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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359461

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: A resposta inflamatória sistêmica e o déficit nutricional são características frequentes nos pacientes com câncer e o escore prognóstico de Glasgow tem se mostrado excelente valor prognóstico no câncer gastresofágico e ferramenta validada na avaliação clínica de pacientes com câncer. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação do escore prognóstico de Glasgow com sobrevida de pacientes portadores de carcinoma gástrico, através de revisão sistemática e meta-análise. Foi seguida a metodologia Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-PRISMA, com pesquisa nas plataformas Medline, Web of Science e SCOPUS, utilizando descritores apropriados. Foram incluídos estudos clínicos e observacionais, publicados antes de 30.09.2017 e sem restrição de linguagem. Os critérios de inclusão foram a utilização do escore prognóstico de Glasgow como fator prognóstico em pacientes portadores de diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma gástrico; com idade superior a 18 anos; submetidos à quimioterapia, radioterapia ou cirurgia; com dosagem de Proteína C Reativa e albumina no pré-tratamento; e com dados referentes à sobrevida durante o estudo. A qualidade dos estudos foi avaliada com a Escala de Newcastle-Ottawa e o risco de viés com ferramenta da Cochrane Collaboration. Hazard-Ratio e Intervalo de Confiança de 95% foram extraídos dos estudos, e a significância estatística definida como p<0,05. Foram identificados 255 artigos, e por fim, analisados 15 estudos. A análise apresentou o escore prognóstico de Glasgow como fator de risco relacionado à sobrevida e considerado marcador prognóstico independente quando relacionado à sobrevida global dos pacientes com câncer gástrico que realizaram cirurgia e quimioterapia. (AU)


ABSTRACT: The systemic inflammatory response and nutritional deficit are frequent features in cancer patients, and the Glasgow prognostic score has shown to be an excellent prognostic value in gastroesophageal cancer and a validated tool in the clinical evaluation of cancer patients. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the association of Glasgow's prognostic score with the survival of patients with gastric carcinoma through systematic review and meta-analysis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-PRISMA methodology was considered, with research on the Medline, Web of Science, and SCOPUS platforms, using appropriate descriptors. Clinical and observational studies published before September 30, 2017, and without language restriction were included. Inclusion criteria were the use of Glasgow prognostic score as a prognostic factor in patients with histological diagnosis of gastric carcinoma; over the age of 18; undergoing chemotherapy, radiation or surgery; with dosages of Reactive Protein C and albumin in the pre-treatment; and with data regarding survival during the study. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Hazard-Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval were extracted from the studies, with statistical significance defined as p <0.05. Two hundred fifty-five articles were identified, and finally, 15 studies were analyzed. The analysis presented Glasgow prognostic score as a risk factor related with survival and considered an independent prognostic marker when related to the overall survival of patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery and chemotherapy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival , Meta-Analysis , Glasgow Outcome Scale
2.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(4): 332-336, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150447

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Analizar y establecer una asociación entre las características del Traumatismo Craneoencefálico (TEC) grave en pediatría (edad, etiología, características clínicas, lesiones intracraneales y cirugía) y los resultados a largo plazo. Material y Método: Revisión de los pacientes con TEC grave ingresados al Hospital Garrahan desde enero 2013 hasta enero 2019. Se analizaron las características al ingreso y el tratamiento instaurado. Se utilizó la escala Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) para evaluar los resultados a 12 meses. Se realizó un análisis estadístico mediante las pruebas de Chi2 y Fisher. Se consideró como significativo a un valor de p menor a 0.05. Resultados: Se registraron 54 pacientes con TEC grave y seguimiento posterior de 12 meses. La mediana de edad fue de 6 años (3-12). La mayoría fue de sexo masculino 62.96% (34). La etiología más frecuente fue la caída de altura (42.59%) mientras que la lesión intracraneal que más se observó fue el hematoma extradural (25.93%). Los factores que se asociaron a mal pronóstico fueron las lesiones no accidentales (100% vs 0%; p=0.02), la midriasis bilateral (100% vs 0%; p= 0.001) y el hematoma subdural (70% vs 30%; p= 0.002). Los factores asociados a buen pronóstico fueron las caídas de altura (54.84% vs 45.16%; p=0.01) y un examen oftalmológico normal al ingreso (90% vs 10%; p=0.006). Conclusión: Los factores que se asociaron a mal pronóstico fueron el trauma no accidental, la midriasis y el hematoma subdural agudo. Por otro lado, las caídas y el examen oftalmológico normal se asociaron a mejor pronóstico.


