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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 658-669, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010979

ABSTRACT

Pien Tze Huang (PTH) was documented as an imperial prescription composed of Notoginseng Radix, Calculus Bovis, Snake Gallbladder, and Musk. It is famous in China and Asian countries due to its excellent effects in heat clearing, detoxifying, swelling reduction, and pain relieving. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrate that PTH shows excellent effects against various inflammatory diseases, liver diseases, and cancers. This review summaries the pharmacological effects, clinical applications, and mainchemical components of PTH. More importantly, its potential quality markers (Q-markers) were then analyzed based on the "five principles" of Q-markers under the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory, including transfer and traceability, specificity, efficacy, compatibility, and measurability. As a result, ginsenosides Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Re, notoginsenoside R1, dencichine, bilirubin, biliverdin, taurocholic acid, and muscone are considered as the Q-markers of PTH. These findings will provide guidance and assistance for the construction of a quality control system for PTH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms , Quality Control , China
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 631-640, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010976

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the consistency of herb injectable formulations could improve their product quality and clinical safety, particularly concerning the composition and content levels of trace ingredients. Panax notoginseng Saponins Injection (PNSI), widely used in China for treating acute cardiovascular diseases, contains low-abundance (10%-25%) and trace saponins in addition to its five main constituents (notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rd). This study aimed to establish a robust analytical method and assess the variability in trace saponin levels within PNSI from different vendors and formulation types. To achieve this, a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method employing multiple ions monitoring (MIM) was developed. A "post-column valve switching" strategy was implemented to eliminate highly abundant peaks (NR1, Rg1, and Re) at 26 min. A total of 51 saponins in PNSI were quantified or relatively quantified using 18 saponin standards, with digoxin as the internal standard. This study evaluated 119 batches of PNSI from seven vendors, revealing significant variability in trace saponin levels among different vendors and formulation types. These findings highlight the importance of consistent content in low-abundance and trace saponins to ensure product control and clinical safety. Standardization of these ingredients is crucial for maintaining the quality and effectiveness of PNSI in treating acute cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Saponins , Chemometrics , Panax notoginseng , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 599-609, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010973

ABSTRACT

Gypenosides, structurally analogous to ginsenosides and derived from a sustainable source, are recognized as the principal active compounds found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese medicinal plant used in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. By bioactive tracking isolation of the plants collected from different regions across China, we obtained four new gypenosides (1-4), together with nine known gypenosides (5-13), from the methanol extract of the plant. The structures of new gypenosides were elucidated by one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, complemented by chemical degradation experiments. Through comprehensive evaluation involving COL1A1 promoter assays and PP2Cα activity assays, we established a definitive structure-activity relationship for these dammarane-type triterpenoids, affirming the indispensability of the C-3 saccharide chain and C-17 lactone ring in effectively impeding extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition within hepatic stellate cells. Further in vivo study on the CCl4-induced liver damage mouse model corroborated that compound 5 significantly ameliorated the process of hepatic fibrosis by oral administration. These results underscore the potential of dammarane-type triterpenoids as prospective anti-fibrotic leads and highlight their prevalence as key molecular frameworks in the therapeutic intervention of chronic hepatic disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Gynostemma , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Extracellular Matrix , Dammaranes
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4187-4200, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008615

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Qilongtian Capsules in treating acute lung injury(ALI) based on network pharmacology prediction and in vitro experimental validation. Firstly, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was used to analyze the main chemical components of Qilongtian Capsules, and related databases were used to obtain its action targets and ALI disease targets. STRING database was used to build a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. Metascape database was used to conduct enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology(GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG). AutoDock software was used to perform molecular docking verification on the main active components and key targets. Then, the RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS) for in vitro experiments. Cell viability was measured by MTT and ROS level was measured by DCFH-DA. NO content was measured by Griess assay, and IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. The predicted targets were preliminarily verified by investigating the effect of Qilongtian Capsules on downstream cytokines. Eighty-four compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Through database retrieval, 44 active components with 589 target genes were screened out. There were 560 ALI disease targets, and 65 intersection targets. PPI network topology analysis revealed 10 core targets related to ALI, including STAT3, JUN, VEGFA, CASP3, and MMP9. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that Qilongtian Capsules mainly exerted an anti-ALI effect by regulating cancer pathway, AGE-RAGE, MAPK, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that the main active components in Qilongtian Capsules, including crenulatin, ginsenoside F_1, ginsenoside Rb_1, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Rg_1, ginsenoside Rg_3, notoginsenoside Fe, notoginsenoside G, notoginsenoside R_1, notoginsenoside R_2, and notoginsenoside R_3, had good binding affinities with the corresponding protein targets STAT3, JUN, VEGFA, CASP3, and MMP9. Cellular experiments showed that Qilongtian Capsules at 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg·mL~(-1) reduced the release of NO, while Qilongtian Capsules at 0.25 and 0.5 mg·mL~(-1) reduced ROS production, down-regulated mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inhibited the inflammatory cascade. In summary, Qilongtian Capsules may exert therapeutic effects on ALI through multiple components and targets.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Ginsenosides , Caspase 3 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Interleukin-6 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Capsules , RNA, Messenger , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4097-4105, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008605

