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1.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the initial mechanical stabilization of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) indicated for the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in different storage periods. Material and Methods: Specimens were divided according to the GIC (n=12): IZ - Ion-Z, KM - Ketac Molar Easymix, RS - Riva Self Cure, and GL - Gold Label 9. They were prepared and stored in distilled water. Superficial microhardness (SMH) was evaluated (KHN) in three phases: (A) after 1, (B) 3, and (C) 7 days of storage. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 5%). Results: The average KHN values for phases A, B, and C were, respectively, 33.05 ± 9.74; 33.21 ± 10.31 and 52.07 ± 11.75 (IZ); 50.35 ± 11.39; 66.05 ± 10.48 and 67.77 ± 13.80 (KM); 89.63 ± 15.59; 71.31 ± 23.86 and 57.70 ± 16.89 (RS); 42.18 ± 9.03; 68.54 ± 6.83 and 57.95 ± 8.24 (GL). Significant differences were observed: GIC, time, and interaction of both (p<0.05). KHN values differed between the groups, except in the GIC parameter for KM and GL. The time parameter values of phase A were lower than those of B and C, except for IZ and RS. Conclusion: The initial mechanical stabilization differed between the types of GIC tested and the storage time, and after the final period, all had similar SMH.


Subject(s)
Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/instrumentation , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Molar , Zinc , Brazil , Analysis of Variance
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e005, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055521

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation from high energy X-ray on fluoride release, surface roughness, flexural strength, and surface chemical composition of the materials. The study groups comprised five different restorative materials: Beautifil II, GCP Glass Fill, Amalgomer CR, Zirconomer, and Fuji IX GP. Twenty disk-shaped specimens (8x2 mm) for fluoride release and 20 bar-shaped specimens (25 x 2x 2 mm) for flexural strength were prepared from each material. Each material group was divided into two subgroups: irradiated (IR) and non-irradiated (Non-IR). The specimens from IR groups were irradiated with 1.8 Gy/day for 39 days (total IR = 70.2 Gy). The amount of fluoride released into deionized water was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and ion analyzer after 24 hours and on days 2, 3, 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 39 (n = 10). The flexural strength was evaluated using the three-point bending test (n = 10). After the period of measurement of fluoride release, seven specimens (n = 7) from each group were randomly selected to evaluate surface roughness using AFM and one specimen was randomly selected for the SEM and EDS analyses. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p = 0.05). The irradiation significantly increased fluoride release and surface roughness for Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer groups (p < 0.05). No significant change in flexural strength of the materials was observed after irradiation (p > 0.05). The ionizing radiation altered the amount of fluoride release and surface roughness of only Amalgomer CR and Zirconomer. The effect could be related to the chemical compositions of materials.


Subject(s)
Apatites/radiation effects , Radiation, Ionizing , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/radiation effects , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/radiation effects , Apatites/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Time Factors , Zirconium/radiation effects , Zirconium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Flexural Strength , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e053, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132666

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective was to evaluate the compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength (FS), and Knoop microhardness (KH) of different conventional restorative glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and to correlate these mechanical properties (MP) with the stabilization time (ST) of their chemical bonds. Eighteen GICs were tested: Bioglass [B], Chemfil Rock [CR], Equia Forte [EF], Gold Label 2 [GL2], Gold Label 9 [GL9], Glass Ionomer Cement II [GI], Ionglass [IG], Ion Z[ IZ], Ionomaster [IM], Ionofil Plus [IP], Ionostar Plus [IS], Ketac Molar Easymix [KM], Magic Glass [MG], Maxxion R [Ma], Riva Self Cure [R], Vidrion R [V], Vitro Fil [VF] and Vitro Molar [VM]. The mechanical strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine. KH readings were done with a diamond indenter. STs were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the dependence between the MPs and ST results. The highest MP values were EF, GL2, GL9, GI and KM and the lowest for MG, MA, B, VF and IM. The longest ST was for GL2 and the shortest was for B. ST correlated positively with MP. GICs with longer chemical bonds ST are generally stronger and the ST value obtained from FTIR was useful in predicting the strength of GICs tested.


