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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879193

ABSTRACT

To systemically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and co-ronary heart disease. CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved on computer, and the randomized clinical trial(RCT) on Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills in treating angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, which were published from the database establishment to December 31, 2019, were comprehensively collected. Literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted independently by two researchers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Literature methodology quality evaluation was conducted with use of the Cochrane Handbook 5.3.0(bias risk assessment tool). Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3.0 software. A total of 10 RCTs were included. The results of the Meta-analysis showed that as compared with conventional Western medicine alone, the application of Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment further improved the total effective rate and electrocardiogram effect(RR=1.43,95%CI[1.20,1.71],P<0.000 1). There were statistically significant differences in the number of angina attacks, the duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. In terms of safety indicators, four studies reported adverse reactions in the experimental group, including facial flu-shing, tachycardia, dizziness, dyspnea, nausea and other symptoms. Based on the existing findings, in the treatment of angina pectoris and coronary heart disease, Gingko Ketone Ester Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine can improve the clinical total effective rate, electrocardiogram effect, number of angina attacks, duration of angina and the amount of nitroglycerin used. However, in the included studies, due to some methodological quality problems which would impact the reliability of literature results more high-quality randomized controlled trials are still needed for further verification.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Esters , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Ketones/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879093

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatographytandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was established for the determination of caffeine in commercially available Ginkgo Folium. The samples were extracted by ultrasonic method with methanol, and separated on Waters CORTECS T3 column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.7 μm), with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid solution-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution for gradient elution, at flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1); column temperature of 30 ℃, and injection volume of 2 μL. Mass spectrometry was conducted at ESI~+ multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode; quantitative analysis was conducted with external standard method. The results showed that in the range of 0.099 6-9.96 ng·mL~(-1), there was a good linear relationship between the mass concentration of caffeine and the peak area, R~2=0.999; the average recovery was 84.51%, with RSD of 6.2%. The results of precision, repeatability and stability showed that the RSD was 5.1%, 5.9%, 7.2%, respectively. The content range of caffeine in 10 batches of Ginkgo Folium was 1.52-60.86 μg·kg~(-1). In conclusion, this method is accurate, reliable and reproducible, which provides a reference for the safety study of Ginkgo Folium.


Subject(s)
Caffeine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ginkgo biloba , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879070

ABSTRACT

The physical properties of ginkgo leaves extract(GLE) are the critical quality attributes for the control of the manufacturing process of ginkgo leaves preparations. In this study, 53 batches of GLE with different sources from the real world were used as the objects to carry out the research from 3 levels. First, based on micromeritics evaluation method, a total of 29 physical attribute quality parameters in five dimensions were comprehensively characterized, with a total of 1 537 data points. Further, with use of physical fingerprinting technology combined with similarity evaluation, the powder physical properties of 53 batches of GLE showed obvious differences from an overall perspective, and the similarity of the physical fingerprints was 0.876 to 1.000. Secondly, hierarchical clustering analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) models were constructed to realize the reliable identification and differentiation of real-world materials produced by GLE from different sources. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) model was used to create GLE material Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts. It was found that the SPE score of B_(21) powder exceeded the 99% confidence control limit by 22.495 9, and the SPE scores of A_1 and C_(10) powder exceeded the 95% confidence control limit by 16.099 2, realizing the determination of abnormal samples in the materials of GLE from the production in real world. Finally, the physical quality control method of GLE in the production process of ginkgo leaves preparations was established in this study, providing a reference for the quality control methods of ginkgo leaves preparations in their manufacturing process.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginkgo biloba , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Powders , Quality Control
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879069