ABSTRACT

To explore the resource components and availability of different parts of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province, the paper employed the non-targeted metabolomics technology based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) to analyze the metabolites and their metabolic pathways in the root, fibril, stem, and leaf of P. quinquefolium. The content of seven ginsenosides and polysaccharides in different parts was determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry(UV-Vis). The results showed that the metabolites were mainly sugars, glycosides, organic acids, amino acids and their derivatives, terpenoids, etc. The total abundance of metabolites followed the trend of leaf > root > fibril > stem. Most of the differential metabolites were concentrated in phenylpropane biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, citric acid cycle, and amino acid biosynthesis. The leaf contained high levels of sugars, glycosides, amino acids and their derivatives, and flavonoids; the root was rich in terpenoids, volatile oils, vitamins, and lignin; the fibril contained rich organic acids; and the stem had high content of nucleotides and their derivatives. The content of ginsenosides Re and Rb_1 was significantly higher in the root; the content of ginsenosides Rg_1, Rg_2, Rd, F_(11), and polysaccharide was significantly higher in the leaf; and the content of ginsenoside Rb_2 was significantly higher in the stem. We analyzed the resource components and availability of different parts of P. quinquefolium, aiming to provide basic information for the comprehensive development and utilization of P. quinquefolium resources in Shandong province.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Panax/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Sugars
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e380123, 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1429535

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) leads to myocardial tissue necrosis, which will increase the size of myocardial infarction. The study examined the protective effect and mechanism of the Guanxin Danshen formula (GXDSF) on MIRI in rats. Methods: MIRI model was performed in rats; rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes were hypoxia-reoxygenated to establish a cell injury model. Results: The GXDSF significantly reduced myocardial ischemia area, reduced myocardial structural injury, decreased the levels of interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-6) in serum, decreased the activity of myocardial enzymes, increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione in rats with MIRI. The GXDSF can reduce the expression of nucleotide- binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3), IL-1ß, caspase-1, and gasdermin D (GSDMD) in myocardial tissue cells. Salvianolic acid B and notoginsenoside R1 protected H9C2 cardiomyocytes from hypoxia and reoxygenation injury and reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in the cell supernatant, decreasing the NLRP3, IL-18, IL-1ß, caspase-1, and GSDMD expression in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. GXDSF can reduce the myocardial infarction area and alleviate the damage to myocardial structure in rats with MIRI, which may be related to the regulation of the NLRP3. Conclusion: GXDSF reduces MIRI in rat myocardial infarction injury, improves structural damage in myocardial ischemia injury, and reduces myocardial tissue inflammation and oxidative stress by lowering inflammatory factors and controlling focal cell death signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Ginsenosides/administration & dosage , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 857-864, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010275

ABSTRACT

Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills (QSYQ) is a compound of Chinese medicine, which has been used to treat coronary heart disease and cardiac dysfunction. Its natural components include astragaloside IV, flavonoids, danshensu, protocatechualdehyde, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, ginsenosides Rg1, ginsenosides Rb1, and essential oils, etc. It exerts effects of nourishing qi and promoting blood circulation to relieve pain. In this review, the bioactive components of QSYQ and its effects for treating cardiovascular diseases and possible mechanism were summarized, providing references for further study and clinical application of QSYQ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Coronary Disease/drug therapy
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 540-550, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982723

