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1.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 756-772, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355748

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los endoparásitos y ectoparásitos en perros son de distribución mundial. La estrecha relación entre los perros y el hombre implica un riesgo de transmisión de parasitosis zoonóticas, por lo cual es necesario conocer las especies que parasitan a los perros de esta zona y determinar los factores asociados. Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de endoparásitos y ectoparásitos, identificarlos en perros domiciliados de la zona metropolitana de Toluca, México, y determinar la prevalencia de Dipyilidium caninum en pulgas del género Ctenocephalides spp. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron muestras de 402 perros que fueron llevados a consulta en cuatro hospitales de referencia de Toluca. En el diagnóstico de endoparásitos, se utilizaron las técnicas coproparasitoscópicas de frotis directo, flotación y sedimentación; además, se recolectaron ectoparásitos para su identificación taxonómica. Por último, la detección de D. caninum en pulgas se hizo mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Resultados. El 37,2 % de los perros resultó positivo para endoparásitos. Los géneros o especies identificados fueron Toxocara spp., Giardia spp., Ancylostoma spp., Cystoisospora spp., D. caninum, Taenia spp. y Trichuris vulpis. Se determinó una prevalencia de ectoparásitos de 13,13 %. Se identificaron pulgas de las especies Ctenocephalides felis y C. canis, en tanto que solo un animal presentó parasitosis por Rhipicephalus sanguineus y otro por Trichodectes canis. La prevalencia de D. caninum en pulgas fue del 9,5 %. Conclusión. La prevalencia de endoparásitos fue de 37,2 % y, la de ectoparásitos, de 13,1 %. Por primera vez en México se hizo un análisis de endoparásitos y ectoparásitos en una misma población de perros, así como el diagnóstico molecular de D. caninum.


Abstract | Introduction: Endoparasites and ectoparasites in dogs are of global distribution. The close relationship between dogs and man implies a risk for the transmission of zoonotic parasites. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the parasites hosted by dogs in specific areas and the factors associated with their presence. Objectives: To identify and to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites and ectoparasites in domiciled dogs in the Metropolitan area of Toluca, México, and the prevalence of D. caninum in fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides spp. Materials and methods: We collected samples from 402 domiciled dogs in four reference hospitals in the area in Toluca. We diagnosed endoparasites using direct smear, flotation, and sedimentation techniques and we performed the taxonomic identification of ectoparasites. Finally, the molecular diagnosis of D. caninum in fleas was made using the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Results: A total of 37.2% of dogs were positive for endoparasites; the genera or species identified were Toxocara spp., Giardia spp., Ancylostoma spp., Cystoisospora spp., D. caninum, Taenia spp., and Trichuris vulpis; the prevalence of ectoparasites was 13.13%. We identified fleas of the species Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis; only one animal was parasitized with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and another one with Trichodectes canis; the prevalence of D. caninum in fleas was 9.5%. Conclusion: The prevalence of endoparasites was 37.2% while that of ectoparasites was 13.1%; this is the first analysis of endoparasites and ectoparasites conducted in the same population of dogs in México together with the molecular diagnosis of D. caninum in fleas.


Subject(s)
Zoonoses/epidemiology , Mexico , Toxocara canis , Ctenocephalides , Giardia , Ancylostoma
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 57 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179166

ABSTRACT

O aumento da demanda de recursos hídricos causado pelo crescimento da população mundial, pela necessidade de produção de alimentos e utilização na indústria é uma realidade. Como enfrentamento a este cenário de segurança hídrica, existe uma crescente tendência mundial de uso de águas recicladas para fins que demandam águas de menor qualidade, poupando assim recursos hídricos e o meio ambiente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as espécies Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis e Giardia duodenalis (em seus assemblages A e B) nas águas de reúso provenientes das duas ETEs localizadas na cidade de São Paulo. Para a identificação das espécies Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium meleagridis e Cryptosporidium hominis foram realizadas análise por regiões do gene 18S rRNA, com os primers descritos por ARAUJO (2018), onde foram detectadas em 5,76% (3/52) das amostras de água de reúso analisadas pelo método real-time PCR (qPCR). A espécie Giardia duodenalis foi identificada através de um fragmento do gene Gdh, com os primers descritos por (CACCIO et al, 2008) e foi detectada em 11,53% (6/52) das amostras de água de reúso analisadas. Após a identificação das amostras via qPCR, foi realizado o nested PCR para que os fragmentos de DNA identificados pudessem ser sequenciados, onde confirmamos a presença das espécies de Cryptosporidium spp. anteriormente citadas, porém as amostras de Giardia spp. não apresentaram resultados positivos no sequenciamento, não sendo possível a identificação dos assemblages. Este trabalho subsidia, com dados de presença de Giardia spp. e Cryptosporidium spp. nas águas de reúso produzida por duas ETEs da cidade de São Paulo, a elaboração de uma regulamentação adequada para o uso deste recurso em ambiente urbano com o intuito de se proteger a saúde da população exposta, em especial das populações mais vulneráveis e de se reduzir o risco de infecção pelo contato ocupacional.


