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Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 5-11, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357471


BACKGROUND: Considerable numbers of individuals present low vision, blindness, illiteracy and other conditions that could possibly impair their identification of medications, such as eye drops. Through helping these individuals to identify their eye drops, they can achieve greater autonomy. Misidentification can be avoided through use of multisensory sleeves that can be adapted to most eye drop bottles. Correct use of eye drops is important for preventing progression of diseases like glaucoma that could potentially lead to blindness. OBJECTIVE: To develop bottle sleeves to aid in identification of eye drops and then interview a group of possible users to evaluate the acceptance of the solution. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey performed at an ophthalmological clinic in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: We describe the development of multisensory sleeves to assist in identification of eye drops. To assess the acceptance of this solution, we interviewed 18 patients who were currently using three or more types of eye drops. RESULTS: We developed four prototypes for eye drop bottle sleeves and conducted an acceptance test on them. Most of the patients who answered the survey about the sleeves were elderly. Most (95%) reported believing that the sleeves would help reduce the risk of mixing up eye drops with other medications that also dispense drops. They also believed that these would increase their autonomy in using eye drops. CONCLUSION: The solution presented was well accepted and may help increase safety in using eye drops through preventing misidentification.

Humans , Aged , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Research Journal of Heath Sciences ; 10(2): 131-138, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1370790


Background ­ University, a subset of the general population, will expectedly have common ocular problems as prevalent in the population. Knowing these problems as done through screening and health education during WSD activities in 2017 thus raise awareness for their prevention. This study was aimed at determining the types of eye defects in a university community. Methodology ­ A descriptive cross-sectional survey utilizing purposive serial selection to examine inhabitants of a university community. Socio-demographic information and detailed ocular examinations were carried out. Data analysis using SPSS Version 20 and cross tabulations with statistical significance derived using paired sample t-test at p values < 0.05 were done. Results ­ With n=140, 79(56.4 %) were males. Mean age was 26.7 + 11.5years. Majority were staffs (77.1%) with 62.1% having tertiary education. Normal vision was reported in (92.9%), while 5.7% had visual impairment with 1.4% uniocular blindness. Common ocular findings were allergic conjunctivitis (12.9%), glaucoma suspects (10.0%), Pterygium (3.6%), glaucoma/corneal opacity (2.1% respectively), and optic atrophy (1.4%). Conclusion ­Disorders seen were mostly avoidable. Incorporating eye health services into University Healthcare will control their occurrence allowing optimal job performance.

Vision Disorders , Mass Screening , Disease Prevention , Eye Diseases , Universities , Conjunctivitis, Allergic , Glaucoma
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0036, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376779


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to highlight the impact of biomechanical corneal response in available in vivo tonometry methods for glaucoma management. Systematic review of non-contact air-puff tonometers that analyzes the corneal deformation response, with special focus on the investigation of the correlation of derived parameters with intraocular pressure measurements. The two actual and commercially available in vivo corneal tonometers provide promising information about biomechanical characteristics of the cornea and its relation to glaucoma, allowing the development of new protocols to evaluate, diagnose, and manage this disease.

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é destacar o impacto da resposta biomecânica corneana em métodos de tonometria in vivo disponíveis para o manejo do glaucoma. Trata-se de revisão sistemática de tonômetros de ar que analisa a resposta à deformação corneana, com foco especial na investigação da correlação dos parâmetros derivados com as medições da pressão intraocular. Os dois tonômetros mais recentes e comercialmente disponíveis fornecem informações promissoras sobre as características biomecânicas da córnea e sua relação com o glaucoma, permitindo o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos para avaliar, diagnosticar e controlar a doença.

