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1.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 412-421, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347289

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Calcular as velocidades médias da dilatação de pupila para classificar a gravidade da lesão derivada da escala de coma de Glasgow, estratificada por variáveis de confusão. Métodos: Neste estudo, analisaram-se 68.813 exames das pupilas para determinar a velocidade normal de dilatação em 3.595 pacientes com lesão cerebral leve (13 - 15), moderada (9 - 12) ou grave (3 - 8), segundo a escala de coma de Glasgow. As variáveis idade, sexo, raça, tamanho da pupila, tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, pressão intracraniana, uso de narcóticos, classificação pela escala de coma de Glasgow e diagnóstico foram consideradas confundidoras e controladas para análise estatística. Empregou-se regressão logística com base em algoritmo de classificação com aprendizado de máquina para identificar os pontos de corte da velocidade de dilatação para as categorias segundo a escala de coma de Glasgow. Resultados: As razões de chance e os intervalos de confiança desses fatores se mostraram estatisticamente significantes em sua influência sobre a velocidade de dilatação. A classificação com base na área sob a curva mostrou que, para o grau leve, na escala de coma de Glasgow, o limite da velocidade de dilatação foi de 1,2mm/s, com taxas de falsa probabilidade de 0,1602 e 0,1902 e áreas sob a curva de 0,8380 e 0,8080, respectivamente, para os olhos esquerdo e direito. Para grau moderado na escala de coma de Glasgow, a velocidade de dilatação foi de 1,1mm/s com taxas de falsa probabilidade de 0,1880 e 0,1940 e áreas sob a curva de 0,8120 e 0,8060, respectivamente, nos olhos esquerdo e direito. Mais ainda, para o grau grave na escala de coma de Glasgow, a velocidade de dilatação foi de 0,9mm/s, com taxas de falsa probabilidade de 0,1980 e 0,2060 e áreas sob a curva de 0,8020 e 0,7940, respectivamente, nos olhos esquerdo e direito. Esses valores foram diferentes dos métodos prévios de descrição subjetiva e das velocidades de dilatação previamente estimadas. Conclusão: Observaram-se velocidades mais lentas de dilatação pupilar em pacientes com escores mais baixos na escala de coma de Glasgow, indicando que diminuição da velocidade pode indicar grau mais grave de lesão neuronal.


ABSTRACT Objective: To calculate mean dilation velocities for Glasgow coma scale-derived injury severity classifications stratified by multiple confounding variables. Methods: In this study, we examined 68,813 pupil readings from 3,595 patients to determine normal dilation velocity with brain injury categorized based upon a Glasgow coma scale as mild (13 - 15), moderate (9 - 12), or severe (3 - 8). The variables age, sex, race, pupil size, intensive care unit length of stay, intracranial pressure, use of narcotics, Glasgow coma scale, and diagnosis were considered as confounding and controlled for in statistical analysis. Machine learning classification algorithm-based logistic regression was employed to identify dilation velocity cutoffs for Glasgow coma scale categories. Results: The odds ratios and confidence intervals of these factors were shown to be statistically significant in their influence on dilation velocity. Classification based on the area under the curve showed that for the mild Glasgow coma scale, the dilation velocity threshold value was 1.2mm/s, with false probability rates of 0.1602 and 0.1902 and areas under the curve of 0.8380 and 0.8080 in the left and right eyes, respectively. For the moderate Glasgow coma scale, the dilation velocity was 1.1mm/s, with false probability rates of 0.1880 and 0.1940 and areas under the curve of 0.8120 and 0.8060 in the left and right eyes, respectively. Furthermore, for the severe Glasgow coma scale, the dilation velocity was 0.9mm/s, with false probability rates of 0.1980 and 0.2060 and areas under the curve of 0.8020 and 0.7940 in the left and right eyes, respectively. These values were different from the previous method of subjective description and from previously estimated normal dilation velocities. Conclusion: Slower dilation velocities were observed in patients with lower Glasgow coma scores, indicating that decreasing velocities may indicate a higher degree of neuronal injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Injuries , Pupil , Biomarkers , Glasgow Coma Scale , Dilatation
2.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202769, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the relation between Trauma Quality Indicators (QI) and death, as well as clinical adverse events in severe trauma patients. Methods: analysis of data collected in the Trauma Register between 2014-2015, including patients with Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16, reviewing the QI: (F1) Acute subdural hematoma drainage > 4 hours with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <9; (F2) emergency room transference without definitive airway and GCS <9; (F3) Re-intubation within 48 hours; (F4) Admission-laparotomy time greater than 60 min in hemodynamically instable patients with abdominal bleeding; (F5) Unprogrammed reoperation; (F6) Laparotomy after 4 hours; (F7) Unfixed femur diaphyseal fracture; (F8) Non-operative treatment for abdominal gunshot; (F9) Admission-tibial exposure fracture treatment time > 6 hours; (F10) Surgery > 24 hours. T the chi-squared and Fisher tests were used to calculate statistical relevance, considering p<0.05 as relevant. Results: 127 patients were included, whose ISS ranged from 17 to 75 (28.8 + 11.5). There were adverse events in 80 cases (63%) and 29 died (22.8%). Twenty-six patients had some QI compromised (20.6%). From the 101 patients with no QI, 22% died, and 7 of 26 patients with compromised QI (26.9%) (p=0.595). From the patients with no compromised QI, 62% presented some adverse event. From the patients with any compromised QI, 18 (65.4%) had some adverse event on clinical evolution (p=0.751). Conclusion: the QI should not be used as death or adverse events predictors in severe trauma patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar relação entre comprometimento de Filtros de Qualidade (FQ) com complicações e mortalidade entre vítimas de trauma grave. Métodos: análise dos dados coletados para o Registro de Trauma entre 2014 e 2015, sendo incluídos os traumatizados com Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16 e analisados os FQ: (F1) drenagem de Hematoma Subdural Agudo (HSA) > 4 horas com Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG) <9, (F2) transferência da sala de emergência sem via aérea definitiva e com ECG<9, (F3) reintubação traqueal em até 48 horas, (F4) tempo entre admissão e laparotomia exploradora maior que 60 minutos em pacientes instáveis com foco abdominal, (F5) reoperação não programada, (F6) laparotomia > 4 horas, (F7) fratura de diáfise de fêmur não fixada, (F8) tratamento não operatório em Ferimento por Arma de Fogo (FAF) abdominal, (F9) tempo entre admissão e tratamento de fraturas expostas de tíbia > 6 horas, (F10) operação > 24 horas. Testes de Chi quadrado e Fisher para a análise estatística, considerando significativo p<0,05, foram usados. Resultado: foram incluídos 127 pacientes com ISS entre 17 a 75 (28,8 + 11,5). As complicações ocorreram em 80 casos (63%) e 29 morreram (22,8%). Vinte e seis pacientes apresentaram algum FQ comprometido (20,6%). Dos 101 doentes sem FQ comprometido, 22% faleceram, o que ocorreu em 7 dos 26 doentes com comprometimento dos FQ (26,9%) (p=0,595). Dos doentes sem FQ comprometido, 62% tiveram alguma complicação. Entre os pacientes com FQ comprometido, 18 (65,4%) tiveram complicações (p=0,751). Conclusão: os FQs não devem ser utilizados como preditor de mortes ou complicações evitáveis nas vítimas de traumas graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hemorrhage , Glasgow Coma Scale , Injury Severity Score , Trauma Severity Indices , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged
4.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284362