Objective: To analyze and establish an association between the characteristics of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in pediatric patients (age, etiology, clinical characteristics, intracranial injuries and surgery) and long-term results. Material and Method: Review of patients with severe TBI admitted to Garrahan Pediatric Hospital from January 2013 to January 2019. The characteristics of admission and treatment instituted were analyzed. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was used to evaluate results at 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed using Chi2 and Fisher tests. A p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 54 patients with severe TBI and subsequent follow-up of 12 month were reported. The median age was 6 years (3-12). Most were male 62.96% (34). The most common etiology was height falls (42.59%) while the most observed intracranial lesion was extradural hematoma (25.93%). Non-accidental injuries (100% vs 0%; p=0.02), bilateral mydriasis (100% vs 0%; p=0.001) and subdural hematoma (70% vs 30%; p=0.002) were associated with poor prognosis. Height drops (54.84% vs 45.16%; p=0.01) and a normal ophthalmological examination at income (90% vs 10%; p=0.006) were associated with good prognosis. Conclusion: Non-accidental trauma, mydriasis and acute subdural hematoma were associated with poor prognosis, whereas falls and normal eye exam were associated with better prognosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Pediatrics , Accidental Falls , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma, Subdural
3.
Rev. méd. panacea ; 9(2): 130-134, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1121236

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El TEC constituye un grave problema de salud pública en el mundo, no solo por su magnitud como también por afectar a jóvenes en edad productiva. Objetivo: El objetivo principal de esta revisión bibliográfica es generar conocimiento sobre la relación de la clasificación de Marshall en la evaluación de pacientes con TEC. Materiales y métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo de búsqueda bibliografía y se ha realizado en Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, bibliotecas de universidades nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: Se observó que la media fue entre 35 y 46 años. La mayoría eran adultos jóvenes masculino entre el 60% y el 80%. El principal mecanismo de trauma fueron caídas 48%. La severidad del TEC, según la escala de coma de Glasgow se encontró frecuencias variadas con rangos similares: TEC leve entre 40% al 70%, TEC moderado del 20% al 40% y TEC severo alrededor del 10%. La distribución de los hallazgos tomográficos en adultos con TEC según escala de Marshall fué: Lesión difusa tipo I (53.87%) (8%-60%), Lesión difusa tipo II 21% (16%-26%); lesión difusa tipo III 8,5% (9.7%-18.3%); lesión difusa tipo IV 8,5% (4.98%-12%); lesión focal no evacuada 2.6% (0.51%-4.66%). Conclusiones: La mayor parte de pacientes fueron adultos jóvenes y varones. El TEC leve fue el más prevalente. Según la clasificación de Marshall, la lesión difusa tipo I, II fueron las más frecuentes. La clasificación tomográfica de Marshall se relacionan significativamente con el pronóstico para predecir la recuperación de los pacientes con TEC. (AU)


Introduction: ECT constitutes a serious public health problem in the world, not only because of its magnitude but also because it affects young people of productive age. Objective: The main objective of this bibliographic review is to generate knowledge about the relationship of the Marshall classification in the evaluation of patients with ECT. Materials and methods: It is a descriptive study of literature search and has been carried out in Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, libraries of national and international universities. Results: It was observed that the average was between 35 and 46 years old. Most were young male adults between 60% and 80%. The main mechanism of trauma were falls 48%. The severity of ECT, according to the Glasgow Coma Scale, varied frequencies with similar ranges were found: mild ECT between 40% to 70%, moderate ECT from 20% to 40% and severe ECT around 10%. The distribution of the tomographic findings in adults with ECT according to the Marshall scale was: Diffuse type I injury (53.87%) (8% -60%), Diffuse type II injury 21% (16% -26%); diffuse type III injury 8.5% (9.7% -18.3%); diffuse type IV injury 8.5% (4.98% -12%); focal lesion not evacuated 2.6% (0.51% -4.66%). Conclusions: Most of the patients were young adults and males. Mild ECT was the most prevalent. According to the Marshall classification, the diffuse type I, II injury was the most frequent. The Marshall tomographic classification is significantly related to the prognosis to predict the recovery of patients with ECT. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Epidemiology, Descriptive
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(3): 1937-1947, mayo.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127054

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A nivel mundial se estiman que cada año se diagnostican aproximadamente 650 000 nuevos casos de cáncer escamoso de cabeza y cuello. Ocasionan 300 000 muertes y dos tercios de estos casos se originan en países en vías de desarrollo. Se presentó un caso de un paciente atendido en consulta a causa de crecimiento acelerado de la región frontotemporoparietal derecha, acompañado de sintomatología neurológica correspondiente a una afección funcional de los lóbulos parietal y temporal derecho. Se le realizó exámenes imagenológicos y biopsia por punción de la lesión, lo que arrojó un carcinoma escamoso como variedad histológica de la tumoración (AU).


