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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect and precautions of setting up a genetic clinic for hereditary colorectal cancers.@*METHODS@#To collect the information of the patients who received genetic screening and genetic counseling at our hospital from January 2016 to June 2018, and analyze the role of family history collection and follow-up management.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of family history of tumors has increased by 13.6%. Follow up management was carried out in 156 families with hereditary colorectal cancer confirmed by detection of germline mutations. Five cases of early colorectal cancers and 12 cases of adenomatous polyps were detected and treated.@*CONCLUSION@#To set up genetic clinic is helpful to standardize the management of high-risk population, and attention should be paid to the role of family history collection and follow-up management.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing/standards , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Risk Factors
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 369-375, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019359

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that were considered to be predominantly sporadic. However, with the identification of novel susceptibility genes over the last decade, it is currently estimated that up to 40% of cases can occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome. We aimed to characterize PGL/PCC families to exemplify the different scenarios in which hereditary syndromes can be suspected and to emphasize the importance for patients and their families of making an opportune genetic diagnosis. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with PGL/PCC. Germline mutations were studied using next-generation sequencing panels including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Clinical data were collected from clinical records, and all patients received genetic counseling. Results We describe 4 families with PGL/PCC and germline mutations in SDH complex genes. 2 families have SDHB mutations and 2 SDHD mutations. The clinical presentation of the patients and their families was heterogeneous, with some being atypical according to the literature. Conclusions PGL/PCC are more commonly associated with a germline mutation than any other cancer type, therefore, all individuals with these types of tumors should undergo genetic risk evaluation. NGS multigene panel testing is a cost-effective approach given the overlapping phenotypes. Individuals with germline mutations associated with PGL/PCC should undergo lifelong clinical, biochemical and imaging surveillance and their families should undergo genetic counseling. For all these reasons, it is critical that all medical staff can suspect and diagnose these inherited cancer predisposition syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraganglioma/genetics , Pheochromocytoma/genetics , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Genetic Testing/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 140 p. ilust, tabelas, quadros.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1179202

