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1.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-15, 20221213.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369169

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Describir el comportamiento de la sífilis gestacional y congénita en Colombia, entre el 2012 y 2018, a partir de registro de notificación Nacional. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio ecológico, exploratorio a partir de Notificaciones al sistema de vigilancia de salud Pública. Se estimaron la tasa de incidencia y la razón de prevalencia para cada departamento. Se establecieron cada una las estimaciones según rangos, para los 33 departamentos evaluados y se expresaron en mapas a escala de grises según tasas y razones evaluadas. Además, se presentan curvas epidemiológicas por semanas notificación para sífilis gestacional y congénita. Resultados. Arauca, Santander, Cesar y Caldas, presentaron el mayor incremento entre 2012 y 2018 para sífilis gestacional. Para el mismo periodo, Santander, Casanare y Amazonas presentaron un aumento para sífilis Congénita, mientras que en los demás departamentos se evidenció una disminución en los eventos. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el reporte de casos entre un año y otro, para el país, en ambos eventos (p< 0,001). Conclusiones. En Colombia se encontró un aumento de sífilis gestacional, mientras, para sífilis congénita existió variabilidad con tendencia a aumentar en los últimos años.


Objective: To describe the behavior of pregnancy and congenital syphilis in Colombia between 2012 and 2019 according to national notifications records. Materials and Methods: An ecological exploratory study was conducted based on notifications to the public health surveillance system. The incidence rate and prevalence ratio were estimated for each department. Each estimate was established per ranges for 33 departments evaluated and expressed in grayscale maps based on rates and ratios evaluated. Epidemic curves by week of notification for pregnancy and congenital syphilis are also shown. Results: Arauca, Santander, Cesar and Caldas had the highest increase in pregnancy syphilis between 2012 and 2019 while Santander, Casanare and Amazonas had an increase in congenital syphilis during the same period. Other departments had a decrease in these events. Significant differences were found in case reporting from year to year in both events in the country (p<0.001). Conclusions: In Colombia, an increase in pregnancy syphilis was found while a variability with an increasing trend was found for congenital syphilis in recent years.


Objetivos: Descrever o comportamento da sífilis gestacional e congênita na Colômbia entre 2012 e 2019, com base nos registros nacionais de notificação.Materiais e Métodos: Estudo ecológico, exploratório, baseado em notificações ao sistema de vigilância sanitária pública. A taxa de incidência e a taxa de prevalência foram estimadas para cada departamento. As estimativas foram estabelecidas de acordo com intervalos para os 33 departamentos avaliados e expressas em mapas em escala de cinza, de acordo com as taxas e rácios avaliados. Além disso, curvas epidemiológicas por semanas de notificação são apresentadas para sífilis gestacional e congênita. Resultados: Arauca, Santander, Cesar e Caldas apresentaram o maior aumento entre 2012 e 2019 para a sífilis gestacional. No mesmo período, Santander, Casanare e Amazonas mostraram um aumento para a sífilis congênita, enquanto os outros departamentos mostraram uma diminuição nos eventos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas no relato de casos de um ano para o outro, para o país, em ambos os eventos (p<0,001). Conclusões. Na Colômbia, houve um aumento da sífilis gestacional, enquanto para a sífilis congênita houve variabilidade com tendência a aumentar nos últimos anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Prenatal Care , Syphilis, Congenital , Gestational Age , Epidemiological Monitoring
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): S88-S94, dic. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399917

ABSTRACT

La tasa de prematuridad global, según laOrganización Mundial de la Salud (OMS),muestra un aumento progresivo; su principal componente es el grupo de prematuros tardíos. Este grupo de pacientes suele tener buen peso al nacer, lo que hace que no se perciba muchas veces el riesgo de presentar un espectro de morbilidades del desarrollo, conductuales einmadurez de diferentes órganos y sistemasque impactan en la evolución a corto y largo plazo y aumentan la morbimortalidad. A su vez, tienen un efecto sustancial en los servicios de atención médica. El objetivo de esta publicación es discutir algunosaspectos relacionados con la salud de este grupo de pacientes y sugerir su seguimiento con un enfoque holístico e interdisciplinario.


The WHO states that prematurity rates have increased mainly due to late preterm births. Since these babies are usually born with appropriate weight for their gestational age, their risk for morbidities such as neurodevelopmental delays, behavioral problems and organ systems immaturity are overlooked. Further, these clinical findings have an impact on short and long term outcomes (i.e., morbidities, mortality, and higher healthcare costs). The aim of this publication is to discuss topics related to late-preterm newborns' health, including a holistic and interdisciplinary approach to follow up care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Premature Birth , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age
4.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1427, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1387070