The increasing demand for water resources caused by the growth of the world's population, the food production and use in industry is a reality. With this water crisis scenario, there is a growing worldwide trend towards the use of recycled water for purposes that demand lower water quality, thus saving water resources and the environment. In a previous study, we identified the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in reuse waters from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the city of São Paulo (called stations "A" and "B") using the USEPA 1693/2014 method. The present study aimed to identify the species Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Giardia duodenalis (in their assemblages A and B) in the reuse waters from the WWTPs in the city of São Paulo. Different molecular analyzes were carried out to identify the species found in the WWTPs. The species Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium hominis were identified by regions of their 18S rRNA gene, with the primers described by ARAUJO (2018), and were detected in 5.76% (3/52) of the reuse water samples analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) method. The species Giardia duodenalis was identified through a fragment of the Gdh gene, with the primers described by (CACCIO et al., 2008) was detected in 11.53% (6/52) of the analyzed water samples. After identifying the samples via qPCR, the nested PCR was performed so that the identified DNA fragments could be sequenced, where we confirmed the presence of the previously mentioned Cryptosporidium spp., however the Giardia spp. samples did not show positive results in the sequencing, being not possible the identification of assemblages. This work subsidizes, with data on the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in the two studied WWTPs in the city of São Paulo, the elaboration of an adequate regulation for the use of this resource in an urban environment, protecting the health of the exposed population, especially the most vulnerable populations and reducing the risk of infection by occupational use.


Subject(s)
Gray Water , Cryptosporidium , Cysts , Oocysts , Giardia
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06670, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279525

ABSTRACT

Giardiasis is an important and prevalent zoonosis in dogs and humans caused by Giardia spp. The close relationship between pets and humans has physical, emotional and social benefits. The dogs have an important role in Giardia duodenalis cycle and transmission. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the parasite in dogs from Central Region, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from April to October 2018. Dog feces (230) were submitted to Faust coproparasitological and molecular analyses. The positive samples in the nested-PCR (β-giardin gene) were sent for DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses (Neighbor-Joining). The occurrence of G. duodenalis, was 5.6% (13/230) and 4.3% (10/230) detected by coproparasitological technique and nested-PCR, respectively. There was no difference in the sensitivity of the tests used. From the faecal samples analyzed, there were no differences among the variables: diagnostic techniques, local, sex, and age of the animals (p>0.05). Only in the stool examination methodology a difference was observed between the ages (p<0.05). G. duodenalis assemblages were C and D, frequently reported in dogs. The close relationship between dogs and people may allow co-infections of circulating parasites in the population, including Giardia spp. and increasing the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents.(AU)


A giardíase é uma zoonose importante e prevalente em cães e humanos, sendo causada por Giardia spp. A estreita relação entre animais de estimação e seres humanos traz benefícios físicos, emocionais e sociais. Os cães têm um papel importante no ciclo e transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência do parasita em cães da Região Central, em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, de abril a outubro de 2018. As fezes de cães (230) foram submetidas a técnica coproparasitológica de Faust e análises moleculares. As amostras positivas no nested-PCR (gene β-giardin) foram enviadas para sequenciamento de DNA e posterior análise filogenética (Neighbor-Joining). A ocorrência de G. duodenalis foi de 5,6% (13/230) e 4,3% (10/230) detectados pela técnica coproparasitológica e nested-PCR, respectivamente. Não houve diferença na sensibilidade dos testes utilizados. Das amostras fecais analisadas, não houve diferenças entre as variáveis: técnicas de diagnóstico, local, sexo e idade dos animais (p>0,05). Somente na metodologia de exame de fezes observou-se diferença entre as idades (p<0,05). As assemblages de G. duodenalis encontradas foram C e D, frequentemente relatadas em cães. A estreita relação entre cães e pessoas pode permitir co-infecções de parasitas circulantes na população, incluindo Giardia spp. e aumentando o risco de transmissão de agentes zoonóticos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Giardiasis , Dogs/parasitology , Pets , Giardia
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(1): 44-49, 20200000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370439