ABSTRACT

O Câncer de Mama Triplo-Negativo (CMTN), caracterizado pela perda de expressão dos receptores de estrógeno (RE), de progesterona (RP) e pela não super-expressão/amplificação do receptor do fator de crescimento epidermal humano do tipo 2 (HER-2), é considerado um subtipo bastante agressivo e heterogêneo molecularmente. Clinicamente, o CMTN apresenta prognóstico ruim, altas taxas de recorrência e menor sobrevida global em relação aos outros subtipos de câncer de mama. Ele corresponde a aproximadamente 15% dos casos de câncer de mama e não apresenta nenhuma terapia alvo efetiva. Mutação patogênica germinativa nos genes BRCA1 e BRCA2 leva a um aumento de risco para o desenvolvimento de Câncer de Mama e Ovário, sendo que mutação germinativa em BRCA1 está associada ao desenvolvimento de CMTN, especialmente em pacientes diagnosticadas antes dos 50 anos. A deficiência de BRCA1 leva ao mecanismo ineficiente do reparo do DNA e ao desenvolvimento do tumor. Recentemente, nosso grupo classificou as pacientes diagnosticadas com CMTN em grupo Hereditário (com mutação patogênica germinativa em BRCA1) e grupo Esporádico (sem mutação germinativa em BRCA1). Estes foram ainda classificados em tumores BRCA1-deficiente (com hipermetilação no promotor de BRCA1) e em tumores BRCA1-proficiente (sem hipermetilação no promotor de BRCA1 e sem mutação germinativa em BRCA1). As diferenças moleculares entre esses grupos de CMTN são de grande interesse clínico e biológico, embora ainda não sejam conhecidas. Dentro desse contexto, nosso objetivo foi investigar o perfil transcricional de CMTN sob diferentes aspectos de deficiência de BRCA1. Para isso, foi avaliado o sequenciamento do RNA (RNA-Seq) de 37 casos de CMTN em idade jovem (≤ 50 anos), sendo 9 casos Hereditário (com mutação patogênica germinativa em BRCA1) e 28 casos Esporádico. Dos casos Esporádicos, 9 foram BRCA1-deficiente (com o promotor de BRCA1 hipermetilado) e 19 BRCA1-proficiente (com o promotor de BRCA1 não hipermetilado). Utilizamos o RNA total a partir das 37 amostras tumorais e 25 amostras normais pareadas adjacentes ao tumor. As bibliotecas de cDNA foram construídas a partir do RNA total através do método de depleção do rRNA e sequenciadas na plataforma NextSeq (Illumina). Para a normalização dos dados de expressão de cada gene, foi aplicada a medida FPKM. Os critérios para a obtenção dos genes diferencialmente expressos (GDEs), nas amostras tumorais em relação às normais, foram fold change ≥ 4,0 e ≤ - 4,0 e p valor ajustado ≤ 0,05). Para classificação molecular dos tumores TN, foi utilizada a ferramenta online TNBCtype. As curvas de sobrevida global de acordo com essa classificação molecular foram calculadas através do método de Kaplan-Meier. Para verificar os processos biológicos envolvidos com a tumorigênese do CMTN, os GDEs foram submetidos a uma análise funcional in silico através do programa Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Em média, 48.627.204 milhões de sequências foram geradas por amostra, das quais 79,5% foram mapeadas no genoma humano referência, revelando, em média, 15.071 genes expressos com pelo menos 10 sequências única mapeada por amostra. O perfil transcricional das amostras CMTN permitiu a classificação nos 7 subtipos moleculares de CMTN, sendo a maioria das amostras classificadas no subtipo imunomodulador (IM) e mesenquimal (M). No grupo das amostras BRCA1-deficiente, observamos um predomínio do subtipo IM enquanto que, nas amostras BRCA1-proficiente, houve um maior número de amostras classificadas em M. Não observamos diferença nas curvas de sobrevida global entre os dois grupos de amostras. Porém, os resultados mostraram que o subtipo IM parece ter uma tendência de melhor sobrevida global comparado com os outros subtipos, independente do status de BRCA1. A expressão diferencial das amostras tumorais em relação às amostras normais no grupo de CMTN Hereditário revelou 1965 GDEs, sendo 589 mais expressos e 1376 menos expressos no tumor; e, no grupo de CMTN Esporádico, a análise revelou 1837 GDEs, sendo 645 mais expressos e 1192 menos expressos no tumor. A partir dos GDEs de cada grupo, a análise do IPA mostrou que os dois grupos apresentaram vias canônicas enriquecidas comuns significantemente ativadas e envolvidas, de forma geral, com a Regulação do ciclo celular. Entretanto, as vias canônicas significantemente inibidas mostraram-se exclusivas em cada grupo: a via de Sinalização do receptor do glutamato foi a mais significativa (z-score = -2,12) nas amostras de CMTN Hereditário; e a via de Ativação de LXR/RXR foi a mais significativa (z-score = -2,98) nas amostras CMTN Esporádico. Além disso, observamos reguladores transcricionais significantemente ativados e inibidos exclusivamente em cada grupo. Os genes TNF e E2F1 foram os mais significantemente ativados apenas nas amostras de CMTN Hereditário (z-score = 4,06) e de CMTN Esporádico (z-score = 2,22), respectivamente. Por outro lado, o microRNA mir-21 e o gene PPARG foram os reguladores inibidos exclusivamente nas amostras CMTN Hereditário (-score = -4,68) e nas amostras CMTN Esporádico (z-score = -4,24), respectivamente. Esse estudo, de forma geral, revelou potenciais vias e genes reguladores de cascatas de sinalização envolvidos na tumorigênese do CMTN no contexto da deficiência de BRCA1, contribuindo na elucidação da complexidade funcional de tumores TN


Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), results in aggressive biology, early peak of recurrence, and shorter overall survival than other subtypes. It comprises approximately 15% of breast cancer cases and yet there is no effective therapy. Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers since germline mutation in BRCA1 is associated with the development of TNBC, especially in patients diagnosed before age 50. BRCA deficiency leads to impaired DNA repair and tumor development. Recently, our group classified TNBC patients into hereditary BRCA1-mutated and sporadic BRCA1-proficient. These were further classified into BRCA1-deficient tumors (with BRCA1 promotor hypermethylation) and BRCA1-proficient tumors (no BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation neither BRCA1 germline mutation). Molecular differences between hereditary and sporadic TNBC groups are clinically and biologically interesting although it remains unclear. In this context, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional profile of TNBC-associated or not with BRCA1 deficiency. For that, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from 37 early-onset TNBC (≤ 50 years old) was evaluated, comprising 9 Hereditary (with BRCA1 germline pathogenic mutation) and 28 Sporadic cases, of which 9 BRCA1-deficient and 19 BRCA1-proficient. Total RNA from 37 tumors samples and 25 adjacent normal samples of paired cases were used to constructed RNAseq libraries by depleting ribosomal RNA and sequenced on Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Expression values were normalized by FPKM. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tumor and normal samples were obtained using fold-change ≥ |4| and p value adjusted ≤ 0.05 as statistical criteria. The TNBC samples were subtyping using the web-based prediction tool TNBCType. Overall survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan.Meir method. IPA software was used to detect activated/inactivated canonical pathways and relevant upstream regulators, considering a z-score ≤-2.0 and ≥ 2.0, respectively. On average, 49 million reads were generated per sample, of which 79.5% were mapped to the human reference genome revealing 15,071 expressed genes with at least 10 reads per sample. From the transcriptional profile of TNBC samples we classified into seven TNBC subtypes being the majority of tumors classified as immunomodulatory (IM) and mesenchymal (M) subtype. We detected no difference in overall survival for both groups. However, trends towards better overall were observed for TNBC samples classified as IM compared with other subtypes, without associations with BRCA1 status. Differential gene expression analysis between tumor and normal samples in the hereditary group revealed 1,965 DEGs, being 589 upregulated and 1,376 downregulated; and in the sporadic group, the analysis revealed 1,837 DEGs, being 645 upregulated and 1,192 downregulated. Using the DEGs of each group, the IPA analysis revealed that Cell Cycle Regulation signaling was activated in both groups. Regarding inactivated pathways, we detected the Glutamate Receptor signaling (z-score = -2,12) in hereditary TNBC and the LXR/RXR activation in sporadic TNBC (z-score = -2,98). Also, the IPA analysis revealed relevant specific transcription regulators of each group. The TNF and E2F1 were the most significantly activated genes in hereditary- and sporadic-TNBC, respectively. On the other hand, the mir-21 and PPARG were the most significantly unique inhibited regulators in hereditary and sporadic, respectively. In general, this study unveiled potential pathways and regulatory genes for signaling cascades involved in TNBC tumorigenesis considering the deficiency of BRCA1, contributing to the elucidation of the functional complexity of the tumorigenic process of TNBC patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Germ-Line Mutation , Genes, BRCA1 , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 99-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763277

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Korean women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes cause hereditary breast cancer and are detected in 15–20% of hereditary breast cancer. We investigated the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 114 familial breast cancer patients using next-generation sequencing. We confirmed 20 different mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 25 subjects (21.9%). Two such mutations in eight patients were novel (not reported in any variant database or previous study). Six mutations have been reported as disease-causing mutations in public databases. Seven mutations were found only in a single nucleotide polymorphism database and one mutation has been reported in Korea. The BRCA1/2 mutation frequency was similar to that of other studies on familial breast cancer patients in the Korean population. Further studies should examine more cases and mutations of whole exons.


Subject(s)
BRCA1 Protein , BRCA2 Protein , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Exons , Female , Genes, BRCA2 , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Korea , Mutation Rate , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1549-1556, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare genetic syndrome resulting from germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The combination of bevacizumab plus erlotinib showed promising interim results for HLRCC-associated RCC. Based on these results, we analyzed the outcome of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in Korean patients with HLRCC-associated RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in patients with HLRCC-associated RCC who were confirmed to have germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULT: We identified 10 patients with advanced HLRCC-associated RCC who received bevacizumab plus erlotinib. Median age at diagnosis was 41 years, and five of the patients had received the combination as first- or second-line treatments. The ORR was 50% and the median PFS and OS were 13.3 and 14.1 months, respectively. Most adverse events were predictable and manageable by conventional measures, except for one instance where a patient died of gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION: This is the first real-world outcome of the treatment of advanced HLRCC-associated RCC. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib therapy showed promising activity with moderate toxicity. We should be increasingly aware of HLRCC-associated RCC and bevacizumab plus erlotinib should be a first-line treatment for this condition, unless other promising data are published.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Fumarate Hydratase , Germ-Line Mutation , Hemorrhage , Humans , Leiomyomatosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763185