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: verificar a associação entre peso ao nascer, idade gestacional e diagnósticos médicos secundários no tempo de permanência hospitalar de recém-nascidos prematuros. Métodos: estudo transversal, com 1.329 prontuários de recém-nascidos no período de julho de 2012 a setembro de 2015, em dois hospitais de Belo Horizonte, que utilizam o sistema Diagnosis Related Groups Brasil. Para determinar um ponto de corte para o peso ao nascer e a idade gestacional no nascimento que melhor determinasse o tempo de internação, foi utilizada a curva Receive Operator Characteristic. Posteriormente, utilizou-se o teste de análise de variância e teste de Duncan para a comparação entre a média de tempo de permanência hospitalar. Resultados: a prematuridade sem problemas maiores (DRG 792) foi a categoria mais prevalente (43,12%). O maior tempo médio de internação foi de 34,9 dias, identificado entre os recém-nascidos prematuros ou com síndrome da angústia respiratória (DRG 790). A combinação de menor peso ao nascer e menor IG ao nascimento apresentou o maior risco de permanência hospitalar, aumentada quando comparados aos demais perfis formados para esse DRG. Conclusão: os achados poderão direcionar a assistência em relação à mobilização de recursos físicos, humanos e de bens de consumo, além da análise crítica de condições que influenciam os desfechos clínicos. A possibilidade da otimização do uso desses recursos hospitalares aliada à melhoria da qualidade dos atendimentos e da segurança dos pacientes está associada à minimização do tempo de permanência hospitalar e da carga de morbidade e mortalidade neonatal.


RESUMEN Objetivo: verificar la asociación entre el peso al nacer, la edad gestacional y los diagnósticos médicos secundarios en la duración de la estancia hospitalaria de los recién nacidos prematuros. Métodos: estudio transversal, con 1.329 registros de recién nacidos de julio de 2012 a septiembre de 2015, en dos hospitales de Belo Horizonte, que utilizan el sistema Diagnosis Related Groups Brasil. Para determinar un punto de corte para el peso al nacer y la edad gestacional al nacer que mejor determina la duración de la estadía, se utilizó la curva Receive Operator Characteristic. Posteriormente, se utilizó la prueba de análisis de varianza y la prueba de Duncan para comparar la duración media de la estancia hospitalaria. Resultados: la prematuridad sin mayores problemas (DRG 792) fue la categoría más prevalente (43,12%). La estancia media más larga fue de 34,9 días, identificada entre los recién nacidos prematuros o aquellos con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (DRG 790). La combinación de menor peso al nacer y menor IG al nacer presentó el mayor riesgo de estancia hospitalaria, que se incrementó en comparación con los otros perfiles formados para este DRG. Conclusión: los hallazgos pueden orientar la atención en relación con la movilización de recursos físicos, humanos y de bienes de consumo, además del análisis crítico de las condiciones que influyen en los resultados clínicos. La posibilidad de optimizar el uso de estos recursos hospitalarios, aliada a mejorar la calidad de la atención y la seguridad del paciente, está asociada a minimizar la duración de la estancia hospitalaria y la carga de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal.


ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the association between birth weight, gestational age, and secondary medical diagnoses in the length of hospital stay of premature newborns. Methods: cross-sectional study, with 1,329 medical records of newborns from July 2012 to September 2015, in two hospitals in Belo Horizonte, which use the Diagnosis Related Groups Brasil system. To determine a cutoff point for birth weight and gestational age at birth that best determined the length of hospital stay, the Receive Operator Characteristic curve was used. Subsequently, the analysis of variance test and Duncan's test were used to compare the mean length of hospital stay. Results: prematurity without major problems (DRG792) was the most prevalent category (43.12%). The longest mean length of hospital stay was 34.9 days, identified among preterm infants or infants with respiratory distress syndrome (DRG 790). The combination of lower birth weight and lower GA at birth presented the highest risk of hospital stay, increased when compared to the other profiles formed for this DRG. Conclusion: the findings may direct assistance in relation to the mobilization of physical, human and consumer goods resources, in addition to the critical analysis of conditions that influence clinical outcomes. The possibility of optimizing the use of these hospital resources, allied to improving the quality of care and patient safety, is associated with minimizing the length of hospital stay and the burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Gestational Age , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis-Related Groups
5.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 30(108): 58-67, 20220000. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363381

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: La información sobre la evolución de la infección por COVID-19 en personas gestantes (PG) continúa en desarrollo.Objetivos: Describir la presentación de la infección por Sars-CoV-2 en PG y determinar variables asociadas a mayor gravedad.Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo. Periodo: 01/03/2020-31/07/2021. Se incluyeron PG con diagnóstico de COVID-19 asistidas en una maternidad de gestión pública: se clasificaron según gravedad y se dividieron en dos grupos: Grup o1 leve y de manejo ambulatorio; Grupo 2 moderado, severo y crítico, con internación. Se analizó la relación entre gravedad y obesidad, DBT, hipertensión inducida por el embarazo (HIE), edad gestacional, edad materna, vacunación antigripal. Recién nacidos (RN) de madres infectadas se estudiaron con PCR para Sars-CoV-2 24-48 hs postnacimiento. Análisis estadístico: Chi-cuadrado o test exacto de Fisher. Significancia= p<0,05. Aprobado porComité Ética Institucional.Resultados: 52 PG con diagnóstico de COVID-19. Edadmediana 29,6 años. Grupo 1: 29 PG (55,5%). Grupo 2: 23 PG(44%), 19 (36,5%) moderados, 2 (4%) severos y 2 (4%) críticos. No hubo fallecimientos maternos ni fetales. Edad gestacional ≥ 28 semanas fue la única variable asociada a mayor gravedad,p=0,00004. 48% de los embarazos finalizaron por cesárea.48/52 RN fueron estudiados con PCR para Sars-CoV-2, siendo 1 (2%) positivo (fue el único RN sintomático).Conclusiones: La infección por COVID-19 en PG se asoció a presentaciones clínicas más graves cuando la infecciónse cursó en el tercer trimestre de gestación y se asociócon mayor incidencia de cesáreas