ABSTRACT

Background: There was some trade produced enzyme-immuno-sorbent assays tests to diagnose antigens of Giardia spin stool specimens, like Rida Quick Giardia and Serazym ELISA Giardia® tests. In this study, we evaluated the performance of two commercially available EIA kits for detecting Giardia antigens. Methods: A total of 96 stool specimens were collected from patients who attended for different Primary Health Care centers in Al-Qurna sector / Basrah Health Directorate, Ministry of Health/ Environment, Basrah, Iraq at period from 2nd of March 2018 to 28th of September 2018. All specimens were examined by conventional methods of microscopic examination, and by both enzyme-immuno-sorbent assays tests. Results: Serazym ELISA Giardia® had a sensitivity of 90.1%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 91.7%. The Rida Quick Giardia® showed a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 82.3%. Serazym ELISA Giardia® showed 10% discrepancy better than Rida Quick Giardia® which showed 8%, this was of a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: Antigen detection by EIA has been established as a valuable tool to make parasite stool diagnostics more effective. Serazym ELISA Giardia® is more reliable than Rida Quick Giardia


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Giardiasis , Feces/parasitology , Giardia/parasitology , Antigens
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200431, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154864

ABSTRACT

Giardia duodenalis infection is distributed worldwide and can achieve prevalence around 60%, especially in developing countries. This protozoan is divided into eight assemblages, in which A and B have high zoonotic potential, whereas C to H are host-specific. This scenario is changing as molecular studies progress, highlighting that knowledge on host-specificity still has a long way to go. Understanding the players involved in transmission routes enables rational designs of control strategies. Considering the high prevalence of giardiasis, this review aims to gather together the data on available studies on the distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages in Brazil until September 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Giardiasis/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Giardia/classification , Giardia/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Zoonoses , Prevalence , Giardiasis/parasitology , Giardiasis/veterinary , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Giardia/isolation & purification
7.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(4): 142-147, out./dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380129

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. em diferentes espécimes silvestres da ordem Carnívora de vida livre e de cativeiro procedentes de municípios do Estado do Pará. Coletou-se amostras fecais de 37 animais distintos (quatro de vida livre e 33 de cativeiro). Para pesquisa de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foram utilizados métodos microscópicos (direto e Kinyoun) e imunológico (RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium/Giardia/Entamoeba Combi - N1722). Do total de amostras, 24,32% (9/37) foram positivas, correspondendo a 5,4% (2/37) para Cryptosporidium spp. e 18,91% (7/37) para Giardia spp., respectivamente. Nenhum animal apresentou infecção concomitante para os agentes. Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., são protozoários zoonóticos que representam um emergente problema de saúde pública. Esses parasitos podem apresentar elevada frequência em regiões em que as condições de saneamento básico são precárias, promovendo surtos de diarreia em animais domésticos, silvestres e no homen. Mamíferos silvestres, como os carnívoros, são susceptíveis à contaminação por enteroparasitas presentes tanto no habitat natural como em cativeiro. Portanto, a pesquisa comprova a presença desses protozoários em carnívoros silvestres, tanto mantidos em criatórios como nos de vida livre no Estado do Pará, considerando-se que esses animais podem atuar como fontes de infecção para o homem, para outros animais e para o meio ambiente.


The presente survey has had the purpose to investigate the occurrance of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in free and under captivity carnivorous wild animals, from several counties in the State of Pará. Samples of feces from 37 distinct animals (four in their natural habitat and 33 raised in captivity). For the research of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. microscopic immunological, direct and Kinyoun methods were used (RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium/Giardia/Entamoeba Combi - N1722). The samples gathered from wild animals have resulted in 24,32% of positive infecction on the rate of (9/37), being. 5,4% (2/37) positive to Cryptosporidiumspp. and 18,91% (7/37) positive to Giardia spp., what shows that no amimals had both infections at the same time. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., are zoonotic enteroparasites that have been taking place as an emmerging problem to public health. Theese species of protozoa may reach high levels of frequency in regions where the basic sanitation conditions are precarious, promoting outbraks of diarrhea to men, wild and domestic animals. Wild mammals, as the carnivorous, are susceptible to contamination by enteroparasites, being present at their natural habitat or captivity. So, the reserach strenghtens the real presence of these protozoas in wild carnivorous in both conditions of life, free or under captivity, in the State of Pará, making us consider the possibility that the cited animals may be natural reservoirs for infections, not only to men but to other animals and also to environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Carnivora/parasitology , Zoonoses/transmission , Giardiasis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/parasitology , Giardia/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 239-244, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003700