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical relevance and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean ovarian cancer (KoOC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-nine KoOC patients were enrolled from three university hospitals between 2012 and 2017. Their peripheral blood samples were obtained for BRCA1/2 mutation analysis by direct sequencing. Clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively reviewed, and spectrum analyses of BRCA1/2 mutation were assessed by systematic literature review. RESULTS: Frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations was 16.5% in KoOC patients. BRCA1/2 mutations were significantly associated with family history of breast/ovarian cancer (pT of BRCA2 in KoBC). CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 mutations in KoOC patients was confirmed but that of early age-of-onset was not. Possible inconsistency in the ratio of BRCA1-to-BRCA2 mutations and the most common mutation between KoOC and KoBC may probably suggest presence of mutation sequence-associated penetrance tendency in hereditary Korean breast and ovarian cancer. These data may provide insights for optimal genetic counseling and prophylactic treatment for at-risk relatives of KoOC patients.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Gynecology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Obstetrics , Ovarian Neoplasms , Penetrance , Retrospective Studies
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that plays an important role in DNA repair. This is the first study assessing the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PALB2 mutation screening was performed in 370 Pakistani patients with early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer, who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, and RAD51C mutations, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Novel PALB2 alterations were analyzed for their potential effect on protein function or splicing using various in silico prediction tools. Three-hundred and seventy-two healthy controls were screened for the presence of the identified (potentially) functional mutations. RESULTS: A novel nonsense mutation, p.Y743*, was identified in one familial breast cancer patient (1/127, 0.8%). Besides, four in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations including three missense mutations and one 5' untranslated region mutation were identified: p.D498Y, novel p.G644R, novel p.E744K, and novel c.-134_-133delTCinsGGGT. The mutations p.Y743* and p.D498Y were identified in two familial patients diagnosed with unilateral or synchronous bilateral breast cancer at the ages of 29 and 39, respectively. The other mutations were identified in an early-onset (≤ 30 years of age) breast cancer patient each. All five mutations were absent in 372 healthy controls suggesting that they are disease associated. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PALB2 mutations account for a small proportion of early-onset and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer cases in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Breast Neoplasms , Chromatography, Liquid , Codon, Nonsense , Computer Simulation , DNA Repair , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Mass Screening , Mutation, Missense , Pakistan , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764507

ABSTRACT

Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS; OMIM 616638), also known as macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome (MINDS; ORPHA 457485), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, the prevalence of which is not known. It is caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in MTOR (OMIM 601231). Ten different MTOR germline mutations in 27 individuals have been reported in the medical literature to date. These were all gain-of-function missense variants, and about half of the 27 individuals had c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. Here, I report for the first time a Korean patient with the heterozygous germline mutation c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. It was found to be a de novo mutation, which was identified by whole-exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The patient showed typical clinical features of SKS, including macrocephaly/megalencephaly; moderate intellectual disability; seizures; behavioral problems; and facial dysmorphic features of curly hair, frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and hypertelorism.


Subject(s)
Databases, Genetic , Germ-Line Mutation , Hair , Humans , Hypertelorism , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Prevalence , Problem Behavior , Seizures , Thorax
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738991

ABSTRACT

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder caused by germline mutation of the MEN1 gene. It is characterized by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland, parathyroid glands, and endocrine pancreas. Thymic carcinoid tumor is uncommon and associated with a high mortality, but its natural history has not been investigated yet. We report a case of asymptomatic MEN 1 with a thymic carcinoid tumor. A 37-year-old man underwent a routine medical checkup and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Further studies showed the coexistence of pancreatic tumor, parathyroid hyperplasia, pituitary adenoma, and thymoma. The patient underwent duodenal endoscopic mucosal resection, distal pancreatectomy, subtotal parathyroidectomy, and thymectomy. The pathological test revealed a duodenal NET, pancreatic NET, parathyroid hyperplasia, and thymic carcinoid tumor. He was treated for MEN 1. We report this asymptomatic case of MEN 1 with a literature review.


