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Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 44: e58431, mar. 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1391277


Hesperozygis ringens (Lamiaceae), popularly known as espanta-pulga, is a threatened species endemic to rocky and sandy regions of the Pampa biome. One factor that can influence the low number of individuals of a species is a low seed germination rate influenced by temperature and/or light. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of light and temperature on the seed germination of H. ringens. The seeds of two lots were sown on a paper substrate and maintained in BOD chambers at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC in the presence and absence of light. The germination speed rate was evaluated every 3 days for 21 days. The experiment was completely randomized with treatments that had a 4 x 2 factorial design. The first visible sign (protrusion of the primary root) of germination was observed seven days after sowing. Germination occurred both in the presence and absence of light and the lowest temperatures significantly influenced the germination process and germination speed. For germinating the species, 15°C was the most favorable temperature compared to 20, 25 and 30°C. It can be concluded that a temperature of 15ºC favors the germination process of H. ringens seeds, which are insensitive to light.(AU)

Seeds/physiology , Temperature , Germination/physiology , Lamiaceae/physiology , Light Signal Transduction
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(Supplement1): 290-300, Dec. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357530


Seed vigor is the totality of all properties that determine a rapid and uniform emergence and development of normal seedling under a wide range of conditions. However, the physiological quality within a seed lot is not homogeneous, generating a quality gradient between seeds. Thus, the vigor expressed by the final percentage of normal seedlings tends to underestimate the quality of the batch, considering the total number of seeds. One possible method for correcting such an effect would be to weight vigor by germination, generating an index called relative vigor. The index reflects the "success" of viable seeds in maintaining their potential under stress. In this context, this review article proposes the possibility of using a new measure for vigor and new interpretation of relative vigor, as well as providing the mathematical basis for its use.

O vigor de sementes é a totalidade de todas as propriedades que determinam uma rápida e uniforme emergência e desenvolvimento de plântulas normais sob umavasta gama de condições. Todavia, a qualidade fisiológica dentro de um lote de sementes não é homogênea, gerando um gradiente de qualidade entre as sementes. Assim, o vigor expresso pela porcentagem final de plântulas normais tende a subestimar a qualidade do lote, por levar em consideração o número total de sementes. Um método possível para corrigir tal efeito seria ponderar o vigor pela germinação, gerando um índice denominado vigor relativo. O índice reflete o "sucesso" das sementes viáveis em manter seu potencial sob uma situação de estresse. Neste contexto, o artigo de propõe a possibilidade de uso uma nova medida, para o vigor, e uma nova interpretação, o vigor relativo, além de dar as bases matemáticas para seu uso.

Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Stress, Physiological , Germination/physiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180659, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132266


Abstract One of the main challenges in pepper production is to enhance seed germination energy and germination, and to grow healthy nursery plants with strong root system. Trichoderma species colonize roots as they grow and provide season-long benefits to plants, which is why Trichoderma species are widely used as plant growth promoter agents and promoters of plant defence mechanisms. This study evaluated the effectiveness of seed biopriming with Trichoderma isolates for growth promotion of pepper plants in early stage and their effects on seedling physiology. Nine out of ten Trichoderma isolates positively affected root weight of pepper seedlings, while three out of ten positively affected shoot weight. Root and shoot lengths were mainly unaffected. Germination energy was positively affected by five isolates with up to 40% increase compared to the control, while germination was significantly enhanced by two isolates with up to 22% increase. Considering seedling physiology, two different strain-dependent modes of actions were expressed. Promising Trichoderma isolates induced formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which acted as signal molecules that increased germination energy and germination. Positive correlation was found between pyrogallol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and germination in plants treated with these isolates.

Soil Microbiology , Trichoderma/metabolism , Germination/physiology , Pimenta/growth & development , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190768, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132275


Abstract The orchids that produced tuber are known as salep orchids and have been collected from nature for centuries as a medicinal and aromatic plant. These orchids are endangered species because of their limited vegetative and generative production possibilities. Salep orchids, seed germination has been achieved with in-vitro studies, but no source has been found regarding the development of germinated seeds over the years. In this study, Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was used as research material. Seeds that were determined to germinate in nature were observed to develop in their own environment for five years and some morphological characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, total weight, tuber width, and tuber weight) were determined at the end of each vegetation year. Plants that start to develop with seed germination produce one leaf and a tuber of 0.115 g in the first year. When the tubers obtained from the first year were planted again, the plants was obtained 2-3 leaves and they were formed 0.465 grams of tubers. In the third year plants bloom for the first time. The period until flowering in the plant was called maturity period and Dactylorhiza euxina (Nevski) Czerep. was found to have a 3-year maturity period. Plants produced tuber 0.850 g in the third year, 1.585 g in the fourth year and 2.522 g in the fifth year. According to the mathematical modeling, the relationship between year (Y) and fresh tuber weight (FTW) was found Y = 1.22 + (1.61 × FTW) and there was a significant relationship among year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass (TBM). This equation Y = 1.05 + (0.76 × FTW) + (0.14 × TBM) shows us the mathematical relations of year, fresh tuber weight, and total biomass. The mathematical relations among to fresh tuber weight, total biomass, and plant height (PH) was produced Y = 1.74 - (0.11 × FTW) + (0.57 × TBM) - (0.09 × PH). R2 values were found 0.95-0.99. All R2 values and standard errors were found to be significant at the p < 0.01 level.