ABSTRACT

Spatial distribution uniformity is the critical quality attribute(CQA) of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets, a variety of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation of the spatial distribution uniformity of active pharmaceutical ingredients(APIs) in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets is important in ensuring their stable and controllable quality. In this study, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to construct the spatial distribution map of API concentration based on three prediction models, further to realize the visualization research on the spatial distribution uniformity of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets. The region of interest(ROI) was selected from each Ginkgo Leaves Tablet, with length and width of 50 pixels, and a total of 2 500 pixels. Each pixel had 288 spectral channels, and the number of content prediction data could reach 1×10~5 for a single sample. The results of the three models showed that the Partial Least Squares(PLS) model had the highest prediction accuracy, with calibration set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.987, prediction set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.942, root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) of 0.160%, and root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.588%. The classical least-squares(CLS) model had a greater prediction error, with the RMSEP of 0.867%. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Square(MCR-ALS) model showed the worst predictive ability among the three models, and it couldn't realize content prediction. Based on the prediction results of PLS and CLS models, the spatial distribution map of APIs concentration was obtained through three-dimensional data reconstruction. Furthermore, histogram method was used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of API. The data showed that the spatial distribution of APIs in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets was relatively uniform. The study explored the feasibility of visualization of spatial distribution of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets based on three models. The results showed that PLS model had the highest prediction accuracy, and MCR-ALS model had the lowest prediction accuracy. The research results could provide a new strategy for the visualization method of quality control of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tablets
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879059

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Ginkgo Leaf Tablets(GLT) in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction(ACI). Seven databases both at home and abroad were systematically retrieved from their establishment to March 2020. The data of the included studies were extracted after review and screening. The quality of the included studies was assessed with the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool, and then the included studies were put into Meta-analysis by RevMan 5.3 to evaluate the total cli-nical efficiency, neurological function score, blood lipids and incidence of adverse reactions in treatment of ACI by GLT. Finally, the GRADE system was adopted to evaluate the evidence quality of each outcome indicator and form recommendations. Ten studies involving 886 participants were included, all of which were of low quality. Meta-analysis results showed that,(1)in terms of the total clinical efficiency, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone(RR_(NDS)=1.20, 95%CI[1.06, 1.36], P=0.005; RR_(NIHSS)=1.35, 95%CI[1.09, 1.69], P=0.007), and there was no statistical difference between GLT+Xuesaitong Injection+Wes-tern medicine and Xuesaitong Injection+Western medicine(RR=1.16, 95%CI[1.00, 1.35], P=0.05).(2)In terms of improving neurological function score, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone(MD_(NIHSS[moderate(severe)])=-1.55, 95%CI[-2.22,-0.88], P<0.000 01; MD_(NIHSS(severe))=-7.51, 95%CI[-8.00,-7.02], P<0.000 01; MD_(NDS)=-1.36, 95%CI[-2.39,-0.33], P=0.01), and GLT+Danshen Injection+Western medicine was superior to Danshen Injection+Western medicine(MD_(NDS)=-3.09, 95%CI[-3.84,-2.34], P<0.000 01).(3)In terms of regulating blood lipids, GLT+Western medicine was superior to Wes-tern medicine alone(MD_(TC)=-1.40, 95%CI[-2.13,-0.66], P=0.000 2; MD_(TG)=-1.29, 95%CI[-1.86,-0.73], P<0.000 01; MD_(LDL-C)=-1.48, 95%CI[-2.91,-0.04], P=0.04; MD_(HDL-C)=0.07, 95%CI[0.02, 0.12], P=0.009).(4)In terms of incidence of adverse reactions, there was no statistical difference between GLT+Western medicine and Western medicine alone(RR=0.63, 95%CI[0.30, 1.32], P=0.22). The results of the evaluation showed that the evidence level of each outcome indicator was low, and the recommendation was at weak level. In conclusion, GLT+Western medicine could improve the total clinical efficiency, neurological function score, and blood lipid status, with a low incidence of adverse reactions. However, due to the small amount of included stu-dies, low study quality and low level of evidence, it is expected to carry out clinical studies with standardized design and large sample size in the future to further investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of GLT in the treatment of ACI.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Plant Leaves , Tablets , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878918

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with band screening method and modeling algorithm can be used to achieve the rapid and non-destructive detection of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) production process. This paper focused on the ginkgo leaf macroporous resin purification process, which is the key technology of Yinshen Tongluo Capsules, in order to achieve the rapid determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in effluent. The abnormal spectrum was eliminated by Mahalanobis distance algorithm, and the data set was divided by the sample set partitioning method based on joint X-Y distances(SPXY). The key information bands were selected by synergy interval partial least squares(siPLS); based on that, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling(CARS), successive projections algorithm(SPA) and Monte Carlo uninformative variable(MC-UVE) were used to select wavelengths to obtain less but more critical variable data. With selected key variables as input, the quantitative analysis model was established by genetic algorithm joint extreme learning machine(GA-ELM) algorithm. The performance of the model was compared with that of partial least squares regression(PLSR). The results showed that the combination with siPLS-CARS-GA-ELM could achieve the optimal model performance with the minimum number of variables. The calibration set correlation coefficient R_c and the validation set correlation coefficient R_p of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were all above 0.98. The root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC), the root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) and the relative standard errors of prediction(RSEP) were 0.030 0, 0.029 2 and 8.88%, 0.041 4, 0.034 8 and 8.46%, 0.029 3, 0.027 1 and 10.10%, respectively. Compared with the PLSR me-thod, the performance of the GA-ELM model was greatly improved, which proved that NIRS combined with GA-ELM method has a great potential for rapid determination of effective components of TCM.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Plant Leaves , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
7.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 734-742, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142590

