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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928079

ABSTRACT

This clinical value-oriented comprehensive evaluation of drugs was carried out in accordance with Guidelines for Management of Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), with the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods adopted. Based on the evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, clinical medicine, pharmacoeconomics, mathematical statistics, and health technology evaluation(HTA), the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection was evaluated from the "6+1" dimension by giving weight to the criterion level and index level and calculating with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0. After entering the market, Ginkgolide Injection has been subjected to phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS)-based data monitoring, systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity assays, active monitoring, and RCTs, and the evidence of safety was sufficient. The results of active monitoring showed that the incidence of adverse reactions was 0.09%(rare), mainly manifested as flushing, dizziness, rash, nausea, and vomiting. According to the nested case-control study, the adverse reactions of this drug had nothing to do with the product batch, implying that the drug quality was controllable. The adverse reactions mainly resulted from the pharmacodynamic reactions. Because the drug was effective in resisting platelet aggregation, the resulting adverse reactions such as flushing, dizziness, headache, and phlebitis were caused by vasodilation. Skin rash and gastrointestinal symptoms were mainly attributed to the patients' sensitivity to drugs and their own allergic constitution. According to the sufficiency of evidence and the incidence of adverse reactions in the safety research, the safety of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. The results of Meta-analysis showed that Ginkgolide Injection combined with conventional western medicine was superior to conventional western medicine in improving the clinical effective rate, neurological function score, and activity of daily living score of patients with cerebral infarction. The validity evidence was evaluated according to the PICO principle to be high. According to the GREAD evaluation principle, the quality of such evidence as clinical effective rate, National Institute of Health stroke scale(NIHSS), and Barthel Index(BI) was evaluated, and the results demonstrated that the evidence quality of clinical effective rate and activity of daily living score was medium. The effectiveness of Ginkgolide Injection was grade A. According to the economic report of Ginkgolide Injection, it had short-term and long-term pharmacoeconomic advantages in the treatment of ischemic stroke, and the economic evidence value was good. According to the CASP economic evaluation checklist, the overall quality evaluation results of the economic report are basically clear. To be specific, the economic evidence quality was high. Based on the comprehensive economic evidence quality and economic value, the economy of this drug was grade A. The innovation of this product was evaluated from three aspects: clinical innovation, enterprise service system innovation, and industrial innovation. Ginkgolide Injection could be used 24 h after intravenous thrombolysis for improving patients' neurological function without increasing bleeding, indicating its important clinical innovation. There were many innovations in ensuring drug supply, especially at the grass roots, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, which has provided reference for establishing enterprise philosophy, managing drug resources, developing process and technology, and determining enterprise management and marketing. Therefore, its innovation was grade A. The drug had no special medication plan in use, exhibiting good suitability for doctors, nurses, and patients. The suitability was grade B. Compared with similar drugs, its price was at a medium level, meaning good affordability, sufficient production capacity, and easy accessibility. Its accessibility was therefore grade B. This drug belonged to Chinese medicinal injection. The large-sample real-world research revealed rich human use experience, so it was grade C for the traditional Chinese medicine characteristic. According to the comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of Ginkgolide Injection in the treatment of cerebral infarction fell into class A. It is suggested that it can be transformed into the relevant policy results of basic clinical medication management according to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Ginkgolides/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887977

ABSTRACT

Ginkgolides,the unique terpenoids in Ginkgo biloba,have a significant effect on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Metabolic regulation and synthetic biology strategies are efficient methods to obtain high-quality ginkgolides. The present study reviewed the cloning and functions of genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of ginkgolides,as well as relevant studies of omics,genetic transformation,and metabolic regulation in recent years,and predicted the research trends and prospects,aiming to provide a reference for discovering the key genes related to the biosynthetic pathway and the biosynthesis of ginkgolides.