ntroduction: The information concerning the impact of COVID-19 infection in pregnant people (PP) continues to be established.Aim: to describe the evolution of the Sars-CoV-2 infection in pregnant people and to determine variables associated with clinical severity.Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study. Period: 01-03-2020 to 31-07-2021. We included PP with diagnosis of COVID-19, assisted in a public maternity hospital. The cases were classified according to clinical severity based on the NIH guidelines. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: mild (ambulatory manage-ment). Group 2: moderate, severe and critical (requiring hospitalization). The relationship between variables and clinical severity was analyzed. Variables studied: obesity, DBT, gestational hypertension, gestational age, maternal age, influenza vaccination. Newborns of infected mothers were studied with PCR for Sars-CoV-2 24 to 48 hours af-ter birth. Statistical analysis: Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, significance = p <0.05. Study approved by the Institu-tional Ethics Committee.Results: 52 PP with diagnosis of COVID-19 were includ-ed. Median age 29.6 years. 23 patients (44%) required hospitalization and 2 (4%) MRA (mechanical respiratory assistance). 29 (55.5%) were mild, 19 (36.5%) moderate, 2 (4%) severe, and 2 (4%) critical. There were no mater-nal or fetal deaths. Gestational age ≥ 28 weeks was the only variable associated with more severe clinical forms, p = 0.0001. 48% of the pregnancies ended by cesarean section. 48/52 newborns were studied with PCR for Sars-CoV-2, with only 1 (2%) being positive. This was the only symptomatic newborn.Conclusions: In our study, Sars-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy was associated with more severe clinical pre-sentations when the infection occurred in the 3rd trimes-ter of pregnancy. COVID-19 was also associated with a higher incidence of ter


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Severity of Illness Index , Gestational Age , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Cesarean Section , Retrospective Studies , Postpartum Period , COVID-19/diagnosis
6.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(1): 79-86, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376213

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to compare the intrauterine and postnatal growth of preterm infants according to the Intergrowth-21st and Fenton curves. Methods: study carried out in a maternity hospital, reference in high-risk pregnancy, with preterm infants born in 2018 who were hospitalized in the neonatal units of the institution. Preterm newborns weighed at least twice after birth were included in the sample and those that were syndromic, malformed or presented fluid retention were excluded. Proportions and means were compared using Pearson's chi-square and Student's t tests for paired samples, respectively. The McNemar test was used to compare categorical variables and the Kappa test to verify the degree of agreement between birth weight classifications obtained by the curves. Results: one hundred and fifty three infants with a median gestational age of 34.4 weeks were included. The incidences of the categories of nutritional status at birth did not differ between the curves. There was perfect agreement between the curves, except when newborns born under 33 weeks of gestational age were evaluated, in which case the agreement was substantial. About 21% of the babies classified as small for gestational age (SGA) by Intergrowth-21st were adequate for gestational age (AGA) according to Fenton and, on average, 20% of cases that had postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) according to Fenton standards were categorized as adequate weight by Intergrowth-21st. Postnatal weight classifications obtained by the evaluated curves had perfect agreement. Conclusions: the differences in theclassifications found between the charts reveal the importance of choosing the growth curve for monitoring preterm infants since behaviors based on their diagnoses can impact the life of this population.


Resumo Objetivos: comparar o crescimento intrauterino e pós-natal de prematuros segundo as curvas de Intergrowth-21st e Fenton. Métodos: estudo realizado em uma maternidade de referência em gestação de alto risco com prematuros nascidos em 2018 que ficaram internados nas unidades neonatais da instituição. Foram incluídos os pré-termos pesados em pelo menos dois momentos após o nascimento e excluídos aqueles sindrômicos, malformados ou com retenção hídrica. As proporções e médias foram comparadas a partir dos testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e t de student para amostras emparelhadas, respectivamente. Já o teste de McNemar foi utilizado para comparar as variáveis categóricas e teste Kappa para verificar o grau de concordância entre as classificações de peso ao nascer obtidos pelas curvas. Resultados: foram incluídos 153 lactentes com idade gestacional mediana de 34,4 semanas. As incidências das categorias de estado nutricional ao nascer não diferiram entre as curvas. Houve concordância perfeita entre as mesmas, exceto quando se avaliou os nascidos com menos de 33 semanas, onde a concordância foi substancial. Cerca de 21% dos bebês classificados como pequenos para a idade gestacional (PIG) por Intergrowth-21st foram adequados para idade gestacional (AIG) segundo Fenton e, em média, 20% dos casos que tiveram restrição de crescimento pós-natal (RCPN) de acordo aos padrões de Fenton foram categorizados com peso adequado por Intergrowth-21st. As classificações de peso pós-natal obtidas pelas curvas avaliadas tiveram concordância perfeita. Conclusões: as diferenças de classificação encontradas revelam a importância da escolha da curva de crescimento para monitorização de prematuros visto que, condutas baseadas em seus diagnósticos, podem impactar na vida dessa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postnatal Care , Birth Weight , Infant, Premature/growth & development , Nutritional Status , Neonatal Screening , Growth Charts , Fetal Growth Retardation , Tertiary Healthcare , Brazil , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Chi-Square Distribution , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Observational Study
7.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(1): 40-47, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388708