Humans , Tonometry, Ocular/instrumentation , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cornea/anatomy & histology , Cornea/physiology , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Glaucoma/physiopathology , Ocular Hypertension/physiopathology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/instrumentation , Elasticity/physiology , Models, Theoretical
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3810, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289619


Introducción: la extracción del cristalino transparente en pacientes con cierre angular primario se plantea si existe presión intraocular mayor o igual que 30 mm Hg o daño por glaucoma. En ojos con elevación moderada de la presión intraocular se desconocen los resultados. Objetivo: evaluar la influencia de la presión intraocular preoperatoria en el control del cierre angular primario tratado con extracción del cristalino transparente. Material y Métodos: se realizó un estudio pre-experimental, entre enero de 2013 y enero de 2020, incluyó 78 ojos de 78 pacientes con cierre angular primario tratados con extracción del cristalino transparente; divididos en dos grupos según presión intraocular preoperatoria. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó chi cuadrado de independencia, probabilidad exacta de Fisher, prueba t para muestras independientes y análisis de varianza de medidas repetidas; con significación estadística del 95 por ciento. Resultados: hubo diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos para longitud axial (p=0,003), grosor del cristalino (p<0,001) y espesor corneal central (p=0,016). La presión intraocular y número de colirios, variaron de forma muy significativa (p<0,001) entre el pre y posoperatorio, y entre ambos grupos en los diferentes momentos analizados. En el grupo A el 94,4 por ciento de los ojos mostró control absoluto posoperatorio invariable en el tiempo, en el grupo B la mayoría de los ojos tuvo control relativo con diferencias muy significativas (p<0,001) entre ambos. Conclusiones: la presión intraocular preoperatoria influye en el control del cierre angular primario tratado con extracción del cristalino transparente; valores previos menores que 30 mm Hg, propician mejor control posoperatorio(AU)

Introduction: Clear lens extraction is considered in patients older than 50 years with primary angle closure and intraocular pressure greater than or equal to 30 mm Hg or damage due to glaucoma. The results are unknown in eyes with a moderate elevation of intraocular pressure. Objective: To evaluate the influence of preoperative intraocular pressure in the control of the primary angle closure treated with clear lens extraction. Material and Methods: A pre-experimental study was conducted between January 2013 and January 2020. It included a total of 78 eyes of 78 patients with primary angle closure treated with clear lens extraction. They were divided into two groups according to preoperative intraocular pressure. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact probability test, and t test were used for independent samples and analysis of variance with repeated measurements; with 95 percent statistical significance. Results: There were significant differences in axial length (p=0,003), lens thickness (p<0,001) and central corneal thickness (p=0,016) between both groups. Intraocular pressure and the number of eye drops varied very significantly (p<0,001) between the pre-and postoperative periods and between both groups at the different moments analyzed. In group A, 94,4 percent of the eyes showed absolute postoperative control, which remained unchanged over time. In group B, most eyes had relative control. There were very significant differences (p<0,001) between both groups. Conclusions: Preoperative intraocular pressure influences the control of primary angle closure treated with clear lens extraction; previous values less than 30 mm Hg favor better postoperative control(AU)

Humans , Glaucoma/prevention & control , Intraocular Pressure , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Lens, Crystalline , Postoperative Period
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 97-92, jul. 29, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282064


Paciente masculino con antecedente de trauma craneoencefálico severo recibido en la unidad de emergencia con una puntuación en la escala de Glasgow de 3 puntos; se describió en la tomografía computarizada un hematoma frontal epidural y una hemorragia subdural aguda; fue intervenido quirúrgicamente por neurocirugía en la Unidad de Emergencias y posteriormente fue llevado a la unidad de cuidados intensivos donde durante la recuperación (2 meses) refirió disminución de la agudeza visual en ojo izquierdo; fue evaluado en el servicio de Oftalmología donde la agudeza visual del ojo derecho fue de 20/40 y en ojo izquierdo no percibe la luz, en la evaluación oftalmológica se evidencia la presión intraocular en ojo izquierdo de 44mmHg, abundante celularidad en cámara anterior y a la evaluación ultrasonografía de cámara vítrea se describe una imagen que se correlaciona con una aparente hemorragia vítrea. Se diagnostica con Glaucoma de células fantasmas y síndrome de Terson; se inicia tratamiento médico con antiglaucomatoso para el glaucoma de células fantasmas y expectante para el síndrome de Terson, a la semana debido a la pobre respuesta se realizó trabeculectomia y vitrectomía vía Pars plana, posterior al tratamiento oftalmológico, se describió una visión de ojo izquierdo de 20/200