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is defined as the perception of sound without its actual presence in the environment. It has been the subject of a great number of studies, especially considering its consequences on patient's quality of life. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing aids and/or Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on tinnitus in patients with hearing loss. Methods: This is a trial randomized-controlled treatment, parallel, double-blind, with three-arm. Thirty-three adults subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 — subjects undergoing drug therapy with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761; group 2 — individuals fitted with digital hearing aids; group 3 — individuals submitted to drug therapy with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and using hearing aids. The tinnitus handicap inventory and visual analogue scale were used to evaluate self-perception of tinnitus loudness and severity before treatment and 90 days after treatment. Results: This study demonstrated a significant correlation between tinnitus handicap inventory and visual analogue scale, before and after treatment. We observed a significant improvement in self-perception of tinnitus loudness and severity after 90 days of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and/or hearing aids. No correlation was found between tinnitus onset time and self-perception of tinnitus loudness and severity. Hearing aids were more effective in patients with a shorter tinnitus onset time and Ginkgo biloba extract was effective regardless of tinnitus duration. Conclusions: It was possible to prove the effectiveness of the hearing aids and/or Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 treatment, which shows success in the control of tinnitus contributing to the improvement of this symptom.


Resumo Introdução: O zumbido é definido como a percepção de um som sem a sua presença real no ambiente e tem sido objeto de um grande número de estudos, especialmente devido às suas consequências na qualidade de vida do paciente. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito de próteses auditivas e/ou extrato de Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 sobre o zumbido em pacientes com perda auditiva. Método: Ensaio clínico randomizado controlado, paralelo, duplo-cego, com três braços. Trinta e três indivíduos adultos foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo 1 - indivíduos submetidos à terapia medicamentosa com extrato de Ginkgo biloba EGb 761; Grupo 2 - indivíduos equipados com próteses auditivas digitais; Grupo 3 - indivíduos submetidos à terapia medicamentosa com extrato de Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 e próteses auditivas. O Tinnitus handicap inventory e a escala visual analógica foram usados para avaliar a autopercepção de intensidade e da gravidade do zumbido antes do tratamento e 90 dias após o tratamento. Resultados: Este estudo demonstrou uma correlação significante entre o Tinnitus handicap inventory e a escala visual analógica, antes e após o tratamento. Observou-se melhoria significativa na autopercepção de loudness e da intensidade do zumbido após 90 dias de tratamento com extrato de Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 e/ou prótese auditiva. Não foi encontrada correlação entre o tempo de início do zumbido e a autopercepção da intensidade e gravidade do zumbido. As próteses auditivas foram mais eficazes em pacientes com menor tempo de início de zumbido e o extrato de Ginkgo biloba foi eficaz, independentemente da duração do zumbido. Conclusões: Foi possível comprovar a eficácia do tratamento com a prótese auditiva e/ou extrato de Ginkgo biloba EGb 761, o que demonstra sucesso no controle do zumbido e contribui para a melhoria desse sintoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tinnitus/drug therapy , Hearing Aids , Quality of Life , Plant Extracts , Double-Blind Method , Ginkgo biloba
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828015

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba and Panax notoginseng are both herb medicines for cerebrovascular disease, and play an active role in treating ischemic cerebrovascular disease(ICVD). Their mechanisms of action include antioxidant stress, nerve protection, vascular protection. According to the comparative study of literatures, G. biloba has a certain protective effect from the early stage of free radical formation throughout the whole process of causing cell inflammation and apoptosis in antioxidant stress; while P. notoginseng has mainly anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis effects. In the nerve protection and repair of nerve damage caused by glutamate, both could promote neurogenesis, repair damaged axons and protect nerve cells. In addition, G. biloba could also relieve neurotoxicity caused by glutamate damage, while P. notoginseng have a unique effect in repairing blood-brain barrier(BBB) and blood vessel regeneration. In clinic, they are used as auxiliary drugs in combination with thrombolytic therapy, and play curative effects in alleviating inflammation, eliminating edema, improving the cure rate and the prognosis. For cerebral diseases caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, G. biloba could reduce inflammation and improve cognition. In addition, G. biloba could protect neurocyte by adjusting the secretion of dopamine in vivo, and has a certain effect on antidepressant diseases, which however needs further studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Plants, Medicinal
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827945