Subject(s)
Self-Curing of Dental Resins/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Compressive Strength , Flexural Strength , Hardness Tests
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180188, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984574

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sources of calcium and phosphate have been added to dental restorative materials to improve their anticaries effect. Objective This study evaluated the effect of adding calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) to resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on the physico-mechanical properties, ion release, and enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Specimens were fabricated for each experimental group: RMGIC without CaGP (Control), RMGIC with 1, 3 and 9% CaGP. To determine the release of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), six specimens were immersed in demineralization and remineralization solutions for 15 days. In another experimental trial, the following physico-mechanical properties were evaluated at time intervals of 1 and 7 days after fabrication: compressive strength (n=12), diametral tensile strength (n=12), surface hardness of material (n=6) and the degree of conversion of monomers (n=8). To study enamel demineralization, specimens (n=12) were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling. Subsequently, surface and cross-sectional hardness and the concentration of F, Ca and P in enamel were determined. Results The addition of CaGP to RMGIC led to higher mean release of F, Ca and P when compared with control (p<0.001). Mechanical properties were within the range of those of the ionomer cements after addition of 1% and 3% CaGP. The degree of conversion did not differ between groups at the 1st and the 7th day (p>0.439). The addition of 3% and 9% CaGP reduced mineral loss and increased F, Ca and P in the enamel when compared with control (p<0.05). Conclusion The addition of 3% CaGP in RMGIC increased the release of F, P and Ca, reduced enamel demineralization, and maintained the physico-mechanical properties within the parameters for this material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glycerophosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Photomicrography , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Compressive Strength , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180230, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984573

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To study the fluoride uptake and release properties of glass carbomer dental cements and compare them with those of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers. Materials and Methods Three materials were used, as follows: glass carbomer (Glass Fill), conventional glass ionomer (Chemfil Rock) and resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC). For all materials, specimens (sets of six) were matured at room temperature for time intervals of 10 minutes, 1 hour and 6 weeks, then exposed to either deionized water or sodium fluoride solution (1000 ppm in fluoride) for 24 hours. Following this, all specimens were placed in deionized water for additional 24 hours and fluoride release was measured. Results Storage in water led to increase in mass in all cases due to water uptake, with uptake varying with maturing time and material type. Storage in aqueous NaF led to variable results. Glass carbomer showed mass losses at all maturing times, whereas the conventional glass ionomer gained mass for some maturing times, and the resin-modified glass ionomer gained mass for all maturing times. All materials released fluoride into deionized water, with glass carbomer showing the highest release. For both types of glass ionomer, uptake of fluoride led to enhanced fluoride release into deionized water. In contrast, uptake by glass carbomer did not lead to increased fluoride release, although it was substantially higher than the uptake by both types of glass ionomer. Conclusions Glass carbomer resembles glass ionomer cements in its fluoride uptake behavior but differs when considering that its fluoride uptake does not lead to increased fluoride release.


Subject(s)
Apatites/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e2018357, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984572

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To perform a systematic review of test methodologies on conventional restorative glass-ionomer cement (GIC) materials for mechanical and optical properties to compare the results between different GICs. Material and Methods Screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction, and quality assessments of full-texts were conducted in search for in vitro studies on conventional GICs that follow the relevant specifications of ISO standards regarding the following mechanical and optical properties: compressive strength, flexural strength, color, opacity and radiopacity. Sources The Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry (BBO) databases from Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (BIREME) and PubMed/Medline (US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health) databases were searched regardless of language. Altogether, 1146 in vitro studies were selected. Two reviewers independently selected and assessed the articles according to pre-established inclusion/exclusion criteria. Among all the properties investigated, only one study was classified as being of fair quality that tested compressive strength and was included. It was observed that many authors had not strictly followed ISO recommendations and that, for some properties (diametral tensile strength and microhardness), there are no guidelines provided. Conclusions It was not possible to compare the results for the mechanical and optical properties of conventional restorative GICs due to the lack of standardization of studies.