Male patient with a history of severe head trauma received in the emergency unit with a Glasgow coma score of 3; radiologically, an epidural frontal hematoma and an acute subdural hemorrhage are described in the computed tomography; the patient underwent surgery in the Emergency Unit and was later admitted to the intensive care unit where during recovery (2 months) he reported decreased visual acuity in the left eye; is evaluated in the ophthalmology service where is found a visual acuity of the right eye with correction of 20/40 and the left eye does not perceive light, the ophthalmology evaluation shows an intraocular pressure of the left eye of 44mmHg, abundant cellularity in the anterior chamber and in the ultrasound evaluation of the vitreous chamber describes an image that correlates with an apparent vitreous hemorrhage. He is diagnosed with Ghost Cell Glaucoma and Terson Syndrome; Medical treatment with antiglaucoma treatment for Ghost cell glaucoma and expectant for Terson syndrome is started. After a week due to the poor response, a trabeculectomy and vitrectomy via pars plana was performed, after ophthalmological treatment, a vision of the left eye of 20/200 was described

Ophthalmology , Patients , Vitrectomy , Glaucoma , Eye , Craniocerebral Trauma
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 275-278, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248969


ABSTRACT Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is more frequent in people aged >50 yeears, and its prevalence increases with age. Few reports have described cases in younger patients, all with a history of ocular surgery, especially iris resection. Herein, we describe the case of a 27-year old man with bilateral advanced glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation material in OS. He had undergone cataract surgeries OU and a penetrating keratoplasty OD during childhood. Currently, he presented with an intraocular pressure of 40 mmHg OU. The OS showed a white flaky material in the pupillary rim and anterior capsule and a Sampaolesi line as a gonioscopic finding. Trabeculectomy was performed OU, and intraocular pressure control was achieved. Unlike other previously reported cases, this patient did not present any apparent iris manipulation in the affected eye. However, he did undergo an iridectomy in the contralateral eye. This is also the first case to be accompanied by bilateral glaucoma at the time of detection of the pseudoexfoliation material.(AU)

RESUMO A síndrome de pseudoesfoliação é mais frequente em pessoas com mais de 50 anos e sua prevalência aumenta com a idade. Poucos relatos descrevem casos em pacientes mais jovens, todos com história de cirurgia ocular, especialmente ressecção da íris. Descrevemos o caso de um homem de 27 anos com glaucoma bilateral avançado e material de pseudoesfoliação no OE. O paciente foi submetido a cirurgias de catarata em AO e a uma ceratoplastia penetrante no OD durante a infância. Atualmente, ele apresentou PIOs de 40 mmHg em AO. O OE apresentou material escamoso branco na borda pupilar e cápsula anterior, e linha Sampaolesi como achado gonioscópico. A trabeculectomia foi realizada em AO e obteve-se o controle da pressão intraocular. Diferentemente de outros casos relatados, o paciente não apresentou qualquer manipulação aparente da íris no olho afetado. No entanto, ele foi submetido a uma iridectomia no olho contralateral. Além disso, este é o primeiro caso a ser acompanhado de glaucoma bilateral no momento da detecção do material de pseudoesfoliação.(AU)

Humans , Adult , Cataract Extraction , Glaucoma/complications , Exfoliation Syndrome/physiopathology , Iridectomy/instrumentation
Rev. cuba. oftalmol ; 34(2): e1053, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341464


El nanoftalmo es una anomalía del desarrollo, de condición rara, siempre bilateral. Comúnmente se presenta con un patrón hereditario autosómico recesivo. Se presenta una paciente femenina de 49 años de edad, atendida en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer", con antecedentes de queratocono, glaucoma y nanoftalmo (16 mm). Se realizó cirugía del cristalino y posteriormente la paciente presentó complicaciones, por lo que tuvo que ser intervenida por los Servicios de Glaucoma y Retina. Describimos el caso con el fin de contribuir a enfrentar futuras situaciones similares(AU)