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the characteristics of adverse drug reaction/adverse event(ADR/AE) of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills and evaluate the safety of clinical use after marketing, 407 ADR/AE case report data of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills collected by National Center for ADR Monitoring System during 2009-2018 was systematically analyzed, and its general characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The results showed that among the 407 cases of spontaneous reporting system(SRS) data, 401 cases were general ADR/AE, accounting for 98.5%, and 6 cases were severe ADR/AE, accounting for 1.5%; there were more females than males(171/150) in ADR/AE, and they were mainly middle-aged and elderly people aged 45-64 years(152 cases, accounting for 37.35%); gastrointestinal system(23.89%) was mostly involved in ADR/AE. The top ten clinical symptoms were nausea(15.49%), dizziness(9.88%), vomiting(8.11%), rash(5.60%), chest tightness(5.46%), palpitations(5.31%), pruritus(4.72%), headache(4.57%), abdominal distension(3.83%), gastric dysfunction(3.54%); proportional reporting ratio(PRR) and Bayesian confidence progressive neural network method(BCPNN) were adopted to mine ADR/AE warning signals. Due to the small sample size, there were only 0-2 ADR/AE cases with various symptoms in many quarters, with no warning signal by PRR and BCPNN methods. The findings suggest that ADR/AE of Ginkgo biloba Dropping Pills based on SRS system was not recorded in the package insert, and further active monitoring studies shall be conducted to improve relevant ADR/AE information and pay attention to its clinical drug safety issues.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Bayes Theorem , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Networks, Computer , Pharmacovigilance
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785342

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The pollen calendar is the simplest forecasting method for pollen concentrations. As pollen concentrations are liable to seasonal variations due to alterations in climate and land-use, it is necessary to update the pollen calendar using recent data. To attenuate the impact of considerable temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations on the pollen calendar, it is essential to employ a new methodology for its creation.METHODS: A pollen calendar was produced in Korea using data from recent observations, and a new method for creating the calendar was proposed, considering both risk levels and temporal resolution of pollen concentrations. A probability distribution was used for smoothing concentrations and determining risk levels. Airborne pollen grains were collected between 2007 and 2017 at 8 stations; 13 allergenic pollens, including those of alder, Japanese cedar, birch, hazelnut, oak, elm, pine, ginkgo, chestnut, grasses, ragweed, mugwort and Japanese hop, were identified from the collected grains.RESULTS: The concentrations of each pollen depend on locations and seasons due to large variability in species distribution and their environmental condition. In the descending order of concentration, pine, oak and Japanese hop pollens were found to be the most common in Korea. The pollen concentrations were high in spring and autumn, and those of oak and Japanese hop were probably the most common cause of allergy symptoms in spring and autumn, respectively. High Japanese cedar pollen counts were observed in Jeju, while moderate concentrations were in Jeonju, Gwangju and Busan.CONCLUSIONS: A new methodology for the creation of a pollen calendar was developed to attenuate the impact of large temporal and spatial variability in pollen concentrations. This revised calendar should be available to the public and allergic patients to prevent aggravation of pollen allergy.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Ambrosia , Artemisia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Betula , Climate , Corylus , Cryptomeria , Forecasting , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Methods , Poaceae , Pollen , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effects of notoginseng, gingko leaf and rhodiola on cardiac functions and the serum inflammatory factors interleukin-6,interleukin-10, and TNF-α of rats with hypoxia deacclimatization, to explore the mechanism of hypoxia detoxification.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were randomly divided into notoginseng group(n=10), gingko leaf group(n=10), rhodiola group(n=10) and high altitude control group(n=10) after fed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber(simulated altitude of 5 000 m) for 3 month, while 10 rats fed at normal pressure and oxygen environment for 3 month were used as the plain control group. Rats in notoginseng group, gingko leaf group and rhodiola group were treated with notoginseng, gingko leaf tablets or rhodiola suspension through intragastric administration (200 mg/kg,twice a day, for 10 days). After the rats got intraperitoneal anesthesia with 10% urethane, 5 min pulmonary artery pressure curve were traced continuously while pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Left and right ventricular systolic pressure (VSP) and ventricular diastolic pressure (VEDP), the hemodynamic parameters were detected through a multi-channel physiological recorder. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.@*RESULTS@#Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), left vent-ricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP),IL-6,and IL-10 were higher in notoginseng group, gingko leafgroup, rhodiola group and high altitude control group than those in plain control group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The contents of MDA and TNF-α were higher while the level of SOD was lower in rhodiola group and high altitude control group than those in plain control group(P<0.01). The contents of MDA and TNF-α were lower while the level of SOD was higher in notoginseng group, gingko leaf group and rhodiola group than those in high altitude control group(P<0.01). The levels of RV,RVHI,RVSP,RVEDP,LVSP,LVEDP,IL-10 and TNF-α were statistically changed in notoginseng group than those in gingko leaf group and rhodiola group(P<0.05orP<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Notoginseng, gingkoleaf and rhodiola can enhance antioxidant capacity of body and improve ventricular functions and Notoginseng, gingko leaf and rhodiola can effectively enhance the functions of ventricular and hypoxia tolerance and inhibit the expressions of inflammatory factors in rats during the hypoxia deacclimatization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Heart , Physiology , Hypoxia , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rhodiola , Chemistry , Tablets
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763303