Seeds/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Time Factors , Models, Biological
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 41(5): 1507-1516, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1372260


Salinity is one of the factors that negatively impact plant growth and productivity; therefore, it is necessary to seek solutions that help mitigate the degenerative action of saline stress on crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the germination and vigor of Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze seeds subjected to salinity. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design, in an incomplete 5 × 5 factorial scheme, with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECw - 0.0, 1.45, 5.00, 8.55, and 10.00 dS m-1) and five doses of SA (0.0, 0.29, 1.00, 1.71, and 2.00 mM), with four replications of 50 seeds, totaling nine combinations generated via a central composite design. The germination percentage, first germination count, germination speed index, average germination time, percentage of abnormal seedlings, shoot, root, and seedling lengths, and total seedling dry mass were evaluated. Salicylic acid attenuated the effect of saline stress on initial growth, mitigating damage to root and shoot lengths. Seed priming with salicylic acid improved germination and seed vigor.(AU)

A salinidade é um dos fatores que promove a inibição no crescimento e produtividade vegetal, sendo necessária a busca por alternativas que auxiliem na mitigação da ação degenerativa do estresse salino às culturas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar doses de ácido salicílico na germinação e vigor de sementes de Mesosphaerum suaveolens (L.) Kuntze submetidas à salinidade. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial incompleto 5 x 5, com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa de 0,0; 1,45; 5,00; 8,55 e 10,00 dS m-1) e cinco doses de AS de (0,0; 0,29; 1,00; 1,71 e 2,00 mM L-1), com quatro repetições de 50 sementes, totalizando nove combinações geradas via matriz Composto Central de Box. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação, porcentagem de plântulas anormais, comprimento da parte aérea, radícula e plântula e massa seca total de plântulas. O ácido salicílico atenua o efeito do estresse salino sobre o crescimento inicial, mitigando os danos sobre o comprimento de radícula e da parte aérea. O tratamento das sementes com ácido salicílico melhora a germinação e o vigor das sementes.(AU)

Saline Waters/adverse effects , Germination/physiology , Salicylic Acid/adverse effects , Hyptis/physiology , Salinity
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 404-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001466


Abstract Passion fruits species presents a larger economic importance for in natura consumption and industry. The main way to propagate these species is by seeds; however, the aril presence and environmental conditions may inhibit the seeds germination. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of aril removal methods and light conditions on P. edulis var. flavicarpa seeds quality and germination. There were used five methods to remove the seeds aril: (1) friction on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (2) friction with coarse sand on steel mesh sieve for 5 minutes; (3) immersion in lime solution at 10% (w/v), for 30 minutes; (4) fermentation in sugar solution at 10% (w/v), during 48 hours; and (5) natural pulp fermentation, during five days. The seeds were submitted to germination test at darkness and lightness, as well as, to length seedlings and emergence test. Regardless the aril removal method, the germination percentage was lower at lightness than darkness highlighting the natural pulp fermentation treatment, which presented 86% of seeds germinated. On the other hand, the aril removal methods did not affect the seedlings emergence, with emergence percentages ranged from 88 to 94%.

Resumo As espécies de maracujá apresentam grande importância econômica, tanto para o consumo in natura, quanto para a indústria. A principal maneira de propagar essas espécies é por sementes; contudo, a presença de arilo e condições ambientais pode inibir a germinação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de métodos de remoção do arilo e luminosidade na qualidade e germinação das sementes de Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa. Cinco métodos foram empregados para a remoção do arilo: (1) fricção em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (2) fricção com areia grossa em peneira de malha de aço por cinco minutos; (3) imersão em solução de cal a 10% (m/v), por 30 minutos; (4) fermentação da polpa em solução de açúcar a 10% (m/v), por 48 horas; e (5) fermentação natural da polpa, por cinco dias. As sementes foram submetidas ao teste de germinação no escuro e no claro, teste de comprimento de plântulas e teste de emergência. Independente do método de remoção do arilo, a porcentagem de germinação no claro apresentou-se menor em comparação ao escuro, com destaque para o tratamento de fermentação natural da polpa, o qual apresentou 86% de sementes germinadas. Por outro lado, os métodos de remoção do arilo não afetaram a emergência das plântulas, com porcentagem de emergência variando entre 88 a 94%.

Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Passiflora/physiology , Flowers/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/radiation effects , Passiflora/growth & development , Passiflora/radiation effects , Seedlings/physiology , Light
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001447


Abstract Bidens pilosa L. is a heterocarpic weed species with two cypselae types that present morpho-physiological differences, being the peripheral type smaller and slower to germinate than the central one. We aimed to verify how the germination mechanism varied between types. We focused on two mechanisms: (1) pericarp constraints (physical and chemical) and (2) hormonal stimulation (Abcisic acid [ABA] and Gibberellin [GA]). Both cypselae types are physically constrained by the pericarp, for when it is excised both seed types increase their germination, but behavioral differences still remain. The pericarp of the peripheral type also has chemical inhibitors that effectively inhibited germination of the intact central cypsela. To test the hormonal effects, we focused on the ABA:GA control. Both cypselae responded to an exogenous ABA concentration gradient, however there is no variation between types on the sensitivity to it. Also, both cypselae types were indifferent to Fluridone (ABA inhibitor), which indicates that the dormancy is not maintained by de novo ABA synthesis. Cypselae types had different sensitivity to an exogenous GA3 gradient, the central type being more sensitive to the treatment than the peripheral one. But when the endogenous GA synthesis was blocked by Paclobutrazol, both types responded equally to same GA3 concentrations. This indicates that endogenous GA synthesis may be related to differences observed on germination of cypselae types. To conclude, seed types differ on their growth potential to overcome the pericarp resistance: while the inhibitor in the peripheral pericarp reduces growth potential, GA increases it.

Resumo Bidens pilosa L. é uma espécie de planta daninha heterocarpica com dois tipos de cipselas que possuem diferenças morfofisiológicas, sendo o tipo periférico de menor tamanho e com germinação lenta se comparado com o central. Nosso objetivo foi verificar como o mecanismo de germinação varia entre os tipos. Focamos em dois mecanismos: (1) restrição causada pelo pericarpo (física e química) e (2) estímulo hormonal (Ácido abscísico [ABA] e Giberelina [GA]). Os tipos de cipselas são fisicamente limitados pelo pericarpo, pois quando ambos os tipos de sementes são excisados há um aumento na germinação, contudo as diferenças no processo se mantém. O pericarpo do tipo periférico ainda possui inibidores que efetivamente retardam a germinação das cipselas centrais intactas. Para testar os efeitos hormonais, nós focamos no controle pelo ABA:GA. Ambas cipselas responderam ao gradiente de concentração de ABA exógeno, contudo não houve variação na sensibilidade entre os tipos. Ainda, ambos tipos de cipselas foram indiferentes à Fluoridona (inibidor de ABA), que indica que a dormência não é mantida pela nova síntese de ABA. Tipos de cipselas apresentam diferentes sensibilidades ao gradiente exógeno de GA3, com o tipo central sendo mais sensível ao tratamento que o periférico. Mas quando a síntese endógena de GA foi bloqueada pelo Paclobutrazol, ambos os tipos responderam de forma similar às concentrações de GA 3. Isso indica que a síntese de GA endógena pode estar relacionada com a diferença observada na germinação dos dois tipos de cipselas. Para concluir, os tipos de sementes diferem no potencial para superar a resistência do pericarpo, sendo o inibidor no pericarpo da cipsela periférica o redutor do potencial de crescimento, enquanto a GA aumenta esse potencial.

Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Germination/physiology , Bidens/physiology , Herbicides/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Bidens/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 213-219, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989457


Abstract Species of the Carapa spp. complex, occurring in the Neotropics, Africa and India, have multiple uses, including timber, with the seed oil being used in phyto-pharmaceutical products and cosmetics. This study aimed to determine the thermal ranges of the germination process, comparing germination criteria used by seed physiologists and seed technologists, and to suggest recommendations for seed quality assessment. Germination was assessed at constant temperatures between 10 ─ 40 °C using three germination criteria: (1) radicle length ≥ 0.5 cm (physiological criterion); (2) epicotyl length ≥ 1 cm; and (3) epicotyl length ≥ 5 cm (criterion for seed quality tests). The base temperature was similar for the three criteria and ranged between 10 ─ 2 °C. The Maguire's Speed Index indicated 30 °C as most adequate. However, the upper temperature limit differed: for radicle protrusion it was above 40 ºC; and for both epicotyl lengths, it was between 35 ─ 40 °C. Seed coat removal accelerated the germination process of these recalcitrant seeds, and is recommended for seed quality assessment, which allows completion of the germination trial in approximately one month.

Resumo As espécies do complexo Carapa spp. ocorrem na região Neotropical, na África e na Índia, têm usos múltiplos, fornece madeira de valor comercial e o óleo extraído das sementes tem uso fitoterápico e cosmético. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a faixa térmica tolerável do processo germinativo, comparando os critérios de germinação utilizados pelos fisiologistas e os tecnólogos de sementes, e sugerir recomendações para a avaliação da qualidade das sementes. A germinação foi avaliada em temperaturas constantes entre 10 e 40 °C utilizando três critérios de germinação: (1) formação da radícula ≥ 0,5 cm (critério fisiológico); (2) alongamento de epicótilo ≥ 1 cm; e (3) alongamento de epicótilo ≥ 5 cm (critério para testes de qualidade de sementes). A temperatura de base foi semelhante para os três critérios entre 10 e 12 °C. O índice de velocidade de Maguire indicou 30 °C como a temperatura mais adequada. O limite superior de temperatura diferiu entre os critérios, sendo acima de 40 ºC para protrusão da radícula e para ambos os alongamentos de epicótilo entre 35 e 40 °C. A remoção do tegumento de semente acelerou o processo de germinação dessas sementes recalcitrantes sendo recomendada para a avaliação da qualidade da semente, o que permite concluir o teste de germinação em aproximadamente um mês.

Germination/radiation effects , Germination/physiology , Meliaceae/growth & development , Meliaceae/radiation effects , Meliaceae/physiology , Agriculture , Seeds/physiology , Hot Temperature
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 653-660, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951604


Abstract This paper briefly reports some effects of irrigations at two critical periods on the phenology of three varieties of cactus pear cultivated in Agadir area: the spineless varieties 'Aissa' and 'Moussa' and the thorny one 'Achefri'. In the first year experiments (2010-2011) treatments of irrigation used were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 30 mm during flowering and 30 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 30 mm only during fruit enlargement. In the 2nd year experiments, irrigation treatments were: (T1) 0 mm, (T2) 60 mm during flowering and 60 mm during fruit enlargement and (T3) 60 mm only during fruit enlargement. Treatments of irrigation were applied between mid-April and mid-June in the 1st year experiments and in February and May in the 2nd year experiments. Results of the first year experiments showed that the emission of buds was higher in the thorny variety than in the spineless ones (more than 6 emitted buds/cladode vs less than 4.5 in the spineless varieties). In the second year, irrigation increased the emission of buds in the three varieties (more than 7 emitted buds/cladode for each T2 and T3 of all varieties vs not more than 5 for T1) and the duration of the flowering phase of these varieties. However, irrigation did not modify the proportions of fruits reaching commercial maturity during the early or the late period of maturation.

Resumo Este artigo relatou brevemente alguns efeitos das irrigações em dois períodos críticos na fenologia de três variedades de Opuntia cultivadas na área de Agadir: as variedades sem espinhos 'Aissa' e 'Moussa' e um espinhoso 'Achefri'. No primeiro ano (2010-2011) os seguintes tratamentos do experimento da irrigação foram usados: (T1) 0 milímetros, (T2) 30 milímetros durante a florescência e 30 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 30 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. No segundo ano das experiências, os tratamentos da irrigação foram: (T1, 0 milímetros), (T2) 60 milímetros durante a florescência e 60 milímetros durante a ampliação do fruto e (T3) 60 milímetros somente durante a ampliação do fruto. Os tratamentos da irrigação foram aplicados entre a metade de abril e metade de junho nas experiências do primeira ano e em fevereiro e maio nas experiências do segundo ano. Os resultados das experiências do primeiro ano mostraram que a emissão de brotos foi maior na variedade espinhosa do que no rufia (mais de 6 emitida gomos/cladode vs inferior a 4,5 no rufia variedades). No segundo ano, a irrigação aumentou a emissão dos botões nas três variedades (mais de 7 botões emitidos/cladÓdio para cada T2 e T3 de todas as variedades não mais que 5 para o T1) e a duração da fase de florescência destas variedades. Contudo, a irrigação não alterou as proporções de frutos que alcançaram a maturidade comercial durante o período adiantado ou atrasado de maturação.

Opuntia/growth & development , Flowers/growth & development , Agricultural Irrigation , Fruit/growth & development , Phenols/chemistry , Seasons , Water , Germination/physiology , Opuntia/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 385-400, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886879


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape) predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM). Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs) formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1) and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%).