Nanophthalmos is a rare, always bilateral developmental anomaly. It commonly follows an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. A case is presented of a female 49-year-old patient attending Ramón Pando Ferrer Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology with a history of keratoconus, glaucoma and nanophthalmos (16 mm). Crystalline lens surgery was performed, after which the patient developed complications leading to a new intervention at the Glaucoma and Retina Services. The case is described with the purpose of contributing to the solution of similar future situations(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Cataract Extraction/methods , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Phacoemulsification/methods , Keratoconus/etiology
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 117-126, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280113


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar por meio de questionários estruturados, o conhecimento sobre a doença, o manejo de colírios e a adesão ao tratamento de portadores de glaucoma pertencentes a dois públicos com nível de escolaridade e nível sócio econômico distintos. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal analítico aplicando-se questionários estruturados, com base em estudo exploratório para avaliação do nível de conhecimento dos portadores de Glaucoma em relação a doença em dois públicos diferentes: sistema único de saúde (SUS) e planos privados de saúde. Os questionários foram aplicados por médicos residentes em Oftalmologia. A amostra é composta de 202 pacientes dentre eles 100 atendidos pelo SUS e os outros 102 pacientes dos planos privados de saúde. Todos os questionários possuem termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido assinado pelo participante e pelo pesquisador responsável. Resultados: Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, compostos por: 100 pacientes SUS e 102 planos de saúde privado. Os resultados revelaram que: 58,6% dos pacientes do SUS tinham escolaridade nenhuma a fundamental incompleto e 25,5% dos pacientes de convênio tinham algum nível superior); 49% do grupo SUS tinham renda com menos de 2 salários mínimos enquanto que grupo convênio apresentou 39,4% com mais de 4 salários mínimos (p<0,001); 51,5% do grupo SUS não tem gastos com compra de colírios e 67,4% do grupo convênio gasta mais de R$30,00 (p<0,001) portanto 77% do grupo SUS recebe ajuda e 52,5% do grupo convenio não recebe ajuda (p<0,001); 63,6% do grupo convenio acredita que a quantidade de instilações a mais do colírios não obtêm uma melhora do glaucoma, enquanto aproximadamente 50% do grupo SUS relata que há uma melhora com aumento das instilações ou não tem ideia (p=0,030); Ambos os grupos obtiveram um nível de conhecimento geral da doença semelhante, sem diferença estatística. Conclusão: Concluímos que, independente do nível de escolaridade e nível socioeconômico, havendo boa relação médico-paciente, além de acompanhamento orientado e próximo, é possível transmitir conhecimento adequado sobre a doença elevando o nível de adesão ao tratamento pelo paciente.

ABSTRACT Objective: Compare, through structured questionnaires, the knowledge about disease, management of eye drops and adherence to treatment of glaucoma patients disposed in two groups according to educational levels and socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out applying structured questionnaires based on an exploratory study to assess the level of Glaucoma patients' knowledge relationated with the disease in two different audiences: the single health system (SUS) and private health plans. The questionnaires were used by doctors residents in Ophthalmology. A sample was composed of 202 patients among which 100 were attended by SUS and the others 102 patients were holders of private health plans. All questionnaires have a free and informed consent form signed by the participant and the responsible researcher. Results: Patients were divided into two groups, consisting of: 100 SUS patients and 102 private health plans. The results revealed that: 58.6% of SUS patients had incomplete elementary schooling and 25.5% of private health insurance patients had some level of higher education; 49% of the SUS group had an income with less than 2 minimum wages while the health insurance group presented 39.4% with more than 4 minimum wages (p <0.001); 51.5% of the SUS group has no spending on eye drops and 67.4% of the health insurance group spends more than R $ 30.00 (p <0.001) so, 77% of the SUS group receives financial aid and 52.5% of the health insurance group does not receive any financial support (p <0.001); 63.6% of the health insurance group believes that the bigger amount of instillations than eyedrops does not improve glaucoma, while approximately 50% of the SUS group reports that there is an improvement when increasing instillations or has no idea (p = 0.030); Both groups obtained a similar level of general knowledge of the disease, with no statistical difference. Conclusion: We conclude that regardless of educational and socioeconomic level if prevails a good doctor-patient relationship, in addition to close monitoring, it is possible to transmit adequate knowledge about the disease, increasing levels of treatment adherence.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma/psychology , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Physician-Patient Relations , Socioeconomic Factors , Attitude to Health , Demography , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Blindness/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Compliance , Educational Status , Medication Adherence/psychology
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 113-120, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153109


