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1.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 393-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985937

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical and biological characteristics of familial platelet disorder (FPD) with germline Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) 1 mutations. Methods: Patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with RUNX1 mutations from February 2016 to December 2021 in Wuhan No.1 Hospital underwent pedigree analysis and were screened for gene mutations (somatic and germline). Patients diagnosed with FPD with germline RUNX1 mutations were enrolled and evaluated in terms of clinical characteristics and biological evolution. Bioinformatics analysis was used to assess the pathogenicity of mutations and to analyze the effect of mutated genes on the function of the corresponding protein. Results: Germline RUNX1 mutations were detected in three out of 34 patients suffering from MDS/AML who had RUNX1 mutations. A pedigree of FPD with RUNX1 (RUNX1-FPD) c.562A>C and RUNX1 c.1415T>C mutations was diagnosed, and the mutations were of patrilineal origin. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the locus at positions 188 and 472 in the AML-1G type of RUNX1 was highly conserved across different species, and that variations might influence functions of the proteins. The mutations were evaluated to be highly pathogenic. Of the nine cases with germline RUNX1 mutations: two patients died due AML progression; one case with AML survived without leukemia after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells; four patients showed mild-to-moderate thrombocytopenia; two cases had no thrombocytopenia. During the disease course of the proband and her son, mutations in RUNX1, NRAS and/or CEBPA and KIT appeared in succession, and expression of cluster of differentiation-7 on tumor cells was enhanced gradually. None of the gene mutations correlated with the tumor were detected in the four cases not suffering from MDS/AML, and they survived until the end of follow-up. Conclusions: RUNX1-FPD was rare. The mutations c.562A>C and c.1415T>C of RUNX1 could be the disease-causing genes for the family with RUNX1-FPD, and these mutations could promote malignant transformation. Biological monitoring should be carried out regularly to aid early intervention for family members with RUNX1-FPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Germ-Line Mutation , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , Pedigree , Blood Platelet Disorders/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics
2.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 574-579, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985735

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of fumarate hydratase (FH) deficient uterine leiomyoma. Methods: Eighty cases of FH deficient uterine leiomyoma were diagnosed from April 2018 to September 2022 in Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital. Sanger sequencing of FH gene exons (exon 1-10) were performed on tumor tissues and matched non-tumor tissues/peripheral blood for all cases. FH immunohistochemistry were performed in 74 cases; S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) were also detected by immunohistochemistry in five cases. Results: Patients' age ranged from 18 to 54 (36.0±7.5) years, with more than 60% exhibiting clinical symptoms of multiple and large leiomyomas (the median diameter was 70 mm). More than four histologic features, including staghorn vasculature, alveolar-pattern edema, bizarre nuclei, oval nuclei arranged in chains, prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar haloes and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globules were observed in 98.5% (67/68) patients. The immunohistochemical sensitivity of FH and 2SC were 97.3% and 100%, respectively. Based on the Sanger sequencing results, the cases were divided into germline variant group (31 cases), somatic variant group (29 cases) and no variant group (20 cases). Sixty-nine percent (20/29) of the patients with FH germline variation had clear family history. Conclusions: Clinical features, histological morphology, FH and 2SC immunohistochemistry and Sanger sequencing have their own significance and limitations in differential diagnosis of FH deficient uterine leiomyoma. In clinical practice, the above information should be fully integrated and studied for accurate pathologic diagnosis and selection of patients with FH germline variation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Fumarate Hydratase/genetics , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Germ-Line Mutation , Diagnosis, Differential , Leiomyomatosis/pathology , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnosis
3.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(1)jan.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1512264

