiático, glúteo cranial, pudendo, glúteo caudal, e nervo retal caudal. O conhecimento sobre a origem e os nervos do plexo lombossacral no gerbil mostra-se útil para estudos clínico-cirúrgicos e aplicação de técnicas ou fármacos anestésicos.


Subject(s)
Gerbillinae , Lumbosacral Plexus , Muridae , Nervous System
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179948

ABSTRACT

Inflammation from chronic and acute infections of distal organs and tissues such as periodontitis is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular processes. Recently, a new model of atherosclerosis with vascular pathologies was developed in the Mongolian gerbil. In this study, we attempted to develop a model of ligature-induced periodontitis in gerbils and compared the characteristics of that periodontitis model with that in rats and mice. Each gerbil, rat, and mouse was randomly assigned to groups of control and periodontitis. A thread was placed around the cervix of the right and left first molars in the mandible with knots placed on the mesial side of each molar. At day 14 after the ligation, the animals were sacrificed and their mandibles were dissected. To measure alveolar bone loss along with inflammation, histopathological and micro-CT analyses were carried out. Gerbils showed tooth characteristics of deeper gingival crevice, longer cusp, longer root trunk and shorter root than those of rats and mice. The increased CEJ-ABC distance in distal and PDL area in furcation was also observed in ligated gerbils. An inflammatory response in the connective tissue under the junctional epithelium was also shown in all the animals. As a result, we confirmed the induction of periodontitis by ligature in the gerbils. We therefore consider the gerbil to be a useful model for investigating relationship between periodontitis and vascular disease in the same animal.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , Animals , Atherosclerosis , Cervix Uteri , Connective Tissue , Epithelial Attachment , Female , Gerbillinae , Inflammation , Ligation , Mandible , Mice , Models, Animal , Molar , Pathology , Periodontitis , Rats , Risk Factors , Tooth , Vascular Diseases
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 268-275, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761128

ABSTRACT

Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratusessential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.


O parasitismo por nematoides tem grande importância econômica no rebanho. Uma alternativa para o controle de parasitas é a fitoterapia. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia do decocto de Cymbopogon citratus (DCc), do óleo essencial de C. citratus (OECc) e do citral contra Haemonchus contortus utilizando o teste in vitro de eclosão dos ovos (TEO) e o teste de desenvolvimento larval (TDL) e um teste in vivo com modelo Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil). O efeito de 800 mg/kg de OECc foi avaliado em gerbils infectados artificialmente com 5000 larvas de terceira fase de H. contortus. As concentrações efetivas necessárias para inibir 50% (CE50) da eclosão dos ovos foram 0,46; 0,14 e 0,13 mg/mL para DCc, OECc e citral, respectivamente. Os valores da CE50 no TDL foram de 5,04; 1,92 e 1,37 mg/mL para DCc, OECc e citral, respectivamente. No grupo tratado com óleo de C. citratus a população H. contortus foi reduzida em 38,5% (P < 0,05) em comparação com o grupo controle. Estes resultados sugerem que pode ser possível a utilização de óleo essencial de C. citratus para controle de H. contortus, parasita de pequenos ruminantes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cymbopogon , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Gerbillinae , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Acyclic Monoterpenes , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Phytotherapy
17.
CoDAS ; 27(2): 155-159, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748848

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An ischemic stroke is a clinical condition that affects thousands of people worldwide. As a result of this injury, neuronal death can be observed, and in the natural course of recovery, the individual may develop sepsis. Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response that can lead the patient to death. To assess the clinical condition of a patient with this condition, the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) can be useful, since it is not an invasive procedure, it is a fast technique and it can be done at the bedside. Purpose: To assess auditory brainstem response (ABR) latency values in gerbils subjected to ischemia and sepsis. Methods: ABR values were collected from 72 adult male gerbils, which were divided into six groups: control, sepsis, ischemia, sham, ischemia with sepsis, and sham with sepsis. For the induction of sepsis, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied intraperitoneally in gerbils. The animals were anesthetized with a ketamine/xylazine combination before collection; their ABR were collected before any procedure (base collection), after ischemia, and 24 hours after the application of LPS. The absolute latency of wave IV was evaluated, and the values were compared between groups. Results: There were significant differences in the groups submitted to sepsis in the latency value of wave IV in relation with the other groups. Conclusion: ABR was sensitive to sepsis with the increase in latency of wave IV during the development of the disease in the experimental model used. .