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O trauma decorrente de causas externas é um problema de saúde em várias regiões do mundo. Além de altos índices de mortalidade e morbidade, os traumas de face resultam em impactos estéticos, estruturais e psicológicos na vida do indivíduo e na sociedade, gerando, também, um alto custo com gastos hospitalares. Objetivo: Relatar o caso de um paciente com trauma de face por acidente ciclístico, com alterações na funcionalidade do sistema estomatognático. Metodologia: Foi realizada avaliação fonoaudiológica por meio do Protocolo de Avaliação Preliminar (PAP), para observação do aspecto das estruturas orais, funções do sistema estomatognático, voz e reflexos protetivos de vias aéreas superiores. Na sequência, foi aplicado o Protocolo de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia (PARD), para avaliação direta da deglutição. Resultados: Na avaliação dos órgãos fonoarticulatórios foi observado alterações de sensibilidade, mobilidade e redução significativa de força. Na avaliação direta da deglutição foi observada dificuldade na captação do alimento, escape anterior de alimento, elevação laríngea reduzida e múltiplas deglutições. Conclusão: O paciente foi classificado com Disfagia Orofaríngea leve a moderada, mantendo dieta via oral com consistência adaptada e orientação para continuidade de terapia fonoaudiológica. Devido ao alto número de casos semelhantes ao relatado nos hospitais de urgência e emergência, constata-se a necessidade de avaliação do sistema estomatognático para promover a melhor abordagem aos pacientes com trauma de face


Introduction: Trauma due to external causes is a health problem in several regions of the world. In addition to high rates of mortality and morbidity, facial traumas result in aesthetic, structural and psychological impacts on the individual's life and on society, also generating a high cost of hospital expenses. Objective: Report the case of a patient with facial trauma due to a cycling accident, with changes in the functionality of the stomatognathic system. Methodology: Speech therapy evaluation was carried out through the Preliminary Evaluation Protocol, to observe the appearance of oral structures, functions of the stomatognathic system, voice and protective reflexes of the upper airways. Then, the Risk Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia was applied, for direct swallowing assessment. Results: In the evaluation of Organs phonoarticulatory organs, changes in sensitivity, mobility and significant reduction in strength were observed. In the direct evaluation of swallowing, difficulty in capturing food, previous escape of food, reduced laryngeal elevation and multiple swallowing were observed. Conclusion: The patient was classified with Mild to Moderate Oropharyngeal Dysphagia, maintaining an oral diet with consistency adapted and guidance for continuing speech therapy. Due to the high number of cases similar to that reported in urgent and emergency hospitals, there is a need to evaluate the stomatognathic system to promote the best approach to patients with facial trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Stomatognathic System/injuries , Deglutition Disorders , Facial Injuries , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Glasgow Coma Scale , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mandibular Fractures
5.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 11: e39, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1222374

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de morte encefálica e os fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal com dados dos registros de pacientes neurocríticos e potenciais doadores de órgãos entre 2018 e 2019, sendo analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e regressão logística multinomial multivariada. Resultados: a prevalência de morte encefálica nos pacientes acompanhados foi de 46,6%, predominando homens, adultos, com Traumatismo Cranioencefálico (44,3%) como causa da morte. Os fatores associados à morte encefálica foram: score da Escala de Coma de Glasgow (RRR=0,30; p=0,001), uso de droga vasoativa (RRR=7,55; p=0,000) e Acidente Vascular Cerebral Hemorrágico e Isquêmico (RRR=2,14; p=0,031). Conclusão: houve uma alta prevalência de morte encefálica. O uso de droga vasoativa, o score da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e os diagnósticos de Acidente Vascular Cerebral Hemorrágico e Isquêmico mostraram-se associados à evolução para o quadro.


Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of brain death and its associated factors. Method: cross-sectional study with data from the records of neurocritical patients and potential organ donors between 2018 and 2019, being analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results: the prevalence of brain death in followed-up patients was 46.6%, predominantly men, adults, with traumatic brain injury (44.3%) as cause of death. Factors associated with brain death were: Glasgow Coma Scale score (RRR=0.30; p=0.001), vasoactive drug use (RRR=7.55; p=0.000) and Hemorrhagic and Ischemic stroke (RRR=2.14; p=0.031). Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of brain death. The use of vasoactive drugs, the Glasgow Coma Scale score and the diagnoses of Hemorrhagic and Ischemic stroke were associated with the evolution to the condition.


Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de la muerte cerebral y sus factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal con datos de los registros de pacientes neurocríticos y potenciales donantes de órganos entre 2018 y 2019, siendo analizado por estadísticas descriptivas y regresión logística multivariada multinomial. Resultados: la prevalencia de la muerte cerebral en pacientes de seguimiento fue del 46,6%, predominantemente hombres, adultos, con lesión cerebral traumática (44,3%) como causa de muerte. Los factores asociados con la muerte cerebral fueron: la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow (RRR-0,30; p-0,01), el consumo de drogas vasoactiva (RRR-7,55; p-0,000) y el accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico e isquémico (RRR-2,14; p-0,031). Conclusión: hubo una alta prevalencia de muerte cerebral. El uso de drogas vasoactivas, la puntuación de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow y los diagnósticos de accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico e isquémico se asociaron con la evolución a la afección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Brain Death , Glasgow Coma Scale , Critical Care , Neurology
6.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 333-343, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922708

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Patients' gender, which can be one of the most important determinants of traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes, is also likely to interact with many other outcome variables of TBI. This multicenter descriptive study investigated gender differences in epidemiological, clinical, treatment, mortality, and variable characteristics in adult TBI patients.@*METHODS@#The selection criteria were defined as patients who had been diagnosed with TBI and were admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2018. A total of 4468 adult TBI patients were enrolled at eight University Hospitals. Based on the list of enrolled patients, the medical records of the patients were reviewed and they were registered online at each hospital. The registered patients were classified into three groups according to the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score: mild (13-15), moderate (9-12), and severe (3-8), and the differences between men and women in each group were investigated. The risk factors of moderated and severe TBI compared to mild TBI were also investigated.@*RESULTS@#The study included 3075 men and 1393 women and the proportion of total males was 68.8%. Among all the TBI patients, there were significant differences between men and women in age, past history, and GCS score. While the mild and severe TBI groups showed significant differences in age, past history, and clinical symptoms, the moderate TBI group showed significant differences in age, past history, cause of justice, and diagnosis.@*CONCLUSION@#To the best of our knowledge, this multicenter study is the first to focus on gender differences of adult patients with TBI in Korea. This study shows significant differences between men and women in many aspects of adult TBI. Therefore, gender differences should be strongly considered in TBI studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain Injuries , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors
7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 350-355, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922347

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Traumatic brain injury (TBI) generally causes mortality and disability, particularly in children. Machine learning (ML) is a computer algorithm, applied as a clinical prediction tool. The present study aims to assess the predictability of ML for the functional outcomes of pediatric TBI.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was performed targeting children with TBI who were admitted to the trauma center of southern Thailand between January 2009 and July 2020. The patient was excluded if he/she (1) did not undergo a CT scan of the brain, (2) died within the first 24 h, (3) had unavailable complete medical records during admission, or (4) was unable to provide updated outcomes. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were collected such as vital signs, Glasgow coma scale score, and characteristics of intracranial injuries. The functional outcome was assessed using the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury, which was thus dichotomized into favourable outcomes and unfavourable outcomes: good recovery and moderate disability were categorized as the former, whereas death, vegetative state, and severe disability were categorized as the latter. The prognostic factors were estimated using traditional binary logistic regression. By data splitting, 70% of data were used for training the ML models and the remaining 30% were used for testing the ML models. The supervised algorithms including support vector machines, neural networks, random forest, logistic regression, naive Bayes and k-nearest neighbor were performed for training of the ML models. Therefore, the ML models were tested for the predictive performances by the testing datasets.@*RESULTS@#There were 828 patients in the cohort. The median age was 72 months (interquartile range 104.7 months, range 2-179 months). Road traffic accident was the most common mechanism of injury, accounting for 68.7%. At hospital discharge, favourable outcomes were achieved in 97.0% of patients, while the mortality rate was 2.2%. Glasgow coma scale score, hypotension, pupillary light reflex, and subarachnoid haemorrhage were associated with TBI outcomes following traditional binary logistic regression; hence, the 4 prognostic factors were used for building ML models and testing performance. The support vector machine model had the best performance for predicting pediatric TBI outcomes: sensitivity 0.95, specificity 0.60, positive predicted value 0.99, negative predictive value 1.0; accuracy 0.94, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.78.@*CONCLUSION@#The ML algorithms of the present study have a high sensitivity; therefore they have the potential to be screening tools for predicting functional outcomes and counselling prognosis in general practice of pediatric TBIs.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Child , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 418-425, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138500