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las enteroparasitosis constituyen un importante problema de salud pública a nivel global, afectando principalmente a la población infantil de los países tropicales. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de 2 a 5 años en 17 hogares comunitarios del Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF) en la Zona Industrial y Bahía de Cartagena de Indias. Para ello, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal; se analizaron muestras mediante coprología de 207 niños de ambos sexos. No hubo diferencias significativas asociadas al sexo y edad (p>0,05). La frecuencia de enteroparasitos en la población infantil de 2 a 5 años fue de un 70,5%, donde el 59,5%, presentó una sola especie de parásito, el 34,2% dos y 6,1% tres y cuatro especies. Los principales protistas (86,3%) encontrados fueron Blastocystis hominis (60,2%) y Giardia lamblia (24,6%). En el grupo de Helmintos (13,7%) se destacaron Ascaris lumbricoides (9,6%) e Hymenolepis nana (6,2%). Las enteroparasitosis continúan como un importante problema de salud pública en condiciones del trópico Colombiano, especialmente en población infantil de zonas vulnerables de Cartagena - Colombia. Evidenciando la necesidad de revisar las políticas dirigidas a reducir la frecuencia del parasitismo intestinal.


ABSTRACT Intestinal parasites constitute an important public health problem at a global level, mainly affecting the pediatric population of tropical countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children 2 to 5 years of age in 17 community homes of the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare (ICBF) in the Industrial Zone and Cartagena de Indias Bay, Colombia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 207 children of both sexes. Samples were analyzed by coprology. There were no significant differences associated with sex and age (p>0.05). The frequency of enteroparasites in children aged 2 to 5 was 70.5 %, where 59.5% presented a single species of parasite, 34.2% two and 6.1% three and four species. The main protists (86.3%) found were Blastocystis hominis (60.2%) and Giardia lamblia (24.6%). In the group of Helminths (13.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (9.6%) and Hymenolepis nana (6.2%) were observed. Intestinal parasites continue to be an important public health problem in the Colombian tropics, especially among children in vulnerable areas of Cartagena, Colombia. There is a need to review policies aimed at reducing the frequency of intestinal parasitism.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Child, Preschool , Blastocystis , Giardia , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
9.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 36(2): 275-280, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020808

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo del estudio fue comparar diferentes métodos de concentración para recuperar la mayor cantidad de quistes de Giardia spp. a partir de muestras coprológicas. Se analizaron 100 muestras procedentes de hospitales de referencia nacional y se aplicaron cuatro métodos parasitológicos: concentración por sedimentación espontánea en tubo (TSET), Faust, gradiente de sucrosa de una fase y gradiente de sucrosa de dos fases. Se encontró que el método de gradiente de sucrosa de dos fases alcanzó resultados significativamente mejores en concentración de quistes (121 903 quistes/ml) y cantidad de detritos (6%), en comparación con los métodos de Faust (35 355 quistes/ml), concentración por sedimentación espontánea en tubo (20,145 quistes/ml) y gradiente de sucrosa de una fase (18 702 quistes/ml). Se concluye que el método más eficaz para la concentración y purificación de quistes de Giardia spp. a partir de muestras coprológicas es el método de gradiente de sucrosa de dos fases, lo que facilitaría los cultivos in vitro de Giardia spp.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare different methods of concentration to recover the largest number of Giardia spp. cysts from coprological samples. One hundred (100) samples from national reference hospitals were analyzed and four parasitological methods were applied: spontaneous tube sedimentation concentration (TSET), Faust, single-phase sucrose gradient, and two-phase sucrose gradient. The two-phase sucrose gradient method was found to achieve significantly better results in cyst concentration (121,903 cysts/ml) and amount of debris (6%), compared to Faust methods (35,355 cysts/ml), spontaneous tube sedimentation concentration (20,145 cysts/ml), and single-phase sucrose gradient (18,702 cysts/ml). It is concluded that the most effective method for the concentration and purification of Giardia spp. cysts from coprological samples is the two-phase sucrose gradient method, which would facilitate in vitro culture of Giardia spp.


Subject(s)
Humans , Centrifugation, Density Gradient/methods , Feces/parasitology , Giardia/isolation & purification , Peru
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 291-297, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular characterization of these pathogens in sewage may provide insight on their occurrence and prevalence in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in raw and treated sewage from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Samples were collected every two weeks during a year. Samples were concentrated, then DNA was extracted and subjected to a nested PCR targeting the Giardia 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. Species of Cryptosporidium were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). All raw sewage and 76% of the treated sewage were positive for Giardia; 84% of raw sewage samples and 8% of treated sewage were positive for Cryptosporidium. C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. parvum and C. suis were detected in 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% and 4% of raw sewage, respectively. C. muris was the only species found in treated sewage. Multiple species of Cryptosporidium were present in 19.04% of the raw sewage. Treated sewage water can pose a threat to human health. The speciation of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of non-common zoonotic species as C. suis and C. muris.