Subject(s)
Ginkgo biloba/genetics , Ginkgolides , Humans , Lactones , Plant Extracts , Terpenes
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878787

ABSTRACT

To prepare a new dosage form that can improve the drug loading of the film--ginkgolide B nanosuspension lyophilized powder orodispersible film(GB-NS-LP-ODF) and to evaluate its quality. Firstly, ginkgolide B nanosuspension(GB-NS) was prepared by media milling method, and then ginkgolide B nanosuspension lyophilized powder(GB-NS-LP) was prepared with freeze-drying method. The mannitol was used as lyoprotectant and its dosage was also investigated. GB-NS-LP-ODF was prepared by solvent casting method and its formulation was screened by single factor test method and optimized by orthogonal test. The appearance, mechanical properties, content uniformity and in vitro dissolution of the optimized GB-NS-LP-ODF were investigated. The particle size of prepared GB-NS was about 201 nm, and the optimal dosage of mannitol was 8%. According to the optimal formula, the GB-NS-LP-ODF was prepared with GB-NS-LP 35.6%, PVA 0588 49.4%, PEG 400 10.7% and CMS-Na 4.3%, and completely disintegrated in about 30 s, and the particle size of reconstituted GB nanoparticles from ODF was about 210 nm. The film with smooth appearance and good mechanical properties was stable within 30 days and the content uniformity(A+2.2 S<15) conformed to the regulations. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) showed that GB-NS-LP-ODFs were evenly distributed and the particle size was about 200 nm. X-rays diffraction(XRD) showed that its crystallinity was significantly lower than that of GB raw drug and GB-ODF. The results of in vitro release test showed that the drug film was completely dissoluted within 10 minutes. These results indicated that nanosuspension lyophilized powder was prepared by freeze drying of nanosuspensions, and then loaded into the orodispersible film to effectively increase the drug loading of the ODF and have broad application prospects.


Subject(s)
Ginkgolides , Lactones , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Powders , Solubility , Suspensions
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775373

ABSTRACT

The fragmentation pathways of the three ginkgolides (ginkgolides A, ginkgolides B, ginkgolides C) have been studied with high resolution and high mass accuracy using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in negative ion mode in this paper. The results indicate that the three ginkgolides have similar fragmentation pathways, including four kinds of common cleavage pathways and one common characteristic ion. In high quality regions, the typical fragmentation pathways of the three ginkgolides are lactone ring opening with continuous loss of CO, CO₂,and loss of H₂O. In low quality regions, the common characteristic fragment ion of the three ginkgolides at 72.993 6 is formed by C rings cleavage. Also, the common fragment ions of ginkgolides A and ginkgolides B at 141.018 8, 125.023 8, 113.024 0, 97.029 1 are formed by A rings cleavage. The study of fragmentation pathways could be adopted for the structural identification of the ginkgolides and their metabolites.


Subject(s)
Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812393

ABSTRACT

Analysis errors can occur in the desorbing process of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDMI) by a conventional analysis method, due to several factors, such as easily crystallized samples, solvent volatility, time-consuming sample pre-processing, fixed method, and offline analysis. Based on risk management, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy techniques were introduced to solve the above problems with the advantage of timely analysis and non-destructive nature towards samples. The objective of the present study was to identify the feasibility of using NIR or MIR spectroscopy techniques to increase the analysis accuracy of samples from the desorbing process of GDMI. Quantitative models of NIR and MIR were established based on partial least square method and the performances were calculated. Compared to NIR model, MIR model showed greater accuracy and applicability for the analysis of the GDMI desorbing solutions. The relative errors of the concentrations of Ginkgolide A (GA) and Ginkgolide B (GB) were 2.40% and 2.89%, respectively, which were less than 5.00%. The research demonstrated the potential of the MIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantitative analysis of the concentrations of GA and GB.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Reference Standards , Drug Compounding , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Injections , Lactones , Least-Squares Analysis , Meglumine , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Management , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Reference Standards
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 465-475, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777041

ABSTRACT

The visual system plays an important role in our daily life. In this study, we found that loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) in the primary visual cortex (V1) caused a sight deficit in mice and induced an abnormal increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma aminobutyric acid and CO, particularly in layer 5. In vivo electrophysiological recordings confirmed a decrease in delta, theta, and beta oscillation power in DCF1-knockout mice. This study presents a previously unknown function of DCF1 in V1, suggests an unknown contact between DCF1 and GABA systems, and provides insight into the mechanism and treatment of visual deficits.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Waves , Genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Electroencephalography , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetics , Geniculate Bodies , Metabolism , Ginkgolides , Therapeutic Uses , Glutamate Decarboxylase , Metabolism , Lactones , Therapeutic Uses , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Genetics , Photic Stimulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos , Metabolism , Vision Disorders , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Pathology , Visual Cortex , Metabolism , Pathology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773604

ABSTRACT

Analysis errors can occur in the desorbing process of ginkgo diterpene lactone meglumine injection (GDMI) by a conventional analysis method, due to several factors, such as easily crystallized samples, solvent volatility, time-consuming sample pre-processing, fixed method, and offline analysis. Based on risk management, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy techniques were introduced to solve the above problems with the advantage of timely analysis and non-destructive nature towards samples. The objective of the present study was to identify the feasibility of using NIR or MIR spectroscopy techniques to increase the analysis accuracy of samples from the desorbing process of GDMI. Quantitative models of NIR and MIR were established based on partial least square method and the performances were calculated. Compared to NIR model, MIR model showed greater accuracy and applicability for the analysis of the GDMI desorbing solutions. The relative errors of the concentrations of Ginkgolide A (GA) and Ginkgolide B (GB) were 2.40% and 2.89%, respectively, which were less than 5.00%. The research demonstrated the potential of the MIR spectroscopy technique for the rapid and non-destructive quantitative analysis of the concentrations of GA and GB.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Reference Standards , Drug Compounding , Reference Standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Injections , Lactones , Least-Squares Analysis , Meglumine , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Management , Spectrophotometry, Infrared , Reference Standards
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 307-318, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772752

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), as the third leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by its high incidence, mortality rate, high incurred disability rate, and frequent reoccurrence. The neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against several cerebral diseases have been reported in previous studies, but the underlying mechanisms of action are still unclear. Using a novel in vitro rat cortical capillary endothelial cell-astrocyte-neuron network model, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GBE and one of its important constituents, Ginkgolide B (GB), against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation and glucose (OGD/R) injury. In this model, rat cortical capillary endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons were cocultured so that they could be synchronously observed in the same system. Pretreatment with GBE or GB increased the neuron cell viability, ameliorated cell injury, and inhibited the cell apoptotic rate through Bax and Bcl-2 expression regulation after OGD/R injury. Furthermore, GBE or GB pretreatment enhanced the transendothelial electrical resistance of capillary endothelial monolayers, reduced the endothelial permeability coefficients for sodium fluorescein (Na-F), and increased the expression levels of tight junction proteins, namely, ZO-1 and occludin, in endothelial cells. Results demonstrated the preventive effects of GBE on neuronal cell death and enhancement of the function of brain capillary endothelial monolayers after OGD/R injury in vitro; thus, GBE could be used as an effective neuroprotective agent for AIS/reperfusion, with GB as one of its significant constituents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells , Ginkgolides , Pharmacology , Glucose , Lactones , Pharmacology , Neurons , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Oxygen , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats , Stroke , Drug Therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812057

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo diterpene lactones meglumine injection (GDLI) is a commercially available product used for neuroprotection. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of the prototypes and hydrolyzed carboxylic forms of the primary components in GDLI, i.e., ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), and ginkgolide K (GK), have never been fully evaluated in beagle dogs. In this work, a simple, sensitive, and reliable method based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed, and the prototypes and total amounts of GA, GB, and GK were determined in beagle dog plasma. The plasma concentrations of the hydrolyzed carboxylic forms were calculated by subtracting the prototype concentrations from the total lactone concentrations. For the first time, the pharmacokinetics of GA, GB, and GK were fully assessed in three forms, i.e., the prototypes, the hydrolyzed carboxylic forms, and the total amounts, after intravenous administration of GDLI in beagle dogs. It was shown that ginkgolides primarily existed in the hydrolyzed form in plasma, and the ratio of hydrolysates to prototype forms of GA and GB decreased gradually to a homeostatic ratio. All of the three forms of the three ginkgolides showed linear exposure of AUC to the dosages. GA, GB, and GK showed a constant half-life approximately 2.7, 3.4, and 1.2 h, respectively, which were consistent for the forms at three dose levels (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg·kg) and after a consecutive injection of GDLI for 7 days (1.0 mg·kg).


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Ginkgolides , Pharmacokinetics , Lactones , Pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts , Pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304831

ABSTRACT

Limit test of flavones in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials by UV-Vis and HPLC-DAD method was studied in this essay. The HPLC-DAD method has lower LOD (about 1% of the UV-Vis), that is, the sensitivity is higher than UV-Vis method. Through the analysis of the kinds of flavonoids ingredients in the samples by LC-MS, the three compounds with highest contents are kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were chosen as reference compounds for HPLC analysis, and the HPLC separation analysis was carried on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) with methanol and water containing 0.4% phosphoric acid (50: 50) as mobile phase, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. This method has good specificity, precision and reproducibility. The LODs of quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin were 27.6, 22.3, 29.5 μg x L(-1). The average recovery was 87.9% (RSD 3.3%), 91.7% (RSD 3.1%), 88.3 (RSD 1.3%) for quercetin, kaempferide and isorhamnetin, respectively. Based on the 10 batches of sample results and sensitivity of different HPLC, the content of total flavonoids ingredients of diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials was limited no more than 2 x 10(-5). This method is simple, quick and has good maneuverability, and could be used to the limit test of flavonoids in the diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Diterpenes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavones , Ginkgolides , Limit of Detection , Mass Spectrometry , Methods
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284838

ABSTRACT

To develop a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five kinds of trace ginkgolic acids in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials, the column was Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse plus C18 (3.0 mm x 50 mm, 1.8 µm), and the mobile phase consisted of methanol-water (containing 0.2% formic acid) (95:5) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL · min(-1). The multiple reaction ion monitoring (MRM) with an ESI interface in the negative ion mode was selected. The results showed that the linear ranges of five kinds of ginkgolic acids were in the range of 0.2-36.0 µg · L(-1) (r ≥ 0.999 5). The lowest limit of quantification (LOQ) of ginkgo acid C13: 0, C15:1, C17:2, C15:0 and C17:1 were 0.18, 0.18, 0.21, 0.10 and 0.20 µg · L(-1), respectively. The average recovery was between 73.28% and 87.56%, and the average content of total ginkgolic acids in three batches of samples was in the range of 0.023-0.028 µg · g(-1), which was much lower than 2 µg · g(-1) prescribed in drug registration standards. This method is simple and rapid with high sensitivity, which can be used for the determination of five kinds of trace ginkgolic acids in diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection materials.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Methods , Ginkgolides , Injections , Limit of Detection , Salicylates , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284829

ABSTRACT

To investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics and absolute bioavailability of ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB) and bilobalide (BB) in rats. In this experiment, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method was established to determine the plasma concentrations of GA, GB and BB in rats after rats were administrated with the three drugs through ig and iv respectively. The main pharmacokinetic parameters and absolute bioavailability of three ginkgolide compounds were obtained by using pharmacokinetic software DAS 2. 0. After the inject of GA, GB and BB, the results showed Cmax at (513.9 ± 116.9), (701.3 ± 76.0), (5,255.6 ± 476.8) µg · L(-1) and AUC0.24h of (960.9 ± 268.5), (779.5 ± 140.6), (7,409.3 ± 1,181.1) µg · h · L(-1), respectively; after the oral administration, the results showed Cmax at (522.9 ± 39.9), (146.8 ± 31.6), (2,711.9 ± 588.9) µg · L(-1) and AUC0-24 h of (1,760.4 ± 300.7), (636.6 ± 180.3), (16,651.4 ± 1,306.5) µg · h · L(-1), respectively. The absolute bioavailability of GA, GB and BB in rats was (61.1 ± 10.4)%, (27.2 ± 7.7)%, (56.2 ± 4.4)%, respectively. The method established in this experiment has a good specificity and sensitivity and so can be used to study the pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of GA, GB and BB in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cyclopentanes , Pharmacokinetics , Furans , Pharmacokinetics , Ginkgolides , Pharmacokinetics , Lactones , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 819-825, oct.-dic. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-729889