Subject(s)
Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Materials Testing , Color , Compressive Strength , Flexural Strength , Glass Ionomer Cements/standards
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e125, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100928

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) is one of the strategies used to control dental caries; it involves hand instruments for removal of carious tissue, and restorations using high-viscosity Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC). The present controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the performance of low-cost GIC indicated for ART in primary teeth, compared with high-viscosity GIC, after one year of follow-up. Two-to six-year-old children with dentin caries lesions on one or two surfaces of anterior and posterior teeth were selected. The children were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to the restorative material used: G1 (control) - Ketac Molar®; G2 (experimental) - Vitro Molar®. Treatments were performed in a school setting, following the guidelines of the ART. A total of 728 restorations were performed in 243 children. Descriptive analysis and Poisson regression were applied, with a significance level of p < 0.05. After 12 months, 559 (76.8%) restorations were re-evaluated. The success rate was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR), associated with restorations performed in primary second molars (PR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.03-1.42), and with small (PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.14-1.60) or medium cavities (PR = 1.29; 95%CI = 1.08-1.55), using Ketac Molar® material (PR= 1.07; 95%CI = 1.01-1.15), considering p < 0.05. Small or medium restorations in primary second molars performed with high-viscosity GIC (Ketac Molar®) were more successful than restorations performed with low-cost GIC indicated for ART.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous , Viscosity , Materials Testing , Poisson Distribution , DMF Index , Treatment Outcome , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/therapeutic use
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989477

ABSTRACT

Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p< 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Calcium/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Random Allocation , Fluorides, Topical/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180094, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954501

ABSTRACT

Abstract High viscous glass ionomer cement (GIC) has gained popularity as a restorative material; however, high wear is pointed as one of the major drawbacks of this material. Protective surface coatings were developed to protect GIC from water contamination with the additional advantage of occluding any surface cracks or porosities commonly found in this material, possibly resulting in an increased wear resistance of the restorations. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical wear of GIC approximal restorations in primary molars protected either with a nanofilled self-adhesive light-cured protective coating (NPC) or with petroleum jelly. Material and Methods: Approximal caries lesions in primary molars from 32 schoolchildren previously enrolled in another clinical trial were included in this investigation. GIC restorations were performed according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment approach and protected with either petroleum jelly or a NPC. Impressions of the restored hemiarch were done after 1 day and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. The impressions were scanned in a 3-D appliance and the obtained images were superimposed using an appropriate computer software. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to analyze the wear of restorations (α=5%). Results: A significant difference was found between the two groups, with a wear protection offered by the application of a NPC. Conclusion: These results suggest that the application of a NPC has a protective effect on the clinical wear of approximal GIC restorations in primary teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Petrolatum/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Tooth Wear/prevention & control , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170384, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954495

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To investigate the chemical interactions between a high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC) (KetacTM Molar Easymix, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Bavaria, Germany) and human dentin. It was also analyzed the dynamics of GIC setting mechanism based on the time intervals required for the GIC and the GIC mixed with dentin to achieve stability. Material and Methods Each constituent of GIC - powder (P) and liquid (L) - and powdered dentin (D), as well as the associations P+L, D+L, and P+L+D in the concentrations of 29%, 50%, 65%, 78%, 82%, and 92% of GIC were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Results New optical absorption bands and/or Raman bands, which were not present in P, L, or D, were observed in the associations. The concentrations of 29% and 50% of GIC showed higher interaction, revealing that the amount of dentin influences the formation of new optical absorption or scattering bands. FTIR bands showed that the setting time to achieve bond stability was longer for the high-viscosity GIC (38±7 min) than for the sample with 29% of GIC (28±4 min). Conclusions The analysis revealed the formation of new compounds or molecular rearrangements resulting from the chemical interactions between GIC and dentin. Moreover, this study provides an effective method to evaluate the dynamics of the setting mechanism of GICs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Viscosity , Materials Testing , Adhesiveness , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170562, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954492