ABSTRACT It is thought that around 650 000 new cases of head and neck squamous tumors are diagnosed in the world every year. They cause 300 000 deaths and two thirds of these cases are originated in developing countries. We presented the case of a patient who assisted the consultation due to the fast growth of the right frontotemporal parietal region, accompanied with neurological symptomatology corresponding to a functional disorder of the right parietal and temporal lobes. Imaging studies and a biopsy by lesion puncture were performed. It showed a squamous carcinoma as histological variant of the tumor (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Brain Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Amnesia, Anterograde , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hypertension/diagnosis , Medical Oncology , Neurosurgery
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 381-386, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011358

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the expressions of plasma cystatin C (Cys-C), D-dimer (D-D) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with intracranial progressive hemorrhagic injury (IPHI) after craniocerebral injury, and their clinical significance. Methods Forty-two IPHI patients and 20 healthy participants (control) were enrolled. The severity and outcome of IPHI were determined according to the Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Outcome Scale, and the plasma Cys-C, hs-CRP and D-D levels were measured. Results The plasma Cys-C, D-D and hs-CRP levels in the IPHI group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01). There were significant differences of plasma Cys-C, D-D and hs-CRP levels among different IPHI patients according to the Glasgow Coma Scale and according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (all p < 0.05). In the IPHI patients, the plasma Cys-C, D-D and hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001). Conclusion The increase of plasma Cys-C, D-D and hs-CRP levels may be involved in IPHI after craniocerebral injury. The early detection of these indexes may help to understand the severity and outcome of IPHI.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar as expressões da cistatina C plasmática (Cys-C), dímero-D (D-D) e proteína C-reativa hipersensível (hs-CRP) em pacientes com lesão hemorrágica progressiva intracraniana (IPHI) após lesão craniocerebral e seus significados clínicos. Métodos Quarenta e dois pacientes com IPHI e 20 indivíduos saudáveis (controle) foram incluídos. A gravidade e o resultado do IPHI foram determinados de acordo com a Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS) e Escala de Resultados de Glasgow (GOS), e os níveis plasmáticos Cys-C, hs-CRP e D-D foram detectados. Resultados Os níveis plasmáticos de Cys-C, D-D e hs-CRP no grupo IPHI foram significativamente maiores do que no grupo controle (P <0,01). Houve diferença significativa entre os níveis plasmáticos de Cys-C, D-D e hs-CRP entre os diferentes pacientes com IPHI de acordo com a GCS e entre os diferentes pacientes com IPHI de acordo com o GOS, respectivamente (todos P <0,05). Em pacientes com IPHI, os níveis plasmáticos de Cys-C, D-D e hs-CRP foram positivamente correlacionados entre si (P <0,001). Conclusão O aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de Cys-C, D-D e hs-CRP pode estar envolvido no IPHI após trauma crânio-encefálico. A detecção precoce desses índices pode ajudar a entender a gravidade e o resultado do IPHI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Risk Factors , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic/physiopathology , Glasgow Outcome Scale
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The principle operation of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is a craniotomy with hematoma removal, but a trephination with hematoma evacuation may be another method in selected cases. Trephine drainage was performed for ASDH patients in subacute stage using urokinase (UK) instillation, and its results were evaluated. METHODS: Between January 2016 and December 2018, the trephine evacuation using UK was performed in 9 patients. The interval between injury and operation was from 1 to 2 weeks. We underwent a burr hole trephination with drainage initially, and waited until the flow of liquefied hematoma stopped, then instilled UK for the purpose of clot liquefaction. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 71.6 years (range, 38–90 years). The cause of ASDH was trauma in 8 cases, and supposed a complication of anticoagulant medication in 1 case. Four out of 8 patients took antiplatelet medications and one of them was a chronic alcoholism. The range of the Glasgow Coma Scale score before surgery was from 13 to 15. Most of patients, main symptom was headache at admission. The Glasgow Outcome Scale score was 5 in 8 cases and 3 in 1 case. CONCLUSION: It is thought to be a useful operation method in selected patients with ASDH that the subdural drainage in subacute stage with UK instillation. This method might be another useful option for the patients with good mental state regardless of age and the patients with a risk of bleeding due to antithrombotic medications.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Craniotomy , Drainage , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Headache , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Hemorrhage , Humans , Methods , Trephining , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of trauma center establishment on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We enrolled 322 patients with severe trauma and TBI from January 2015 to December 2016. Clinical factors, indexes, and outcomes were compared before and after trauma center establishment (September 2015). The outcome was the Glasgow outcome scale classification at 3 months post-trauma. RESULTS: Of the 322 patients, 120 (37.3%) and 202 (62.7%) were admitted before and after trauma center establishment, respectively. The two groups were significantly different in age (p=0.038), the trauma location within the city (p=0.010), the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (p=0.001), and the emergency room stay time (p < ;0.001). Mortality occurred in 37 patients (11.5%). Although the preventable death rate decreased from before to after center establishment (23.1% vs. 12.5%), the difference was not significant. None of the clinical factors, indexes, or outcomes were different from before to after center establishment for patients with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score ≤8). However, the proportion of inter-hospital transfers increased and the time to emergency room arrival was longer in both the entire cohort and patients with severe TBI after versus before trauma center establishment. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that for patients with severe trauma and TBI, establishing a trauma center increased the proportion of ICU admissions and decreased the emergency room stay time and preventable death rate. However, management strategies for handling the high proportion of inter-hospital transfers and long times to emergency room arrival will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Classification , Cohort Studies , Coma , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assessing the severity of injury and predicting outcomes are essential in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the respiratory rate and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) are difficult to use in the prehospital setting. This investigation aimed to develop a new prehospital trauma score for TBI (NTS-TBI) to predict mortality and disability.METHODS: We used a nationwide trauma database on severe trauma cases transported by fire departments across Korea in 2013 and 2015. NTS-TBI model 1 used systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation < 90% measured via pulse oximeter, and motor component of GCS. Model 2 comprised variables of model 1 and age >65 years. We assessed discriminative power via area under the curve (AUC) value for in-hospital mortality and disability defined according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale with scores of 2 or 3. We then compared AUC values of NTS-TBI with those of RTS.RESULTS: In total, 3,642 patients were enrolled. AUC values of NTS-TBI models 1 and 2 for mortality were 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.815 to 0.852) and 0.852 (95% CI, 0.835 to 0.869), respectively, while AUC values for disability were 0.772 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.796) and 0.784 (95% CI, 0.761 to 0.807), respectively. AUC values of NTS-TBI model 2 for mortality and disability were higher than those of RTS (0.819 and 0.761, respectively) (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Our NTS-TBI model using systolic blood pressure, motor component of GCS, oxygen saturation, and age was feasible for prehospital care and showed outstanding discriminative power for mortality.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , Area Under Curve , Blood Pressure , Brain Injuries , Capillaries , Fires , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypotension , Korea , Mortality , Observational Study , Oxygen , Quality Improvement , Respiratory Rate
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of trauma center establishment on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of trauma patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).METHODS: We enrolled 322 patients with severe trauma and TBI from January 2015 to December 2016. Clinical factors, indexes, and outcomes were compared before and after trauma center establishment (September 2015). The outcome was the Glasgow outcome scale classification at 3 months post-trauma.RESULTS: Of the 322 patients, 120 (37.3%) and 202 (62.7%) were admitted before and after trauma center establishment, respectively. The two groups were significantly different in age (p=0.038), the trauma location within the city (p=0.010), the proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (p=0.001), and the emergency room stay time (p < ;0.001). Mortality occurred in 37 patients (11.5%). Although the preventable death rate decreased from before to after center establishment (23.1% vs. 12.5%), the difference was not significant. None of the clinical factors, indexes, or outcomes were different from before to after center establishment for patients with severe TBI (Glasgow coma scale score ≤8). However, the proportion of inter-hospital transfers increased and the time to emergency room arrival was longer in both the entire cohort and patients with severe TBI after versus before trauma center establishment.CONCLUSION: We confirmed that for patients with severe trauma and TBI, establishing a trauma center increased the proportion of ICU admissions and decreased the emergency room stay time and preventable death rate. However, management strategies for handling the high proportion of inter-hospital transfers and long times to emergency room arrival will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Classification , Cohort Studies , Coma , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Trauma Centers
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 284-290, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975591