ABSTRACT

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting both upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. One important aspect of ALS pathogenesis is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutant-mediated mitochondrial toxicity, leading to apoptosis in neurons. This study aimed to evaluate the neural protective synergistic effects of ginsenosides Rg1 (G-Rg1) and conditioned medium (CM) on a mutational SOD1 cell model, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the contents of nerve growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor significantly increased in CM after human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were exposed to neuron differentiation reagents for seven days. CM or G-Rg1 decreased the apoptotic rate of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells to a certain extent, but their combination brought about the least apoptosis, compared with CM or G-Rg1 alone. Further research showed that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated in all the treatment groups. Proteins associated with mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, such as Bax, caspase 9 (Cas-9), and cytochrome c (Cyt c), were downregulated. Furthermore, CM or G-Rg1 also inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα. CM/G-Rg1 or their combination also reduced the apoptotic rate induced by betulinic acid (BetA), an agonist of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, the combination of CM and G-Rg1 effectively reduced the apoptosis of SOD1G93A-NSC34 cells through suppressing the NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway (Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the abstract).


Subject(s)
Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase-1 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurons/metabolism , Apoptosis
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3922-3933, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981525

ABSTRACT

Through the non-targeted metabolomics study of endogenous substances in the liver and serum of hyperlipidemia rats, the biomarkers related to abnormal lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia rats were found, and the target of ginsenoside Rb_1 in improving hyperlipidemia was explored and its mechanism was elucidated. The content of serum biochemical indexes of rats in each group was detected by the automatic biochemical analyzer. The metabolite profiles of liver tissues and serum of rats were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were used to compare and analyze the metabolic data in the normal group, the hyperlipidemia group, and the ginsenoside Rb_1 group, and screen potential biomar-kers. The related metabolic pathways were further constructed by KEGG database analysis. The results showed that hyperlipemia induced dyslipidemia in rats, which was alleviated by ginsenoside Rb_1. The non-targeted metabolomics results showed that there were 297 differential metabolites in the liver tissues of hyperlipidemia rats, 294 differential metabolites in the serum samples, and 560 diffe-rential metabolites in the hyperlipidemia rats treated by ginsenoside Rb_1. Perillic acid and N-ornithyl-L-taurine were common metabolites in the liver and serum samples, which could be used as potential biomarkers for ginsenoside Rb_1 in the improvement of hyperlipidemia. As revealed by pathway enrichment in the liver and serum, ginsenoside Rb_1 could participate in the metabolic pathway of choline in both the liver and serum. In addition, ginsenoside Rb_1 also participated in the ABC transporter, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamate metabolism, protein digestion and absorption, β-alanine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, caffeine metabolism, valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, and methionine and cysteine metabolism to improve dyslipidemia in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Metabolome , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Metabolomics/methods , Liver/metabolism , Biomarkers , Taurine
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3472-3484, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981482

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rg_3, an active component of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), was used as the substitute for cholesterol as the membrane material to prepare the ginsenoside Rg_3-based liposomes loaded with dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel. The effect of the prepared drug-loading liposomes on triple-negative breast cancer in vitro was evaluated. Liposomes were prepared with the thin film hydration method, and the preparation process was optimized by single factor experiments. The physicochemical properties(e.g., particle size, Zeta potential, and stability) of the liposomes were characterized. The release behaviors of drugs in different media(pH 5.0 and pH 7.4) were evaluated. The antitumor activities of the liposomes were determined by CCK-8 on MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. The cell scratch test was carried out to evaluate the effect of the liposomes on the migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Further, the targeting ability of liposomes and the mechanism of lysosome escape were investigated. Finally, H9c2 cells were used to evaluate the potential cardiotoxicity of the preparation. The liposomes prepared were spheroid, with uniform particle size distribution, the ave-rage particle size of(107.81±0.01) nm, and the Zeta potential of(2.78±0.66) mV. The encapsulation efficiency of dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel was 57.76%±1.38% and 99.66%±0.07%, respectively, and the total drug loading was 4.46%±0.71%. The accumulated release of dihydroartemisinin and paclitaxel from the liposomes at pH 5.0 was better than that at pH 7.4, and the liposomes could be stored at low temperature for seven days with good stability. Twenty-four hours after administration, the inhibition rates of the ginsenoside Rg_3-based liposomes loaded with dihydroartemisinin(70 μmol·L~(-1)) and paclitaxel on MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells were higher than those of the positive control(adriamycin) and free drugs(P<0.01). Compared with free drugs, liposomes inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells(P<0.05). Liposomes demonstrated active targeting and lysosome escape. In particular, liposomes showed lower toxicity to H9c2 cells than free drugs(P<0.05), which indicated that the preparation had the potential to reduce cardiotoxicity. The findings prove that ginsenoside Rg_3 characterized by the combination of drug and excipient is an ideal substitute for lipids in liposomes and promoted the development of innovative TCM drugs for treating cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Liposomes/chemistry , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cardiotoxicity/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3156-3161, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981451