Plant Shoots/physiology , Carica/embryology , Carica/physiology , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Indoleacetic Acids/analysis , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Germination/physiology , Culture Media , Carica/anatomy & histology , Carica/drug effects
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 153-165, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-897532


ResumenPoblaciones endémicas de Hechtiaperotensis se han descrito en Puebla y Veracruz, México. La recolección de semillas de buena calidad permite su uso en conservación, investigación y restauración ecológica. Algunos compuestos para evaluar la calidad de las semillas silvestres y endémicas, como nitrato de potasio (KNO3) y ácido giberílico (AG3), se utilizan para incrementar la germinación de las semillas y disminuir la latencia. La prueba de cloruro de trifeniltetrazolio (tetrazolio) se correlaciona con la viabilidad de las semillas porque se basa en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas de tejidos vivos que catalizan la respiración mitocondrial. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el tamaño y el peso de las cápsulas y las semillas y la germinación y viabilidad de las semillas de H. perotensis recolectadas en Veracruz en 2012 y 2015. Las hipótesis fueron (1) que la germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas son independientes del año de recolecta, (2) que hay una concentración adecuada de tetrazolio para identificar la viabilidad de las semillas y (3) que el pretratamiento con KNO3 o AG3 incrementa la germinación de las semillas. La germinación se evaluó con un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos (testigo y promotores de la germinación KNO3 0.2 % y AG3 500 mg/L), cuatro tratamientos para la prueba de viabilidad (testigo, 0.2, 0.5 y 1.0 % de tetrazolio) y seis repeticiones de cada tratamiento. La germinación se evaluó en 100 semillas y la viabilidad en 25. Los resultados entre y dentro de años se analizaron con ANDEVA y prueba de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. La proporción de semillas no germinadas se cuantificó junto con el número de plántulas normales y anormales, semillas con embrión viable o sin él, y con viabilidad baja o sin viabilidad. En promedio la muestra recolectada en 2012 tuvo 36 % de semillas con embrión viable, 7 con viabilidad baja, 24 % no viables y 33 % sin embrión. Este resultado fue significativamente diferente al de 2015, que presentó 87 % de embriones viables, 10 % con viabilidad baja, 0 % no viables y 3 % sin embrión. La germinación también fue significativamente diferente entre los años (22 y 92 %). Los tratamientos pregerminativos no modificaron la germinación. La germinación y la viabilidad de las semillas de H. perotensis varían significativamente entre los años de recolecta.

Abstract:Endemic populations of Hechtiaperotensis have been described in Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico. Good quality seed collections can be used in conservation, research and ecological restoration. To evaluate seed quality of wild and endemic species, some compounds are used as effective promoters of germination, such as potassium nitrate (KNO3) and gibberellic acid (AG3), because they increase seed germination capacity and reduce latency. The triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (tetrazolium) test correlates seed viability because it is based on the activity of dehydrogenases in live tissues that catalyze mitochondrial respiration. The objective of this study was to obtain information on size and weight of capsules and seeds and seed germination and viability of H.perotensis, collected in Veracruz in the year 2012 and 2015. The hypotheses were 1) that seed germination and viability are independent of the year of collection, 2) that there is a tetrazolium concentration that can identify seed viability better than others, and 3) that pretreatment with KNO3 or AG3 improves seed germination. Seed germination was assessed using a completely randomized design with three treatments (control and the germination promoters 0.2 % KNO3 and 500 mg/L AG3), four treatments for the viability test (control, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 % of tetrazolium) and six replicates for each treatment. A total of one hundred seeds for germination experiments, and 25 seeds for the viability test were used. The results between and within years were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparison with the Tukey test. The proportion of non-germinated seeds was quantified along with the number of normal and abnormal seedlings, seeds with viable embryo, seeds without embryo, and seeds with low or no viability. On average, for the 2012 collected sample, 36 % had viable embryos, 7 % had low viability, 24 % were not viable and 33 % had no embryo. This result was significantly different from the 2015 sample, for which 87 % of seed showed viable embryos, 10 % had low viability, 0 % was not viable and 3 % had no embryo. Seed germination was also significantly different between years (22 and 92 %) Pregerminative treatments did not improve germination. Seed germination and viability of H. perotensis significantly varied between years of seed collection. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 153-165. Epub 2017 March 01.

Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Bromeliaceae/physiology , Reference Values , Temperature , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Potassium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biomass , Bromeliaceae/drug effects , Mexico , Nitrates/pharmacology
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 9-19, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897521


Abstract:Phyllonoma laticuspis leaves are used in Carrizal de Bravo, Guerrero, Mexico, to heal skin lesions such as injuries and smallpox sequelae and to treat diabetes mellitus type 2, and organic extracts of these leaves have been reported to exert antibacterial effects. High demand of P. laticuspis as a medicinal plant has decreased its natural populations, and propagation of the species has not yet been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the vegetative propagation of the species through cutting and air layering, as well as its sexual propagation in a preserved population. For this, concentrations of 1 000, 4 000 and 6 000 ppm of a commercial root enhancer, with indole butyric acid (IBA), and a control treatment without IBA, were applied to the cuttings and air layers. Germination was evaluated under light and dark conditions using lots of freshly collected seeds and lots of seeds that had been stored for three months at 4 °C or 24 ± 2 °C. All experiments were performed in a completely randomized design. The cuttings did not develop roots in any concentration, whereas 100 % of the air layers rooted, displaying vigorous roots in the presence of 4 000 ppm IBA, after four month of treatment application. Regarding germination, more than 60 % of the freshly collected seeds germinated, whereas less than 20 % of the seeds stored at 4 °C, and close to 50 % of the seeds stored at 24 ± 2 °C germinated under light and dark conditions. No significant differences were observed between light and dark conditions, so they were categorized as indifferent photoblastic seeds. The observed moisture content of 13.5 % and germination behaviour as the response to cold storage, suggest that the resultant seed quality was intermediate. P. laticuspis propagation for short-term foliage production can be carried out in air layers, in populations with a high density of adult plants as a source of plant material and for the restoration of disturbed areas, in the same locality. On the other hand, large-scale seedling production, medium-term foliage production and preservation of species variability can be achieved using seeds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 9-19. Epub 2017 March 01.