ABSTRACT

Resumen El parto prematuro es la principal causa de morbimortalidad neonatal en Chile. Los prematuros tardíos, definidos como nacimientos entre 34 semanas con 0 días (34+0) y 36 semanas con 6 días (36+6) de gestación, representan el 70-80% de los prematuros y se asocian a baja morbilidad y excepcional mortalidad si se comparan con partos bajo 34 semanas, pero significativamente mayor al compararlos con partos de término. Los prematuros tardíos son el resultado de diversas condiciones obstétricas, tales como síndromes hipertensivos del embarazo, rotura prematura de membranas, colestasia intrahepática del embarazo y comorbilidad médica. El propósito de esta revisión es actualizar la información asociada a los prematuros tardíos y dar una visión de las tendencias en el uso de corticoides y el manejo expectante de la rotura prematura de membranas con el objetivo de disminuir las complicaciones en este grupo de prematuros.


Abstract Preterm delivery is the most important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in Chile. Late preterm, defined as deliveries between 34 +0 and 36+6-weeks accounts for 70-80% of preterm and is associated with non-severe morbidity and extremely low mortality when compared with deliveries below 34 weeks but significantly high when compared with full term babies. Late preterm deliveries are a result of several obstetric conditions, such a hypertensive disorder, premature rupture of membranes, intrahepatic cholestasis, and maternal medical comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to update the information associated with the risks of late preterm and to guide in the new trends in the application of steroid and expectant management for premature rupture of membranes in order to reduce the frequency of late preterm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Premature Birth/physiopathology , Premature Birth/therapy , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture , Risk Factors , Gestational Age , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature, Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 543-550, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359315

ABSTRACT

Introdução: fatores de risco gestacionais podem culminar na prematuridade neonatal, que constitui um grande desafio para a saúde pública em todo o mundo, sendo uma das principais causas de mortes neonatais. Objetivo: analisar uma população de prematuros, internados em unidades neonatais em relação ao estado nutricional e à alimentação recebida. Metodologia: delineamento observacional retrospectivo, com 125 recém-nascidos prematuros de uma maternidade pública do Tocantins. Sexo, idade gestacional ao nascer, peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascer, durante a internação e na alta, ganho de peso diário, tempo de internação e tipo de dieta recebida foram analisados por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney, Qui-quadrado, Exato de Fisher e t-Student, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon e Friedman, a 5% de significância, no Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Resultados: houve predomínio do sexo masculino na amostra. A prevalência de crianças muito prematuras foi maior na unidade de cuidados convencionais (UcinCo), enquanto a prevalência de crianças com muito baixo peso ao nascer foi maior na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTIN). O tempo de internação foi menor na UcinCo, sendo este menos da metade do tempo de internação na UTIN. O peso à alta e o ganho de peso foram maiores na UTIN. Observou-se declínio do estado nutricional nas duas unidades. A utilização de fórmulas comerciais foi maior na UcinCo, enquanto predominou a oferta de leite humano na UTIN. Conclusão: independentemente do tipo de dieta recebida e da unidade de terapia, as crianças declinaram de estado nutricional durante a internação.


Introduction: gestational risk factors can culminate in neonatal prematurity, which is a major public health challenge worldwide, being one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths. Objective: to analyze a population of preterm infants admitted to neonatal units in relation to nutritional status and the food received. Methodology: retrospective observational design with 125 premature newborns from a public maternity in Tocantins. Gender, gestational age at birth, weight, length and head circumference at birth, during hospitalization and at discharge, daily weight gain, length of stay and type of diet received were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, Fisher exact and Student t, Mc Nemar, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests, at 5% significance, in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20.0. Results: there was a predominance of males in the sample. The prevalence of very premature children was higher in the conventional care unit (CCU), while the prevalence of very low birth weight children was higher in the intensive care unit (ICU). Length of stay was shorter in the CCU, which was less than half of the length of stay in the ICU. Weight at discharge and weight gain were higher in the ICU. There was a decline in nutritional status in both units. The use of commercial formulas was higher in CCU, while the supply of human milk in the ICU predominated. Conclusion: regardless of the type of diet received and the therapy unit, the children declined their nutritional status during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Sex , Body Weight , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cephalometry , Gestational Age , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
10.
Bull. méd. Owendo (En ligne) ; 20(51): 58-63, 2022. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1378389

ABSTRACT

Objectif : Décrire les caractéristiques cliniques de la dégénérescence maculaire (DM) chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH).Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude observationnelle menée dans le service d'infectiologie du CHU de Libreville. Il était inclus les adultes âgés de plus de 17 ans, vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) type 1 et ayant le même protocole thérapeutique antirétroviral. Les paramètres recueillis étaient l'âge, le sexe, le taux de CD4, l'ancienneté de l'infection au VIH, le délai de mise sous traitement antirétroviral et les lésions rétiniennes en rapport avec la DM. Les paramètres des PVVIH sans DM (DM-) étaient comparés à ceux avec DM (DM+) (p < 0,05). Résultats : L'enquête avait concerné 772 personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) dont 30 avaient présenté une DM+, soit une fréquence de 4%. La moyenne d'âge des DM+ était de 50,3 ± 12,8 ans et celle des DM- de 44,9 ± 10,8 ans (0,0083).Le sex-ratio était de 0,3 chez les DM+ et de 0,24 chez les DM- (p = 0,5950). Parmi les DM+, 28 avaient une forme intermédiaire et 2 une forme tardive. Il n'existait pas de différence significative entre l'ancienneté de l'infection à VIH (p = 0,1599), le taux de CD4 (p = 0,8666) et le délai de mise sous traitement antirétroviral (p = 0,9040) entre les deux groupes (DM+, DM- ).Conclusion : Ce travail permet de constater que la dégénérescence maculaire chez les PVVIH est fréquente et précoce,avec une prédominance de la forme intermédiaire