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to compare selective physical-mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and cytotoxicity of seven temporary restorative materials (TRM): five resin-based materials [Bioplic (B), Fill Magic Tempo (FM), Fermit inlay (F), Luxatemp LC (L) and Revotek LC (R)], and zinc oxide-eugenol cement (IRM) and glass ionomer cement (GIC) as the controls. Material and methods The physical-mechanical properties were evaluated by determining microleakage (ML), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and Shore D hardness (SDH). In addition, the polymerization rate (Pr-1), depth of cure (DC), water sorption and solubility (WS/SL) were evaluated. The antimicrobial effects of the materials were assessed by biofilm accumulation of Streptococcus mutans (BT) and the direct contact test (DCT) by exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 1 and 24 h, and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. The data were analyzed by ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis tests, and a complementary post-hoc method (p<0.05). Results Group B, followed by FM and GIC had significantly lower percentages of microleakage in comparison with the other groups; Groups FM and L showed the highest WS, while Groups R and FM showed the significantly lowest SL values (p<0.05). Group R showed the statistically highest UTS mean and the lowest DC mean among all groups. Group F showed the lowest S. mutans biofilm accumulation (p=0.023). Only the Group L showed continued effect against E. faecalis after 1 h and 24 h in DCT. The L showed statistically lower viability cell when compared to the other groups. Conclusions These findings suggest the antibacterial effect of the temporary materials Fill Magic and Bioplic against S. mutans, while Luxatemp showed in vitro inhibition of S. mutans biofilm accumulation and E. faecalis growth. Regarding the cell viability test, Luxatemp was the most cytotoxic and Fill Magic was shown to be the least cytotoxic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Mice , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Composite Resins/pharmacology , Composite Resins/chemistry , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/blood , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/pharmacology , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Solubility , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement/chemistry , Materials Testing , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Dental Restoration, Temporary/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Methylmethacrylates/pharmacology , Methylmethacrylates/chemistry
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170116, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893717

ABSTRACT

Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated that the incorporation of doxycycline hyclate (DOX) into resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) inhibited important cariogenic microorganisms, without modifying its biological and mechanical characteristics. In this study, we keep focused on the effect of that experimental material as a potential therapy for arresting residual caries by analyzing other in vitro properties and conducting a pilot clinical trial assessing the in vivo effect of DOX-containing RMGIC on residual mutans streptococci after partial carious removal in primary molars. Specimens of the groups RMGIC (control); RMGIC + 1.5% DOX; RMGIC + 3% DOX; and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX were made to evaluate the effect of DOX incorporation on surface microhardness and fluoride release of RMGIC and against biofilm of Streptococcus mutans. Clinical intervention consisted of partial caries removal comparing RMGIC and RMGIC + 4.5% DOX as lining materials. After 3 months, clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed. Data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney set as α=0.05. Fluoride release and surface microhardness was not influenced by the incorporation of DOX (p>0.05). There was a significant reduction of S. mutans biofilm over the material surface with the increase of DOX concentration. After clinical trial, the remaining dentin was hard and dry. Additionally, mutans streptococci were completely eliminated after 3 months of treatment with RMGIC + 4.5% DOX. The incorporation of DOX provided better antibiofilm effect, without jeopardizing fluoride release and surface microhardness of RMGIC. This combination also improved the in vivo shortterm microbiological effect of RMGIC after partial caries removal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Doxycycline/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Doxycycline/pharmacology , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Hardness Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170129, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893687

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This prospective, randomized, split-mouth clinical trial evaluated the clinical performance of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC; Riva Self-Cure, SDI), supplied in capsules or in powder/liquid kits and placed in Class I cavities in permanent molars by the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. Material and Methods A total of 80 restorations were randomly placed in 40 patients aged 11-15 years. Each patient received one restoration with each type of GIC. The restorations were evaluated after periods of 15 days (baseline), 6 months, and 1 year, according to ART criteria. Wilcoxon matched pairs, multivariate logistic regression, and Gehan-Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Patients were evaluated after 15 days (n=40), 6 months (n=34), and 1 year (n=29). Encapsulated GICs showed significantly superior clinical performance compared with hand-mixed GICs at baseline (p=0.017), 6 months (p=0.001), and 1 year (p=0.026). For hand-mixed GIC, a statistically significant difference was only observed over the period of baseline to 1 year (p=0.001). Encapsulated GIC presented statistically significant differences for the following periods: 6 months to 1 year (p=0.028) and baseline to 1 year (p=0.002). Encapsulated GIC presented superior cumulative survival rate than hand-mixed GIC over one year. Importantly, both GICs exhibited decreased survival over time. Conclusions Encapsulated GIC promoted better ART performance, with an annual failure rate of 24%; in contrast, hand-mixed GIC demonstrated a failure rate of 42%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Dental Restoration, Permanent/methods , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Restoration Failure , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(5): 541-550, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893660