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar se os níveis plasmáticos das metaloproteinases de matriz -2 e -9 tem associação com a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva em pacientes com trauma craniencefálico grave, independentemente de lesões não cerebrais associadas. Métodos: Esta coorte prospectiva incluiu 39 pacientes do sexo masculino com trauma craniencefálico grave (escore na escala de coma Glasgow na admissão hospitalar: 3 - 8). Os níveis plasmáticos das metaloproteinases -2 e -9 foram determinados por ELISA no momento da admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva. Resultados: O trauma craniencefálico grave apresentou mortalidade de 46% na unidade de terapia intensiva. Concentrações mais elevadas de metaloproteinase -9 apresentaram associação com a mortalidade: 147,94 ± 18,00ng/mL para pacientes que sobreviveram e 224,23 ± 23,86ng/mL para os que não sobreviveram (média ± erro padrão, respectivamente; p = 0,022). Todavia, não houve associação significativa entre os níveis de metaloproteinase -2 e a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva: 315,68 ± 22,90ng/mL para o grupo de sobreviventes e 336,55 ± 24,29ng/mL entre os pacientes que não sobreviveram (p = 0,499). Além disso, não se observaram associações significativas entre os níveis de metaloproteinase -2 (p = 0,711) ou metaloproteinase -9 (p = 0,092) e a presença de lesões não cerebrais associadas. Conclusão: Em vítimas de traumatismo craniencefálico grave, níveis elevados de metaloproteinase -9 tiveram valor preditivo para o desfecho fatal na unidade de terapia intensiva independentemente da presença de lesões não cerebrais associadas. Por outro lado, no mesmo cenário, os níveis plasmáticos de metaloproteinase -2 não apresentaram associação com a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva


Abstract Objective: To determine whether the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 plasma levels were associated with intensive care unit mortality in patients who suffered severe traumatic brain injury, despite the presence of extracerebral injuries. Methods: This prospective cohort enrolled 39 male patients who suffered severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow coma scale: 3 - 8 at hospital admission). The plasma matrix metalloproteinase -2 and matix metalloproteinase -9 levels were determined by ELISA at the time of intensive care unit admission. Results: Severe traumatic brain injury was associated with a 46% intensive care unit mortality rate. Higher plasma matrix metalloproteinase -9 concentrations were associated with mortality: 147.94 ± 18.00ng/mL for survivors and 224.23 ± 23.86ng/mL for nonsurvivors (mean ± standard error of the mean, p = 0.022). In contrast, there was no significant association between matrix metalloproteinase -2 levels and intensive care unit mortality: 315.68 ± 22.90ng/mL for survivors and 336.55 ± 24.29ng/mL for nonsurvivors (p = 0.499). Additionally, there were no significant associations between matrix metalloproteinase -2 (p = 0.711) and matrix metalloproteinase -9 (p = 0.092) levels and the presence of associated lesions. Conclusion: Increased plasma matrix metalloproteinase -9 levels were associated with intensive care unit mortality following severe traumatic brain injury, regardless of the presence of extracerebral injuries. Conversely, in this same context, plasma matrix metalloproteinase -2 levels were not associated with short-term fatal outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/blood , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/mortality , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Glasgow Coma Scale , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Survivors , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/blood
9.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e380, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126586

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se mantiene el debate sobre qué tipos de intervenciones para la recuperación del ictus ofrecen mejores resultados para el paciente. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de una intervención integral durante seis meses sobre la recuperación funcional en pacientes con ictus. Métodos: la muestra estuvo compuesta por 42 participantes con ictus: un grupo experimental (N = 22) con una media de edad de 52,68 años (DE = 14,39) que recibió una intervención integral, intensiva y multidisciplinar, y un grupo control (N = 20) con una media de edad de 56,20 años (DE = 14,82) que no recibió este tipo de intervención. Se valoraron los siguiente índices de severidad del ictus: Escala de Coma de Glasgow, Escala Canadiense, estancia en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, signos de enclavamiento uncal, signos de hipertensión endocraneal, volumen del hematoma/área isquémica, desplazamiento de línea media, necesidad de cirugía y tiempo total de hospitalización. Ambos grupos eran equivalentes en estos índices de gravedad. El grado de funcionalidad fue medido con la aplicación de la escala Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Esta prueba se aplicó al inicio de la intervención y 6 meses después. Resultados: se observó una evolución positiva en ambos grupos en todas las áreas de la escala. La intervención integral y un menor tiempo total de hospitalización se relacionaron con una mejor recuperación funcional en el ictus. Conclusiones: se sugiere la necesidad de realizar estrategias de rehabilitación integral en los pacientes con ictus(AU)


Introduction: debate is currently underway about what types of stroke recovery interventions are more beneficial for patients. Objective: evaluate the effect of a six-month comprehensive intervention on the functional recovery of stroke patients. Methods: the study sample was 42 stroke patients: an experimental group (N = 22), mean age 52.68 years (SD = 14.39), who received a comprehensive intensive multidisciplinary intervention, and a control group (N = 20), mean age 56.20 years (SD = 14.82), who did not receive this type of intervention. The following stroke severity indices were applied: Glasgow Coma Scale, Canadian Scale, intensive care unit stay, uncal latching signs, endocranial hypertension signs, hematoma volume / ischemic area, midline displacement, need for surgery and total hospital stay time. These severity indices were similar in the two groups. Degree of functionality was gauged with the scales Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. This test was applied at the start of the intervention and 6 months later. Results: both groups had a positive evolution in all the areas of the scale. The comprehensive intervention and a shorter total hospital stay were associated to better functional recovery from stroke. Conclusions: the need is suggested to implement comprehensive rehabilitation strategies in stroke patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Intensive Care Units/standards , Glasgow Coma Scale/standards , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the value of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in evaluating the prognosis of children with disturbance of consciousness in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).@*METHODS@#A total of 164 children with disturbance of consciousness who were admitted to the PICU of Children's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University were enrolled as subjects. According to prognosis, they were divided into a poor prognosis group with 111 children and a good prognosis group with 53 children. The results of aEEG monitoring, FOUR score, and GCS score on days 1 and 5 of admission were collected. The association between evaluation methods and prognosis was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the value of aEEG, FOUR, and GCS in predicting prognosis.@*RESULTS@#The children with no improvement or abnormal aggravation of aEEG on day 5 tended to have a poor prognosis. The results of aEEG was positively correlated with prognosis (r=0.689, P0.05), while aEEG combined with FOUR had an AUC of 0.945, which was significantly larger than that of each index alone (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both aEEG and FOUR can be used as effective tools to predict the prognosis of children with disturbance of consciousness, and a combination of aEEG and FOUR can improve the predictive value.