Objective: To describe the clinicals characteristics of macular degeneration (MD) in people living with HIV.Patients and methods: This was an observational study carried out in the infectious disease department of the University Hospital of Libreville. It was included adults over the age of 17, living with type 1 HIV (PLHIV) and having the same antiretroviral therapy protocol. The parameters collected were age, gender, CD4 count, age of HIV infection, time to antiretroviral treatment, and retinal lesions related to MD. The PLHIV were divided into two groups, those without MD (MD-) and those with MD (MD+ ) (p <0.05).Results: The survey concerned 772 people living with HIV (PLHIV), of whom 30 presented with MD+, either a frequency of 4%. The mean age of DM+ was 50.3 ± 12.8 years and that of MD- 44.9 ± 10.8 years (0.0083). The sex ratio was 0.3 in DM+ and 0.24 in DM- (p = 0.5950). Of the MD+, 28 had an intermediate form and 2 had a late form. There was no significant difference between the age of HIV infection (p = 0.1599), CD4 count (p = 0.8666) and time to antiretroviral treatment (p = 0.9040) between the two groups (MD+, MD-).Conclusion: This work has shown that macular degeneration in PLHIV is frequent and early, with a predominance of theintermediate form


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , CD4 Immunoadhesins , Gestational Age , Human Characteristics , Macular Degeneration
11.
Medical Journal of Zambia ; 49(1): 48-58, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382259

ABSTRACT

Background: Low socioeconomic status has generally been associated with adverse birth outcomes worldwide. Adverse birth outcomes significantly contribute to perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide with some literatures showing conflicting results. At Women and New-born Hospital in Zambia, this relationship had remained unclear among women who experienced poor neonatal outcome; hence the study was done to explore this association between socioeconomic status and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Secondary data from ZAPPS study that had been collected prospectively between August 2015 and September 201 7 was retrieved. Altogether, 1,450 participants' information was retrieved, out of which 1,084 data records were set out for analysis after excluding those not meeting eligibility criteria. Socioeconomic status was an explanatory variable which was estimated using the standardized wealth score derived from principal component analysis of 14 variables. The wealth quintiles were further categorised into poor and not poor. Response variables were low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestation age. SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis and p value< 0.05 was significant Results: This study found the incidences of SGA, LBW and preterm births to be 164, 124 and 13 5 per 1000 live births respectively. In survival analysis, the proportion of babies who survived LBW among mothers who were poor was lower (82.9%) compared to babies born to rich mothers (87.5%) (p-value = 0.189). Furthermore, the proportion of babies who survived SGA for the poor was lower (79 .1 % ) compared to babies born to none poor mothers (85.8%) (p-value = 0.032) and preterm birth for the poor (78.4%) compared to babies born to mothers who were rich (83 .6%) (p-value = 0.022). In multiple Cox regression analysis socioeconomic status was not a significant risk factor for SGA ( aHR = 1.08; 95% CI; p=0.099), LBW and preterm birth (aHR = 1.17; 95% CI; p= l.41). However, male babies (aHR = 1.80; 95% CI; p=0.012), domestic violence or abuse during pregnancy (aHR = 3.48; 95% CI [1.59 - 7.34]; p = 0.002) and maternal anaemia (aHR = 2.1; 95% CI; p = 0.019) were risk factors for SGA while prior preterm birth ( aHR = 2.02; 95% CI; p = 0.002), HIV infection (aHR = 1.22; 95% CI; p = 0.040) and anaemia (aHR = 1.37; 95% CI; p = 0.009) were predictors of preterm delivery. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant association between low socioeconomic status and adverse birth outcomes although being pregnant with a male baby, HIV infection, anaemia and prior preterm birth were significantly associated with SGAand preterm


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Age , Premature Birth , Hospitals, Teaching , HIV Infections , Domestic Violence
12.
Yenagoa Medical Journal ; 4(3): 43-53, 2022.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1391996