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Addition of chlorhexidine has enhanced the antimicrobial effect of glass ionomer cement (GIC) indicated to Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART); however, the impact of this mixture on the properties of these materials and on the longevity of restorations must be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of incorporating chlorhexidine (CHX) in the in vitro biological and chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and in vivo clinical/ microbiological follow-up of the ART with GIC containing or not CHX. Material and Methods: For in vitro studies, groups were divided into GIC, GIC with 1.25% CHX, and GIC with 2.5% CHX. Antimicrobial activity of GIC was analyzed using agar diffusion and anti-biofilm assays. Cytotoxic effects, compressive tensile strength, microhardness and fluoride (F) release were also evaluated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 36 children that received ART either with GIC or GIC with CHX. Saliva and biofilm were collected for mutans streptococci (MS) counts and the survival rate of restorations was checked after 7 days, 3 months and one year after ART. ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/ Mann-Whitney tests were performed for in vitro tests and in vivo microbiological analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank tests were applied to estimate survival percentages of restorations (p<0.05). Results: Incorporation of 1.25% and 2.5% CHX improved the antimicrobial/anti-biofilm activity of GIC, without affecting F release and mechanical characteristics, but 2.5% CHX was cytotoxic. Survival rate of restorations using GIC with 1.25% CHX was similar to GIC. A significant reduction of MS levels was observed for KM+CHX group in children saliva and biofilm 7 days after treatment. Conclusions: The incorporation of 1.25% CHX increased the in vitro antimicrobial activity, without changing chemical-mechanical properties of GIC and odontoblast-like cell viability. This combination improved the in vivo short-term microbiological effect without affecting clinical performance of ART restorations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Compressive Strength , Fluorides/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Odontoblasts/drug effects
15.
Rev. ADM ; 74(4): 177-184, jul.-ago. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908019

ABSTRACT

De acuerdo con la filosofía de la odontología de mínima intervención, los ionómeros de vidrio están resurgiendo en la odontología restauradora por sus ventajas actuales: dureza, estética y liberación activa defl úor. En la actualidad se ha comprobado mediante estudios y trabajo clínico que estos nuevos ionómeros de vidrio llamados ionómeros de alta densidad tienen un periodo de duración signifi cativo similar a las resinas, pero con más ventajas y con una muy simplifi cada técnica de colocación. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la adhesión yadaptación marginal de cuatro ionómeros de vidrio de alta densidad, alesmalte y dentina. Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron 16 primeros premolares. A cada uno se le aplicó la preparación convencional de cavidad clase uno de Black de 2 mm de altura por 2 mm de ancho. Se acondicionó la cavidad (esmalte y dentina) con ácido poliacrílico al 10 por ciento por 10 segundos, posteriormente se lavó y secó generosamente y se colocaron los ionómeros de vidrio. Se dividieron en cuatro grupos: 1. Ionofi l Molar® (VOCO), 2. Ketac Molar® (3M ESPE), 3. EQUIA FiL® (GC) y 4. EQUIA Forte® (GC). En la parte final de la obturación,una vez seleccionadas y preparadas las muestras, se analizaron bajo el microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB). Resultados: Las características encontradas en los cuatro grupos fueron: la integración del ionómero de vidrio a la dentina resultó mejor que al esmalte. Los rellenos inorgánicos de estos materiales se apreciaron mejor definidos en los últimos dos grupos. La adaptación al material de restauraciónse observó bien ajustada en el interior de la cavidad. La formación dehibridación en el esmalte y la dentina fue mejor en los grupos 2, 3 y 4. Conclusión: De los cuatro grupos estudiados el EQUIA FiL y el EQUIA Forte fueron los que presentaron excelente adaptación marginal e hibridación al esmalte y dentina.