Subject(s)
Child , Consciousness , Electroencephalography , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Prognosis , ROC Curve
11.
Medisan ; 23(6)nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091144

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las intoxicaciones exógenas agudas son tan antiguas como la humanidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con intoxicación exógena aguda atribuible a intento suicida. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 26 pacientes con el citado diagnóstico, atendidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital General Docente Orlando Pantoja Tamayo de Contramaestre, provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2017. Las variables analizadas fueron: grupos etarios, sexo, ocupación, tóxicos utilizados por estos pacientes, escala de Glasgow al ingreso, uso del carbón activado y tiempo de empleo, así como tipo de tratamiento. Resultados: En la serie prevalecieron los pacientes de 20-39 y 40-59 años de edad, así como los psicofármacos, seguidos por organofosforados, antiinflamatorios y antihistamínicos como los tóxicos más usados. En más de la mitad de los afectados la escala de Glasgow osciló entre 9 y 13 puntos. El lavado gástrico y el carbón activado fueron los métodos de desintoxicación más empleados. Conclusiones: Las intoxicaciones exógenas constituyen una verdadera urgencia médica, por tanto, es importante tener en cuenta el tiempo trascurrido entre el accidente y el tratamiento. Cuanto más precoz sea la intervención médica requerida, mejor será el pronóstico final de estos pacientes; por ello las acciones en el nivel primario de atención son determinantes.


Introduction: The acute exogenous intoxications are as old as humanity. Objective: To characterize the patients with acute exogenous intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. Method: A descriptive and retrospective study of 26 patients with this diagnosis, assisted in the Intensive Cares Unit of Orlando Pantoja Tamayo Teaching General Hospital in Contramaestre, Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January to December, 2017. The analyzed variables were: age groups, sex, occupation, toxics used by these patients, Glasgow scale at admission, use of charcoal and time of use, as well as type of treatment. Results: In the series the 20-39 and 40-59 years patients prevailed, as well as the psycho drugs, followed by organophosphorus compounds, anti-inflammatory and histamine antagonists as the most used toxics. In more than half of those affected patients the Glasgow scale oscillated between 9 and 13 points. The gastric lavage and charcoal were the most used detoxification methods. Conclusions: The exogenous intoxications constitute a true medical emergency, therefore, it is important to keep in mind the time between the accident and the treatment. The earlier the required medical intervention, the better will be the final prognosis of these patients; reason why the actions in the primary care level are determining.


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Psychotropic Drugs , Suicide, Attempted , Charcoal/poisoning , Glasgow Coma Scale
12.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03505, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1020375

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a evolução clínica e sobrevida de pacientes neurocríticos em Unidades Hospitalares. Método Coorte com pacientes acompanhados no período de setembro de 2012 a junho de 2016, internados em hospitais públicos e privados. Os dados foram analisados inicialmente a partir da estatística descritiva e inferencial. Como forma de análise da sobrevida, foi aplicado o indicador de Kaplan-Meier. O modelo de regressão para riscos proporcionais de Cox foi empregado para a análise dos fatores prognósticos, calculando-se a razão de risco. Resultados Participaram do estudo 1.289 pacientes. Os que possuíam Escala de Coma de Glasgow com maior valor apresentaram maior sobrevida, e o incremento de um ponto no escore dessa Escala correspondeu a uma melhora de 42% em sua sobrevida. Na análise de sobrevida, o sexo e o uso de drogas vasoativas mostraram diferença significativa. Conclusão Pacientes do sexo feminino, que possuem melhor escore da Escala de Coma de Glasgow e em uso de drogas vasoativas apresentaram maior sobrevida.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evolución clínica y supervivencia de pacientes neurocríticos en Unidades Hospitalarias. Método Cohorte con pacientes seguidos en el período de septiembre de 2012 a junio de 2016, en estancia en hospitales públicos y privados. Los datos fueron analizados inicialmente mediante la estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Como modo de análisis de la supervivencia, se aplicó el indicador de Kaplan-Meier. El modelo de regresión para riesgos proporcionales de Cox fue empleado para el análisis de los factores pronósticos, calculándose la razón de riesgo. Resultados Participaron en el estudio 1.289 pacientes. Los que tenían Escala de Coma de Glasgow con mayor valor presentaron mayor supervivencia, y el incremento de un punto en el score de dicha Escala correspondió a un mejora del 42% en su supervivencia. En el análisis de supervivencia, el sexo y el uso de drogas vasoactivas mostraron diferencia significativa. Conclusión Pacientes del sexo femenino que tienen mejor score de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow y en uso de drogas vasoactivas presentaron mayor supervivencia.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical evolution and survival of neurocritical patients in Hospital Units. Method Cohort with hospitalized patients in follow-up treatment in public and private hospitals between September 2012 and June 2016. Data were initially analyzed from descriptive and inferential statistics. The Kaplan-Meier indicator was applied as a form of survival analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the prognostic factors by calculating the hazard ratio. Results Participation of 1,289 patients in the study. Patients with a higher score on the Glasgow Coma Scale presented greater survival, and the one-point increase in the scale score corresponded to 42% improvement in their survival. In the analysis of survival, sex and the use of vasoactive drugs showed a significant difference. Conclusion Female patients with a better score on the Glasgow Coma Scale and using vasoactive drugs had higher survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glasgow Coma Scale , Clinical Evolution , Critical Care , Cohort Studies , Critical Care Nursing
13.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 10(1): 978-995, abr.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049529