ResumenLas hojas de Phyllonoma laticuspis se utilizan en Carrizal de Bravo, Gro. México, para curar lesiones de la piel como heridas, secuelas de viruela y afecciones de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Los extractos orgánicos de hojas, mostraron efectos antibacterianos. La gran demanda de P. laticuspis como planta medicinal, ha disminuido sus poblaciones naturales, y no existen reportes de la propagación de la especie. Por lo tanto, el propósito del presente trabajo fue evaluar la propagación vegetativa de la especie a través de estacas y acodos, y su propagación sexual en una población conservada. En la propagación por estacas y acodos se aplicaron concentraciones de 1 000, 4 000 y 6 000 ppm de un enraizador comercial con ácido indolbutírico (AIB), y un tratamiento control sin AIB. La germinación se evaluó en luz y oscuridad mediante el uso de lotes de semillas recién recolectadas y lotes de semillas almacenadas por tres meses a 4 °C y a 24 ± 2 ºC. Todos los experimentos se realizaron en un diseño completamente al azar. Las estacas no desarrollaron raíces en ninguna de las concentraciones, mientras que el 100 % de los acodos enraizaron, produciendo raíces vigorosas con la concentración de 4 000 ppm de AIB, a los cuatro meses de la aplicación. Con respecto a la germinación bajo condiciones de luz y oscuridad, las semillas recién recolectadas germinaron más del 60 %, mientras que las semillas almacenadas a 4 ºC menos del 20 % y las almacenadas a 24 ± 2 ºC cerca del 50 %. No hubieron diferencias significativas entre la germinación en luz y oscuridad, por lo que se consideraron como semillas fotoblásticas indiferentes. El contenido de humedad de 13.5 % y el comportamiento de la germinación en respuesta al almacenamiento en frío, sugieren la cualidad de semillas de tipo intermedias. La propagación de P. laticuspis para la producción de follaje a corto tiempo, puede hacerse por acodos en poblaciones con alta densidad de plantas adultas como fuente de material vegetal y para la restauración de áreas alteradas en la misma localidad. Mientras que la producción de follaje a mediano plazo y la conservación de la variabilidad de la especie, se puede lograr con la obtención masiva de plántulas a través de semillas.

Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Seeds/physiology , Germination/physiology , Aquifoliaceae/physiology , Temperature , Time Factors , Plant Roots/physiology , Fruit/physiology , Light
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(2): e160061, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955185


Ichthyochory is an important process responsible for the high diversity of plant species in tropical flooded forests. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of a catfish species, Lithodoras dorsalis, as seed disperser in the flooded forests at the Amazon River mouth, Brazil. Analyzing the stomach contents of 371 individuals of Lithodoras dorsalis, the Germination Potential (GP%) and Germination Speed Index (GSI) of seeds that were removed intact were investigated. This allowed us to evaluate the germination performance of two important species of plants in Amazonia, Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) and Montrichardia linifera (Aninga), after passage through the digestive tract of this catfish species. Given that digestion by L. dorsalis reduced the germination viability of M. linifera and that seeds were often destroyed during consumption, we suggest that L. dorsalis may have a limited role as seed disperser of M. linifera and instead mostly act as seed predator. However, for the species E. oleracea, L. dorsalis was a potential disperser, since the performance of germination of these seeds was improved after digestion. In addition, the number of seeds consumed was directly proportional to the catfish's body size, reinforcing the role of doradids as potential seed dispersers in tropical forests.(AU)

A ictiocoria é um importante processo responsável pela alta diversidade de espécies vegetais nas florestas tropicais alagadas. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar o papel de Lithodoras dorsalis como dispersor de sementes na Foz Amazônica, Brasil. Analisando o conteúdo estomacal de 371 espécimes de Lithodoras dorsalis, o Potencial de Germinação (PG%) e o Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IGS) de sementes removidas intactas foram investigados. Isto permitiu-nos avaliar o desempenho germinativo de duas importantes espécies de plantas na Amazônia, Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) e Montrichardia linifera (Aninga), após passagem pelo trato digestivo desta espécie de bagre. Dado que a digestão por L. dorsalis reduziu a viabilidade de germinação de M. linifera e que as sementes foram frequentemente destruídas durante o consumo, sugerimos que L. dorsalis tem um papel limitado como dispersor de sementes de M. linifera e, em vez disso, age como predador de sementes. No entanto, para a espécie E. oleracea, L. dorsalis foi um potencial dispersor, uma vez que o desempenho germinativo das sementes foi melhorado após a digestão. Além disso, o número de sementes consumidas foi diretamente proporcional ao tamanho corporal do bagre, reforçando o papel de doradídeos como potenciais dispersores de sementes em florestas tropicais.(AU)

Animals , Seeds/growth & development , Catfishes/classification , Germination/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1651-1660, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958241


Abstract:Acacia is an important forest species of rapid growth whose seeds have tegument dormancy. In this work it was intended to characterize water absorption pattern after seed dormancy break, and to determine the amount of water, container size and the need of breaking the tegument dormancy, as to perform electrical conductivity test in small and large seeds of Acacia mangium (Fabaceae). The seeds were collected from 10, 8 and 6 years old trees established in poor yielding-capacity soils on savannah areas of Roraima, Brazil; seeds were classified in six lots concerning to seed size and tree age. Germination tests (50 seeds and four replications per lot) were carried out on germitest® paper maintained on gerbox at 25 °C. Imbibition was verified by seed weighing at different times (0, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 120 hours). The electrical conductivity test consisted of three experiments, distinguished by the amount of water used and by the container size in which seeds were immersed. Seeds of A. mangium coming from 10 years old trees presented increased germination percent and germination speed than seeds of six-year old trees. Small seeds presented increased in electrical conductivity and water absorption until 120 hours when compared to large seeds. The immersion of seeds of A. mangium in 40 mL of distilled water into 180 mL plastic containers, after dormancy break, it is indicated for the determination of electrical conductivity test. The ratio of electrolytes by seed mass, after 24 hours of immersion in water, turns electrical conductivity test more accurate concerning A. mangium seeds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1651-1660. Epub 2016 December 01.