Introdução: O acidente vascular cerebral do tipo isquêmico é um quadro clínico que afeta milhares de pessoas no mundo. Como resultado dessa injúria observamos morte neuronal, e no decorrer natural de recuperação o indivíduo pode desenvolver a sepse. A sepse é uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica que pode levar o indivíduo à morte. Para avaliar as condições clínicas de um paciente com esse quadro, o potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico (PEATE) pode ser útil, uma vez que ele não é um procedimento invasivo, sua técnica é rápida e pode ser feita à beira do leito. Objetivo: Verificar os valores de latência do PEATE em gerbils submetidos à isquemia e sepse. Métodos: Foram coletados os PEATEs de 72 gerbils machos adultos que foram distribuídos em 6 grupos: controle, sepse, isquemia, sham, isquemia com sepse e sham com sepse. Para a indução de sepse, foi aplicado lipopolissacarídeo (LPS) intraperitoneal nos gerbils. Os animais foram anestesiados antes das coletas com ketamina associada à xilazina, seus PEATEs foram coletados antes de qualquer procedimento (coleta base), após isquemia e 24 horas após a aplicação de LPS. Foi avaliada a latência absoluta da onda IV, e os valores foram comparados intergrupos. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa nos grupos submetidos à sepse no valor da latência da onda IV em relação aos demais grupos. Conclusão: O PEATE se mostrou sensível à sepse com aumento de latência da onda IV no desenvolver da doença no modelo experimental utilizado. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Gerbillinae , Sepsis/diagnosis
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-656285

ABSTRACT

Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common inflammatory illnesses in the pediatric population. OM is a multifactorial disease that develops as a result of complex interactions between bacterial infection, environmental risk factors, and host genetic factors. The high prevalence and recurrence of OM, coupled with the risk of developing hearing loss have meant that research to understand the mechanisms of OM and identify new therapeutic measures is urgent. Various experimental animals such as chinchilla, guinea pig, gerbil, rat and mouse have been used to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment of OM. Also, a lot of methods have been introduced to induce OM in animals including obstruction of E tube and direct injection of otopathogens into the middle ear. Recently there has been an increase in the use of the mouse for OM research due to the ability to easily manipulate their genetic components. The use of animal models has enabled researchers to identify a number of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of OM. Despite the real progresses obtained from animal models of OM, however, there are still several limitations to using them for OM research. In this review article, various animal models that have been introduced to investigate the pathogenesis of OM will be discussed briefly.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Infections , Chinchilla , Ear, Middle , Gerbillinae , Guinea Pigs , Hearing Loss , Mice , Models, Animal , Otitis Media , Prevalence , Rats , Recurrence , Risk Factors
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2932-2937, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275592

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) as a popular traditional medicine in Asia shows various biological properties including antioxidant activity. In this study, we firstly examined the neuroprotective effect of Oenanthe javanica extract (OJE) in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 region (CA1 region) of the gerbil subjected to transient cerebral ischemia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The neuroprotective effect of OJE was estimated by cresyl violet staining. In addition, 4 antioxidants (copper, zinc superoxide dismutase [SOD], manganese SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) immunoreactivities were investigated by immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region showed neuronal death at 5 days postischemia; at this point in time, all antioxidants immunoreactivities disappeared in CA1 pyramidal neurons and showed in many nonpyramidal cells. Treatment with 200 mg/kg, not 100 mg/kg, OJE protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage. In addition, 200 mg/kg OJE treatment increased or maintained antioxidants immunoreactivities. Especially, among the antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase immunoreactivity was effectively increased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of the OJE-treated sham-operated and ischemia-operated groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our present results indicate that treatment with OJE can protect neurons from transient ischemic damage and that the neuroprotective effect may be closely associated with increased or maintained intracellular antioxidant enzymes by OJE.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Therapeutic Uses , Gerbillinae , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Male , Oenanthe , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses
20.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 820-826, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304382

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an animal model of gastric cancer by long-term infection of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and to elucidate the pathogenesis by proteomics analysis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty male Mongolian gerbils (4-5 week-old and weighted 60-100 g) were infected with H.pylori and the gastric tissues were obtained after the infection at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Histological changes were evaluated by H-E staining of the gastric tissue sections. Detection of H.pylori was performed by in-vitro culture of fresh gastric tissue samples, PCR amplification of H.pylori 16s rRNA and localization by silver staining. In addition, proteins extracted from gastric tissue samples were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) at various infection time points. Protein spots with increased quantity over the course of H.pylori infection were selected and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Finally, differentially expressed proteins between human gastric cancer tissue samples and lymph nodes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Colonization of H.pylori was observed in gastric tissue of gerbils as early as 3 months after H.pylori infection, and persisted till 24 months. Pathological examination of infected animals showed various histological changes including acute gastritis, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma. Seventy-eight differentially expressed proteins were identified by proteomics analysis, among which 36 proteins were up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. Analyzed by LC-MS/MS, ten proteins were identified, including lactate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, fatty acid-binding protein, COX5B, peroxiredoxin-4, peroxide reductase, transgelin, succinyl-CoA ligase, keratin and protein disulfide-isomerase A2, among which transgelin, ATP synthase and lactate dehydrogenase were highly expressed in human gastric carcinoma and lymph nodes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>H.pylori infection induces the expression of transgelin, ATP synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, implying possible roles in the pathogenesis of gastric diseases including cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Gastritis , Microbiology , Pathology , Gerbillinae , Helicobacter Infections , Metabolism , Helicobacter pylori , Genetics , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Male , Metaplasia , Microfilament Proteins , Metabolism , Muscle Proteins , Metabolism , Proteomics , Proton-Translocating ATPases , Metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Stomach Neoplasms , Metabolism , Microbiology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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