ABSTRACT

Baby Boom(BBM) gene is a key regulatory factor in embryonic development and regeneration, cell proliferation, callus growth, and differentiation promotion. Since the genetic transformation system of Panax quinquefolius is unstable with low efficiency and long period, this study attempted to transfer BBM gene of Zea mays to P. quinquefolius callus by gene gunship to investigate its effect on the callus growth and ginsenoside content, laying a foundation for establishing efficient genetic transformation system of P. quinquefolius. Four transgenic callus of P. quinquefolius with different transformation events were obtained by screening for glufosinate ammonium resistance and molecular identification by PCR. The growth state and growth rate of wild-type and transgenic callus were compared in the same growth period. The content of ginsenoside in transgenic callus was determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that transgenic callus growth rate was significantly higher than that of wild-type callus. In addition, the content of ginsenoside Rb_1, Rg_1, Ro, and Re was significantly higher than that in wild-type callus. The paper preliminarily proved the function of BBM gene in promoting growth rate and increasing ginsenoside content, which provided a scientific basis to establish a stable and efficient genetic transformation system for Panax plants in the future.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Ginsenosides , Panax/genetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Cell Proliferation
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2810-2819, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981384

ABSTRACT

Via network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study explored and validated the potential molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg_1(Rg_1) against radiation enteritis. Targets of Rg_1 and radiation enteritis were retrieved from BATMAN-TCM, SwissTargetPrediction, and GeneCards. Cytoscape 3.7.2 and STRING were employed for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) network for the common targets, and screening of core targets. DAVID was used for Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment to predict the possible mechanism, followed by molecular docking of Rg_1 with core targets and cellular experiment. For the cellular experiment, ~(60)Co-γ irradiation was performed for mo-deling of IEC-6 cells, which were then treated with Rg_1, protein kinase B(AKT) inhibitor LY294002, and other drugs to verify the effect and mechanism of Rg_1. The results showed that 29 potential targets of Rg_1, 4 941 disease targets, and 25 common targets were screened out. According to the PPI network, the core targets were AKT1, vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA), heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1(HSP90AA1), Bcl-2-like protein 1(BCL2L1), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), etc. The common targets were mainly involved in the GO terms such as positive regulation of RNA polymerase Ⅱ promoter transcription, signal transduction, positive regulation of cell proliferation, and other biological processes. The top 10 KEGG pathways included phosphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3K)/AKT pathway, RAS pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) pathway, Ras-proximate-1(RAP1) pathway, and calcium pathway, etc. Molecular docking showed that Rg_1 had high binding affinity to AKT1, VEGFA, HSP90AA1, and other core targets. Cellular experiment indicated that Rg_1 can effectively improve cell viability and survival, decrease apoptosis after irradiation, promote the expression of AKT1 and B-cell lymphoma-extra large(BCL-XL), and inhibit the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein(BAX). In conclusion, through network pharmacology, molecular docking, and cellular experiment, this study verified the ability of Rg_1 to reduce radiation enteritis injury. The mechanism was that it regulated PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby suppressing apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Network Pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Molecular Docking Simulation , Radiation Injuries , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2077-2085, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981339

ABSTRACT

Kaixin Powder is a classic prescription for invigorating Qi, nourishing the mind, and calming the mind. It has pharmacological effects of improving learning and memory ability, resisting oxidation, delaying aging, and promoting the differentiation and regeneration of nerve cells. It is mainly used in the modern clinical treatment of amnesia, depression, dementia, and other diseases. The present paper reviewed the research progress on the chemical composition and pharmacological action of Kaixin Powder, predicted and analyzed its quality markers(Q-markers) according to the concept of Chinese medicine Q-markers, including transmission and traceability, specificity, effectiveness, measurability, and compound compatibility environment. The results suggested that sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, 3',6-disinapoylsucrose, tenuifoliside A, ginsenoside Rg_1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, pachymic acid, β-asarone, and α-asarone could be used as Q-markers of Kaixin Powder. This study is expected to provide a scientific basis for establishing the quality control system and the whole process quality traceability system of Kaixin Powder compound preparations.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Powders , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2059-2067, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981337