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A síndrome de von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) é uma patologia hereditária autossômica dominante que envolve o crescimento de tumores em diversas regiões do corpo humano em razão da mutação no gene VHL. Relato do caso: Paciente, sexo masculino, 38 anos, há três anos queixava-se de cefaleia recorrente, com piora progressiva. Foi diagnosticado com uma lesão em cerebelo cuja ressonância magnética cerebral encontrou uma formação expansiva na porção posteroinferior do hemisfério cerebelar esquerdo. Foi realizada tomografia multislice de abdome, que evidenciou formação nodular esplênica com realce marginal. A imagem da coluna cervical demonstrou pequeno nódulo localizado na medula cervical (intramedular) adjacente à vértebra cervical 3 (C3). Diante dos achados, o paciente foi submetido à ressecção macroscópica total da lesão do cerebelo, com laudo anatomopatológico de hemangioblastoma cerebelar grau 1, de acordo com a classificação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), que é um tumor benigno com baixa agressividade e recorrência. O teste imuno-histoquímico mostrou cluster of differentiation 34 (CD 34) positivo, índice de proliferação celular (Ki67) positivo (<5%), alfa inibina positiva e epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) negativo. Como o paciente não tinha história familiar de câncer, em função dos achados radiológicos, foi realizado sequenciamento de nova geração identificando a variante patogênica VHL c.292T>C, constatado em linhagem germinativa que, apesar do desconhecimento de história familiar positiva para a síndrome, confirmou o diagnóstico do paciente.


Introduction: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an autosomal dominant hereditary pathology that involves the growth of tumors in different regions of the human body due to mutation of the VHL gene. Case report: Male patient, 38 years old, complained of recurrent headache for 3 years, with progressive worsening. A lesion in the cerebellum was diagnosed, whose magnetic resonance imaging found an expansive formation in the posteroinferior portion of the left cerebellar hemisphere. Multislice tomography of the abdomen was performed, showing splenic nodular formation with marginal enhancement. Cervical spine imaging demonstrated a small nodule located in the cervical (intramedullary) cord adjacent to cervical vertebra 3 (C3). In view of the findings, the patient underwent total macroscopic resection of the cerebellar lesion, with an anatomopathological report of World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which is a benign tumor with lower risk of aggressiveness and recurrence. Immunohistochemical test showed positive cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), cell proliferation index positive (Ki67) (<5%), positive alpha inhibin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) negative. As the patient had no family history of cancer, a new generation sequencing was performed due to the radiological findings, which identified the pathogenic variant VHL c.292T>C found in germ lineage; although the family was unaware of any past family history of the syndrome, the patient's diagnosis was confirmed.


Introducción: El síndrome de von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) es una patología hereditaria autosómica dominante que consiste en el crecimiento de tumores en diferentes regiones del cuerpo humano debido a una mutación en el gen VHL. Informe del caso: Paciente, masculino, 38 años, consulta por cefalea recurrente desde hace 3 años, con empeoramiento progresivo. Se diagnosticó lesión en cerebelo, cuya resonancia magnética encontró una formación expansiva en la porción posteroinferior del hemisferio cerebeloso izquierdo. Se realizó tomografía multicorte de abdomen, que mostró formación nodular esplénica con realce marginal. Las imágenes de la columna cervical demostraron un pequeño nódulo ubicado en el cordón cervical (intramedular) adyacente a vértebra cervical 3 (C3). Ante los hallazgos se procedió a la resección macroscópica total de la lesión cerebelosa, con informe anatomopatológico de hemangioblastoma cerebeloso grado 1, de acuerdo con la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS) que es un tumor benigno con baja agresividad y recurrencia. La prueba inmunohistoquímica mostró cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) positivo, índice de proliferación celular (Ki67) positivo (<5%), alfa inhibina positivo y epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) negativo. Como el paciente no tenía antecedentes familiares de cáncer, debido a los hallazgos radiológicos, se realizó una secuenciación de nueva generación identificando la variante patogénica VHL c.292T>C, encontrada en el linaje germinal, que, a pesar del desconocimiento de antecedentes familiares positivos para el síndrome, confirmó el diagnóstico del paciente. Conclusión: El conjunto de hallazgos clínicos y la variante en el gen VHL confirman el diagnóstico del síndrome.