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Traumatismo craneoencefá-lico (TCE) se define como un intercambio brusco de energía mecánica causado por una fuerza externa que tiene como resultado una alteración a nivel anatómico-funcional del encéfalo y sus envolturas. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente los TCE severos en pacientes de 2-18 años, atendidos en Unidad de Cuidados Intensi-vos Pediátricos (UCIP) del Hospital Mario Catarino Rivas (HMCR) durante enero 2016 a mayo 2018. Pacientes y métodos: Estu-dio descriptivo transversal observacional. Universo de 809 pacientes. La muestra por conveniencia fue de 77 (9.5%, IC95%), se incluyó pacientes de 2-18 años, con expe-diente clínico completo. Se excluyeron ingresos por causa no traumática, traslados a otros centros hospitalarios y pacientes con TCE leve-moderado. Las variables incluye-ron datos sociodemográficos, característi-cas del traumatismo, manifestaciones clíni-cas, tratamiento en UCIP, complicaciones asociadas y condición de egreso. La infor-mación recolectada fue ingresada en una base de datos en Epiinfo versión 7.2.2.6, se realizó un análisis univariado. La informa-ción extraída de los expedientes se manejó confidencialmente. Resultados: El grupo etáreo más afectado fueron escolares 40.2% (31), el mecanismo de lesión másClinical-epidemiological characterization of Severe Pediatric Brain injury atHospital Nacional Mario Catarino Rivas 2016-2018Caracterización clínico-epidemiológica de Traumatismo CraneoencefálicoSevero Pediátrico en Hospital Nacional Mario Catarino Rivas 2016-2018común accidente de tránsito 64.9% (50). El 97.4% (75) presentó pérdida del estado de consciencia, la región anatómica más afec-tada fue temporal en 52.0% (40). 45.9% iniciaron alimentación enteral antes de las 12 hrs, la prevalencia fue de 9.5% y la mor-talidad del 10%. Conclusión: Es importante identificar los mecanismos de trauma, para dar un manejo oportuno e intervenir de manera eficaz, con el fin de disminuir la morbimortalidad de estos...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , Critical Care
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 501-508, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011364

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A swallowing disorder is present in more than 50% of patients with acute stroke. Objective To identify clinical prognostic indicators of the swallowing function in a population with acute ischemic stroke and to determine prioritization indicators for swallowing rehabilitation. Methods Participants were adults admitted to the emergency room who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. Data gathering involved a swallowing assessment to determine the functional level of swallowing (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) and the verification of demographic and clinical variables. Results The study sample included 295 patients. For analysis purposes, patients were grouped as follows: ASHA NOMS levels 1 and 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); levels 3, 4 and 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); levels 6 and 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). Statistical analyses indicated that patients who presented a poorer swallowing function (ASHA1) were older (age ≥ 70 years); had anterior circulation infarct; had lower scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ≤ 14 points); took longer to initiate swallowing rehabilitation; had longer hospital stays; made more use of alternative feeding methods; needed more sessions of swallowing rehabilitation to remove alternate feeding methods; took longer to return to oral feeding and had poorer outcomes (fewer individuals discharged from swallowing rehabilitation sessions and increased mortality). Conclusion Patients with acute ischemic stroke, admitted to the emergency room, aged ≥ 70 years, score on the GCS ≤ 14, anterior circulation infarct and dementia should be prioritized for swallowing assessment and rehabilitation.


RESUMO Alterações da deglutição são observadas em mais de 50% dos pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) agudo. Objetivo Identificar os indicadores de prognóstico clínico da funcionalidade da deglutição na população com AVCI em fase aguda, visando o estabelecimento de indicadores de priorização de atendimento fonoaudiológico. Métodos Participaram do estudo adultos admitidos em Pronto Socorro (PS) com AVCI. As etapas de coleta de dados envolveram avaliação fonoaudiológica para determinação do nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS) e a coleta de variáveis demográficas e clínicas. Resultados A amostra do estudo incluiu 295 pacientes agrupados de acordo com os níveis ASHA NOMS: níveis 1 e 2 - ASHA1 (n = 51); níveis 3, 4 e 5 - ASHA2 (n = 96); níveis 6 e 7 - ASHA3 (n = 148). As análises indicaram os seguintes resultados significantes: pacientes com pior funcionalidade da deglutição (ASHA1) apresentaram média de idade superior a 70 anos, maior comprometimento da circulação cerebral anterior pós-AVCI, pior pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow (ECG ≤ 14 pontos), demoraram mais tempo para iniciar o atendimento fonoaudiológico, permaneceram mais tempo internados no hospital, fizeram mais uso de via alternativa de alimentação, necessitaram de mais sessões fonoaudiológicas para retirada da via alternativa de alimentação, demoraram mais tempo para retornar para alimentação por via oral e apresentaram pior desfecho (um número menor de indivíduos recebeu alta fonoaudiológica e apresentaram mortalidade aumentada). Conclusão Pacientes com AVCI agudo, admitidos em PS, que apresentem idade ≥ 70 anos, pontuação na ECG ≤ 14, com comprometimento do sistema circulatório cerebral anterior e demência, devem ser priorizados no atendimento fonoaudiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Prognosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Comorbidity , Glasgow Coma Scale , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 33(2): 91-99, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1177694