ABSTRACT

A linear relationship between gestational age and fetal thoracic size has been observed, with growth occurring at a regular rate from 16 to 40 weeks.Objective: To determine the fetal chest circumference in normal late second and third-trimester pregnancies in a Nigerian population.Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on gravid women with normal singleton pregnancies at 22 ­ 38 weeks gestational age. We recruited 440 eligible gravid women. The fetal gestational age was estimated from the last menstrual period and an early first trimester ultrasound report (< 10 weeks). The fetal chest circumference was measured on an axial view of the fetal chest after ensuring adequate visualisation of the four cardiac chambers, both fetal lungs and ribs. The other fetal biometric parameters were determined using the previously established guidelines. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and regression analysis were used as appropriate. Statistical tests were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 29.8 ± 4.6 years (range = 18-45 years). The chest circumference of the fetuses ranged from 16.56 ± 0.29 cm to 30.87 ± 6.88 cm. The fetal chest circumferences increased with advancing gestational age (16.56 ± 0.29 cm at 22 weeks to 30.87 ± 6.88 cm at 37 weeks gestational age). There was strong positive correlation between chest circumference and menstrual gestational age (r=0.85, p=<0.0001), biparietal diameter (r=0.88, p<0.0001), abdominal circumference (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and fetal length (r=0.88, p<0.0001).Conclusion: The fetal chest circumference grew as the pregnancy progressed. There was a positive linear correlation between fetal chest circumference and menstrual gestational age as well as the other fetal biometric parameters.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy, Abdominal , Ultrasonography , Gestational Age , Women
13.
Niger. j. paediatr ; 49(3): 261-265, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399083

ABSTRACT

In the absence of acute phase reaction, ferritin concentration has been used as a standard measurement of iron stores. Low birth weight babies are at risk of developing iron lack because ferritin concentration at birth is influenced by duration of gestation, maternal iron status and conditions altering maternal­foetal iron exchange. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the ferritin concentrations of low birth weight babies in comparison with that of normal birth weight babies. Materials and methods: Fortyfour normal birth weight (NBW) babies and 40 low birth weight (LBW) babies were recruited for the study. About 1.0ml of venous blood was drawn aseptically from each subject into a micro EDTA tube, centrifuged at 5000rpm for 5 minutes, the plasma separated into cryotubes and stored at-20oC until ready for quantitative determination of ferritin concentrations using direct immunoenzymatic colorimetric method.Data obtained was analysed statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS,version 23, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Gestational age correlated positively with ferritin concentrations in LBW neonates (p<0.05)while APGAR score correlatepositively with ferritin concentrations in normal birth weight babies (r=0.398; p<0.05). Thoug not statistically significant (p=0.214), median values for ferritin concentrations were 188.5µg/ dl and 373µg/dl for LBW and NBW neonates respectively. Conclusion: Gestational age correlated positively with ferritin concentrations in LBW neonates


Subject(s)
Humans , Apgar Score , Apoferritins , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Gestational Age
14.
South Sudan med. j. (Online) ; 15(4): 137-142, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maternal perception of foetal movement ensures foetal wellbeing. Reduced foetal movement is associated with foetal hypoxia, stillbirths, and intrauterine foetal growth restriction (IUFGR). This study aimed at assessing factors that are associated with maternal perception of reduced foetal movements. Method: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted at Iringa Regional Referral Hospital from 1st January ­ 30th June 2022. A purposive sampling technique was used, and SPSS version 25 software was used for data analysis. Results: 41.3 % of study participants were aged 24 ­ 34 years, with a mean and SD of 29.08 ±7.53. 75% were not employed, 52.8 % of study participants delivered from 37 ­ 42 weeks of gestational age, 66.1% had a posterior placenta and only 24.0 % had an anterior placenta. Women who delivered at 28 ­ 36 weeks of gestational age were about 4 times more likely to experience reduced foetal movement compared to those who delivered at 37 ­ 42 weeks of gestation (AOR=4.162, 95% CI 2.174 - 7.966, p= =0.0067). Conclusion: Reduced foetal movements are associated with lower gestation age at delivery and decreased antenatal clinic attendance in Iringa, Tanzania. All pregnant women should be encouraged to make early antenatal clinic attendance and should attend adequate visits. Healthcare providers should educate and create awareness on methods of assessing foetal movements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Referral and Consultation , Gestational Age , Pregnant Women , Fetal Movement , Risk Factors , Methods
15.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(3): e007022, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1398129

ABSTRACT

La legalización de la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo ha transformado la práctica médica con respecto a la atención de las pacientes que desean interrumpir la gestación hasta la semana 14 en Argentina. En la primera entrega, el equipo PROFAM compartió su punto de vista a través de una adaptación de su material educativo destinado, sobre todo, a aclarar los aspectos legales que hacen a la práctica cotidiana. En esta entrega se desarrolla en detalle el procedimiento para realizar un aborto farmacológico con misoprostol y mifepristona, así como las generalidades del aspirado manual endouterino. (AU)


The legalization of voluntary termination of pregnancy has transformed medical practice regarding the care of patients who wish to terminate a pregnancy up to 14 weeks in Argentina. In the first issue, the PROFAM team shared its point of view through an adaptation of its educational material aimed, above all, at clarifying the legal aspects of daily practice. In this issue, the procedure to perform a pharmacological abortion with misoprostol and mifepristone is developed in detail, as well as the generalities of manual uterine aspiration technique. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Vacuum Curettage/instrumentation , Mifepristone/administration & dosage , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Abortion, Induced/methods , Abortion, Legal/methods , Argentina , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Abortion Applicants/psychology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Mifepristone/pharmacology , Gestational Age , Misoprostol/adverse effects , Misoprostol/pharmacology , Abortion , Intrauterine Devices
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(6): e00073621, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384261