Subject(s)
Hemangioblastoma , Germ-Line Mutation , von Hippel-Lindau Disease
4.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 133-138, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in prostate cancer patients and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.@*METHODS@#Germline sequencing data of 855 prostate cancer patients admitted in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from 2018 to 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The pathogenicity of mutations was assessed according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standard guideline, Clinvar and Intervar databases. The clinicopathological characteristics and responses to castration treatment were compared among patients with MMR gene mutation (MMR+ group), patients with DNA damage repair (DDR) gene germline pathogenic mutation without MMR gene (DDR+MMR- group) and patients without DDR gene germline pathogenic mutation (DDR- group).@*RESULTS@#Thirteen (1.52%) MMR+ patients were identified in 855 prostate cancer patients, including 1 case with MLH1 gene mutation, 6 cases with MSH2 gene mutation, 4 cases with MSH6 gene mutation and 2 cases with PMS2 gene mutation. 105 (11.9%) patients were identified as DDR gene positive (except MMR gene), and 737 (86.2%) patients were DDR gene negative. Compared with DDR- group, MMR+ group had lower age of onset (P<0.05) and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (P<0.01), while no significant differences were found between the two groups in Gleason score and TMN staging (both P>0.05). The median time to castration resistance was 8 months (95%CI: 6 months-not achieved), 16 months (95%CI: 12-32 months) and 24 months (95%CI: 21-27 months) for MMR+ group, DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group, respectively. The time to castration resistance in MMR+ group was significantly shorter than that in DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (both P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MMR gene mutation testing is recommended for prostate cancer patients with early onset, low initial PSA, metastasis or early resistance to castration therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation , Retrospective Studies , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , China , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
5.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 212-217, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971436

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the reasonable time of prophylactic thyroidectomy for RET gene carriers in multiple endocrine neoplasia(MEN) 2A/2B families. Methods: From May 2015 to August 2021, RET gene carriers in MEN2A/MEN2B families were dynamically followed up at the Department of Thyroid Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University. The high-risk patients were encouraged to undergo prophylacitc total thyroidectomy according to the principle of "graded early warning system", namely the evaluation of gene detection, calcitonin value and ultrasound examination successively. Seven cases underwent the surgery, including 3 males and 4 females, aged from 7 to 29 years. According to the risk stratification listed in the guidelines of the American Thyroid Association in 2015, there were 2 cases of the highest risk, 2 cases of the high risk and 3 cases of the modest risk. Calcitonin index remained within the normal range in 3 cases and elevated in 4 cases before operation. All 7 patients underwent thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection of the level Ⅵ performed in 4 patients. Results: The time from suggestion to operation was 2 to 37 months, with an average of 15.1 months. The 6 patients were medullary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case with C-cell hyperplasia. The follow-up time was 2 to 82 months, with an average of 38.4 months. Postoperative serum calcitonin levels of all cases decreased to normal level, with biochemical cure. There was no sign of recurrence on ultrasound examination. All 7 patients had no serious complications, no obvious thyroid dysfunction. Their height, weight and other indicators of pediatric patients were similar to those of their peers, with normal growth and development. Conclusion: For healthy people with MEN2A/MEN2B family history, prophylactic thyroidectomy can be carried out selectively based on the comprehensive evaluation of "graded early warning system" with strict screening and close monitoring.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a/surgery , Calcitonin , Germ-Line Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/genetics
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-311, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935285