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La escala de coma de Glasgow (ECG) es una escala mundialmente reconocida para la clasificación de pacientes con trauma craneoencefálico de acuerdo a su compromiso neurológico. Esta escala evalúa la apertura ocular, la respuesta verbal y la respuesta motora. La neuroanatomía funcional representa un compromiso secuencial para el descenso en el puntaje de cada uno de estos ítems. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir la anatomía del sistema reticular activador ascendente (SRAA), la anatomía funcional del lenguaje, la anatomía del tallo cerebral y de las vías motoras que representan cada ítem evaluado por la ECG. Materiales y métodos: Se hizo una revisión narrativa bibliográfica de las principales vías para cada ítem de la ECG. Resultados: Las principales vías en relación con la apertura ocular se concentran en las vías del SRAA, las vías de la respuesta verbal incluyen las vías del lenguaje y las vías que provienen del putamen y del cerebelo que regulan la emisión del lenguaje, mientras que las vías que regulan la respuesta motora principalmente se relacionan con la vía piramidal, el sistema rubro-espinal y vestíbulo-espinal. Conclusiones: El descenso del puntaje en los tres ítems que evalúa la ECG se relacionan con vías específicas que predominan en los ganglios basales y en el tallo cerebral.


Introduction: The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a globally recognized scale for the classification of patients with traumatic brain injury according to their neurological impairment. This scale evaluates the ocular opening, the verbal response and the motor response. Functional neuroanatomy represents a sequential decrease in the score of each of these items. The objective of this review is to describe the anatomy of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), the functional anatomy of the language, and the anatomy of the brainstem and the motor pathways that represent each item evaluated by the GCS. Materials and methods: A narrative literature review of the main routes for each item of the scale was performed. Results: The main pathways in relation to the ocular opening are concentrated in the ARAS, the verbal response pathways include the language pathways and the connections that come from the putamen and the cerebellum that regulate the production of the language, while the pathways that regulate the motor response mainly relate to the pyramidal tract, the rubro-spinal and vestibulo-spinal systems. Conclusions: The decline of the score in the three items that evaluates the GCS is related to specific pathways that predominate in the basal ganglia and in the brainstem.


Subject(s)
Glasgow Coma Scale , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Anatomy , Language , Neuroanatomy
16.
Mundo saúde (Impr.) ; 43(2): [438-455], abr., 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054504

ABSTRACT

In view of the relevance of adequate pain management in the evolution of the clinical picture of children, this study aimsto emphasize, for health professionals, the importance of using the Analgesic Ladder and pain assessment scale andtheir recording. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic suitability of the analgesic used accordingto the Pain Management Index, to the intensity and to pain reported by children submitted to a surgical procedure.An exploratory and quantitative study was carried out in which the sample consisted of 31 children from 5 to 12years of age in the immediate postoperative period. The data collection instrument was composed of questions aboutsociodemographic and clinical data. Pain assessment occurred for 3 consecutive days. The univariate descriptiveanalysis was performed and the results were presented in the form of graphs and tables. A high prevalence of pain wasfound in the first (48%) and third (45%) postoperative days, with a greater pain intensity on the first day (moderate tointense - 49%). On the first day the children presented greater analgesic inadequacies and the registration of pain inthe medical records did not correspond to the amount of reports. These inadequacies constitute an important challengefor children’s postoperative success. This study serves as a subsidy for improvements in the quality of the postoperative care of children


Diante da relevância do manejo adequado da dor na evolução do quadro clínico da criança, este estudo visa ressaltarpara os profissionais da saúde a importância da utilização da escada analgésica, escala de avaliação da dor e deseu registro. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação terapêutica do analgésico de acordo com o Índice deManejo da Dor, a intensidade e o registro de dor em crianças submetidas a procedimento cirúrgico. Foi realizadoum estudo exploratório e quantitativo, cuja amostra foi constituída por 31 crianças de 5 a 12 anos em pós-operatóriomediato. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi composto por questões sobre dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Aavaliação de dor ocorreu durante 3 dias consecutivos. Realizou-se a análise descritiva univariada e os resultados foramapresentados na forma de gráfico e tabelas. Constatou-se alta prevalência de dor no primeiro (48%) e terceiro (45%)dia de pós-operatório, com maior intensidade de dor no primeiro dia (moderada à intensa - 49%). No primeiro diaas crianças apresentaram maiores inadequações analgésicas e os registros de dor no prontuário não condiziam coma quantidade de relatos. Essas inadequações, constituindo um importante desafio para o sucesso no pós-operatórioinfantil. Este estudo serve de subsídio para melhorias na qualidade do cuidado pós-operatório de crianças


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child , Pain, Postoperative , Pain Management , Nurses, Male , Glasgow Coma Scale , Health Personnel
17.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(5): e20192272, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057178

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar, em vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico, a influência da intoxicação alcoólica no tempo para submissão destes pacientes à tomografia de crânio, comparando também os achados tomográficos nos pacientes alcoolizados e não alcoolizados. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo de 183 pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico, divididos em dois grupos: 90 alcoolizados e 93 não alcoolizados. Foi calculado o intervalo de tempo desde a chegada do paciente ao pronto socorro até a realização da tomografia para comparação entre os grupos, e analisados os achados tomográficos. Resultados: no grupo alcoolizado, o percentual de pacientes do sexo masculino foi maior, a idade predominante situava-se entre os 31 e os 40 anos, a agressão foi o mecanismo de trauma mais frequente e estes pacientes apresentaram valores mais baixos na escala de coma de Glasgow. Observou-se que não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos quanto ao intervalo de tempo para realização de tomografia, bem como, em relação aos achados tomográficos. Além disso, nos pacientes alcoolizados, quando correlacionados os valores da escala de coma de Glasgow com o intervalo de tempo, não houve diferença entre valores de 13 a 15 (traumatismo cranioencefálico leve) e os iguais ou menores do que 12 (traumatismo cranioencefálico moderado e grave). Conclusão: os sinais de intoxicação alcoólica não influenciaram no intervalo de tempo para realização da tomografia. Os pacientes alcoolizados apresentaram escores mais baixos na escala de coma de Glasgow por efeito direto do álcool e não por uma maior prevalência de achados tomográficos.