ABSTRACT

Panax notoginseng contains triterpene saponins, flavonoids, amino acids, polysaccharides, volatile oil and other active components, which have the effects of promoting blood circulation, stopping bleeding, removing blood stasis, etc. This study summarized the herbal research, chemical constituents and main pharmacological activities of P. notoginseng, and based on the theory of Q-markers of traditional Chinese medicine, predicted and analyzed the Q-markers of P. notoginseng from the aspects of plant kinship, efficacy, drug properties, measurability of chemical components, etc. It was found that ginsenosides Rg_1, Re, and Rb_1 with specific content ratio, ginsenosides Rb_2, Rb_3, Rc, Rd, Rh_2, and Rg_3, notoginseng R_1, dencichine and quercetin could be used as potential Q-markers of P. notoginseng, which facilitated the formulation of quality standards reflecting the efficacy of P. notoginseng.


Subject(s)
Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Saponins/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Panax/chemistry
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1632-1641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970635

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of living standards and changes in working style, the prevalence of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in humans is increasing in modern society. Clinically, the related indicators are often improved by changing the lifestyle and/or taking hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering drugs, but there are no therapeutic drugs for disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism at present. Hepatitis C virus core protein binding protein 6(HCBP6) is a newly discovered target that can regulate triglyceride and cholesterol content according to level oscillations in the body, thereby regulating abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Relevant studies have shown that ginsenoside Rh_2 can significantly up-regulate the expression of HCBP6, but there are few studies on the effect of Chinese herbal medicines on HCBP6. Moreover, the three-dimensional structural information of HCBP6 has not been determined and the discovery of potential active components acting on HCBP6 is not rapidly advanced. Therefore, the total saponins of eight Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to regulate abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism were selected as the research objects to observe their effect on the expression of HCBP6. Then, the three-dimensional structure of HCBP6 was predicted, followed by molecular docking with saponins in eight Chinese herbal medicines to quickly find potential active components. The results showed that all total saponins tended to up-regulate HCBP6 mRNA and protein expression, where gypenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 mRNA and ginsenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 protein expression. Reliable protein structures were obtained after the prediction of protein structures using the Robetta website and the evaluation of the predicted structures by SAVES. The saponins from the website and literature were also collected and docked with the predicted protein, and the saponin components were found to have good binding activity to the HCBP6 protein. The results of the study are expected to provide ideas and methods for the discovery of new drugs from Chinese herbal medicines to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose , Lipid Metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Proteins , Saponins , RNA, Messenger
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1319-1329, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970603

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of the total ginsenosides from Panax ginseng stems and leaves on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury(ALI) in mice. Sixty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves normal administration group(61.65 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-, medium-, and high-dose total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves groups(15.412 5, 30.825, and 61.65 mg·kg~(-1)). Mice were administered for seven continuous days before modeling. Twenty-four hours after modeling, mice were sacrificed to obtain lung tissues and calculate lung wet/dry ratio. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) was detected. The levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in BALF were detected. The mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and the levels of myeloperoxidase(MPO), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malondialdehyde(MDA) in lung tissues were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes in lung tissues. The gut microbiota was detected by 16S rRNA sequencing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was applied to detect the content of short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) in se-rum. The results showed that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could reduce lung index, lung wet/dry ratio, and lung damage in LPS-induced ALI mice, decrease the number of inflammatory cells and levels of inflammatory factors in BALF, inhibit the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory factors and levels of MPO and MDA in lung tissues, and potentiate the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in lung tissues. Furthermore, they could also reverse the gut microbiota disorder, restore the diversity of gut microbiota, increase the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Muribaculaceae, decrease the relative abundance of Prevotellaceae, and enhance the content of SCFAs(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) in serum. This study suggested that the total ginsenosides from P. ginseng stems and leaves could improve lung edema, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in ALI mice by regulating gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Panax/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 382-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970475