Subject(s)
Adult , Carcinoid Tumor , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hyperplasia , Islets of Langerhans , Mortality , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Natural History , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreatectomy , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroidectomy , Pituitary Gland, Anterior , Pituitary Neoplasms , Thymectomy , Thymoma
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719420

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Germline mutations within melanoma susceptibility genes are present only in minority of melanoma patients and it is expected that additional genes will be discovered with next generation sequence technology and whole-exome sequencing (WES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein we performed WES on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish patients with melanoma diagnosed under the age of 40 years who all screened negative for the presence of CDKN2A variants. A replication study using a set of 1,200 melanoma patient DNA samples and similarly large series of healthy controls was undertaken. RESULTS: We selected 21 potentially deleterious variants in 20 genes (VRK1, MYCT1, DNAH14, CASC3, MS4A12, PRC1, WWOX, CARD6, EXO5, CASC3, CASP8AP2, STK33, SAMD11, CNDP2, CPNE1, EFCAB6, CABLES1, LEKR1, NUDT17, and RRP15), which were identified by WES and confirmed by Sanger sequencing for an association study. Evaluation of the allele distribution among carriers and their relatives in available family trios revealed that these variants were unlikely to account for many familial cases of melanoma. Replication study revealed no statistically significant differences between cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Although most of the changes seemed to be neutral we could not exclude an association between variants in VRK1, CREB3L3, EXO5, and STK33 with melanoma risk.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Cohort Studies , DNA , Exome , Frameshift Mutation , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Incidence , Melanoma , Poland
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719416

ABSTRACT

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome is a spectrum of disorders characterized by unique phenotypic features including multiple hamartomas caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Cowden syndrome and Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome are representative diseases, and both have several common clinical features and differences. Because PTEN mutations are associated with an increased risk of malignancy including breast, thyroid, endometrial, and renal cancers, cancer surveillance is an important element of disease management. We report a germline mutation of the PTEN (c.723dupT, exon 7) identified in a young woman with a simultaneous occurrence of breast cancer, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and follicular neoplasm. This case suggests that it is critical for clinicians to recognize the phenotypic features associated with these syndromes to accurately diagnose them and provide preventive care.


Subject(s)
Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Disease Management , Exons , Female , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Germ-Line Mutation , Hamartoma , Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms , Thyroid Gland
13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785404

ABSTRACT

Tatton-Brown-Rahman Syndrome (TBRS), an overgrowth syndrome caused by heterozygous mutation of DNMT3A, first was described in 2014. Approximately 60 DNMT3A variants, including 32 missense variants, have been reported, with most missense mutations located on the DNMT3A functional domains. Autosomal dominant inheritance by germ-line mutation of DNMT3A has been reported, but vertical transmission within a family is extremely rare. Herein, we report the first Korean family with maternally inherited TBRS due to the novel heterozygous DNMT3A variant c.118G>C p.(Glu40Gln), located outside the main functional domain and identified by multigene panel sequencing. The patient and her mother had typical clinical features, including tall stature during childhood, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial appearance. TBRS shows milder dysmorphic features than other overgrowth syndromes, potentially leading to underdiagnosis and underestimated prevalence; thus, targeted multigene panel sequencing including DNMT3A will be a useful tool in cases of overgrowth and unexplained mild intellectual disability for early diagnosis and genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Early Diagnosis , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Growth Disorders , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Mothers , Mutation, Missense , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Wills
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a family affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).@*METHODS@#Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect potential deletion and duplication of the Dystrophin gene. Haplotype analysis was performed using five short tandem repeat polymorphism loci (3'-STR, 5'-STR, 45-STR, 49-STR, 50-STR of the DMD gene.@*RESULTS@#A same deletional mutation (exons 51-55) of the DMD gene was detected in two brothers but not in their mother. The patients and fetus have inherited different haplotypes of the Dystrophin gene from their mother, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected.@*CONCLUSION@#The mother was very likely to harbor germline mosaicism for the Dystrophin gene variant. Genetic testing of peripheral blood samples cannot rule out germline mosaicism in the mother. Prenatal diagnosis should be provided for subsequent pregnancies in this family.