ABSTRACT Objetive: to evaluate the influence of alcohol intoxication in the time to perform head computed tomography and tomographic findings in traumatic brain injury patients. Methods: a retrospective study of 183 traumatic brain injury patients, divided into two groups: 90 alcoholics and 93 non-alcoholics. Time interval from patient's arrival at emergency room to tomography was calculated for comparison between the groups, and tomographic findings were analyzed. Results: in the alcoholic group, the percentage of male patients was higher, the predominant age was between 31 and 40 years, aggression was the most frequent trauma mechanism, and these patients showed lower values on the Glasgow coma scale. It was observed that there was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding the time interval for tomography execution, as well as regarding the tomographic findings. In addition, in the alcoholic patients, when the Glasgow coma scale values were correlated with the time interval, there was no difference from scores 13 to 15 (mild traumatic brain injury) and those equal to or inferior than 12 (moderate and severe traumatic brain injury). Conclusion: signs of alcoholic intoxication did not influence the time interval for tomography execution. Patients under alcohol influence showed lower scores on the Glasgow coma scale due to the direct effect of alcohol and not due to a higher prevalence of tomographic findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Alcoholic Intoxication , Alcoholism , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Glasgow Coma Scale , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Middle Aged
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The principle operation of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a craniotomy with hematoma removal, but a trephination with hematoma evacuation may be another method in selected cases. Trephine drainage was performed for ASDH patients in subacute stage using urokinase (UK) instillation, and its results were evaluated. METHODS: Between January 2016 and December 2018, the trephine evacuation using UK was performed in 9 patients. The interval between injury and operation was from 1 to 2 weeks. We underwent a burr hole trephination with drainage initially, and waited until the flow of liquefied hematoma stopped, then instilled UK for the purpose of clot liquefaction. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 71.6 years (range, 38–90 years). The cause of ASDH was trauma in 8 cases, and supposed a complication of anticoagulant medication in 1 case. Four out of 8 patients took antiplatelet medications and one of them was a chronic alcoholism. The range of the Glasgow Coma Scale score before surgery was from 13 to 15. Most of patients, main symptom was headache at admission. The Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 5 in 8 cases and 3 in 1 case. CONCLUSION: It is thought to be a useful operation method in selected patients with ASDH that the subdural drainage in subacute stage with UK instillation. This method might be another useful option for the patients with good mental state regardless of age and the patients with a risk of bleeding due to antithrombotic medications.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Craniotomy , Drainage , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Headache , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Hemorrhage , Humans , Methods , Trephining , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758897

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence used for evaluating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although SWI is being increasingly used in veterinary medicine, there are no systematic studies regarding its use. We aimed to evaluate TBI lesions by using conventional MRI and SWI in 11 dogs and determine the correlation between clinical status and conventional MRI or SWI findings. The modified Glasgow coma scale (MGCS) at presentation and a previously used MRI grading system (MRGr; grades 1–6) were used to evaluate the brain lesions, and correlations between MGCS score and each MRGr were assessed. Conventional MRI revealed 23 lesions in 11 dogs with variable MGCS scores (range: 11–17). SWI showed comparable findings for all of the lesions except for subdural hemorrhage, and it revealed additional lesions in four dogs. The median MRGr was 2 on both conventional MRI and SWI. The MRGr of the conventional MRI assessments and the MGCS scores showed a significant negative correlation (r = −0.685). In conclusion, SWI had better TBI lesion-detection ability, but conventional MRI had a better correlation with early clinical status and subdural hemorrhage. Thus, a combination of conventional MRI and SWI examinations can improve TBI diagnosis in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain Injuries , Diagnosis , Dogs , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hematoma, Subdural , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Veterinary Medicine
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the opinions of experts to identify problems and prepare an improvement plan when applying the Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) to pediatric patients in the emergency department. METHODS: The experts comprised 15 researchers at a pediatric emergency center designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and research team members of the Korean Society of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. The first survey was an open-ended question about the problems, application results, and remedies of applying KTAS to children through e-mail. The problems were categorized by topic, and degree of agreement was presented using a 9-point Likert scale. RESULTS: In the first survey, 67% of experts participated and 18 problems were identified. In the second survey, 73% of experts participated and eight problems were identified in four categories, validity, reliability, feasibility and other opinions. All experts pointed out that resources were not considered during pediatric triage in the KTAS. Ninety-one percent of experts said that peak expiratory flow rate measurement and Glasgow Coma Scale evaluation were unlikely to be feasible. Moreover, 91% experts were concerned that the triage level could be distorted if KTAS was interlocked with medical costs. Eighty-two percent of the respondents pointed to the high triage result of febrile children and the difference in pain score between the evaluators, etc. CONCLUSION: Based on the problems pointed out by experts and the reality of Korea's emergency departments, it is necessary to consider revision of KTAS for children.


Subject(s)
Child , Delphi Technique , Electronic Mail , Emergencies , Emergency Medicine , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Surveys and Questionnaires , Triage
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