According to minimal invasive dentistry philosophy glass ionomers,are making a comeback in restorative dentistry, due to their actualadvantages like: hardness, aesthetics and active fl uor liberation. Nowit has been demonstrated, thanks to studies and clinical trials, thatthe new glass ionomers called high-density glass ionomers have animportant clinical time span, similar to resins, with more advantages;and with a very simplifi ed placement technique. The aim of this studyis to analyze the adhesion and marginal adaptation of four high-densityglass ionomers to the enamel and dentin. Material and methods: 16fi rst premolars were selected. To each one was made the conventionalpreparation class, one cavity of Black of 2 mm of height by 2 mm ofwidth. The cavity (enamel and dentin) was conditioned with 10%polycyclic acid for 10 seconds, then washed and dried generously; andthe glass ionomers were placed. They were divided into four groups; 1.Ionofi l Molar® (VOCO), 2. Ketac Molar® (3M ESPE), 3. EQUIA FiL®(GC), 4. EQUIA Forte® (GC). At the end of the obturation. When thesamples were already selected and prepared, were analyzed by scanningelectron microscopy (SEM). Results: The characteristics found in thefour groups, were as follows: the integration of glass ionomer withthe dentin, was better than the enamel. The inorganic fi llings of thesematerials are better defi ned in the last two groups. The adaptation ofthe restorative material is well observed inside the cavity. The formationof hybridization in the enamel and the dentin, were better in groups2, 3 and 4. Conclusion: Of four studied groups: those that presentedexcellent marginal adaptation, hybridization to the enamel and dentin,were EQUIA FiL and EQUIA Forte, noting that those of group 4(EQUIA Forte) resulted in having the best marginal adaptation, thanany other glass ionomer included in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Dentin-Bonding Agents/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Dental Marginal Adaptation , Dental Leakage/diagnosis , Glass Ionomer Cements/classification , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymerization
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 234-242, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841184

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) has been proposed as a new approach to treat immature permanent teeth. However, materials used in REP for root canal disinfection or cervical sealing may induce tooth discoloration. Objectives To assess tooth crown’s color after intracanal treatment with triple antibiotic paste (TAP) or calcium hydroxide (CH); cervical sealing with glass ionomer cement (GIC) or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); and bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Material and Methods After pulp removal and color spectrophotometer measurement, 50 bovine incisors were divided into 4 experimental groups and one control (untreated). Experiments were performed in phases (Ph). Ph1: TAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, minocycline), TAPM (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin), DAP (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole), or CH treatment groups. After 1 and 3 days (d); 1, 2, 3 weeks (w); and 1, 2, 3 and 4 months (m), color was measured and medications were removed. Ph2: GIC or MTA cervical sealing, each using half of the specimens from each group. Color was assessed after 1d, 3d; 1w, 2w, 3w; 1m and 2m. Ph3: Two bleaching sessions, each followed by color measurement. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and post-hoc Holm-Sidak method. Results Ph1: Specimens of TAP group presented higher color alteration (ΔE) mean than those of TAPM group. No significant difference was found among TAP or TAPM and CH, DAP or Control groups. Ph2: cervical sealing materials showed no influence on color alteration. Ph3: Different ΔE means (from different groups), prior to bleaching, became equivalent after one bleaching session. Conclusions TAP induces higher color alteration than TAPM; color alteration increases over time; cervical sealing material has no influence on color alteration; and, dental bleaching was able to recover, at least partially, the tooth crown’s color.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Tooth Discoloration/chemically induced , Tooth Crown/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Peroxides/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Silicates/chemistry , Prosthesis Coloring , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Drug Combinations , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(2): 177-185, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841179