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the germline mutation status of related genes in breast cancer patients and high-risk individuals by next-generation sequencing. To analyze the correlations between homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients. To supplement the database of breast cancer related gene mutations in Chinese population. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. From October 2020 to September 2021, whole blood samples were collected from 350 breast cancer patients and 49 high-risk individuals, admitted to Peking University People's Hospital and accepted genetic testing voluntarily. Germline mutations in 32 breast cancer related genes were detected by NGS. The clinicopathological characteristics, including age at the onset, family history, unilateral/bilateral tumor, Luminal typing (Luminal A subtype, Luminal B subtype, HER2-enriched subtype and triple negative breast cancer), tumor size and metastasis, were analyzed, and the correlations between HR pathway gene mutation status and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed by Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: Among 350 breast cancer patients, 64 (18.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations (including pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations), including 47 (13.4%) in BRCA1/2, 16 (4.6%) in non-BRCA1/2 genes, 1 (0.3%) in BRCA2 and FANCL. Among 49 high-risk individuals, 7 (14.3%) cases carried gene pathogenic mutations, including 6 (12.3%) in BRCA1/2 and 1 (2%) in ATM genes. BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations were associated with age at the onset (18%, 8.7%, χ²=6.346, P=0.012), and the BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency was higher in patients diagnosed at age ≤45 years. HR pathway gene mutations (including pathogenic, likely pathogenic and uncertain significance mutations) were correlated with unilateral/bilateral tumor (49.5%, 68.4%, χ²=4.841, P=0.028) and Luminal typing (45.7%, 62.2%, 32%, 60%, χ²=12.004, P=0.007), and the HR mutation frequencies were higher in patients with bilateral tumor, Luminal B breast cancer and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Conclusion: The BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutation frequency in high-risk individuals is similar to that in breast cancer patients, and BRCA1/2 testing is helpful to guide breast cancer screening and prevention in high-risk individuals. Patients with early onset breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, Luminal B breast cancer and TNBC have higher mutation frequencies of HR pathway genes, and HR pathway genes testing should be conducted as soon as possible to provide laboratory evidence for diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and risk evaluation of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Germ-Line Mutation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mutation , Recombinational DNA Repair , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 330-333, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a male with breast cancer and a sister who had deceased of the disease.@*METHODS@#Medical and family history of the proband was collected. Next-generation sequencing was carried out to detect potential variant associated with breast cancer, and Sanger sequencing was used to verify the result.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a novel heterozygous c.6018dupT variant of the BRCA2 gene which may cause premature termination of mRNA translation, resulting in a truncated protein. Combined with the family history, the variant was deduced to be a germline mutation. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines, c.6018dupT variant of BRCA2 gene was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM1/2+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The germline variant of the BRCA2 gene probably underlay the breast cancer in this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Breast Neoplasms, Male/genetics , Genes, BRCA2 , Genomics , Germ Cells , Germ-Line Mutation
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 92-95, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect and precautions of setting up a genetic clinic for hereditary colorectal cancers.@*METHODS@#To collect the information of the patients who received genetic screening and genetic counseling at our hospital from January 2016 to June 2018, and analyze the role of family history collection and follow-up management.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of family history of tumors has increased by 13.6%. Follow up management was carried out in 156 families with hereditary colorectal cancer confirmed by detection of germline mutations. Five cases of early colorectal cancers and 12 cases of adenomatous polyps were detected and treated.@*CONCLUSION@#To set up genetic clinic is helpful to standardize the management of high-risk population, and attention should be paid to the role of family history collection and follow-up management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Genetic Counseling , Genetic Testing/standards , Germ-Line Mutation , Risk Factors
10.
Clinics ; 76: e2837, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In breast cancer (BC) patients, the frequency of germline BRCA mutations (gBRCA) may vary according to the ethnic background, age, and family history of cancer. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) is the second most common somatic mutated gene in BC; however, the association of mutations in both genes with cancer has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, our aims were to investigate gBRCA mutation frequency in a cohort of postmenopausal Brazilian BC patients and the association of gBRCA1/BRCA2 and PIK3CA somatic mutations. METHODS: Forty-nine postmenopausal (>55 years) and forty-one young (≤35 years) BC patients were included in this study. The postmenopausal group included patients who reported a positive family history of cancer. For these patients, gBRCA1/BRCA2 were sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS) or Sanger sequencing. Data for gBRCA in young patients were already available from a previous study. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors was obtained from 27 postmenopausal and 41 young patients for analyzing exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA. The association between gBRCA1/BRCA2 and somatic mutations in PIK3CA was investigated. RESULTS: The overall frequency of gBRCA1/BRCA2 among the 49 postmenopausal patients was 10.2%. The frequencies of somatic mutations in PIK3CA in the postmenopausal and young patients were 37% and 17%, respectively (ns). The most common PIK3CA mutation was found to be E454A. Nonsense and frameshift mutations, which may counteract the oncogenic potential of PIK3CA were also detected. Regardless of age, 25% of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers , each, had PIK3CA somatic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2 gene testing may be considered for postmenopausal patients with BC who have a family history of cancer. Although some of them are not considered pathogenic, somatic variants of PIK3CA are frequently observed in BC patients, especially in postmenopausal patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Brazil , Postmenopause , Germ-Line Mutation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Germ Cells , Mutation
11.
Colomb. med ; 50(3): 163-175, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098193