Resumen:Acacia es una importante especie forestal de rápido crecimiento cuyas semillas presentan dormancia del tegumento. En este trabajo se caracterizó el patrón de absorción de agua después de la dormancia y se estableció la cantidad de agua, el tamaño del recipiente y la necesidad de ruptura del tegumento para poder medir la conductividad eléctrica en semillas pequeñas y grandes de Acacia mangium (Fabaceae). Las semillas fueron recolectadas de árboles de 6, 8 y 10 años, clasificadas en grandes o pequeñas y agrupadas en seis grupos. Para la prueba de germinación fueron utilizados cuatro repeticiones de 50 semillas de cada grupo, en papel germitest® a 25 °C. La imbibición se verificó con pesajes en los tiempos 0, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 y 120 horas con semillas colocadas en papel. La prueba de conductividad eléctrica se realizó en tres experimentos diferenciados por la cantidad de agua utilizada y el tamaño del recipiente de inmersión de las semillas. Las semillas de árboles de 10 años de edad tienen un porcentaje de germinación más alto y mayor velocidad de germinación que semillas de árboles de seis años. Las semillas pequeñas tienen una mayor conductividad eléctrica y mayor porcentaje de absorción de agua en comparación con las semillas grandes, hasta 120 horas. La inmersión de semillas en 40 mL de agua destilada en recipientes plásticos de 180 mL, después de la dormancia, esta indicada para la determinación de la conductividad eléctrica. La lectura de electrolitos en semillas, después de 24 horas de inmersión en agua, hace más precisa la prueba de conductividad eléctrica de semillas de A. mangium.

Seeds/physiology , Water/physiology , Electric Conductivity , Acacia/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Germination/physiology , Plant Dormancy/physiology , Immersion
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 965-974, jul.-sep. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958188


Abstract:Ochradenus baccatus is a perennial glycophyte growing in Middle East and it is one of the most important food sources for many animal species in desert regions. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of seed storage, light, temperature and gibberellic acid (GA3) on germination of O. baccatus seeds. We also investigated the germination characteristics of O. baccatus seeds under different saline concentration and their capability to recover germination once they were transferred to distilled water. Seeds were stored at room temperature (20 ± 2 ºC) and at -18 ºC. Germination tests were conducted at alternating temperatures of 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 ºC in either continuous darkness or photoperiod of 12-h dark/12-h light. To study the effect of GA3 on germination of O. baccatus seeds, freshly-collected seeds and stored seeds were soaked for 24 h in a GA3 water solution (1 g/L) before sowing. To assess the salinity tolerance during germination, seeds were germinated under different salinity levels (100, 200 and 400 mM NaCl). Stored seeds at room temperature and -18 ºC germinate equally well at different temperature regimes and light conditions. However, freshly matured seeds were not able to germinate even when they were treated with GA3. On the contrary, stored seeds at room temperature and -18 ºC treated with GA3 increase the final germination percentages. These results indicated that O. baccatus seeds have physiological dormancy and they need to be stored in order to break their dormancy. In the present study, one year of storage did not show a significant variation in germination between the two storage conditions assayed. Therefore, further research is needed to know about the maximum storage period for O. baccatus seeds under different storage conditions. Very few O. baccatus seeds (less than 5 %) germinated at the tested lowest concentration of NaCl. However, ungerminated seeds were able to germinate when salinity stress was alleviated. In conclusion, O. baccatus seeds have physiological dormancy, and seed storage (at room temperature and at -18 ºC) for one year is effective for breaking this dormancy. In addition, O. baccatus seeds present ability to remain viable in saline conditions and they will be able to germinate once the salinity level decrease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 965-974. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenOchradenus baccatus es un glicófito perenne que crece en oriente Medio y es una de las fuentes de alimentación más importantes para muchas especies animales de regiones desérticas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar los efectos del almacenamiento de semillas, luz, temperatura y ácido giberélico (GA3) en la germinación de semillas de O. baccatus. También se ha investigado la germinación de semillas de O. baccatus bajo diferentes concentraciones salinas y su capacidad para recuperar la germinación una vez que fueron transferidas a agua destilada. Las semillas se conservaron a temperatura ambiente (20 ± 2 ºC) y a -18 ºC. Los ensayos de germinación se realizaron a temperaturas alternas de 15/25, 20/30 y 25/35 ºC bajo oscuridad continua o fotoperiodo de 12-h oscuridad/12-h luz. Para estudiar el efecto del GA3 en la germinación de semillas de O. baccatus, semillas recién recolectadas y semillas almacenadas se sumergieron durante 24 h en una solución acuosa de GA3 (1 g/L) antes de la siembra. Para evaluar la tolerancia a la salinidad durante la germinación, la semillas fueron germinadas bajo diferentes niveles de salinidad (100, 200 y 400 mM ClNa). Las semillas conservadas a temperatura ambiente y a -18 ºC germinaron igualmente bien en los diferentes regímenes de temperatura y condiciones de iluminación. Sin embargo, las semillas recién maduradas fueron incapaces de germinar incluso cuando se trataron con GA3. Por el contrario, las semillas almacenadas tratadas con GA3 incrementaron los porcentajes finales de germinación. Estos resultados indican que las semillas de O. baccatus tienen dormición fisiológica y necesitan ser almacenadas para romperla. En este estudio, un año de conservación no supuso una variación significativa en la germinación entre las dos condiciones de conservación ensayadas. Por lo tanto, se precisan investigaciones adicionales para conocer cuáles son los periodos máximos de almacenamiento de semillas de O. baccatus bajo diferentes condiciones de conservación. Muy pocas semillas de O. baccatus (menos del 5 %) germinaron a la concentración más baja de ClNa. Sin embargo, las semillas no germinadas fueron capaces de germinar cuando el estrés salino fue aliviado. En conclusión, las semillas de O. baccatus tienen dormición fisiológica y el almacenamiento de las mismas (a temperatura ambiente y a -18 ºC) durante un año es eficaz para romper dicha dormición. Además, las semillas de O. baccatus presentan capacidad para permanecer viables en condiciones salinas y serán capaces de germinar una vez que el nivel de salinidad disminuya.

Seeds/physiology , Temperature , Germination/physiology , Resedaceae/physiology , Plant Dormancy/physiology , Light , Reference Values , Time Factors , Water/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Desert Climate , Environment, Controlled , Salinity , Middle East
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 592-599, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785044


Abstract Few works report the use of degree-days (DD) – used in crops to predict events and schedule management activities – to describe the germination of tropical trees. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling temperature) for germination of the species may vary depending on the seed provenance. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. is an early successional leguminous tree widely distributed in South America, often occurring as cultivated or naturalized trees, thus considered to be a good example for testing DD model in tree species. The main objective of this study was to describe the seed germination response of different populations of P. dubium as function of DD accumulation during germination assays in semi-controlled (fluctuating temperatures) conditions. Germination assays with manually scarified seeds sown in aluminum sheet trays filled with a composed substrate were performed under greenhouse conditions at different times. Three methods were employed in order to describe the accumulation of thermal time throughout the assays and, considering the seed lot and sowing time, a trapezoid area method was relatively more effective in describing the germination. The germination curves of P. dubium seeds from different populations, expressed in degree-days estimated directly from temperature records schedules, tend to be more clustered suggesting little variation among thermal time requirements in different seed provenances. Otherwise, the thermal time requirement can vary depending on the time of sowing, and any increase in DD requirement when the assays were performed under higher mean temperatures can be related to a thermal effect on the germination of scarified seeds.