Subject(s)
Dystrophin , Genetics , Exons , Female , Gene Deletion , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Male , Mosaicism , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Genetics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 623-635, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Initial diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is frequently associated with advanced stages and a poor prognosis. Thus, the need for earlier diagnoses and detection in relatives at risk for the disease has led to increased use of RET genetic screening. Subjects and methods: We performed RET screening in 247 subjects who were referred to the Brazilian Research Consortium for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (BRASMEN) Center in the State of Ceará. Direct genetic sequencing was used to analyze exons 8, 10, 11, and 13-16 in MTC index cases and specific exons in at risk relatives. Afterward, clinical follow-up was offered to all the patients with MTC and their affected relatives. Results: RET screening was performed in 60 MTC index patients and 187 at-risk family members. At the initial clinical assessment of the index patients, 54 (90%) were diagnosed with apparently sporadic disease and 6 (10%) diagnosed with hereditary disease. After RET screening, we found that 31 (52%) index patients had sporadic disease, and 29 (48%) had hereditary disease. Regarding at-risk relatives, 73/187 were mutation carriers. Mutations in RET codon 804 and the rare p.M918V mutation were the most prevalent. Conclusions: Performing RET screening in Ceará allowed us to identify a different mutation profile in this region compared with other areas. RET screening also enabled the diagnosis of a significant number of hereditary MTC patients who were initially classified as sporadic disease patients and benefited their relatives, who were unaware of the risks and the consequences of bearing a RET mutation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics , Genetic Carrier Screening/methods , Time Factors , Brazil , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Transfection/methods , Gene Rearrangement/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/pathology , Risk Assessment , Early Detection of Cancer , Genetic Association Studies
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(4): 432-439, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the clinical features associated with adrenocortical hormone overexpression and familial cancer profiling as potential markers for early detection of adrenocortical tumors in children from South and Southeast Brazil. Methods: The clinical manifestations and anthropometric measurements of 103 children diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were analyzed. Results: Between 1982 and 2011, 69 girls and 34 boys diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were followed-up for a median time of 9.0 years (0-34 years). Signs of androgen overproduction alone (n = 75) or associated with cortisol (n = 18) were present in 90.3%. TP53 p.R337H mutation was found in 90.5% of patients. Stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 45.6%, 27.2%, 19.4%, and 7.8% of patients, respectively. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences in height (p = 0.92) and weight (p = 0.22) among children with adrenocortical tumors, but children with virilization alone had significantly higher height-for-age Z-scores (0.92 ± 1.4) than children with hypercortisolism alone or combined (−0.32 ± 1,8; p = 0.03). The five-year overall survival was 76.7% (SD ± 4.2). Patients with advanced-stage disease had a significantly worse prognosis than those with limited disease (p < 0.001). During follow-up, ten of 55 p.R337H carrier parents developed cancer, whereas none of the 55 non-carriers did. Conclusions: Signs of adrenocortical hormone overproduction appear early, even in cases with early-stage. These signs can be identified at the physical examination and anthropometric measurements. In southern Brazil, pediatric adrenocortical tumor is a sentinel cancer for detecting families with germline p.R337H mutation in TP53 gene.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar as manifestações clínicas da hiperexpressão de hormônios do córtex da adrenal e câncer familiar como marcadores para a detecção precoce de tumores adrenocorticais em crianças do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Pacientes e métodos: Foram analisadas as manifestações clínicas e antropométricas de 103 crianças diagnosticadas com tumores adrenocorticais. Resultados: Entre 1982 e 2011, 69 meninas e 34 meninos diagnosticados com tumores adrenocorticais foram acompanhados por um tempo mediano de nove anos (0-34). Ao diagnóstico, sinais de virilização isolada (n = 75) ou associada ao cortisol (n = 18) estavam presentes em 90,3% dos pacientes; a mutação do gene TP53 p.R337H foi identificada em 90,5% dos pacientes. Os pacientes foram classificados em estádio I (45,6%), II (27,2%), III (19,4%) e IV (7,8%). Ao diagnóstico, não houve diferença significativa para as medidas de altura (p = 0,92) e de peso (p = 0,22) entre as crianças com tumores adrenocorticais, mas crianças com virilização tiveram escore-Z mais elevado para a idade (0,92 ± 1,4) do que aquelas com hipercortisolismo isolado ou combinado (−0,32 ± 1,8; p = 0,03). A sobrevida global de cinco anos foi de 76,7% (DP ± 4,2). Pacientes com estádios avançados tiveram pior prognóstico (p < 0,001). Durante o seguimento, 10 dos 55 genitores portadores da p.R337H desenvolveram câncer, enquanto que nenhum caso ocorreu entre os 55 não portadores. Conclusões: Os sinais de hiperprodução de hormônios adrenocorticais aparecem precocemente no desenvolvimento do tumor e podem ser identificados pelo exame físico e pelas medidas antropométricas na consulta pediátrica de rotina. O tumor adrenocortical pediátrico é sentinela para a detecção de câncer em famílias que segregam a mutação germinativa p.R337H do gene TP53.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Genes, p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Pedigree , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 34(2): 116-124, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978417