Resumo Cryptosporidium e Giardia são protozoários causadores de diarreia em animais e humanos. A caracterização molecular destes protozoários em esgoto pode prover dados ainda desconhecidos da ocorrência de espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi monitorar a ocorrência de Giardia e espécies de Cryptosporidium em esgoto bruto e tratado em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) de Londrina, Paraná. Amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado foram coletadas no período de um ano, com periodicidade quinzenal. A ocorrência destes protozoários foi caracterizada por meio de concentração das amostras e posterior extração de DNA seguida de nested-PCR para amplificação de fragmentos dos genes 18S rRNA de Giardia e 18S rRNA de Cryptosporidium. A caracterização das espécies de Cryptosporidium foi realizada por meio de análise por polimorfismo de comprimento do fragmento de restrição (RFLP) dos produtos obtidos. Foram coletadas no total 25 amostras de cada, esgoto bruto e esgoto tratado. Para Giardia, todas as amostras de esgoto bruto e 76% das de esgoto tratado foram positivas. Cryptosporidium esteve presente em 84% das amostras de esgoto bruto e em 8% do tratado. No esgoto tratado foi encontrado apenas C. muris, já nas amostras de esgoto bruto foram encontradas cinco espécies: C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. suis e C. parvum em 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% e 4%, respectivamente. A presença de espécies mistas foi observada em 19,04% das amostras. A presença de Giardia e Cryptosporidium em esgoto tratado pode pôr em risco a saúde humana. A discriminação de espécies de Cryptosporidium revelou a presença de espécies zoonóticas incomuns como C. suis e C. muris.


Subject(s)
Sewage/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Giardia/genetics
11.
Rev. patol. trop ; 48(2): 121-133, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025845

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the frequency of intestinal parasitoses in children in public day care centers applying parasitological and immunological diagnostic methods. Fecal samples from 121 children from six public daycare centers were analyzed using parasitological techniques. Epidemiological data were obtained through a questionnaire, where parents and / or guardians were asked, for instance, whether the children had contact with soil, ate raw food, such as vegetables or raw or undercooked meat, normally walked around barefoot or had contact with animals. Fecal samples from 82 children were also tested for Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. coproantigen using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which was also used for Entamoeba coproantigen detection only in samples that tested positive for the parasite by parasitological stool exam/optical microscopy. Intestinal parasite infection was noted in 23.1% (28/121) of the children. The most frequent parasite was Giardia intestinalis (13.2%), followed by Entamoeba coli (5.8%), Blastocystis spp. (1.7%), Endolimax nana (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.7%), Cystoisospora belli (0.8%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex (0.8%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Positivity for parasite infection using parasitological stool exams was significantly associated with age groups, with a higher frequency in 4 to 6 year old children (p=0.03). No association or significant variations were noted in the prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to the epidemiological variables studied. All samples were negative for Cryptosporidium sp. and Entamoeba histolytica detected by immunological testing, and 17.1% (14/82) children tested positive for Giardia intestinalis, although using parasitological exam/optical microscopy, only 14.6% (12/82) tested positive. The high incidence of intestinal parasites, especially protozoans, suggests probable interpersonal transmission among the children, environmental contamination, or even contaminated food/water intake. Thus, consolidation of preventive measures and efficient diagnostic resources as well as control of intestinal parasites and patient treatment are of utmost importance


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Parasitic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Giardia , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760340

ABSTRACT

This study examined complex infections with various enteropathogens and the genetic diversity of bovine norovirus (BNoV) in 932 fecal samples from diarrheic calves in South Korea. Overall, seventeen (1.8%) of the samples tested positive for BNoV following RT-PCR examination. All BNoV-positive samples were co-infected with other intestinal pathogens, including bovine Rotavirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Escherichia coli. The genetic diversity of the BNoVs shared high nucleotide identity (98.1–99.5%) and amino acid homology (93.5–98.1%) with genotype 2 BNoV (GIII.2) strains. In conclusion, BNoV infections with GIII genotypes were detected in complex infections of diarrheic calves in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Giardia , Korea , Norovirus , Rotavirus
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758957