Resumo O uso de graus-dia – utilizado em espécies cultivadas para predizer eventos e planejar ações de manejo – é reportado em poucos trabalhos para descrever a germinação de árvores tropicais. As temperaturas cardeais (base, ótima e teto) para germinação de uma espécie pode variar de acordo com a procedência das sementes. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. é uma leguminosa arbórea de sucessão inicial amplamente distribuída na América do Sul, podendo ocorrer como espécie cultivada ou naturalizada, sendo considerada um bom exemplo para testar modelos de graus-dia em espécie arbórea. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a resposta da germinação das sementes de diferentes populações de P. dubium como função do acúmulo de graus-dia durante ensaios em condições semi-controladas (flutuação térmica). Testes de germinação com sementes escarificadas manualmente e semeadas em bandejas de alumínio contendo substrato foram realizados sob condições de casa de vegetação em diferentes épocas do ano. Três métodos foram utilizados para descrever o acúmulo de tempo térmico nos ensaios e, considerando o lote das sementes e a época da semeadura, o método da área do trapézio foi relativamente mais eficaz em descrever a germinação. As curvas de germinação de sementes de P. dubium provenientes de diferentes populações, expressas em graus-dia estimados diretamente por meio do registro programado das temperaturas, tendem a ser mais agrupadas sugerindo pouca variação no requerimento de tempo térmico entre as diferentes procedências das sementes. Por outro lado, o requisito de tempo térmico pode variar de acordo com a época de semeadura e um incremento nos graus-dia exigidos quando os ensaios foram realizados sob temperaturas médias mais elevadas pode estar relacionado e um efeito térmico na germinação de sementes escarificadas.

Seeds/physiology , Temperature , Tropical Climate , Germination/physiology , Fabaceae/physiology , South America , Time Factors
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 885-896, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843321


ResumenAraucaria angustifolia es una conífera nativa de Brasil y una especie en peligro de extinción. Sus semillas tienen un corto período de viabilidad, factor que contribuye a su vulnerabilidad. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la calidad fisiológica durante el período de desarrollo y post-almacenamiento de semillas de A. angustifolia. Conos de A. angustifolia fueron recolectados en poblaciones naturales en Curitibanos, Santa Catarina, Brasil, en marzo, abril, mayo y junio y clasificados en los estadios de desarrollo cotiledonar i, ii y iii de acuerdo con el mes de recolecta. Un total de 10 conos fueron recolectados para cada estadio. Las semillas fueron almacenadas en refrigerador durante 60 y 120 días y posteriormente sometidas a pruebas de germinación (25 °C - fotoperiodo de 12 h) siendo evaluados el contenido de humedad, tetrazolio y el vigor (conductividad eléctrica &#091;75 mL de agua destilada a 25 °C&#093;, índice de velocidad de germinación, y la longitud de la parte aérea y de la raíz). Durante el desarrollo de las semillas, el contenido de humedad se redujo desde el estadio cotiledonar (66.54 %) al estadio iii (47.44%), y el vigor aumentaron en el último estadio. Durante el almacenamiento, el contenido de humedad en el estadio cotiledonar y estadio i fue estable. Entretanto, las semillas almacenadas mostraron una reducción en el contenido de humedad después de 120 días en los estadios ii y iii. La calidad fisiológica en el estadio cotiledonar mostró un aumento de 86 % y 93 % de germinación después de 60 y 120 días de almacenamiento, respectivamente, a diferencia de los estadios ii y iii, los cuales mostraron una disminución en la viabilidad de las semillas y en el vigor después del almacenamiento. La conductividad eléctrica fue mayor para las semillas en estadio cotiledonar recién recolectadas que para aquellas almacenadas durante 60 y 120 días. Sin embargo, en otras estadios, el contenido de lixiviados después de 120 días de almacenamiento aumentó con el avance del período de recolecta. El índice de velocidad de germinación y la longitud de la parte aérea y raíz después del almacenamiento eran más altos para las semillas en el estadio cotiledonar y el estadio i, a diferencia del estadio ii y iii, los cuales tenían raíz y parte aérea de menor longitud durante el almacenamiento. Por lo tanto, el mantenimiento del contenido de humedad de la semilla durante el almacenamiento fue variable y depende del período de recolecta. Además, la calidad fisiológica de las semillas difiere entre los estadios más tempranos o tardíos. Una recolección precoz favoreció la calidad fisiológica de las semillas, y puede ser una estrategia para aumentar la conservación de semillas de A. angustifolia.

AbstractAraucaria angustifolia is a conifer native to Brazil and is an endangered species. Since this species seeds have a short period of viability, its vulnerability is higher. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of A. angustifolia seeds during the development and post-storage periods. For this, cones of A. angustifolia were collected from a natural population in Curitibanos, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in March, April, May and June 2012. The collected seeds were classified into developmental stages of cotyledonary, i, ii and iii according to the month of collection; a total of 10 cones were collected for each stage. Seeds were stored in a refrigerator for 60 and 120 days, and were submitted to a chamber germination test (25 °C-photoperiod 12 h). Additionally, seeds were tested for moisture content (105 °C for 24 hours), tetrazolium (0.1 % for 1 hour) and vigor (electric conductivity &#091;75 mL distilled water at 25 °C&#093;, germination speed index, and shoot and root length). Our results showed that during seed development, moisture content decreased from the cotyledonary stage (66.54 %) to stage iii (49.69 %), and vigor increased in the last stage. During storage, moisture content at cotyledonary stage and stage i was stable. On the other hand, stored seeds exhibited a decrease in moisture content after 120 days at stages ii and iii. Physiological quality at the cotyledonary stage resulted in an increased germination rate of 86 % and 93 % after 60 and 120 days of storage, respectively; unlike stages ii and iii exhibited a decrease in seed viability and vigor after storage. Electrical conductivity was higher for fresh seeds at the cotyledonary stage, than for those stored for 60 and 120 days. However, in other stages, released leachate content after 120 days of storage, increased with the advance of the collection period. Germination speed index and shoot and root lengths after storage were highest for seeds at the cotyledonary stage and stage i; unlike stages ii and iii which had short root and shoot lengths during storage. Thus, the maintenance of seed moisture content during storage was variable and dependent on the period of collection. Furthermore, the physiological quality differed among earlier and later stages. Early collection favored seed physiological quality, and may be a strategy for better conservation of A. angustifolia seeds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 885-896. Epub 2016 June 01.