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Nasal septoplasty is considered the treatment of choice for nasal obstruction due to septal deviation. An ongoing discussion among rhinologists is whether it is reasonable to perform objective measurements of nasal patency pre or postoperatively routinely. Objective The primary aim of this study was to identify the short- and long-term functional benefits for patients undergoing septal surgery, as assessed by acoustic rhinometry (AR). The secondary goal was to evaluate the short- and long-term perception of symptom relief and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) outcomes on the part of the patients. Methods This was a prospective observational study in which AR was utilized for the assessment of nasal patency preoperatively and 1, 6 and 36months after septoplasty. Total 40 patients who underwent septoplasty filled out the Nasal Obstruction Septoplasty Effectiveness (NOSE) questionnaire and the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) to assess their subjective improvement in nasal obstruction symptoms and the changes in their QoL. Results There were statistically significant improvements in nasal patency, mean postoperative NOSE and GBI scores postoperatively. However, there was no correlation between the mean NOSE and GBI scores and the AR measurements. Furthermore, the GBI scores tended to decrease as the postoperative period increased. Conclusion The present study confirms that septoplasty significantly increases nasal patency and causes a significant subjective improvement in nasal obstruction symptoms. The absence of a statistically significant correlation among the objective measurements, the symptom scores, and the patients' low GBI scores indicates that factors other than the anatomical findings may also contribute to the patients' perception of QoL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rhinoplasty/methods , Nasal Obstruction/surgery , Electrocoagulation/methods , Nasal Septum/surgery , Turbinates/surgery , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Rhinometry, Acoustic
12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018; 34 (1): 130-134
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130074