ABSTRACT

Calf diarrhea caused by infectious agents is associated with economic losses in the cattle industry. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents and epidemiological characteristics of diarrhea in Korean native calves (KNC). In total, 207 diarrheal KNC aged less than 7 months were investigated. Fecal samples collected from the rectum were examined for causative agents using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR and the number of oocysts were counted. Fourteen causative agents were detected from 164 of the 207 diarrheal KNC. Rotavirus was the most common agent (34.8%), followed by Eimeria spp. (31.7%), Escherichia coli (22.0%), Giardia spp. (14.0%), Clostridium difficile (9.8%), bovine viral diarrhea virus (8.5%), coronavirus (7.9%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.3%), torovirus (6.7%), parvovirus (5.5%), norovirus (4.9%), kobuvirus (1.8%), adenovirus (1.2%), and Salmonella spp. (0.6%). About 95 (57.9%) of 164 calves were infected with a single causative agent and 42.1% were infected by multiple agents. No significant difference was observed in mortality between calves infected with a single agent and multiple agents. The occurrence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, Eimeria spp., kobuvirus, and Giardia spp. was significantly different based on onset age, and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by rotavirus or C. difficile was significantly different between seasons. This study help the understanding of KNC diarrhea for the development of an effective strategy for disease prevention and control, especially in Eastern provinces of South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Age of Onset , Animals , Cattle , Clostridioides difficile , Coronavirus , Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Eimeria , Epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Giardia , Kobuvirus , Korea , Mortality , Norovirus , Oocysts , Parvovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rectum , Rotavirus , Salmonella , Seasons , Torovirus
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761770

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are the main diarrhea-causing parasitic pathogens; however, their prevalence in Korea is unknown. Here, we conducted a survey to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of these 2 pathogens causing acute diarrhea in 8,571 patients hospitalized in 17 Regional Institute of Health Environment sites in Korea, during 2013–2016. C. parvum and G. duodenalis were detected and genotyped by nested PCR, and the isolate were molecularly characterized by sequencing the glycoprotein 60 (Gp60) and β-giardin genes, respectively. The overall prevalence of C. parvum and G. duodenalis was 0.37% (n=32) and 0.55% (n=47), respectively, and both pathogens were more prevalent in children under 9 years old. Molecular epidemiological analysis showed that the C. parvum isolates belonged to the IIa family and were subtyped as IIaA13G2R1, IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G2R1, and IIaA18G3R1. Analysis of the β-giardin gene fragment from G. duodenalis showed that all positive strains belong to assemblage A. This is the first report on the molecular epidemiology and subtyping of C. parvum and G. duodenalis in such a large number of diarrheal patients in Korea. These results highlight the need for continuous monitoring of these zoonotic pathogens and provide a basis for implementing control and prevention strategies. Further, the results might be useful for epidemiological investigation of the source of outbreak.


Subject(s)
Child , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Diarrhea , Genotype , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Glycoproteins , Humans , Korea , Molecular Epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761748

ABSTRACT

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are key players during an immune response at the mucosal surfaces, such as lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Giardia lamblia is an extracellular protozoan pathogen that inhabits the human small intestine. In this study, ILCs prepared from the lamina propria of mouse small intestine were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites. Transcriptional changes in G. lamblia-exposed ILCs resulted in identification of activation of several immune pathways. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-1β, and interferon-γ was increased, whereas levels of IL-13, IL-5, and IL-22, was maintained or reduced upon exposure to G. lamblia. Goup 3 ILC (ILC3) was found to be dominant amongst the ILCs, and increased significantly upon co-cultivation with G. lamblia trophozoites. Oral inoculation of G. lamblia trophozoites into mice resulted in their presence in the small intestine, of which, the highest number of parasites was detected at the 5 days-post infection. Increased ILC3 was observed amongst the ILC population at the 5 days-post infection. These findings indicate that ILC3 from the lamina propria secretes IL-17 in response to G. lamblia, leading to the intestinal pathology observed in giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Tract , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Giardiasis , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Intestine, Small , Lung , Lymphocytes , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Parasites , Pathology , Skin , Trophozoites
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761721

ABSTRACT

To identify the component(s) involved in cell cycle control in the protozoan Giardia lamblia, cells arrested at the G1/S- or G2-phase by treatment with nocodazole and aphidicolin were prepared from the synchronized cell cultures. RNA-sequencing analysis of the 2 stages of Giardia cell cycle identified several cell cycle genes that were up-regulated at the G2-phase. Transcriptome analysis of cells in 2 distinct cell cycle stages of G. lamblia confirmed previously reported components of cell cycle (PcnA, cyclin B, and CDK) and identified additional cell cycle components (NEKs, Mad2, spindle pole protein, and CDC14A). This result indicates that the cell cycle machinery operates in this protozoan, one of the earliest diverging eukaryotic lineages.


Subject(s)
Aphidicolin , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cyclin B , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, cdc , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Nocodazole , Spindle Poles
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 374-379, Dec. 2018. map, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-977260

ABSTRACT

En este trabajo se realizó un relevamiento de los informes del centro de salud ubicado en Vaqueros (Salta, Argentina) durante un período de 8 meses. Al mismo tiempo se determinó la concentración de Escherichia coli y de quistes de Giardia spp. en muestras procedentes de cuatro fuentes de agua diferentes. No se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la calidad del agua y los casos de diarrea. Sin embargo, mediante un cálculo de odds ratios, se pudo determinar que uno de los sistemas de potabilización estudiados actúa como factor de protección contra diarreas. El presente trabajo brinda información útil para la planificación de medidas preventivas por parte del sistema de salud local.