ABSTRACT

We prepared 15 batches of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples with the decoction pieces of different batches. Further, we established the specific chromatograms and index component content determination method of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples and analyzed the peaks and similarity of the chromatograms. With sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, ginsenoside Rb_1, β-asarone, α-asarone, and dehydropachymic acid as index components, the index component content determination method was established and 70%-130% of the mean content of each component was set as the range. The chromatograms of 15 batches of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples had a total of 22 characteristic peaks, among which 8 peaks were identified, which represented sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, ginsenoside Rb_1, β-asarone, α-asarone, and dehydropachymic acid, respectively. The chromatograms shared the similarity of 0.992-0.999. The 15 batches of benchmark samples had sibiricose A5 of 0.34-0.55 mg·g~(-1), sibiricose A6 of 0.43-0.57 mg·g~(-1), polygalaxanthone Ⅲ of 0.12-0.19 mg·g~(-1), 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose of 1.08-1.78 mg·g~(-1), ginsenoside Rb_1 of 0.33-0.62 mg·g~(-1), β-asarone of 2.34-3.72 mg·g~(-1), α-asarone of 0.11-0.22 mg·g~(-1), and dehydropachymic acid of 0.053-0.079 mg·g~(-1). This study established the specific chromatograms and index component content determination method of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples, and the method was simple, feasible, reproducible, and stable. This study provides a scientific basis for further research on the key chemical properties of the benchmark samples and preparations of Kaixin Powder.


Subject(s)
Powders , Ginsenosides , Benchmarking , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Sucrose , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 978-992, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970417

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Compound K (CK) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory pharmacological activities. It has not been isolated from natural ginseng and is mainly prepared by deglycosylation of protopanaxadiol. Compared with the traditional physicochemical preparation methods, the preparation of CK by hydrolysis with protopanaxadiol-type (PPD-type) ginsenoside hydrolases has the advantages of high specificity, environmental-friendliness, high efficiency and high stability. In this review, the PPD-type ginsenoside hydrolases were classified into three categories based on the differences in the glycosyl-linked carbon atoms of the hydrolase action. It was found that most of the hydrolases that could prepare CK were PPD-type ginsenoside hydrolase type Ⅲ. In addition, the applications of hydrolases in the preparation of CK were summarized and evaluated to facilitate large-scale preparation of CK and its development in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Hydrolases , Sapogenins/chemistry
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 275-285, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970374

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanism of c(RGDyK) peptide modified mesenchymal stem cell exosomes loaded with ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) on ischemic stroke. Thread-tying method was used to establish SD rats transient middle cerebral occlusion model (tMCAO). The model rats were randomly divided into tMCAO group, Exo group, free G-Rg1 group, Exo-Rg1 group and cRGD-Exo-Rg1 group, and sham group was used as control. The infarct volume was measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrachloride (TTC) staining, the changes of neuron and endothelium were observed by immunofluorescence, and the expression of related proteins was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that cRGD-Exo-Rg1 up-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α) by activating PI3K/AKT pathway, thus promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis, effectively reducing the volume of cerebral infarction and improving neural function. In addition, the delivery of cRGD-Exo-Rg1 to ischemic brain tissue up-regulated the expression of occludin and claudin-5, and reduced the injury of blood-brain barrier. Taken together, cRGD-Exo-Rg1 was effective in the treatment of ischemic stroke by promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis, which provided experimental evidence for the potential clinical benefits of other neuroprotective therapies.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use
20.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 10-10, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929137

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rb1, the effective constituent of ginseng, has been demonstrated to play favorable roles in improving the immunity system. However, there is little study on the osteogenesis and angiogenesis effect of Ginsenoside Rb1. Moreover, how to establish a delivery system of Ginsenoside Rb1 and its repairment ability in bone defect remains elusive. In this study, the role of Ginsenoside Rb1 in cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, osteogenic genes expression, ALP activity of rat BMSCs were evaluated firstly. Then, micro-nano HAp granules combined with silk were prepared to establish a delivery system of Ginsenoside Rb1, and the osteogenic and angiogenic effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 loaded on micro-nano HAp/silk in rat calvarial defect models were assessed by sequential fluorescence labeling, and histology analysis, respectively. It revealed that Ginsenoside Rb1 could maintain cell viability, significantly increased ALP activity, osteogenic and angiogenic genes expression. Meanwhile, micro-nano HAp granules combined with silk were fabricated smoothly and were a delivery carrier for Ginsenoside Rb1. Significantly, Ginsenoside Rb1 loaded on micro-nano HAp/silk could facilitate osteogenesis and angiogenesis. All the outcomes hint that Ginsenoside Rb1 could reinforce the osteogenesis differentiation and angiogenesis factor's expression of BMSCs. Moreover, micro-nano HAp combined with silk could act as a carrier for Ginsenoside Rb1 to repair bone defect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Alginates/pharmacology , Bone Regeneration , Cell Differentiation , Durapatite/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Osteogenesis , Silk/pharmacology , Tissue Scaffolds
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