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common neoplasia of women from all over the world especially women from Colombia. 5%­10% of all cases are caused by hereditary factors, 25% of those cases have mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the mutations associated with the risk of familial breast and/or ovarian cancer in a population of Colombian pacific. Methods: 58 high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer families and 20 controls were screened for germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. Results: Four families (6.9%) were found to carry BRCA1 mutations and eight families (13.8%) had mutations in BRCA2. In BRCA1, we found three Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS), of which we concluded, using in silico tools, that c.81­12C>G and c.3119G>A (p.Ser1040Asn) are probably deleterious, and c.3083G>A (p.Arg1028His) is probably neutral. In BRCA2, we found three variants of uncertain significance: two were previously described and one novel mutation. Using in silico analysis, we concluded that c.865A>G (p.Asn289Asp) and c.6427T>C (p.Ser2143Pro) are probably deleterious and c.125A>G (p.Tyr42Cys) is probably neutral. Only one of them has previously been reported in Colombia. We also identified 13 polymorphisms (4 in BRCA1 and 9 in BRCA2), two of them are associated with a moderate increase in breast cancer risk (BRCA2 c.1114A>C and c.8755­66T>C). Conclusion: According to our results, the Colombian pacific population presents diverse mutational spectrum for BRCA genes that differs from the findings in other regions in the country.


Resumen Introducción: El cáncer de mama es la neoplasia más común en mujeres de todo el mundo, y, también de Colombia. 5% a 10% de todos los casos son causados por factores hereditarios; 25% de estos casos tienen mutaciones en los genes BRCA1/BRCA2. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue el de identificar mutaciones asociadas con riesgo de cáncer de mama y/u ovario familiar en pacientes del pacífico colombiano. Métodos: Fueron revisados para mutaciones en BRCA1 y BRCA2 de línea germinal mediante SSCP y secuenciación 58 familias de alto riesgo para cáncer de mama y/u ovario y 20 controles Resultados: cuatro familias (6.9%) presentaron mutaciones en BRCA1 y ocho familias (13.8%) en BRCA2. En BRCA1, encontramos tres variantes de significado clínico desconocido (VUS), de las cuales concluimos, usando herramientas bioinformáticas, que c.81­12C>G y c.3119G>A (p.Ser1040Asn) son probablemente deletéreas, y c.3083G>A (p.Arg1028His) es probablemente neutral. En BRCA2, encontramos tres VUS: una mutación nueva y dos previamente descritas, usando análisis bioinformáticos, concluimos que c.865A>G (p.Asn289Asp) y c.6427T>C (p.Ser2143Pro) son probablemente deletéreas y c.125A>G (p.Tyr42Cys) es probablemente neutral. Solo una de ellas ha sido reportada previamente en Colombia. También identificamos 13 polimorfismos (4 en BRCA1 y 9 en BRCA2), dos de ellos asociados con un moderado incremento del riesgo para cáncer de mama (BRCA2 c.1114A>C and c.8755­66T>C). Conclusión: de acuerdo con nuestros resultados, la población del suroccidente colombiano presenta un espectro mutacional diverso para los genes BRCA que difiere de lo encontrado en otras regiones del país.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , BRCA1 Protein/genetics , BRCA2 Protein/genetics , Computer Simulation , Case-Control Studies , Colombia , Germ-Line Mutation , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 369-375, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019359

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PCC) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that were considered to be predominantly sporadic. However, with the identification of novel susceptibility genes over the last decade, it is currently estimated that up to 40% of cases can occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome. We aimed to characterize PGL/PCC families to exemplify the different scenarios in which hereditary syndromes can be suspected and to emphasize the importance for patients and their families of making an opportune genetic diagnosis. Materials and methods Retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with PGL/PCC. Germline mutations were studied using next-generation sequencing panels including SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Clinical data were collected from clinical records, and all patients received genetic counseling. Results We describe 4 families with PGL/PCC and germline mutations in SDH complex genes. 2 families have SDHB mutations and 2 SDHD mutations. The clinical presentation of the patients and their families was heterogeneous, with some being atypical according to the literature. Conclusions PGL/PCC are more commonly associated with a germline mutation than any other cancer type, therefore, all individuals with these types of tumors should undergo genetic risk evaluation. NGS multigene panel testing is a cost-effective approach given the overlapping phenotypes. Individuals with germline mutations associated with PGL/PCC should undergo lifelong clinical, biochemical and imaging surveillance and their families should undergo genetic counseling. For all these reasons, it is critical that all medical staff can suspect and diagnose these inherited cancer predisposition syndromes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraganglioma/genetics , Pheochromocytoma/genetics , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Pedigree , Genetic Testing/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 337-344, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719420