In this study, we analyzed the reports of the health care center located in Vaqueros (Salta, Argentina) over an 8-month period. Moreover, we determined the concentration of Escherichia coli and Giardia spp. cysts in samples from four different drinking water sources. A statistical relationship between water quality and cases of diarrhea could not be found. However, using an odds ratio calculation, it was possible to determine that one of the studied drinking water systems acts as a protection factor in cases of diarrhea. The present work provides useful information for planning preventive measures by the local health system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Water Quality , Water/parasitology , Registries , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Argentina , Incidence , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/parasitology
18.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(1): 1-10, 2 abr. 2018. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912735

ABSTRACT

Helminths and protozoa are examples of endoparasites that, during their biological cycles, can alternate between free-life stages and parasitic stages in the environment. Pets, such as dogs and cats, live together with men and play an important role in the society; however, these animals may carry a large number of parasites which, besides showing direct pathogenicity to the host, represent risks to the human health, as is the case of parasitic zoonoses. Public areas like parks, gardens, squares and beaches may offer risks to human users since these environments may contain feces deposited by parasitized dogs. The present study verified the occurrence of helminth eggs and/or protozoan cysts or oocysts in fecal samples collected from sand strips at the beaches Armação do Pântano do Sul, Campeche and Morro das Pedras, in the south of Florianópolis Island, Santa Catarina State (SC), during the summer period. Pet feces were collected in the 2016/2017 summer season, from December 2016 to February 2017. In the Laboratory of Animal Parasitology (CCA-UFSC), fecal samples were processed based on Willis-Mollay flotation technique and Hoffman sedimentation technique. Samples from all three analyzed beaches were positive for the presence of parasites and fecal material was found along the seashore, sites where people walk freely and barefoot. Of 104 fecal samples collected, 45 (43.27%) were positive for one or more parasites. The greatest prevalence was found in Campeche Beach, which had 72.22% positive samples. Ancylostomids were most prevalent, indicating that cutaneous larva migrans is likely to occur in humans. Other parasites such as Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara spp. and Giardia spp. were also detected in coproparasitological analyses. Based on the results, it was concluded that contamination of the beaches in Florianópolis Island, SC, constitutes a public health problem due to the possibility of zoonosis transmission. These results reinforce the importance of establishing health programs for parasite control and educational programs for elucidating the risks of transmission of these zoonoses to the population, as an attempt to reduce environmental contamination risks at beaches of seaside resorts.(AU)


Helmintos e protozoários são exemplos de endoparasitas que, durante seus ciclos biológicos, podem alternar fases de vida livre e de vida parasitária no ambiente. Animais de companhia, como cães e gatos, possuem convívio direto com o homem e desempenham importante papel na sociedade, porém estes animais podem possuir muitos parasitas próprios que, além da patogenicidade direta ao hospedeiro, representam riscos à saúde humana, no caso das zoonoses parasitárias. A utilização de áreas públicas como parques, jardins, praças e praias por estes animais, pode oferecer riscos aos seus frequentadores humanos, uma vez que pode ocorrer a deposição de fezes nesses ambientes por cães parasitados. O presente estudo investigou a ocorrência de ovos de helmintos e/ou cistos ou oocistos de protozoários em amostras de fezes coletadas nas faixas de areia das praias da Armação do Pântano do Sul, Campeche e Morro das Pedras, no sul da ilha de Florianópolis, Estado de Santa Cararina-SC, Brasil, durante o período de verão. As coletas de amostras de fezes de animais domésticos foram realizadas na temporada de verão 2016/2017, a partir de dezembro de 2016 até fevereiro de 2017. No Laboratório de Parasitologia Animal (CCA-UFSC), as amostras de fezes foram processadas pela técnica de flutuação de Willis-Mollay e pela técnica de sedimentação de Hoffman. Amostras colhidas nas três praias analisadas mostraram-se positivas para a presença de parasitos. Material fecal foi observado ao longo de toda orla, locais em que as pessoas caminham livremente e sem calçados. De um total de 104 amostras de fezes coletadas nas praias, 45 (43,27%) estavam positivas a um ou mais parasitas. A praia do Campeche foi a que apresentou maior prevalência, com 72,22% de amostras positivas. Os ancilostomídeos, responsáveis pela larva migrans cutânea em humanos, foram os mais prevalentes. Outros parasitas como Trichuris vulpis, Toxocara spp. e Giardia spp. também foram detectados nas análises coproparasitológicas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, concluímos que a contaminação das praias na Ilha de Florianópolis, SC, constitui um problema de saúde pública, devido à possibilidade de transmissão de zoonoses. Estes resultados reforçam a importância da implantação de programas sanitários de controle de parasitas e programas de educação, esclarecendo os riscos de transmissão destas zoonoses à população, a fim de reduzir os riscos de contaminação ambiental nas praias de balneários.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Bathing Beaches , Coliforms , Helminths/isolation & purification , Pets/parasitology , Ancylostoma/isolation & purification , Brazil , Giardia/isolation & purification , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/etiology
19.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(1): 51-55, 23/04/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046653