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess outcomes in surgically managed patients with depressed skull fractures and associated moderate to severe head injury


Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2016 to December 2017. We analyzed 90 patients with depressed skull fracture managed surgically from January 2015 to December 2016. The patients selected for this study belonged to all age groups with clinically palpable depressed skull fracture confirmed by CT brain with bone window. Outcome was assessed by Glasgow outcome score


Results: Total 90 patients were included in the study. Sixty [66.7%] were male and 30 [33.3%] were female with mean age of years 27.58+11.329. Among 90 patients, 38.8% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Road traffic accident was seen in 72 [80%] patients. The commonest site of fracture was frontal region in 50 patients [55.6%]. GCS improved post operatively on comparison to preoperative. Five patients expired


Conclusion: Depressed skull fracture is common neuro surgical issue. Timely surgical management gives excellent results by decreasing morbidity and mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Skull Fracture, Depressed/mortality , Craniocerebral Trauma , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive techniques such as stereotactic aspiration have been regarded as promising alternative methods to replace craniotomy in the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal timing of stereotactic aspiration and analyze the factors affecting the clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 81 patients who underwent stereotactic aspiration for spontaneous supratentorial ICH at single institution. Volume of hematoma was calculated based on computed tomography scan at admission, just before aspiration, immediately after aspiration, and after continuous drainage. The neurologic outcome was compared with Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score. RESULTS: The mean volume ratio of residual hematoma was 59.5% and 17.6% immediately after aspiration and after continuous drainage for an average of 2.3 days, respectively. Delayed aspiration group showed significantly lower residual volume ratio immediately after aspiration. However, there was no significant difference in the residual volume ratio after continuous drainage. The favorable outcome of 1-month GOS 4 or 5 was significantly better in the group with delayed aspiration after more than 7 days (p = 0.029), despite no significant difference in postoperative 6-months GOS score. A factor which has significant correlation with postoperative 6-months favorable outcome was the final hematoma volume ratio after drainage (p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: There is no difference in final residual volume of hematoma or 6-months neurologic outcome according to the surgical timing of hematoma aspiration. The only factor affecting the postoperative 6-months