Seeds/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Tracheophyta/embryology , Brazil , Tracheophyta/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 483-492, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843292


AbstractHeterogeneity in seeds mostly occurs due to physiological, environmental and genetic factors, and these could affect seed dormancy and germination. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of seed colour on germination behavior. For this, both light and temperature requirements were assessed in Lotus glinoides and Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) from the hyper-arid deserts of the United Arab Emirates. Germination was assessed in terms of both final germination level (percentage) and germination rate, as expressed by Timson’s germination velocity index. Lotus glinoides produces black and yellow-colored seeds, and L. halophilus produces green and yellow seeds. Different seed lots were germinated in both light and darkness at different temperatures. Yellow seeds of the two species attained significantly lower germination, compared to black and green seeds. There was no specific light or temperature requirements for the germination of the two coloured seeds of L. glinoides; the effect of interactions between seed colour and both light and incubation temperature, were not significant on the final germination percentage. in L. halophilus, green seeds germinated significantly more in both light and darkness at lower temperatures (15/25 °C) and in light at higher temperatures (25/35 °C), compared to yellow seeds. Yellow seeds germinated faster, compared to black at 15/25 °C in L. glinoides and compared to green seeds at 15/25 °C and 25/35 °C in L. halophilus. Seed colour variation, at least in L. halophilus, could be a survival strategy that would determine the time of germination throughout the year in the unpredictable desert environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 483-492. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenLa heterogeneidad en las semillas se produce principalmente debido a factores fisiológicos, genéticos y ambientales, y esto podría afectar latencia de las semillas y la germinación. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar el efecto del color de la semilla en el comportamiento de la germinación. Para ello, tanto los requisitos de luz y temperatura fueron evaluados en Lotus glinoides y Lotus halophilus (Fabaceae) desde los desiertos hiper-árida de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. La germinación se evaluó en términos de nivel final de germinación (porcentaje) y la tasa de germinación, expresado por el índice de velocidad de germinación de Timson. L. glinoides produce semillas negro y de color amarillo, y L. halophilus produce semillas verdes y amarillas. Los diferentes lotes de semillas fueron germinadas en luz y oscuridad a diferentes temperaturas. Semillas amarillas de las dos especies alcanzaron significativamente menor germinación, en comparación con las semillas negras y verdes. No había requisitos específicos de luz o temperatura para la germinación de las semillas de dos colores de L. glinoides; el efecto de las interacciones entre color de la semilla y la luz y la temperatura de incubación, no fueron significativas en el porcentaje final de germinación. En L. halophilus, semillas verdes germinados significativamente más en la luz y la oscuridad a temperaturas más bajas (15/25 °C) ya la luz a temperaturas más altas (25/35 °C), en comparación con semillas amarillas. Semillas amarillas germinaron más rápido, en comparación con el negro a 15/25 °C en L. glinoides y en comparación con semillas verdes a 15/25 °C y 25/35 °C en L. halophilus. La variación del color de la semilla, al menos en L. halophilus, podría ser una estrategia de supervivencia que determinaría el momento de la germinación durante todo el año en el entorno del desierto impredecible.

Seeds/anatomy & histology , Seeds/growth & development , Fabaceae/growth & development , Temperature , Color , Germination/physiology , Desert Climate , Plant Dormancy , Fabaceae/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 367-373, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781379


Abstract The germination characteristics of the native cactus species are poorly known, being the temperature and the light the factors that the most interferes in that process. Thus, the objective of the present work was to characterize the fruits and evaluate the influence of the temperature and the light in the seed germination of Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. The tested constant temperatures were 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and the alternate of 20-30 °C and 25-35 °C in a photoperiod of 10 hours, and with determination of the most appropriate temperature, the germination was tested in light absence. The germination percentage, the index of germination speed and medium time of germination were evaluated. For R. floccosa, the highest germination percentage was at 20 °C. For R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the highest germination percentages occurred in 15 °C and 20 °C. There was correlation to germination percentage between the three species, indicating that they had similar germination behavior. Total absence of germination was verified for the three species in condition of light absence. In conclusion, the temperature of 20 °C is the most suitable for the seed germination of R. floccosa. For the species R. pilocarpa and R. teres, the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C are the most suitable.

Resumo Existem poucos estudos sobre características germinativas de espécies de cactos nativos, sendo a temperatura e a luz, os fatores que mais interferem nesse processo. Assim, objetivou-se caracterizar os frutos e avaliar a influência da temperatura e luminosidade na germinação de sementes de Rhipsalis floccosa, Rhipsalis pilocarpa and Rhipsalis teres. Testou-se temperaturas constantes de 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 °C e alternadas de 20-30 °C e 25-35 °C com fotoperíodo de 10 horas, e com a determinação da temperatura mais adequada, testou-se a germinação na ausência de luz. A porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o tempo médio de germinação foram avaliados. Para R. floccosa, a maior porcentagem de germinação foi obtida a 20 °C. Para R. pilocarpa e R. teres, as maiores porcentagens de germinação ocorreram a 15 °C e 20 °C. Verificou-se correlação entre as três espécies para a porcentagem de germinação, indicando comportamento semelhante entre essas. Na ausência de luz não ocorreu a germinação das sementes das espécies estudas. Em conclusão, a temperatura de 20 °C é a mais indicada para a germinação de sementes de R. floccosa. Para as espécies R. pilocarpa e R. teres, as temperaturas de 15 e 20 °C são as mais indicadas.

Seeds/growth & development , Temperature , Germination/physiology , Cactaceae/growth & development , Cactaceae/physiology , Fruit/growth & development , Light , Brazil , Photoperiod , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena