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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879051

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to explore the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced H9 c2 cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying signaling pathway. The H/R model of H9 c2 cardiomyocytes was established and then the cells were divided into different treatment groups. CCK-8(cell counting kit-8) was used to detect the activity of cardiomyocytes; Brdu assay was used to detect the proliferation of H9 c2 cells; the caspase-3 activity was tested, and then the protein expression was assessed by Western blot. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the apoptosis level of cardiomyocytes. Ginsenoside Rg_1 inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, promoted nuclear transcription of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2(Nrf2), and enhanced the expression of the downstream heme oxygenase-1(HO-1). Ginsenoside Rg_1 could increase Nrf2 nuclear transcription and HO-1 expression with the increase of concentration(10, 20, 40, 60 μmol·L~(-1)). However, the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on cardiomyocytes was significantly weakened after the transfection of Nrf2-siRNA. Ginsenoside Rg_1 could protect cardiomyocytes by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/genetics , Humans , Hypoxia , Myocytes, Cardiac , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 546-554, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignancy with highly female incidence. So far the function of notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1), the extract from Panax notoginseng, has not been clearly elucidated in BC.@*METHODS@#Optimal culture concentration and time of NGR1 were investigated by cell counting kit-8 assay. Cell proliferation ability was measured by colony formation assays. Transwell assay was used to detect the effect of NGR1 on cell migration and invasion. The apoptosis rate of cells between each group was measured by TUNEL assay.@*RESULTS@#NGR1 treatment has an inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and a stimulating effect on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. The 50% growth inhibitory concentration for MCF-7 cells at 24 h was 148.9 mmol/L. The proportions of MCF-7 cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase were 36.94±6.78%, 45.06±5.60%, and 59.46±5.60% in the control group, 75, and 150 mmol/L groups, respectively. Furthermore, we revealed that NGR1 treatment attenuates BC progression by targeted downregulating CCND2 and YBX3 genes. Additionally, YBX3 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by activating kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, which is an activator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that NGR1 can act as an efficacious drug candidate that targets the YBX3/PI3K/Akt axis in patients with BC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D2 , Female , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Rats
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 upregulates the expression of tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in ovarian cancer cells.@*METHODS@#Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 treated with 20(S)-Rg3 were examined for mRNA and protein levels of VHL, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The changes in VHL mRNA expression in SKOV3 cells in response to treatment with 5-Aza-CdR, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, were detected using real-time PCR. VHL gene promoter methylation was examined with methylation-specific PCR and VHL expression levels were determined with real-time PCR and Western blotting in non-treated or 20(S)-Rg3-treated SKOV3 cells and in 20(S)-Rg3-treated DNMT3A-overexpressing SKOV3 cells. VHL and DNMT3A protein levels were detected by immunohistochemistry in subcutaneous SKOV3 cell xenografts in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#Treatment of SKOV3 cells with 20(S)-Rg3 significantly upregulated VHL and downregulated DNMT3A expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 upregulates VHL expression in ovarian cancer cells by suppressing DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Methylation , Female , Gene Expression , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Nude , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect and related signaling pathways of ginsenoside Rb1 in the treatment of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease (KD).@*METHODS@#BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an aspirin group, a low-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group (50 mg/kg), and a high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group (100 mg/kg), with 12 mice in each group. All mice except those in the control group were given intermittent intraperitoneal injection of 10% bovine serum albumin to establish a mouse model of KD. The mice in the aspirin group, the low-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group, and the high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group were given the corresponding drug by gavage for 20 days after modeling. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of coronary artery tissue. ELISA was used to measure the levels of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum and coronary artery tissue. Western blot was used to measure the relative expression levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the AMPK/mTOR autophagy signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt oxidative stress signaling pathway in coronary artery tissue.@*RESULTS@#The observation of pathological sections showed that compared with the model group, the high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group had significant improvement in the symptoms of vascular wall thickening, intimal edema, fiber rupture, and inflammatory infiltration of endothelial cells. Compared with the control group, the model and low-dose ginsenoside Rb1 groups had significant increases in the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in serum and coronary artery tissue (P0.05) and had significant increases in the expression levels of P-AKT/AKT and P-GSK-3β/GSK-3β (P<0.05), while the high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group had significant increases in the relative protein expression levels of the above three proteins (P<0.05). Compared with the low-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group, the aspirin group and the high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group had significant reductions in the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (P<0.05); the high-dose ginsenoside Rb1 group had significant increases in the expression levels of P-PI3K/PI3K and P-AKT/AKT (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ginsenoside Rb1 can effectively alleviate CAL in a mouse model of KD in a dose-dependent manner, possibly by regulating the AMPK/mTOR/P70S6 autophagy signaling pathway to inhibit CAL inflammation and regulating the PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β oxidative stress signaling pathway to exert a biological activity of protection against coronary artery endothelial cell injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coronary Vessels , Endothelial Cells , Ginsenosides , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828051

ABSTRACT

Ethylene responsive factor(ERF), one of the largest families of transcriptional factors in plants, plays a key role in se-condary metabolism of herbal plants. To analyze the expression of ERF family genes, the heat map clustering method was used by analyzing the ginseng transcriptomes of different parts and different growth years. The contents of ginsenosides Rg_1, Re and Rb_1 in various concentrations of MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The expression of key genes of ginsenoside biosynthesis(DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2) and ERF family genes in MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation was adopted to analyze the gene expression pattern of DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2 gene and ERF family. The results showed that the content of ginseng diol ginsenoside Rb_1 in ginseng adventitious roots treated with different concentrations of MeJA increased, and the content of ginseng triol ginsenoside Rg_1 and Re decreased. It is consistent with the increase of DDS and CYP716A47 expression and the decrease of CYP716A53v2 gene expression. The expression of ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 genes was significantly positively correlated with CYP716A53v2, but negatively correlated with DDS. While the expression of ERF1B was significantly negatively correlated with CYP716A47.It is proved that ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 were likely to inhibit the expression of DDS and promote the expression of CYP716A53v2, and ERF1B was likely to inhibit CYP716A47. This work could provide theoretical basis of ERF functional verification of regulating the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Transcription Factors
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827980

ABSTRACT

In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Fungi , Ginsenosides , Mycorrhizae , Panax , Plant Roots
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878867

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to study the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K), protein kinase B(Akt) and mamma-lian target of rapamycin(mTOR) in the inhibition of premature ovarian failure induced by D-galactose(D-gal) in mice model by ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1). Fifty-four female SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into PBS group, D-gal group, and Rg_1 group. In the D-gal group, D-galactose(200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was injected subcutaneously into the neck and back for 42 days. In the PBS group, an equal amount of phosphate buffered saline(PBS) was injected into the neck and back for 42 days. In addition to the therapy of D-gal group, Rg_1 group was given Rg_1(20 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) through intraperitoneal injection since the 15 th day for 28 days, at the same time, the D-gal group and the PBS group were also given an equal amount of PBS through intraperitoneal injection since the 15 th day for 28 days. After the treatment, the estrous cycle changes of the mice were detected, and the ovarian SA-β-Gal staining was used to detect the changes of ovarian aging. Western blot was used to detect the changes in protein expressions of PI3 K, Akt, mTOR, S6 k, LC3-Ⅱ and P16~(INK4 a). Fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the changes in mRNA expressions of PI3 K, Akt, mTOR, S6 k, LC3-Ⅱ and P16~(INK4 a). According to the findings, compared with the PBS group, the D-gal group began to show estrous cycle disorder in the 3 rd week,the ovarian SA-β-Gal staining positive granulosa cells increased in the D-gal group, the expression of senescence marker P16~(INK4 a) increased, while the expression of autophagy signaling molecule LC3-Ⅱ decreased. After treatment with Rg_1, the positive rate of ovarian SA-β-Gal staining in Rg_1 group decreased, the expression level of autophagy signaling molecule LC3-Ⅱ in Rg_1 group was higher than that in D-gal group, while the expression level of senescence marker P16~(INK4 a) was lower than that in D-gal group. Compared with the PBS group, the protein and mRNA expressions of PI3 K, Akt, mTOR and S6 k in the D-gal group were up-regulated, the protein expressions of Akt, mTOR and S6 k in the Rg_1 group were up-regulated, and the mRNA expressions of PI3 K and mTOR were up-regulated. After treatment with Rg_1, the protein expressions of PI3 K, Akt, mTOR and S6 k in the Rg_1 group were lower than those in the D-gal group, while the mRNA expressions of Akt, mTOR and S6 k in the Rg_1 group were lower than those in the D-gal group. The finding ssuggested that Rg_1 has the effect in delaying ovarian premature failure in D-gal-induced mouse models, and PI3 K/Akt/mTOR autophagy signaling pathways play an important role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Female , Ginsenosides , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878804

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_3 is widely used in clinical practice as an anti-tumor adjuvant drug, but its application is limited due to its poor oral absorption. In this study, we intended to construct a ginsenoside Rg_3 nanostructured lipid carrier modified by the pullulan(PUL-Rg_3-NLC) to improve the adhesion properties of ginsenoside Rg_3, promote the drug uptake and improve the anti-tumor efficacy. PUL-Rg_3-NLC was characterized by morphology, particle size and Zeta potential. In vivo adhesion characteristics were evaluated by oral gavage tests, and the results were verified from multiple perspectives in combination with in vitro uptake behavior and in vitro pharmacodynamics. The results showed that PUL-Rg_3-NLC, with a particle size of(102±1.89) nm, was characterized by gastric adhesion and could be retained in gastric tissues for a long time, and its uptake by BGC-823 cells was promoted mainly through the pathway mediated by the caveolin-mediated endocytosis. In vitro MTT, cell apoptosis, wound-healing assay and invasion assay all showed some anti-tumor effects. Therefore, PUL-Rg_3-NLC can significantly promote the adhesion of Rg_3 in the stomach, promote the uptake of drugs by gastric cancer cells, and improve the anti-tumor effect. This study can provide some reference for the adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers , Ginsenosides , Glucans , Lipids , Nanostructures , Particle Size
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(6): e9346, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132516

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common vascular disease, which can cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is considered an anti-AS drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play a vital role in cell apoptosis and angiogenesis. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of NGR1 for treating AS through miRNAs. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β were detected using ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using corresponding assay kits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was performed to detect miR-221-3p expression. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to examine the relationship between miR-221-3p and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). Also, western blot analysis was performed to determine the levels of TLR4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway-related proteins. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 alleviated the negative effect of ox-LDL through promoting the expression of miR-221-3p in HUVECs. TLR4 was a target of miR-221-3p, and its overexpression could reverse the inhibition effects of miR-221-3p on apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. NGR1 improved miR-221-3p expression to inhibit the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. NGR1 decreased ox-LDL-induced HUVECs apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress through increasing miR-221-3p expression, thereby inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. This study of the mechanism of NGR1 provided a more theoretical basis for the treatment of AS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/adverse effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Reactive Oxygen Species , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Immunoprecipitation , Toll-Like Receptor 4/antagonists & inhibitors , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1111-1117, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of Ginsenoside (Rh2) on human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells and it mechamism.@*METHODS@#The effects of different concentration of Rh2 (0, 10 , 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml) on the proliferation activity of Jurkat cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the semi-inhibitory concentration (IC) of Rh2 on Jurkat cells at 48 h was calculated. Microscopy and Hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining were used to observe the apoptosis of Jurkat cells treated with IC Rh2 for 48 h. And then, the cell experiment was divided into 4 groups: control, Rh2 (IC), PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (50 µmol/l) and Rh2 (IC) + LY294002 (50 µmol/l). After synchronous culture for 48 h, the apoptosis and cycle changes of Jurkat cells were detected by using PI single staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Western blot was used to detect the expression level of apoptosis-related protein BAX, BCL-2, Cleaved-Caspasase 3, cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related protein AKT and p-AKT.@*RESULTS@#Rh2 (10-80 µg/ml) inhibited the Jurkat cell proliferation in a dose-time dependent manner (r = 0.999, P<0.01; r = 0.991; P>0.05), accompanied by obvious morphological changes of apoptosis cells. Flow cytometry showed that compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate in Rh2 or LY294002 group significantly increased, and the cell cycle was mostly blocked in G0/G1 phase. However, the cell apoptosis and cell cycle block in Rh2+LY294002 group were more significant than that in Rh2 and LY294002 group. Western blot showed that compared with the control group, Rh2 significantly promoted the expression of BAX and Cleaved-Caspasase 3, inhibited the expression of BCL-2, Cyclin D1 and p-AKT, furthermore LY294002 significantly promoted this effect.@*CONCLUSION@#Rh2 can induce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells in time-dose dependent manner, moreover, Rh2 also can result in an obvious block of Jurkat cells at G0/G1, that may be closely related to a series of apoptotic signaling cascades mediated by Rh2 inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Ginsenosides , Humans , Jurkat Cells , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773261

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to explore the effect of soil moisture content on ginsenoside biosynthesis and explain its mechanism from the perspectives of antioxidant enzyme system and gene expression of key enzymes in the pathway of ginsenoside synthesis. In the study,two years old Panax ginseng was used as the experimental material and three moisture gradient,40% of saturated water content( W1),60%( W2),80%( W3) were set up. The content of 11 monomeric saponins were determined by HPLC. With GAPDH as a reference gene,six key enzymes( HMGR,SS,β-AS,CYP716 A47,CYP716 A52 v2,CYP716 A53 v2) in ginseng saponin synthesis pathway expression were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative PCR and the activities of superoxide dismutase( SOD),peroxidase( POD),catalase( CAT) activity and MDA content were also determined. With the increase of soil water,the content of ginseng saponin and biomass showed an increasing trend. PPD( Rb1,Rc,Rb2,Rd,Rh2,Rb3,Rg3),PPT( Rg1,Re,Rf) ginsenoside,Ro and total ginsenoside reached the maximum value on August 30,were 9.92,5.48,0.63 mg·g-1,respectively. During the whole regulation period,the antioxidant activity of W3 was greater than that of W1,and the MDA content was less than that of W1. At W3,expression levels of β-AS,CYP716 A47 and CYP716 A53 v2 showed an increasing trend,while HMGR and SS genes showed relatively stable expression levels under various water conditions. According to the correlation analysis,HMGR and SS genes in the W3 treatment group were significantly positively correlated with PPD,PPT ginsenoside and Ro,CYP716 A52 v2 gene was significantly positively correlated with Ro,and CYP716 A47 gene was significantly positively correlated with PPD ginsenoside. There was a significant positive correlation between β-AS gene and PPD ginsenoside in W1 and W2 treatment. Therefore,W3 is the optimum moisture content,ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin content is the highest,the gene closely correlation with content of saponins and more conducive to the accumulation of ginsenosides.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Ginsenosides , Panax , Physiology , Water , Physiology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773231

ABSTRACT

This project is to investigate the chemical constituents of ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng. The compounds were isolated by using a variety of chromatographic methods including Diaion HP-20,silica gel,MCI gel and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. Their structures were identified by NMR,and MS data. As a result,32 compounds were isolated from the extract of P. ginseng flower buds,and identified as ginsenoside Rk_3( 1),ginsenoside Rh_4( 2),ginsenoside Rh_8( 3),pseudoginsenoside Rc_1( 4),ginsenoside Rc( 5),ginsenoside Rb_2( 6),ginsenoside Rg_6( 7),20( E)-ginsenoside F_4( 8),ginsenoside Rb_1( 9),vinaginsenoside R_(16)( 10),ginsenoside Rh_6( 11),vinaginsenoside R_3( 12),5,6-didehydro-ginsenoside Rd( 13),vinaginsenoside R_4( 14),vinaginsenoside R_8( 15),ginsenoside Rf( 16),notoginsenoside E( 17),ginsenoside Ⅲ( 18),3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,7β,12β,20 S-tetrahydroxydammar-5( 6),24-diene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranoside( 19),20( S)-ginsenoside Rg_2( 20),20( R)-ginsenoside Rg_2( 21),notoginsenoside R_2( 22),ginsenoside F_2( 23),quinquenoside I( 24),ginsenoside M_1( 25),quinquenoside L_(10)( 26),ginsenoside Rh_5( 27),ginsenoside Rg_5( 28),ginsenoside Rk_1( 29),20( R)-ginsenoside Rg_3( 30),oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( 1→2)-β-D-( 6'-methyl ester)-glucuronopyranoside( 31) and ginsenoside MC( 32). Among them,compounds 10,12,13,15,19,22,24,31 and 32 were isolated from P. ginseng for the first time,and compound 19 was a genuine ginsenoside firstly obtained by separation and identification,with NMR data that were also reported. Compounds 1-3,7,8,23,25-30 were isolated from P. ginseng flower buds for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flowers , Chemistry , Ginsenosides , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Panax , Chemistry , Saponins
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773226

ABSTRACT

Small molecules with physiological or pharmacological activities need to interact with biological macromolecules in order to function in the body. As the protein with the highest proportion of plasma protein,serum albumin is the main protein binding to various endogenous or exogenous small molecules. Serum albumin interacts with small molecules in a reversible non-covalent manner and transports small molecules to target sites. Bovine serum albumin( BSA) is an ideal target protein for drug research because of its low cost and high homology with human serum albumin. The research on the interaction between drugs and BSA has become a hotspot in the fields of pharmacy,medicine,biology and chemistry. In this research,molecular docking method was used to study the interaction between three small ginsenosides with high pharmacological value( Rg_1,Rb_1,Ro) and bovine serum albumin( BSA),and the binding mode information of three ginsenosides interacting with BSA was obtained. The results of molecular docking showed that ginsenosides and amino acid residues in the active pocket of proteins could be combined by hydrophobic action,hydrogen bonding and electrostatic action. The interaction between small ginsenosides and bovine serum albumin is not the only form,and their interaction has many forms of force. The interaction between these molecules and various weak forces is the key factor for the stability of the complex. The results of this study can provide the structural information of computer simulation for the determination of the interaction patterns between active components and proteins of ginseng.


Subject(s)
Animals , Binding Sites , Cattle , Computer Simulation , Ginsenosides , Chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Thermodynamics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776889

ABSTRACT

Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major components of Panax notoginseng, with multiple pharmacological activities but poor oral bioavailability. PNS could be metabolized by gut microbiota in vitro, while the exact role of gut microbiota of PNS metabolism in vivo remains poorly understood. In this study, pseudo germ-free rat models were constructed by using broad-spectrum antibiotics to validate the gut microbiota-mediated transformation of PNS in vivo. Moreover, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of four metabolites of PNS, including ginsenoside F1 (GF1), ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2), ginsenoside compound K (GCK) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). The results showed that the four metabolites could be detected in the control rat plasma, while they could not be determined in pseudo germ-free rat plasma. The results implied that PNS could not be biotransformed effectively when gut microbiota was disrupted. In conclusion, gut microbiota plays an important role in biotransformation of PNS into metabolites in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Feces , Microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Physiology , Ginsenosides , Blood , Male , Panax notoginseng , Chemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sapogenins , Blood , Saponins , Metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of ginsenoside-Rg on mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgeia, depressive state of rats with chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury.@*METHODS@#Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (Normal, normal + saline),sham operation group (Sham, sham operation + saline),chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve group (CCI, CCI + saline),ginsenoside-Rg low dose group (CCI + Rg 5 mg/kg), and ginsenoside-Rg high dose group (CCI + Rg 10 mg/kg).After the CCI model was established,drug were injected into the abdominal cavity through the syringe once a day,for 14 consecutive days.The mechanical shrinkage foot reflex threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) were determined at 1 d before the operation and at 1,3,5,7,10 and 14 d after the operation.Light-dark transition test, forced swimming test were determined at 1 d before the operation and at 14 d after the operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham group, the MWL and TWL of the CCI rats were decreased significantly (P<0.01), time in the light compartment and number of transition were decreased (P<0.01), the immobility time in FST was also prolonged significantly (P<0.01). At 14 days after CCI operation, the MWL and TWL of the ginsenoside-Rg groups were increased significantly (P<0.01), time in the light compartment and number of transition were also shortened significantly (P<0.01), the immobility time in FST was also shortened significantly (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside-Rg can inhibit the mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity of CCI rats,and can relieve depressive state.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773088

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of SIRT1/TSC_2 signal axis on leukemia stem cell senescence induced by ginsenoside Rg_1. CD34~+CD38~- leukemia stem cells(CD34~+CD38~-LSCs) was isolated by magnetic cell sorting(MACS) and divided into two groups. The control group cells were routinely cultured, 40 μmol·L~(-1) ginsenoside Rg_1 was added to the control group for co-culture in Rg_1 group. The effect of Rg_l to induce CD34~+CD38~-LSCs senescence were evaluated by senescence-associated β-Galactosidase(SA-β-Gal) staining, cell cycle assay, CCK-8 and Colony-Assay. The expression of senescence associated SIRT1, TSC_2 mRNA and protein was examined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(FQ-PCR) and Western blot. The results showed that the CD34~+CD38~-LSCs could effectively be isolated by MACS, and the purity of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs is up to(95.86±3.04)%. Compared with the control group, the percentage of positive cells expressed SA-β-Gal in the Rg_1 group is increased, the senescence morphological changes were observed in the CD34~+CD38~-LSCs in the Rg_1 group. The proliferation inhibition rate and the number of cells entered G_0/G_1 phase in the Rg_1 group were increased, but the colony-formed ability was decreased, Rg_1 could significantly inhibit the proliferation and self-renewal ability of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs. The expression of SIRT1 and TSC_2 mRNA and protein were down regulated in the Rg_1 group compared with the control group. Our research implied that Rg_1 may induce the senescence of CD34~+CD38~-LSCs and SIRT1/TSC_2 signal axis plays a significant role in this process.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1 , Metabolism , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein , Metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1590-1606, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771770

ABSTRACT

Panax ginseng is a traditional Chinese medicine with significant pharmaceutical effects and wide application. Through orientational modification and transformation of ginsenoside glycosyl, rare ginsenosides with high antitumor activities can be generated. Traditional chemical methods cannot be applied in clinic. because of extremely complex preparation technologies and very high cost Transformations using microorganisms and their enzymatic systems provide the most feasible methods for solving the main problems. At present, the key problems in enzymatic synthesis of ginsenosides include low specific enzyme activities, identity of enzymes involved in the enzymatic synthesis, and their catalytic mechanisms, as well as nonsystematic studies on structural bioinformatics; specificity of enzymatic hydrolysis for saponin glycosyl has been rarely studied. Many reviews have been reported on glycosidase molecular recognition, immobilization, and biotransformation in ionic liquids (ILs), whereas ginsenoside transformation and application have not been systematically studied. To evaluate theoretical and applied studies on ginsenoside-oriented biotransformation, by reviewing the latest developments in related fields and evaluating the widely applied biocatalytic strategy, this review aims to evaluate the ginsenoside-oriented transformation method with improved product specificity, increased biocatalytic efficiency, and industrial application prospect based on the designed transformations of enzyme and solvent engineering of ILs. Therefore, useful theoretical and experimental evidence can be obtained for the development of ginsenoside anticancer drugs, large-scale preparation, and clinical applications in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biocatalysis , Ginsenosides , Glycoside Hydrolases , Panax , Saponins
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771505