ABSTRACT

La predisposición de algunas familias a padecer hemopatías mieloides malignas ha sido descrita desde hace varias décadas; sin embargo, solo recientemente ha sido posible conocer las bases moleculares de estos síndromes. La importancia de reconocer y diagnosticar la presencia de mutaciones predisponentes de la línea germinal en pacientes con hemopatías malignas y en sus familiares determinó que la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) introdujera esta nueva categoría en su última revisión de la clasificación de las neoplasias malignas y leucemias agudas. Mediante el uso de las modernas técnicas de biología molecular se ha logrado el descubrimiento de mutaciones en diferentes genes que aportan nuevos elementos en el proceso de leucemogénesis, permiten ofrecer consejo genético, una mejor selección del donante de médula ósea y se erigen en la fuente de futuras dianas terapéuticas. En este trabajo se revisan algunos de los síndromes de hemopatías mieloides malignas hereditarias (HMMH) y se enfatiza en la necesidad de realizar una exhaustiva historia clínica personal y familiar que permita un elevado índice de sospecha para el diagnóstico de estas entidades(AU)


The familial predisposition to inherited myeloid malignancies has been described since several decades ago; however, only recently have been possible to known the molecular basis of these syndromes. The importance to recognize and diagnosed predisposing germ line mutations in patients and relatives contributed to the introduction of this new category in the latest update of myeloid neoplasm and acute leukemia by World Health Organization (WHO). The use of modern molecular biology techniques has achieved the discovery of genetic mutations that shed light inside leukemogenesis process, allow offering a genetic counseling, a better donor selection and are the basis of future therapeutics targets. The main hereditary myeloid malignancy syndromes (IMMS) are reviewed, emphasizing the need of exhaustive personal and family clinical history and to have a high suspicion index to diagnose these entities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Medical Records/standards , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(9): e7427, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951761

ABSTRACT

Genetic and functional aberrations of guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha stimulating (GNAS), aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP), and pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) are among the most prominent events in pituitary tumorigenesis. A cohort of Brazilian patients with somatotropinomas (n=41) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA, n=21) from a single tertiary-referral center were evaluated for GNAS and AIP mutations and gene expression of AIP and PTTG. Results were compared to the clinical and biological (Ki67 and p53 expression) characteristics of tumors and their response to therapy, if applicable. Genetic analysis revealed that 27% of somatotropinomas and 4.8% of NFPA harbored GNAS mutations (P=0.05). However, no differences were observed in clinical characteristics, tumor extension, response to somatostatin analog therapy, hormonal/surgical remission rates, Ki67 index, and p53 expression between mutated and non-mutated somatotropinomas patients. PTTG overexpression (RQ mean=10.6, min=4.39, max=11.9) and AIP underexpression (RQ mean=0.56, min=0.46-max=0.92) were found in virtually all cases without a statistically significant relationship with clinical and biological tumor features. No patients exhibited somatic or germline pathogenic AIP mutations. In conclusion, mutations in GNAS and abnormal PTTG and AIP expression had no impact on tumor features and treatment outcomes in this cohort. Our data support some previous studies and point to the need for further investigations, probably involving epigenetic and transcriptome analysis, to improve our understanding of pituitary tumor behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pituitary Neoplasms/genetics , Adenoma/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology , Brazil , DNA, Neoplasm , Genetic Markers , Adenoma/pathology , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Cohort Studies , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/pathology , Carcinogenesis
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2018. 83 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1247978