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as taxas de cesariana e cesariana recorrente no Brasil segundo a idade gestacional (IG) ao nascer e o tipo de hospital. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, utilizando dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos e do Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde de 2017. As taxas de cesariana geral e recorrente foram calculadas e analisadas de acordo com a IG, região de residência e tipo de hospital. Foram realizadas correlações de Spearman entre as taxas de cesariana e cesariana recorrente por subgrupos de IG ao nascer (≤ 33, 34-36, 37-38, 39-41 e ≥ 42 semanas), analisadas segundo o tipo de hospital. Verificaram-se taxas de cesariana geral e recorrente de 55,1% e 85,3%, respectivamente. Mais de 60% dos recém-nascidos entre 37-38 semanas ocorreram via cesariana. Os hospitais privados de todas as regiões concentraram as maiores taxas de cesariana, sobretudo os do Centro-oeste, com mais de 80% em todas as IG. A taxa geral de cesariana foi altamente correlacionada com todas as taxas de cesariana dos subgrupos de IG (r > 0,7, p < 0,01). Quanto à cesariana recorrente, verificou-se forte correlação com as taxas de 37-38 e 39-41 semanas no hospital público/misto, diferindo do hospital privado, que apresentou correlações moderadas. Isso indica que a decisão pela cesariana não é pautada em fatores clínicos, o que pode causar danos desnecessários à saúde da mulher e do bebê. Conclui-se que mudanças no modelo de atenção ao parto, fortalecimento de políticas públicas e maior incentivo do parto vaginal após cesárea em gestações subsequentes são estratégias importantes para a redução das cesarianas no Brasil.


El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las tasas de cesárea y de cesárea recurrente en Brasil según la edad gestacional (EG) al nacer y el tipo de hospital. Estudio ecológico a partir de los datos del Sistema de Información de Nacidos Vivos y del Registro Nacional de Establecimientos de Salud 2017. Se calcularon y analizaron las tasas de cesárea general y recurrente según EG, región de residencia y tipo de hospital. Se aplicaron las correlaciones de Spearman entre las tasas de cesárea y de cesárea recurrente por subgrupos de EG al nacer (≤ 33, 34-36, 37-38, 39-41 y ≥ 42 semanas) y se analizaron según el tipo de hospital. Las tasas de cesárea general y recurrente fueron del 55,1% y 85,3%, respectivamente. Más del 60% de los recién nacidos entre 37-38 semanas nacieron por cesárea. Los hospitales privados de todas las regiones concentraron las tasas más altas de cesáreas, especialmente los del Centro-Oeste, con más del 80% en todas las EG. En general, la tasa general de cesáreas estuvo altamente correlacionada con todas las tasas de cesáreas de los subgrupos de EG (r > 0,7, p < 0,01). En cuanto a la cesárea recurrente, se encontró que la tasa general se correlacionó fuertemente con las tasas de 37-38 y 39-41 semanas en el hospital público/mixto, a diferencia del hospital privado que mostró correlaciones moderadas. Esto indica que la decisión de hacer la cesárea no se basa en factores clínicos, lo que puede causar daños innecesarios a la salud de la mujer y del bebé. Por lo tanto, los cambios en el modelo de asistencia al parto, el fortalecimiento de las políticas públicas y una mayor promoción del parto vaginal en los embarazos posteriores de la cesárea se encuentran entre las estrategias importantes para reducir esta práctica en Brasil.


This study aimed to describe cesarean and repeated cesarean section rates in Brazil according to gestational age (GA) at birth and type of hospital. This is an ecologic study using data from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and the 2017 National Registry of Health Facilities. Overall and repeated cesarean section rates were calculated and analyzed according to GA, region of residence, and type of hospital. Spearman correlations were performed between cesarean and repeated cesarean section rates by GA subgroups at birth (≤ 33, 34-36, 37-38, 39-41, and ≥ 42 weeks) and analyzed according to the type of hospital. Overall and repeated cesarean section rates were 55.1% and 85.3%, respectively. More than 60% of newborns between 37-38 weeks were delivered via cesarean section. Private hospitals in all regions showed the highest cesarean section rates, especially those in the Central-West Region, with more than 80% at all GAs. The overall cesarean section rate was highly correlated with all cesarean section rates of GA subgroups (r > 0.7, p < 0.01). Regarding repeated cesarean sections, the overall rate was strongly correlated with the rates of 37-38 and 39-41 weeks in public/mixed hospitals, differing from private hospitals, which showed moderate correlations. This finding indicates the decision for cesarean section is not based on clinical factors, which can cause unnecessary damage to the health of both the mother and the baby. Then, changes in the delivery care model, strengthening public policies, and encouragement of vaginal delivery after a cesarean section in subsequent pregnancies are important strategies to reduce cesarean section rates in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cesarean Section , Parturition , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospitals, Private , Gestational Age
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928658