ABSTRACT

This study aims to observe the intervention effects of Chinese herbal medicine of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation on chronic intermittent hypoxia(CIH) composite insulin resistance(IR) mediated atherosclerosis(AS) mice model,and to observe the mechanism of SREBP-1 c signaling molecule.IR Apo E-/-mice model was induced by high-fat diet combined with STZ injection.Then the mice were treated with hypoxic animal incubator for 8 h per day and 8 weeks to establish a CIH+IR-ApoE-/-mouse model.Model mice were randomly and averagely divided into normoxic control group(NC),model group(CIH) and SREBPs inhibitor group(betulin),atorvastatin group(WM),TCM low-dose group(TCM-L),TCM middle-dose group(TCM-M) and TCM high-dose group(TCM-H) group.Chinese herbal medicine of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation including ginsenosides combined with ligustrazine(TMP) were used as intervention drugs.The study observed the effect of drugs on IR,serum lipid,inflammation,stress,AS and SREBP-1 c related molecules.The results showed that fasting blood glucose in TCM-H group decreased compared with other experimental groups(P<0.05).HDL-C level in betulin group,WM group,TCM-H group was higher than that in CIH group(P<0.05).LDL-C level in TCM-M group,TCM-H group is lower than that in CIH group(P<0.05).The level of CRP in CIH group was higher than that in other groups(P<0.05).The level of SOD in TCM-H group was higher than that in CIH group(P<0.05).NC group and CIH group showed obvious AS aortic plaque,while betulin group,WM group,TCM-H group showed reduction in AS plaque(P<0.05).For descending aorta,AS plaque in CIH group was multiple and large,while less and smaller in WM group and TCM-H(P<0.05).The expression of SREBP-1 c and FAS in aorta and skeletal muscle in TCM-H group was lower than that in CIH group(P<0.05).In aorta,the expression of TNF-α and CD106(VCAM-1) was lower in TCM-H group than that in CIH group(P<0.05).In aorta,skeletal muscle and liver,the level of p-IRS-1 in TCM-H group was significantly higher than that in CIH group(P<0.05).In aorta and liver,the expression of HIF-1α in TCM-H group was lower than that in CIH group(P<0.05).The study demonstrated that combination ginsenosides with TMP could improve IR and serum lipid level and inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress as well as ultimately alleviate AS to some extent.And the mechanism of its interventional effects might be related to the inhibition of CIH-induced upregulation of SREBP-1 c related molecules.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis , Drug Therapy , Blood Circulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Hypoxia , Pathology , Insulin Resistance , Mice , Mice, Knockout, ApoE , Pyrazines , Pharmacology , Qi , Random Allocation
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774510

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on endotoxin(LPS)-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and its mechanism of action. Mouse lung epithelial cells(MLE-12) were first treated with LPS. The autophagy changes and apoptosis and the relationship with concentration and time of LPS were observed. Then,the level of autophagy in MLE-12 was regulated at a specific concentration and action time of LPS,and the changes of apoptosis were observed. Secondly,ginsenoside Rg_1 and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA were added respectively at the same concentration and action time of LPS. The lung epithelial cells were grouped to observe the effect of ginsenoside Rg_1 on LPS-induced apoptosis of lung epithelial cells and its mechanism. In the animal experiment,the mice were grouped and tested by apoptosis protein,lung injury score and HE staining section to verify whether ginsenoside Rg_1 has a protective effect on LPS-induced lung injury. The results showed that apoptosis and autophagy increased as the rise of concentration after treatment with LPS for 12 h. The apoptosis increased gradually,and the autophagy increased first and then decreased over time at the LPS concentration of 25 g·L-1. The apoptosis of LPS group was higher than that of control group,and LPS+3-MA group increased further,while apoptosis decreased significantly in LPS+RAM(rapamycin,autophagy promoter) group. The autophagy increased in LPS group,decreased in LPS+3-MA group and increased in LPS+RAM group. The apoptosis of LPS group was higher than that of control group,and the apoptosis of LPS+Rg_1 group decreased. The apoptosis of LPS+Rg_1+3-MA group increased again. The autophagy of LPS group further increased after administration of ginsenoside Rg_1,but decreased after administration of 3-MA. In the in vivo experiments in mice,the apoptosis of LPS group increased significantly compared with the control group,while LPS + ginsenoside Rg_1 group decreased. Lung injury score and HE staining also conformed to the above trend. LPS can induce the apoptosis of lung epithelial cells in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. The autophagy of lung epithelial cells increases with the rise of LPS concentration. At the specific concentration of LPS,autophagy increases first and then decreases after 12-16 hours. Proper increase of autophagy in lung epithelial cells within a certain period of time can reduce the apoptosis induced by LPS,while inhibition of autophagy can increase apoptosis. Ginsenoside Rg_1 has a protective effect on lung cancer epithelial cell apoptosis induced by autophagy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Cell Biology , Mice
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