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Germline mutations within melanoma susceptibility genes are present only in minority of melanoma patients and it is expected that additional genes will be discovered with next generation sequence technology and whole-exome sequencing (WES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein we performed WES on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish patients with melanoma diagnosed under the age of 40 years who all screened negative for the presence of CDKN2A variants. A replication study using a set of 1,200 melanoma patient DNA samples and similarly large series of healthy controls was undertaken. RESULTS: We selected 21 potentially deleterious variants in 20 genes (VRK1, MYCT1, DNAH14, CASC3, MS4A12, PRC1, WWOX, CARD6, EXO5, CASC3, CASP8AP2, STK33, SAMD11, CNDP2, CPNE1, EFCAB6, CABLES1, LEKR1, NUDT17, and RRP15), which were identified by WES and confirmed by Sanger sequencing for an association study. Evaluation of the allele distribution among carriers and their relatives in available family trios revealed that these variants were unlikely to account for many familial cases of melanoma. Replication study revealed no statistically significant differences between cases and controls. CONCLUSION: Although most of the changes seemed to be neutral we could not exclude an association between variants in VRK1, CREB3L3, EXO5, and STK33 with melanoma risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Cohort Studies , DNA , Exome , Frameshift Mutation , Germ-Line Mutation , Incidence , Melanoma , Poland
14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 402-407, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719416

ABSTRACT

PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome is a spectrum of disorders characterized by unique phenotypic features including multiple hamartomas caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Cowden syndrome and Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome are representative diseases, and both have several common clinical features and differences. Because PTEN mutations are associated with an increased risk of malignancy including breast, thyroid, endometrial, and renal cancers, cancer surveillance is an important element of disease management. We report a germline mutation of the PTEN (c.723dupT, exon 7) identified in a young woman with a simultaneous occurrence of breast cancer, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and follicular neoplasm. This case suggests that it is critical for clinicians to recognize the phenotypic features associated with these syndromes to accurately diagnose them and provide preventive care.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Dermatofibrosarcoma , Disease Management , Exons , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Germ-Line Mutation , Hamartoma , Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple , Kidney Neoplasms , Thyroid Gland
15.
Journal of Genetic Medicine ; : 27-30, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764507

ABSTRACT

Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS; OMIM 616638), also known as macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome (MINDS; ORPHA 457485), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, the prevalence of which is not known. It is caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in MTOR (OMIM 601231). Ten different MTOR germline mutations in 27 individuals have been reported in the medical literature to date. These were all gain-of-function missense variants, and about half of the 27 individuals had c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. Here, I report for the first time a Korean patient with the heterozygous germline mutation c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. It was found to be a de novo mutation, which was identified by whole-exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The patient showed typical clinical features of SKS, including macrocephaly/megalencephaly; moderate intellectual disability; seizures; behavioral problems; and facial dysmorphic features of curly hair, frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and hypertelorism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Databases, Genetic , Germ-Line Mutation , Hair , Hypertelorism , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Prevalence , Problem Behavior , Seizures , Thorax
16.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 99-103, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763277

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in Korean women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes cause hereditary breast cancer and are detected in 15–20% of hereditary breast cancer. We investigated the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in 114 familial breast cancer patients using next-generation sequencing. We confirmed 20 different mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 25 subjects (21.9%). Two such mutations in eight patients were novel (not reported in any variant database or previous study). Six mutations have been reported as disease-causing mutations in public databases. Seven mutations were found only in a single nucleotide polymorphism database and one mutation has been reported in Korea. The BRCA1/2 mutation frequency was similar to that of other studies on familial breast cancer patients in the Korean population. Further studies should examine more cases and mutations of whole exons.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , BRCA1 Protein , BRCA2 Protein , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Exons , Genes, BRCA2 , Germ-Line Mutation , Korea , Mutation Rate , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1549-1556, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a rare genetic syndrome resulting from germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The combination of bevacizumab plus erlotinib showed promising interim results for HLRCC-associated RCC. Based on these results, we analyzed the outcome of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in Korean patients with HLRCC-associated RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in patients with HLRCC-associated RCC who were confirmed to have germline mutations in fumarate hydratase. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULT: We identified 10 patients with advanced HLRCC-associated RCC who received bevacizumab plus erlotinib. Median age at diagnosis was 41 years, and five of the patients had received the combination as first- or second-line treatments. The ORR was 50% and the median PFS and OS were 13.3 and 14.1 months, respectively. Most adverse events were predictable and manageable by conventional measures, except for one instance where a patient died of gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION: This is the first real-world outcome of the treatment of advanced HLRCC-associated RCC. Bevacizumab plus erlotinib therapy showed promising activity with moderate toxicity. We should be increasingly aware of HLRCC-associated RCC and bevacizumab plus erlotinib should be a first-line treatment for this condition, unless other promising data are published.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bevacizumab , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Fumarate Hydratase , Germ-Line Mutation , Hemorrhage , Leiomyomatosis , Retrospective Studies
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 941-950, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763185