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage , Craniotomy , Drainage , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Residual Volume , Retrospective Studies , Stereotaxic Techniques
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite recent advances in medicine, no significant improvement has been achieved in therapeutic outcomes for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the treatment of severe multiple traumas, accurate judgment and prompt action corresponding to rapid pathophysiological changes are required. Therefore, we developed the “All-in-One” therapeutic strategy for severe TBI. In this report, we present the therapeutic concept and discuss its efficacy and limitations. METHODS: From April 2007 to December 2015, 439 patients diagnosed as having traumatic intracranial injuries were treated at our institution. Among them, 158 patients were treated surgically. The “All-in-One” therapeutic strategy was adopted to enforce all selectable treatments for these patients at the initial stages. The outline of this strategy is as follows: first, prompt trepanation surgery in the emergency room (ER); second, extensive decompression craniotomy (DC) in the operating room (OR); and finally, combined mild hypothermia and moderate barbiturate (H-B) therapy for 3 to 5 days. We performed these approaches on a regular basis rather than stepwise rule. If necessary, internal ecompression surgery and external ventricular drainage were performed in cases in which intracranial pressure could not be controlled. RESULTS: Trepanation surgery in the ER was performed in 97 cases; among these cases, 46 had hematoma removal surgery and also underwent DC in the OR. Craniotomy was not enforced unless the consciousness level and pupil findings did not improve after previous treatments. H-B therapy was administered in 56 cases. Internal decompression surgery, including evacuation of traumatic intracerebral hematoma, was additionally performed in 12 cases. Three months after injury, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score yielded the following results: good recovery in 25 cases (16%), mild disability in 28 (18%), severe disability in 33 (21%), persistent vegetative state in 9 (6%), and death in 63 (40%). Furthermore, 27 (36%) of the 76 most severe patients who had an abnormal response of bilateral eye pupils were life-saving. Because many cases of a GOS score of ≤5 are included in this study, this result must be satisfactory. CONCLUSION: This therapeutic strategy without any lose in the appropriate treatment timing can improve the outcomes of the most severe TBI cases. We think that the breakthrough in the treatment of severe TBI will depend on the shift in the treatment policy.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , Consciousness , Craniotomy , Decompression , Drainage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Hypothermia , Intracranial Pressure , Judgment , Multiple Trauma , Operating Rooms , Persistent Vegetative State , Pupil , Trephining
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stent-assisted coil embolization using only a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (tirofiban). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured wide-necked intracranial aneurysms who were treated by stent-assisted coil embolization. In all patients, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban was administered just before stent deployment. Electronic medical records for these patients were reviewed for peri-procedural complications and extra-ventricular drainage catheter related hemorrhage, as well as Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at discharge, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up were recorded. RESULTS: Fifty-one aneurysms in 50 patients were treated. The mean patient age was 64.9 years. Eighteen patients (36%) received a World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade of 4 or 5. The mean aneurysm size was 9.48 mm and mean dome-to-neck ratio was 1.06. No intraoperative aneurysm ruptures occurred, although five (10%) episodes of asymptomatic stent thrombosis did occur. Three patients experienced a delayed thrombo-embolic event and two a delayed hemorrhagic event. Immediate radiologic assessment indicated a complete occlusion in 29 patients, a residual neck in 19, and a residual sac in 3. Four patients (8%) died. Sixteen patients (32%) experienced a poor GOS (< 4). Two aneurysms were recanalized during the follow-up period (mean, 19 months for clinical and 18 months for angiographic follow-up). CONCLUSION: Treatment of ruptured wide-necked intracranial aneurysms via stent-assisted coil embolization with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor alone was found to be relatively safe and efficient.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Catheters , Drainage , Electronic Health Records , Embolization, Therapeutic , Endovascular Procedures , Follow-Up Studies , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Glycoproteins , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Neck , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Thrombosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) to bone flap distance and clinical outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC). METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records identified 255 adult patients who underwent DC with hematoma removal to treat TBI at our hospital from 2016 through 2017; of these, 68 patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent unilateral DC. The nearest SSS to bone flap distances were measured on postoperative brain computed tomography images, and patients were divided into groups A (distance ≥20 mm) and B (distance < 20 mm). The estimated blood loss (EBL) and operation time were evaluated using anesthesia records, and the time spent in an intensive care unit (ICU) was obtained by chart review. The clinical outcome was rated using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The male to female ratio was 15:2 and the mean subject age was 55.12 years (range, 18–79 years). The mean EBL and operation times were significantly different between groups A and B (EBL: 655.26 vs. 1803.33 mL, p < 0.001; operation time: 125.92 vs. 144.83 min, p < 0.001). The time spent in the ICU and GOS-E scores did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSION: We recommend that when DC is indicated due to TBI, an SSS to bone flap distance of at least 20 mm should be maintained, considering the EBL, operation time, and other outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Brain , Brain Injuries , Decompressive Craniectomy , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Trauma Centers
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 15(2): 120-123, 20170000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875610

ABSTRACT

A parada cardiorrespiratória é um evento de alta mortalidade. A isquemia cerebral difusa relacionada ao hipofluxo cerebral frequentemente leva à injúria neurológica grave e ao desenvolvimento de estado vegetativo persistente. A hipotermia terapêutica representa um importante avanço no tratamento da encefalopatia anóxica pós-parada cardíaca. Seus efeitos neuroprotetores têm sido amplamente demonstrados em várias situações de isquemia neuronal. Apesar de ser um procedimento associado com redução de mortalidade nestes pacientes, a hipotermia ainda é um tratamento subutilizado no manejo da síndrome pós-ressuscitação. Nosso objetivo foi demonstrar que a hipotermia neuroprotetora tem efeito benéfico mesmo realizada tardiamente naqueles pacientes comprovadamente encefalopatas como consequência de baixo fluxo cerebral devido à parada cardiorrespiratória que mantém um nível neurológico baixo (Glasgow abaixo de 8). Este fato é demonstrado pelo não uso de substâncias neurodepressoras nas últimas 48 horas, e o ganho para o paciente seria maior que os prováveis riscos que a hipotermia pode ocasionar. Este relato mostra os efeitos benéficos no paciente submetido ao tratamento da hipotermia neuroprotetora tardiamente, evoluindo satisfatoriamente, visto que foi devolvido à sociedade em Glasgow 14 e com independência suficiente para atender suas necessidades humanas básicas. Era um paciente do sexo masculino, 25 anos, pardo, solteiro, imigrante ilegal oriundo da Bolívia, auxiliar de costura, com história de mal súbito enquanto praticava futebol com amigos em quadra ao ar livre. Deu entrada no pronto-socorro em parada cardiorrespiratória por taquicardia ventricular. Foram realizadas manobras de reanimação com cardioversão elétrica e massagem cardíaca e não houve relato do tempo de parada cardíaca. Foi transferido para a unidade de terapia intensiva adulto com hipótese diagnóstica de encefalopatia anóxica pós-parada cardiorrespiratória sem uso de drogas vasoativas em Glasgow 6.(AU)