ABSTRACT

To compare different illness severity scores in predicting mortality risk of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). From January 1st, 2019 to January 1st, 2020, all ELBWI admitted in the Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were included in the study. ELBWI with admission age ≥1 h, gestational age ≥37 weeks and incomplete data required for scoring were excluded. The clinical data were collected, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), score for neonatal acute physiology version Ⅱ (SNAP-Ⅱ), simplified version of the score for neonatal acute physiology perinatal extension (SNAPPE-Ⅱ), clinical risk index for babies (CRIB) and CRIB-Ⅱ were calculated. The scores of the fatal group and the survival group were compared, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the predictive value of the above illness severity scores for the mortality risk of ELBWI. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between illness scores and birth weight, illness scores and gestational age. A total of 192 ELBWI were finally included, of whom 114 cases survived (survival group) and 78 cases died (fatal group). There were significant differences in birth weight, gestational age and Apgar scores between fatal group and survival group (all <0.01). There were significant differences in NCIS, SNAP-Ⅱ, SNAPPE-Ⅱ, CRIB and CRIB-Ⅱ between fatal group and survival group (all <0.01). The CRIB had a relatively higher predictive value for the mortality risk. Its area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.787, the sensitivity was 0.678, the specificity was 0.804, and the Youden index was 0.482. The scores of NCIS, SNAP-Ⅱ, SNAPPE-Ⅱ, CRIB and CRIB-Ⅱ were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age (all <0.05). The correlation coefficients of CRIB-Ⅱ and CRIB with birth weight and gestational age were relatively large, and the correlations coefficients of NCIS with birth weight and gestational age were the smallest (0.191 and 0.244, respectively). Among these five illness severity scores, CRIB has better predictive value for the mortality risk in ELBWI. NCIS, which is widely used in China, has relatively lower sensitivity and specificity, and needs to be further revised.


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment/methods , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of improvement in antibiotic use strategy on the short-term clinical outcome of preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks.@*METHODS@#The medical data were retrospectively collected from 865 preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. The improved antibiotic use strategy was implemented since January 1, 2015. According to the time of implementation, the infants were divided into three groups: pre-adjustment (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014; n=303), post-adjustment Ⅰ (January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015; n=293), and post-adjustment Ⅱ (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016; n=269). The medical data of the three groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences among the three groups in gestational age, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, sex, and method of birth (P>0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had a significant reduction in the rate of use of antibiotics and the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days or 4-7 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of >7 days in the early postnatal period (P<0.05). Compared with the post-adjustment Ⅰ group, the post-adjustment Ⅱ group had a significant reduction in the duration of antibiotic use in the early postnatal period and during hospitalization (P<0.05), with a significant increase in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of ≤3 days and a significant reduction in the proportion of infants with a duration of antibiotic use of 4-7 days or >7 days (P<0.05). Compared with the pre-adjustment group, the post-adjustment I and post-adjustment Ⅱ groups had significantly shorter duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P<0.05). There were gradual reductions in the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) after the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjustment of antibiotic use strategy had no effect on short-term adverse clinical outcomes, and antibiotic use for >7 days significantly increased the risk of adverse clinical outcomes (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is feasible to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use by the improvement in antibiotic use strategy in preterm infants with a gestational age of <35 weeks, which can also shorten the duration of parenteral nutrition and the length of hospital stay and reduce the incidence rates of grade ≥Ⅲ IVH and LOS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of timing of surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the prognosis of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI).@*METHODS@#The medical data of VLBWI who underwent transthoracic ligation for PDA from June 2018 to May 2021 were reviewed retrospectively. The infants were divided into early ligation group (≤21 days of age) and late ligation group (>21 days of age) based on the age of ligation. The two groups were compared in terms of perioperative clinical features, complications, and mortality. The risk factors for early surgical ligation were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 72 VLBWI were enrolled, with 19 infants (26%) in the early ligation group and 53 infants (74%) in the late ligation group. There were significant differences in birth weight, gestational age, weight at operation, days of age at operation, rates of preoperative invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation, incidence rate of pulmonary hemorrhage, incidence rate of hypotension, preoperative PDA internal diameter (mm/kg), intraoperative PDA external diameter (mm/kg), incidence rate of post-ligation cardiac syndrome, and duration of postoperative invasive mechanical ventilation between the two groups (P<0.05). A binary logistic regression analysis showed that pulmonary hemorrhage was an indication of early surgical ligation of PDA (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence rates of post-operative complications and the mortality rate between the early ligation and late ligation groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early surgical ligation may be performed for VLBWI who are experiencing pulmonary hemorrhage and hemodynamically significant PDA confirmed by cardiac ultrasound after birth. However, post-ligation cardiac syndrome should attract enough attention. In addition, early surgical ligation of PDA does not increase the risk of surgery-related and long-term complications or death, indicating that it is a safe and feasible treatment option.


Subject(s)
Ductus Arteriosus, Patent/surgery , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Ligation , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the influence of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on the early prognosis of preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks.@*METHODS@#PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Weipu Database, and SinoMed were searched for randomized controlled trials on umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks published up to November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two researchers independently performed literature screening, quality evaluation, and data extraction. Review Manger 5.4 was used for Meta analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 11 articles were included in the analysis, with 1 621 preterm infants in total, among whom there were 809 infants in the umbilical cord milking group and 812 in the delayed cord clamping group. The Meta analysis showed that compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking increased the mean blood pressure after birth (weighted mean difference=3.61, 95%CI: 0.73-6.50, P=0.01), but it also increased the incidence rate of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (RR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.08-3.09, P=0.02). There were no significant differences between the two groups in hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood transfusion rate, proportion of infants undergoing phototherapy, bilirubin peak, and incidence rates of complications such as periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with delayed cord clamping, umbilical cord milking may increase the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants with a gestational age of <34 weeks; however, more high-quality large-sample randomized controlled trials are needed for further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Constriction , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Umbilical Cord/physiology , Umbilical Cord Clamping
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