ABSTRACT

Electrocardiographic effects produced by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) and by ginkgolides A (GA) and B (GB), and bilobalide (BB) were investigated in guinea pig heart mounted in Langendorff apparatus (Tyrode, 34 ± 0.1 ºC, 95% O2, 5% CO2). Electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated in the conditions: 1) control with Tyrode and DMSO, 2) EGb (n=4), GA (n=5), GB (n=5) or BB (n=6), and 3) washout. The results showed that 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml of EGb do not change the electrocardiographic parameters. However, 10 mg/ml of EGb increased the PR interval (PRi) at 21% (p<0.001). This increase was also observed for 50 mM GA (20%, p<0.001) and 70 mM BB (13%, p<0.001), which indicates Ca2+ channel block. However, the 50 mM GB reduced the PRi at 11 % (p<0.001). The GA (23%, p<0.001), GB (16%, p<0.001), and BB (40%, p<0.001) reduced the QT interval (QTi), which suggests the activation of the potassium channel. However, EGb increased QTi (6%, p<0.001). The EGb (28%, p<0.05) and GB (13%, p<0.05) reduced the heart rate. Atrioventricular (AV) block was observed with EGb, GA, and BB. We can conclude that EGb and its terpenoids alter the ECG parameters inducing AV block, which indicates possible arrhythmogenic potential.


Os efeitos eletrocardiográficos produzidos pelo extrato de Ginkgo biloba (EGb) e gingkolídeos A (GA) e B (GB), e bilobalide (BB) foram investigados em coração de cobaia montado sistema de Langendorff (Tyrode, 34 ± 0.1 ºC, 95% O2, 5% CO2). Os parâmetros do ECG foram avaliados nas condições: 1) Tyrode e DMSO, 2) EGb (n=4), GA (n=5), GB (n=5) ou BB (n=6) diluídos em DMSO e 3) washout. Os resultados demonstram que 0,1 e 1,0 mg/mL de EGb não alteraram os parâmetros eletrocardiográficos. Entretanto, 10 mg/ml de EGb aumentaram o intervalo PR (PRi) em 21% (p<0.001). Esse aumento também foi observado com GA a 50µM (20%, p<0,001) e BB a 70 mM (13%, p<0,001) indicando bloqueio de canais de cálcio. Por outro lado, GB reduziu o PRi (11%, p<0,001). O intervalo QT (QTi) foi reduzido por GA (23%, p<0,001), GB (16%, p<0,001) e BB (40%, p < 0.001) sugerindo uma ativação de canais de potássio. Entretanto, EGb aumentou o QTi (6%, p<0.001). A frequência cardíaca foi reduzida por EGb (28%, p<0.05) e GB (13%, p<0.05). Bloqueios átrio-ventriculares (BAV) foram observados com EGb, GA e BB. Podemos concluir que EGb e os terpenos alteram parâmetros eletrocardiográficos induzindo BAV e demonstrando possível potencial arritmogênico.


Subject(s)
Guinea Pigs , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Ginkgo biloba/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/antagonists & inhibitors , Terpenes/analysis , Bilobalides/pharmacology , Ginkgolides/analysis , Heart/drug effects
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321378

ABSTRACT

Microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan were applied to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions micro pill drug release unit and study the dissolution of GKS. Microcrystalline cellulose, chitosan as composite carrier, solvent method was used to prepare ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to Characterization of ginkgolides component solid dispersions. Ginkgolides component solid dispersions as principle agent were prepared for micro-pellet. Comparison of different types, different doses of the adhesive, drug-polymer interactions, and disintegrating agent for the preparation of ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit, the optimum preparation ginkgolides components of micro-pellet drug release unit was screened by orthogonal design experiment. Preparation of ginkgolides components solid dispersions with microcrystalline cellulose and chitosan at ratio 1: 3. Drug cumulative dissolution was more than 80% in 60 min. Solid dispersion-micro-pellet drug release unit can significantly improve the dissolution of ginkgolides components, it has practical application value.


Subject(s)
Cellulose , Chemistry , Chitosan , Chemistry , Drug Compounding , Methods , Ginkgolides , Chemistry
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321298

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composition is a multi-component multiple drug release system and more components preparation system. How to evaluate the drug release behavior of diversification has been a block for the modernization of TCM. This article through to study of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release and similarity analysis of more representative components of ginkgolides drug release behavior and use Weight coefficient method to integrate the multicomponent drug release curve. So it can provide the idea and method for drug evaluation of TCM component preparation.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Kinetics , Solubility
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346483

ABSTRACT

Having searched a large number of literatures, the author found different concepts of traditional Chinese medicine components among pharmacists. Then, what are traditional Chinese medicine components? The author thinks that traditional Chinese medicine components shall be optimized traditional Chinese medicine components with relatively clear efficient substances, action mechanisms, specific purity and definite internal structure. This experiment preliminarily determined optimized component structures of ginkgolides by comparing the four reported constituents in in vivo and in vitro pharmacodynamic and pharmacological experiments. The experimental design could provide ideas and basis for optimizing traditional Chinese medicine components and determining their matching structures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Research Design
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346481