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the clinical relevance and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean ovarian cancer (KoOC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-nine KoOC patients were enrolled from three university hospitals between 2012 and 2017. Their peripheral blood samples were obtained for BRCA1/2 mutation analysis by direct sequencing. Clinicopathological characteristics were retrospectively reviewed, and spectrum analyses of BRCA1/2 mutation were assessed by systematic literature review. RESULTS: Frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations was 16.5% in KoOC patients. BRCA1/2 mutations were significantly associated with family history of breast/ovarian cancer (pT of BRCA2 in KoBC). CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 mutations in KoOC patients was confirmed but that of early age-of-onset was not. Possible inconsistency in the ratio of BRCA1-to-BRCA2 mutations and the most common mutation between KoOC and KoBC may probably suggest presence of mutation sequence-associated penetrance tendency in hereditary Korean breast and ovarian cancer. These data may provide insights for optimal genetic counseling and prophylactic treatment for at-risk relatives of KoOC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asian People , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Genetic Counseling , Germ-Line Mutation , Gynecology , Hospitals, University , Obstetrics , Ovarian Neoplasms , Penetrance , Retrospective Studies
19.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 992-1000, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that plays an important role in DNA repair. This is the first study assessing the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PALB2 mutation screening was performed in 370 Pakistani patients with early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer, who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, and RAD51C mutations, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Novel PALB2 alterations were analyzed for their potential effect on protein function or splicing using various in silico prediction tools. Three-hundred and seventy-two healthy controls were screened for the presence of the identified (potentially) functional mutations. RESULTS: A novel nonsense mutation, p.Y743*, was identified in one familial breast cancer patient (1/127, 0.8%). Besides, four in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations including three missense mutations and one 5' untranslated region mutation were identified: p.D498Y, novel p.G644R, novel p.E744K, and novel c.-134_-133delTCinsGGGT. The mutations p.Y743* and p.D498Y were identified in two familial patients diagnosed with unilateral or synchronous bilateral breast cancer at the ages of 29 and 39, respectively. The other mutations were identified in an early-onset (≤ 30 years of age) breast cancer patient each. All five mutations were absent in 372 healthy controls suggesting that they are disease associated. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PALB2 mutations account for a small proportion of early-onset and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer cases in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Humans , 5' Untranslated Regions , Breast Neoplasms , Chromatography, Liquid , Codon, Nonsense , Computer Simulation , DNA Repair , Germ-Line Mutation , Mass Screening , Mutation, Missense , Pakistan , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1015-1018, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for a family affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).@*METHODS@#Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to detect potential deletion and duplication of the Dystrophin gene. Haplotype analysis was performed using five short tandem repeat polymorphism loci (3'-STR, 5'-STR, 45-STR, 49-STR, 50-STR of the DMD gene.@*RESULTS@#A same deletional mutation (exons 51-55) of the DMD gene was detected in two brothers but not in their mother. The patients and fetus have inherited different haplotypes of the Dystrophin gene from their mother, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected.@*CONCLUSION@#The mother was very likely to harbor germline mosaicism for the Dystrophin gene variant. Genetic testing of peripheral blood samples cannot rule out germline mosaicism in the mother. Prenatal diagnosis should be provided for subsequent pregnancies in this family.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Dystrophin , Genetics , Exons , Gene Deletion , Germ-Line Mutation , Mosaicism , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Genetics , Prenatal Diagnosis
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