ABSTRACT

Recentes indicações de um fenótipo mais variável e uma menor penetrância de câncer na síndrome de Li-Fraumeni (LFS) levantaram questões a respeito da verdadeira prevalência populacional da síndrome. Investigações anteriores, baseadas em contextos clínicos, propuseram que as estimativas de prevalência populacional de LFS poderiam variar entre um portador a cada 5.000 a 20.000 indivíduos. O primeiro artigo demonstrou que a prevalência populacional de variantes patogênicas e provavelmente patogênicas no gene TP53, as principais causas de LFS, é mais alta do que a esperada em uma população não selecionada pelo histórico de câncer. Nós sugerimos que a prevalência populacional poderia ser de até 10x mais alta do que previamente descrita. O segundo artigo teve como objetivo avaliar e validar as estimativas de prevalência de variantes germinativas em TP53 no banco de dados do gnomAD, que inclui variações genéticas de mais de 130.000 individuos. Variantes em TP53 foram selecionadas e classificadas com base em nosso algoritmo previamente descrito. Além disso, nós fornecemos estimativas de prevalência alternativas com base na classificação de três bancos de dados, ClinVar, HGMD e o portal UMD_TP53. Com base nessa nova análise, nós observamos que a prevalência populacional de variantes germinativas patogênicas e provavelmente patogênicas no gene TP53 é, de fato, maior do que previamente descrita. Contudo, as estimativas podem variar drasticamente (0,02-0,25%) devido a diferentes classificações e a algumas variantes específicas em TP53 que podem estar associadas a um risco inflacionado (p.N235S, p.V31I e p.R290H). Abordagens interdisciplinares são necessárias para melhor entender a interação entre classificação de variantes em TP53, estimativas de prevalência, penetrância de câncer e fenótipo em LFS


Recent suggestions of a variable Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) phenotype and a lower LFS-associated cancer penetrance have raised questions regarding the true disease population prevalence. Earlier investigations, based on clinical contexts, had proposed that the estimated population prevalence of LFS could be between the range of one carrier in every 5,000-20,000 individuals. The first article reported a higher-than-expected population prevalence of pathogenic and likely pathogenic germline TP53 variants in a population unselected for cancer history. We suggested that the population prevalence could be up to 10x higher than previously described in clinically-based studies. The second article aimed to further evaluate germline TP53 variant prevalence estimates in the gnomAD database, which includes germline variation from over 130,000 individuals. Variants were selected and classified based on our previously published algorithm. In addition, we provided alternative prevalence estimates based on three other classifications databases, ClinVar, HGMD, and the UMD_TP53 website. Based on the new analysis, we observed that the population prevalence of pathogenic and likely pathogenic TP53 variants is indeed higher than previously described. However, the estimates can vary widely (0.02-0.25%) due to differences in variant classifications and due to some specific TP53 variants that may be associated with inflated risk (p.N235S, p.V31I, and p.R290H). Comprehensive approaches are needed to better understand the interplay of germline TP53 variant classification, prevalence estimates, cancer penetrance and phenotype of LFS


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Genes, p53 , Li-Fraumeni Syndrome , Germ-Line Mutation
20.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 94, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979019

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cost effectiveness of the diagnostic program for the germline mutation in BRCA1/2 genes and of preventative strategies for the relatives of patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer associated with this mutation. METHODS: The study analyzed the cost effectiveness by developing an analysis of the Markov decision process from the perspective of the National Health System. The strategies compared reflect upon the adoption of genetic testing and preventative strategies for relatives or the usual care currently proposed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was expressed in terms of cost per case avoided. The sensitivity analysis was performed in a univariate and deterministic manner. RESULTS: The study showed increments for effectiveness and for costs when performing genetic testing and adopting prophylactic measures for family members. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at R$908.58 per case of cancer avoided, a figure considered lower than the study's cost-effectiveness threshold (R$7,543.50). CONCLUSIONS: The program analyzed should be considered a cost-effective strategy for the national situation. Studies in various other countries have reached similar conclusions. One possible ramification of this research might the need to perform a budgetary-impact analysis of making the program one of the country's health policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/prevention & control , Program Evaluation/economics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Ovarian Neoplasms/economics , Reference Values , Brazil , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Genetic Testing/economics , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Markov Chains , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Middle Aged
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