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To prepare nanocomposite cements based on the incorporation of bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBGs) into BiodentineTM (BD, Septodent, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses Cedex, France) and to assess their bioactive properties. Material and Methods nBGs were synthesised by the sol-gel method. BD nanocomposites (nBG/BD) were prepared with 1 and 2% nBGs by weight; unmodified BD and GC Fuji IX (GIC, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used as references. The in vitro ability of the materials to induce apatite formation was assessed in SBF by X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. BD and nBG/BD were also applied to dentine discs for seven days; the morphology and elemental composition of the dentine-cement interface were analysed using SEM-EDX. Results One and two percent nBG/BD composites accelerated apatite formation on the disc surface after short-term immersion in SBF. Apatite was detected on the nBG/BD nanocomposites after three days, compared with seven days for unmodified BD. No apatite formation was detected on the GIC surface. nBG/BD formed a wider interfacial area with dentine than BD, showing blockage of dentine tubules and Si incorporation, suggesting intratubular precipitation. Conclusions The incorporation of nBGs into BD improves its in vitro bioactivity, accelerating the formation of a crystalline apatite layer on its surface after immersion in SBF. Compared with unmodified BD, nBG/BD showed a wider interfacial area with greater Si incorporation and intratubular precipitation of deposits when immersed in SBF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Apatites/chemistry , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Statistics, Nonparametric , Resin Cements/chemistry , Immersion
18.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(2): 172-178, mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-839144

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os novos materiais restauradores em desenvolvimento devem evitar danos aos tecidos dentários. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biocompatibilidade de uma marca comercial de cimento de ionômero de vidro convencional (CIV) modificado com microfibras de celulose (CIV+MC) ou nanocristais de celulose (CIV+NC) através da implantação de três amostras em tecido subcutâneo na região dorsal de 15 ratos Rattus norvegicus albinus. Cada rato recebeu um exemplar de cada cimento, resultando nos seguintes grupos (n=15): Grupo CIV (controle, n=15), Grupo CIV+MC e Grupo CIV+NC. Nos intervalos de 7, 30 e 60 dias os animais foram sacrificados e os seguintes aspectos foram avaliados histologicamente: tipo de células inflamatórias, fibroblastos, vasos sanguíneos, macrófagos, células gigantes, tipo de reação inflamatória e espessura da cápsula (µm). Estes eventos foram quantitativamente classificados conforme os escores: (-) ausente, (+) suave, (++) moderado e (+++) intenso. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste Kruskal-Wallis e pós-teste Mann-Whitney. Aos 7 dias, o Grupo CIV+NC demonstrou um nível mais elevado de reparação tecidual porque havia maior quantidade de fibroblastos (p=0,022) e uma menor quantidade de macrófagos (p=0,008) e células mononucleares (p=0,033). Neutrófilos e células gigantes estavam ausentes em todos os períodos experimentais. Aos 60 dias, o Grupo CIV+NC apresentou cápsula de tecido fibroso com espessura mais reduzida (26,72±2,87 µm) em comparação ao Grupo CIV+MC (41,21±3,98 µm (p=0,025). No geral, todos os materiais apresentaram satisfatória biocompatibilidade, no entanto, o cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado com nanocristais de celulose proveu reparação tecidual mais avançada comparativamente aos demais materiais avaliados.


Developing new restorative materials should avoid damage to tissue structures. This study evaluated the biocompatibility of a commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC) mechanically reinforced with cellulose microfibers (GIC+CM) or cellulose nanocrystals (GIC+CN) by implantation of three test specimens in subcutaneous tissue in the dorsal region of 15 Rattus norvegicus albinus rats. Each rat received one specimen of each cement, resulting in the following groups (n=15): Group GIC (Control), Group GIC+CM and Group GIC+NC. After time intervals of 7, 30 and 60 days, the animals were sacrificed and the following aspects were histologically evaluated: type of inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, macrophages, giant cells, type of inflammatory reaction and capsule thickness (µm). These events were scored as (-) absent, (+) light, (++) moderate and (+++) intense. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney post test. At 7 days, Group GIC+NC showed more favorable tissue repair because quantitatively there were more fibroblasts (p=0.022), fewer macrophages (p=0.008) and mononuclear cells (p=0.033). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils and giant cells were absent in all experimental periods. At 60 days, test specimens in Group GIC+NC were surrounded by a fibrous tissue capsule with reduced thickness (26.72±2.87 µm) in comparison with Group GIC+CM (41.21±3.98 µm) (p=0.025). In general, all biomaterials showed satisfactory biocompatibility, but glass ionomer cement modified with cellulose nanocrystals showed a more advanced tissue repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Biocompatible Materials , Cellulose/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry
19.
Rev. ADM ; 74(2): 79-89, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869358