Cardiac arrest is a high-mortality event. Brain hypoflow-related diffuse cerebral ischemia often leads to severe neurological injury, and to the development of a persistent vegetative state. Therapeutic hypothermia is an important advance in the treatment of anoxic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest. Its neuroprotective effects have been widely demonstrated in several situations of neuronal ischemia. Although the procedure is associated with reduced mortality, hypothermia is still an underused treatment in the management of post-resuscitation syndrome. Our goal was to demonstrate that neuroprotective hypothermia is effective even when performed late in patients with encephalopathies from brain hypoflow due to cardiac arrest with a low neurological level (Glasgow below 8). This is demonstrated by the lack of neurodepressant substances in the previous 48 hours, and patient benefit would be higher than the probable risks that hypothermia could cause. This report shows the beneficial effects in the patient undergoing delayed neuroprotective hypothermia, who progressed satisfactorily, since taken back to Glasgow 13 with sufficient independence to meet basic human needs. The patient was a male of 25 years old, dark-skinned, single, an illegal immigrant from Bolivia, sewing assistant, with a history of sudden cardiac arrest, which occured while playing soccer outdoors. He was admitted to the emergency room in cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) due to ventricular tachycardia. Resuscitation maneuvers with electrical cardioversion and cardiac massage were performed, and there is no reported time of cardiac arrest. He was transferred to the Adult Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis hypothesis of anoxic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest, with no use of vasoactive drugs in Glasgow 6.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Heart Arrest/complications , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications
18.
INSPILIP ; 1(1): 1-19, ene.-jun 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987711

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La causa más frecuente de hemorragia subaracnoidea espontánea es la ruptura aneurismática (75-80 %), con una elevada tasa de mortalidad 40-50 %. Objetivo: Determinar los principales indicadores predictivos de complicación y mortalidad en hemorragia subaracnoidea espontánea de origen aneurismático, en pacientes que recibieron tratamiento endovascular. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio prospectivo ­ retrospectivo, analítico, observacional de los pacientes con hemorragia subaracnoidea de origen aneurismático que recibieron tratamiento endovascular. Los datos obtenidos al ingreso hospitalario incluyeron edad, género, procedencia, escala de Glasgow, escala de Hunt y Hess, clasificación tomográfica de Fisher, complicaciones médicas, características del aneurisma, momento del tratamiento endovascular. Los datos obtenidos al ingreso hospitalario incluyeron edad, género, procedencia, escala de Glasgow, escala de Hunt y Hess, clasificación tomográfica de Fisher, complicaciones médicas, características del aneurisma, momento del tratamiento endovascular. Resultados: Se evaluaron 16 pacientes, 6 hombres (37,5 %) y 10 mujeres (62,5%), con promedio de edad >61 años en 8 pacientes (50 %). Fallecieron 4 (25%) y sobrevivieron 12 (75 %). En la escala Fisher se obtuvo una mortalidad del 42,85 % en grado III correlacionándose con la escala de Hunt y Hess y escala de la federación mundial de neurocirugía grado V ­ IV, respectivamente, con una tasa de mortalidad del 100 %. La complicación más frecuente que se encontró es el vasoespasmo más isquemia, con un total de 43,75 % y una mortalidad de 28,57 %. Conclusión: Los factores que influyeron en el pronóstico de los pacientes con hemorragia subaracnoidea fueron la edad y género. Se observó una relación directa en cuanto a las escalas de valoración clínicas e imagenologías con la mortalidad, a decir a mayor gradación a la escala mayor mortalidad.