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES.: Sodium salicylate (SS) is well known for its ototoxic properties that induce functional and morphological changes in the cochlea and brain. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely used for treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases; however, its effects on salicylate-induced ototoxicity remain unclear. Herein, we examined the effects of EGb 761 (EGb), a standard form of GBE, on the plasticity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B) in the inferior colliculus (IC) following SS administration. METHODS.: Seven-week-old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24) were randomly allocated to control, SS, EGb, and EGb+SS groups. The SS group received a single intraperitoneal SS injection (350 mg/kg), the EGb group received EGb orally for 5 consecutive days (40 mg/kg), and the EGb+SS group received EGb for 5 consecutive days, followed by an SS injection. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after SS administration. GluN2B expression was examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS.: There were no significant differences in ABR threshold shifts among the groups. The expression of the GluN2B protein normalized by which of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was significantly lower in the EGb+SS group, as compared to the SS group (P=0.012). Weak and diffused GluN2B immunoreactivity was detected in the IC neural cells of the EGb+SS group, while those of the SS group exhibited strong and diffused GluN2B positivity. CONCLUSION.: EGb may play a role in regulating the GluN2B expression in the IC of salicylate-induced ototoxicity model.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Brain , Cochlea , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Ginkgo biloba , Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate , Immunohistochemistry , Inferior Colliculi , N-Methylaspartate , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Oxidoreductases , Plastics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium Salicylate
14.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 165-171, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760548

ABSTRACT

Although the functions of a standardized extract of Gingko biloba leaves (EGb 761®) has been reported with regard to neurobiological properties, no attention has been paid to the impact of EGb 761® on the neuronal regulation of energy homeostasis. To evaluate the hypothesis that EGb 761® affect the secretion of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and the activation of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4), which are involved in the neuronal circuitries that control energy homeostasis by inducing the transfer of information about the influx of energy to the brain, we examined whether EGb 761® can stimulate PYY secretion in the enteroendocrine NCI-H716 cells and if EGb 761® can activate FFA4 in FFA4-expressing cells. In NCI-H716 cells, EGb 761® stimulated PYY secretion and the EGb 761®-induced PYY secretion was involved in the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the activation of FFA4. Furthermore, in FFA4-expressing cells, EGb 761® activated FFA4. These results suggest that EGb 761® may affect the control of energy homeostasis via the regulation of PYY secretion and FFA4 activation.