ABSTRACT

Utilizar esta técnica implica grandes ventajas, ya que se reduce el volumen de cemento de resina, lo que disminuye la probabilidad de contracción, formación de burbujas y vacíos internos, los cuales representanáreas de debilidad en la restauración postendodóncica. Esta técnica ya ha sido propuesta y debidamente investigada por algunos autores. Se aplica en dientes con conductos radiculares amplios que han sido debilitados por restauraciones defi cientes, desmineralización de la dentina, fi ltraciones en la corona y poste radicular o simplementeconductos amplios en pacientes de corta edad. Tenemos la firme convicciónde que no podemos garantizar la permanencia de un órgano dentalen la cavidad oral, pero sí podemos intentar prolongar su permanenciaen el alvéolo el mayor tiempo posible. La técnica que se describe en elpresente artículo consiste en colocar postes accesorios de fi bra de vidriodespués del poste principal, logrando reducir el espesor de película delagente cementante a un grado ideal.


The use of this technique, shows significant advantages, as the thicknessof the resin cement is reduced, in consequence, the contraction ratio,bubble formation, and internal voids are reduced, which represent areasof weakness in the post-endodontic restoration, this technique has beenalready proposed and properly investigated by certain authors. Thisis applied on teeth with enlarged canals, that have been weakened byineffi cient restorations, dentin demineralization, bacterial fi ltration ofcrown and post, or simply wide canals in young patients. We have afi rm conviction, that we can´t guarantee the permanence of a dentalorgan in the oral cavity, but we can try to lengthen its permanency onthe alveolus as much as possible. The technique that´s described in thisarticle, consists in placing accessory posts of fi ber glass after placingthe main post, achieving a reduction of the cement fi lm thickness toideal thicknesses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Cementation/methods , Glass , Post and Core Technique , Root Canal Therapy/standards , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding/methods , Composite Resins/chemistry , Tensile Strength
20.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 17(1): e2918, 13/01/2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-914287

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the bond strength of three-step and self-etch adhesive systems with and without prior acid etching on bonding of fiberglass posts in root canals. Material and Methods: Experiments were conducted on roots of five upper molars without curvature and sectioned in a cervical-apical direction. With the aid of a highspeed turbine and diamond tips, cylindrical cavities 7 mm in depth and 1.4 mm in diameter were made in the dentine. The roots of the same tooth were used, where the retainers were cemented, thus generating three groups: Group A: Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP) + Rely X ARC; Group B: Single Bond Universal (SBU-1) + Rely X ARC, with acid etching prior to adhesive insertion; Group C: Single Bond Universal (SBU-2) + Rely X ARC. The samples were stored in a bacteriological incubator at 37ºC with 100% humidity for 48h and were subsequently cross-sectioned to obtain 3 dentine discs 1mm in thickness. Forty-five specimens were subjected to the push-out test. Results: Through the analysis of variance and Tukey's test, it was found that SBMP showed, with statistical significance (p<0.05), highest bond strength when compared with the SBU-1 and SBU-2 systems. The observed difference in the discs was located in the cervical portion. Conclusion: The three-step adhesive system had higher bond strength with the substrate than the self-etching adhesive only in the disc in the cervical portion; further, statistically, the prior application of phosphoric acid in SBU-1 did not affect its bond strength significantly.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Cements , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Tensile Strength , Analysis of Variance , Brazil , Dental Pins
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