Introduction: The most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is aneurysmal rupture (75-80%), with a high mortality rate of 40-50%. Objective: To determine the main predictive indicators of complication and mortality in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin, in patients who received endovascular treatment. Patients and Methods: Prospective, retrospective, analytical, observational study of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin who received endovascular treatment.The data obtained at hospital admission included age, gender, origin, Glasgow scale, Hunt and Hess scale, Fisher's tomographic classification, medical complications, aneurysm characteristics, time of endovascular treatment. Results: Sixteen (37.5%) men and 10 (62.5%) women were evaluated, with mean age> 61 years in 8 patients (50%). They died 4 (25%) and survived 12 (75%). On the Fisher scale, a mortality rate of 42.85% in grade III was obtained,correlating with the Hunt and Hess scale and scale of the world federation of neurosurgery grade V - IV, respectively, with a mortality rate of 100%. The most frequent complication found was vasospasm plus ischemia with a total of 43.75% and a mortality of 28.57%. Conclusion: The factors that influenced the prognosis of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were age, gender. We observed a direct relation as to clinical scales and clinical imaging with mortality, to say at greater gradation to scale higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Endovascular Procedures , Aneurysm , Rupture , Biological Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children under age 24 months has characteristic features because the brain at this age is rapidly growing and sutures are opened. Moreover, children this age are completely dependent on their parents. We analyzed the demographic data and risk factors for outcomes in TBI patients in this age group to elucidate their clinical characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiological films of children under 24 months who were admitted to Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2004 to December 2013 for TBI. Specifically, we analyzed age, cause of injury, initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, radiological diagnosis, seizure, hydrocephalus, subdural hygroma, and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score, and we divided outcomes into good (GOS 4–5) or poor (GOS 1–3). We identified the risk factors for post-traumatic seizure (PTS) and outcomes using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The total number of patients was 60, 39 males and 21 females. Most common age group was between 0 to 5 months, and the median age was 6 months. Falls were the most common cause of injury (n=29, 48.3%); among them, 15 were falls from household furniture such as beds and chairs. Ten patients (16.7%) developed PTS, nine in one week; thirty-seven patients (61.7%) had skull fractures. Forty-eight patients had initial GCS scores of 13–15, 8 had scores of 12–8, and 4 had scored 3–7. The diagnoses were as follows: 26 acute subdural hematomas, 8 acute epidural hematomas, 7 focal contusional hemorrhages, 13 subdural hygromas, and 4 traumatic intracerebral hematomas larger than 2 cm in diameter. Among them, two patients underwent craniotomy for hematoma removal. Four patients were victims of child abuse, and all of them had PTS. Fifty-five patients improved to good-to-moderate disability. Child abuse, acute subdural hematoma, and subdural hygroma were risk factors for PTS in univariate analyses. Multivariate analysis found that the salient risk factor for a poor outcome was initial GCS on admission. CONCLUSION: The most common cause of traumatic head injury in individuals aged less than 24 months was falls, especially from household furniture. Child abuse, moderate to severe TBI, acute subdural hematoma, and subdural hygroma were risk factors for PTS. Most of the patients recovered with good outcomes, and the risk factor for a poor outcome was initial mental status.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Brain , Brain Injuries , Child Abuse , Child , Contusions , Craniocerebral Trauma , Craniotomy , Demography , Diagnosis , Family Characteristics , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Infant , Interior Design and Furnishings , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Parents , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seizures , Skull Fractures , Subdural Effusion , Sutures
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To show the effect of dual monitoring including cardiac output (CO) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patiens. We hypothesized that meticulous treatment using dual monitoring is effective to sustain maintain minimal intensive care unit (ICU) complications and maintain optimal ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for severe TBI patiens. METHODS: We included severe TBI, below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 and head abbreviation injury scale (AIS) >4 and performed decompressive craniectomy at trauma ICU of our hospital. We collected the demographic data, head AIS, injury severity score (ISS), initial GCS, ICU stay, sedation duration, fluid therapy related complications, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at 3 months and variable parameters of ICP and CO monitor. RESULTS: Thirty patients with severe TBI were initially selected. Thirteen patients were excluded because 10 patients had fixed pupillary reflexes and 3 patients had uncontrolled ICP due to severe brain edema. Overall 17 patients had head AIS 5 except 2 patients and 10 patients (58.8%) had multiple traumas as mean ISS 29.1. Overall complication rate of the patients was 64.7%. Among the parameters of CO monitoring, high stroke volume variation is associated with fluid therapy related complications (p=0.043) and low cardiac contractibility is associated with these complications (p=0.009) statistically. CONCLUSION: Combined use of CO and ICP monitors in severe TBI patients who could be necessary to decompressive craniectomy and postoperative sedation is good alternative methods to maintain an adequate ICP and CPP and reduce fluid therapy related complications during postoperative ICU care.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Brain Injuries , Cardiac Output , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Decompressive Craniectomy , Fluid Therapy , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Head , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Pressure , Monitoring, Physiologic , Multiple Trauma , Reflex, Pupillary , Stroke Volume
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