ABSTRACT

In this study, the HPLC-ELSD method was adopted to detect the equilibrium solubility of B and A in water and different pH buffer solution, as well as their apparent oil-water partition coefficients in the noctanol-water/buffer solution. Furthermore, the mass fraction weight coefficient method was adopted to express the integrated equilibrium solubility and oil-water distribution coefficient of ginkgolide components. The direct addition method and the mass fraction weight coefficient method were compared in calculating the property value of ginkgolide components, showing that the mass fraction weight coefficient method was more scientific and reasonable. The tentative study provided ideas to property characterization of traditional Chinese medicine components, as well as basis for studies on preparations of traditional Chinese medicine components.


Subject(s)
Ginkgolides , Chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Solubility
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346418

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the protective effect of the Weinaokang (WNK) and its active compound bilobalide on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and their mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted to establish the 24 h-14 d reperfusion model. The expression of Beclin-1 was detected by the Western blotting technique. The transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes. Neurogenesis was detected by the immunofluorescence staining.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>WNK (20, 10 mg x kg(-1), ig) or its active compound bilobalide (10, 5 mg x kg(-1), ig) could promote the generation of mature neurons (BrdU(+) -MAP-2+) at the ischemic side, and inhibit expression of autophagy-related gene Beclin-1, so as to reduce the neuron injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>WNK and its active compound bilobalide can inhibit neuron autophagy and improve neurogenesis in ischemic peripheral area, suggesting that neurogenesis may be the intervention target for WNK to promote self-repairing of ischemic area.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Cyclopentanes , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Furans , Pharmacology , Ginkgolides , Pharmacology , Male , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 417-424, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333184

ABSTRACT

One common feature of glaucoma, optic neuritis and some other optic nerve diseases is sustained and irreversible apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Ginkgolide B is believed to protect neurons in brain and contribute to neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB761) and ginkgolide B on axonal growth of RCGs. Retina explants were cultured in three-dimensional tissue culture system, and the number and length of neurites were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to confirm that the neurite observed was axon of RGCs. TUNEL and activated caspase-3 staining were also applied to observe RGCs apoptosis. The result shows that neurites of RGCs treated with EGB761 or ginkgolide B were more and longer than those in control. The neurite is proved to be the axon of RGCs by immunostaining. Furthermore, compared with control group, RGCs treated with ginkgolide B showed decreased cellular apoptosis and inhibited caspase-3 activation. These results suggest ginkgolide B can promote RGCs axon growth by protecting RGCs against apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Axons , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Ginkgolides , Pharmacology , Lactones , Pharmacology , Neurites , Organ Culture Techniques , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats , Retina , Retinal Ganglion Cells , Cell Biology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252953

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ginkgolides sustained-release tablet and conventional tablet in Beagle dogs.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The concentrations of ginkgolides in plasma were determined by LC-MS. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ginkgolides sustained-release tablet and conventional tablet in vivo were obtained using Pharmacokinetic software DAS 2.0.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The C(max) of grinkgolide A in ginkgolide sustained-release tablet and conventional tablet were 443.51, 1 039.30 microg x L(-1), respecitvely. t(max) were 2.92, 1.08 h, respectively. AUC(0-12h) were 1 808.21, 2 041.37 h x microg(-1) x L(-1), respectively. MRT were 5.18, 3.18 h, respectively. The relative bioavailability of ginkgolides A was 88.58%. The C(max) of ginkgolide B in ginkgolide sustained-release tablet and conventional tablet were 407.13, 547.38 microg x L(-1), respectively. t(max) were 2.92, 1.08 h, respectively. AUC(01-12 h) were 1 987.31, 1 748.04 h x microg(-1) x L(-1), respectively. MRT were 6.05, 4.98 h, respectively. The relative bioavailability of ginkgolides B was 113.69%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The ginkgolides sustained-release tablets have good sustained release characteristics and are bioequivalent to the reference formulation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Area Under Curve , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Delayed-Action Preparations , Pharmacokinetics , Dogs , Ginkgolides , Pharmacokinetics , Lactones , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Quality Control , Tablets , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Equivalency
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