Subject(s)
Brain , Ginkgo biloba , Homeostasis , Neurons , Tyrosine
15.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 126-137, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tree pollen causes allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated children who diagnosed as rhinitis or asthma, living in Busan, for tree allergen sensitization, component allergen, oral allergy syndrome, and the relationship between pollen counts and allergen sensitization.METHODS: Pollen were collected in Busan, from January 1 to December 31, 2017, using a Rotorod sampler and enumerated using a microscope. We conducted a study of children with rhinitis or asthma at Busan St. Mary's Hospital in 2017, administered an ISAAC questionnaire, and an oral allergy syndrome survey. Serum specific Ig E tests were performed.RESULTS: Among the 57 patients, the mean age was 9.3 years. The pollen counts in decreasing order were as follows: pine, alder, oak, juniper, beech, ginkgo, and birch. For sensitization, birch and alder 35.1%, Japanese cedar 19.3%, juniper 17.5%, pine 10.5%, and Japanese cypress 8.2%. The component Ig E was tested in 27 patients. Bet v 1 had a high correlation with birch, alder, and peach. Bet v 2 showed a statistically significant correlation with all tree pollen except cypress. Bet v 4 did not have any apparent correlation. Bet v 6 had the same pattern as Bet v 2, but correlation coefficient was higher than that of Bet v 2. Oral allergy syndrome was noted in 7 patients, including peach, peanut, apple, tomato, kiwi, and sesame.CONCLUSIONS: Alder and juniper are clinically important tree pollens in Busan. These pollens cause sensitization to birch and Japanese cedar by cross-reaction.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Arachis , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Betula , Child , Cryptomeria , Cupressus , Fagus , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Juniperus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Pollen , Prunus persica , Rhinitis , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sesamum , Trees
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 1017-1024, july/aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967196

ABSTRACT

The toxic potential at the cellular level of industrialized Ginkgo biloba L. leaves was evaluated in meristematic cells of Allium cepa at concentrations of 0.1; 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml. The industrialized products, from four pharmaceutical laboratories, were identified as A, B, C and D. Cell-level toxicity of dehydrated ginkgo leaf tea was also evaluated at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30 and 0.60 mg/ml. Dehydrated products were purchased from herbalists certified by ANVISA. The roots were exposed to teas and processed products for 24 and 48 hours. The results were submitted to the Chi-square test at 5%. However, industrialized ginkgo products at all concentrations caused antiproliferative effect. Also, the products purchased in pharmacies did not induce significant changes to root meristems. Therefore, industrialized ginkgo promoted cytotoxicity, however, they were not genotoxic to the bioassay used.


Avaliou-se, em células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa, o potencial tóxico em nível celular de folhas de Ginkgo biloba L. industrializadas, nas concentrações 0,1; 0,2 e 0,4 mg/mL. Os produtos industrializados, oriundos de quatro laboratórios farmacêuticos, foram identificados como A, B, C e D. Também avaliou-se a toxicidade em nível celular de chás de folhas de ginkgo desidratadas, nas concentrações 0,15; 0,30 e 0,60 mg/mL. Os produtos desidratados foram adquiridos em ervanários certificados pela ANVISA. As raízes ficaram expostas aos chás e produtos industrializados por 24 e 48 horas. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste Qui-quadrado, a 5%. No entanto, os produtos de ginkgo industrializados, em todas as concentrações, causaram efeito antiproliferativo. Ainda, os produto adquiridos em farmácias não induziram alterações em número significativo aos meristemas de raízes. Portanto, os ginkgos industrializados promoveram citotoxicidade, porém, não foram genotóxicos frente ao bioensaio utilizado.


Subject(s)
Cell Division , Ginkgo biloba , Excipients , Cytotoxins
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current overview aimed to present the effect of herbal medicines on cognitive function among menopausal women. METHODS: Two separate authors performed systematic search of the 3 databases of (the MEDLINE Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register Trials) from inception to January 2018. Methodological quality of each study was assessed using the AMSTAR. RESULTS: According to 2 reviews, soy seems to be effective in enhancing summary cognitive function and visual memory. The effect of isoflavones on cognition was affected by treatment duration as six weeks of treatment improved some dimensions of cognitive parameters, including mental flexibility and planning, and longer treatment period (6 months) improved category digit span test, digit symbol test, and visual scanning test score. The effect of phytoestrogen on cognitive function of menopausal women might be altered age, gender, ethnicity, menopausal status, dosage, and length of treatment, types of cognitive test, location, types of soy, and types of phytoestrogen. Combination of Gingko with ginseng could not improve sustained attention, episode memory, category generation or frontal lobe function. Gingko biloba had no significant effect on planning, memory and sustained attention, except for its limited effect on mental flexibility in late menopause. In addition, other herbal medicines like black cohosh showed no effective beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Phytoestrogen, soy and isoflavones might have a limited beneficial effect on some aspects of cognition. The phytoestrogens affecting cognition might be modified by age, gender, ethnicity, menopausal status, dosage, and length of treatment, types of cognitive test, location, types of soy, and types of phytoestrogen.