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A inserção das crianças em creches e pré-escolas tem constituído um importante dispositivo na atual configuração social. No entanto, o convívio permanente na creche/escola propicia o adoecimento das crianças com maior frequência quando comparadas com outras que permanecem em espaços familiares mais restritos, especialmente por enteroparasitos. Objetivos: O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp., considerados enteroparasitos oportunistas emergentes e reemergentes, e outros enteroparasitos em amostras de fezes de crianças de 2 a 6 anos de uma escola de educação infantil filantrópica. Casuística e Métodos: Participaram do estudo 32 crianças e a detecção de enteroparasitos foi feita pelo Método de Hoffmann, Pons e Janer. A identificação de Cryptosporidiumspp. foi realizada pela centrífugo-sedimentação formalina-éter seguido da coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. Para confirmação de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. foi utilizado o teste de ELISA (RIDASCREEN®). Resultados: A prevalência de enteroparasitos foi de 62,5%, com elevada frequência de Cryptosporidiumspp. (31%) e Giardia spp. (25%). A idade mais acometida por esses microrganismos emergentes e reemergentes foi de 3 e 4 anos. Conclusão: A partir do exposto, é de suma importância realizar processos de educação em saúde para famílias e funcionários das instituições escolares a respeito das principais formas de transmissão e medidas de prevenção de enteroparasitoses, a fim de evitar a disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos no ambiente escolar.


Introduction:The insertion of children in daycare center and pre-schools has been an important device in the current social configuration. However, t he p ermanent living in the daycare center makes the children sickness more frequently when compared to others who remain in more restricted family spaces, especially for enteroparasites. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia spp., emerging and re-emerging opportunistic enteroparasites, and other enteroparasites in faeces samples from children aged 2 to 6 years old of a philanthropic daycare center. Patients andMethods:Thirty-two children participated in the study and the detection of enteroparasites was carried out by the method of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Identification of Cryptosporidium spp. was c arried out by centrifugal-sedimentation formalin-ether followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. For confirmation of Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia spp. the ELISA test (RIDASCREEN®) was used. Results:The prevalence of enteroparasites was 62.5%, with a high frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. (31%) and Giardiaspp. (25%). The age most affected by these emerging and re-emerging microorganisms was 3 and 4 years old. Conclusion:From the above, health education processes for families and staff of scholar institutions on the main forms of transmission and prevention of enteroparasitoses are of paramount importance in order to avoid the spread of pathogenic microorganisms in the school environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Cryptosporidium , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Giardia
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742282

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a new multiplex real-time PCR detection method for 3 species of waterborne protozoan parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis) identified as major causes of traveler's diarrhea. Three target genes were specifically and simultaneously detected by the TaqMan probe method for multiple parasitic infection cases, including Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and internal transcribed spacer 1 for C. cayetanensis. Gene product 21 for bacteriophage T4 was used as an internal control DNA target for monitoring human stool DNA amplification. TaqMan probes were prepared using 4 fluorescent dyes, FAM™, HEX™, Cy5™, and CAL Fluor Red® 610 on C. parvum, G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis, and bacteriophage T4, respectively. We developed a novel primer-probe set for each parasite, a primer-probe cocktail (a mixture of primers and probes for the parasites and the internal control) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis, and a protocol for this detection method. Multiplex real-time PCR with the primer-probe cocktail successfully and specifically detected the target genes of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and C. cayetanensis in the mixed spiked human stool sample. The limit of detection for our assay was 2×10 copies for C. parvum and for C. cayetanensis, while it was 2×10³ copies for G. lamblia. We propose that the multiplex real-time PCR detection method developed here is a useful method for simultaneously diagnosing the most common causative protozoa in traveler's diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage T4 , Cryptosporidium parvum , Cryptosporidium , Cyclospora , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , DNA , Fluorescent Dyes , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Glutamate Dehydrogenase , Humans , Limit of Detection , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oocysts , Parasites , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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