Subject(s)
Cimicifuga , Cognition , Female , Frontal Lobe , Ginkgo biloba , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Isoflavones , Memory , Menopause , Panax , Phytoestrogens , Pliability
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Local administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) to the inner ear induces sensorineural hearing loss. Several studies have shown the otoprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Moreover, EGb 761 has been reported to activate Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). The present study was designed to investigate whether EGb 761 prevents 3-NP-induced sensorineural hearing loss and determine its effects on the expression of SIRT1. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: control group receiving vehicle of 3-NP, EGb group receiving EGb 761, 3-NP group receiving 3-NP, and EGb+3-NP group receiving EGb 761 and 3-NP. EGb 761 was given orally for 5 days. The 3-NP solution was injected into the tympanum 3 days after the start of EGb 761 administration. The auditory brainstem response was recorded before and after the injection. At 4 weeks after the administration of 3-NP or vehicle of 3-NP, cochleae were harvested, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for SIRT1 antibody were performed. RESULTS: EGb+3-NP group showed significantly lower threshold shifts than 3-NP group. There was a significant preservation of type II fibrocytes and spiral ganglion cells in EGb+3-NP group than in 3-NP group. In EGb+3-NP group, there was a significantly greater number of SIRT1 immunopositive type II fibrocytes and spiral ganglion cells than in 3-NP group. Calculating the percentage of SIRT1 immunoreactive type II fibrocytes and spiral ganglion cells in viable type II fibrocytes and spiral ganglion cells, respectively, EGb+3-NP group showed significantly higher SIRT1 immunoreactive cells than 3-NP group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EGb 761 may prevent hearing loss induced by 3-NP in an acute ototoxic animal model, which appears to be related with SIRT1 expression.


Subject(s)
Cochlea , Ear, Inner , Ear, Middle , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Ginkgo biloba , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hearing , Hematoxylin , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1 , Spiral Ganglion
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776924

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activities and adverse side effects of ginkgolic acids (GAs), major components in extracts from the leaves and seed coats of Ginkgo biloba L, have been intensively studied. However, there are few reports on their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of GA (17 : 1), one of the most abundant components of GAs, were investigated. Kinetic analysis indicated that human and rat liver microsomes shared similar metabolic characteristics of GA (17 : 1) in phase I and II metabolisms. The drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in GA (17 : 1) metabolism were human CYP1A2, CYP3A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15, which were confirmed with an inhibition study of human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The MTT assays indicated that the cytotoxicity of GA (17 : 1) in HepG2 cells occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that GA (17 : 1) had less cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes than in HepG2 cells and that the toxicity was enhanced through CYP1A- and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salicylates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765180

ABSTRACT

This study reviews evidence for the use of acetyl-choline esterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in treating Alzheimer's patients for the past decades. Even though large number of clinical trials have been conducted to prove the efficacy of these drugs in various clinical situations, questions remain to be answered due to the use of heterogeneous subject population, trial designs, and measurement tools in these studies. Many drugs with unproven clinical benefits, including vitamins, ginko biloba extracts, anti-inflammatory agents, estrogen hormone, and statins, are commonly prescribed in real-world settings for dementia patients. Despite the lack of clinical benefits statistically proven by clinical trials or meta-analyses, anecdotal dramatic improvements in some patients may foster such practices. A further look into why some patients benefit from these medications, while other don't, may shed light on future individually tailored medicine for dementia patients. This study provides a brief review of currently existing immuno-therapeutics in the hope that we can learn from the failures of the amyloid-based active and passive immunization. Issues that we need to address for the successful development of new anti-AD drugs include : 1) the brain pathology precedes clinical symptoms by several decades, 2) we need biological markers that reliably reflect cognitive or functional impairment of AD patients, and 3) we need more detailed and plausible explanations for our brain immune responses and neurodegenerative changes.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Biomarkers , Brain , Dementia , Estrogens , Ginkgo biloba , Hope , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Immunization, Passive , Pathology , Vitamins
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