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the use of visual field and/or optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with color retinography by non-glaucoma specialists for differentiating glaucoma from physiological cupping. Methods: Eighty patients with glaucoma or physiological cupping (40 of each) were randomized according to the examination used (GI: color retinography, GII: color retinography + visual field, GIII: color retinography + optical coherence tomography, GIV: color retinography + visual field + optical coherence tomography). Twenty non-specialist ophthalmologists diagnosed glaucoma from PowerPoint slide images, without direct patient examination. Results: Inter-examiner agreement was good for GII (ĸ: 0.63; 95%CI, 0.53-0.72), moderate for GIII (ĸ: 0.58; 95%CI, 0.48-0.68) and GIV (ĸ: 0.41; 95%CI, 0.31-0.51), and low for GI (ĸ: 0.30; 95%CI, 0.20-0.39) (p<0.001). Diagnostic accuracy was higher in GIII (15.8 ± 1.82) than GI (12.95 ± 1.46, p<0.001) and higher in GII (16.25 ± 2.02) than GI and GIV (14.10 ± 2.24) (both p<0.001). For glaucoma patients only, diagnostic accuracy in GII and GIII was superior to that in GI and GIV (both p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity were 59% and 70.5% in GI; 86.5% and 76% in GII, 86.5% and 71.5% in GIII; and 68.5% and 72.5% in GIV, respectively. Accuracy was highest in GII (81.3% [95%CI, 77.1-84.8]), followed by GIII (79% [95%CI, 74.7-82.7]), GIV (70,5% [95%CI, 65.9-74.8]), and GI (64.8% [95%CI, 60.0-69.3]). Conclusions: Non-glaucoma specialists could not differentiate glaucoma from increased physiological cupping when using color retinography assessment alone. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement improved significantly with the addition of visual field or optical coherence tomography. However, the use of both modalities did not improve sensitivity/specificity.(AU)

RESUMO Objetivos: Verificar a influência do campo visual e/ou tomografia de coerência óptica, quando analisados em associação à retinografia colorida, na diferenciação entre indivíduos com glaucoma daqueles com aumento fisiológico de escavação. Métodos: Oitenta pacientes com glaucoma ou aumento fisiológico de escavação (40 cada) foram randomizados de acordo com o exame testado (GI: retinografia colorida, GII: retinografia colorida + campo visual, GIII: retinografia colorida + tomografia de coerência óptica, GIV: retinografia colorida + campo visual + tomografia de coerência óptica). Vinte oftalmologistas não especialistas em glaucoma diagnosticaram glaucoma através de slides do PowerPoint, sem o exame direto do paciente. Resultados: A concordância interexaminador foi boa para o GII (ĸ: 0,63; 95%CI, 0,53-0,72), moderada para GIII (ĸ: 0,58; 95%CI, 0,48-0,68) e GIV (ĸ: 0,41; 95%CI, 0,31-0,51), e baixa para o GI (ĸ: 0,30; 95%CI, 0,20-0,39) (p<0,001). Acurácia diagnostica foi maior no GIII (15,8 ± 1,82) em comparação ao GI (12,95 ± 1,46, p<0,001) e o GII (16,25 ± 2,02) maior em comparação ao GI e GIV (14,10 ± 2,24) (para ambos, p<0,001). Para os pacientes com glaucoma, a acurácia diagnostica nos grupos GII e GIII foi superior do que em GI e GIV (ambos p<0,001). Sensibilidade e especificidade foram 59% e 70,5% no GI; 86,5% e 76% no GII, 86,5% e 71,5% no GIII; 68,5% e 72,5% no GIV, respectivamente. A acurácia foi maior no GII (81,3% [95%CI, 77,1-84,8]), seguido pelo GIII (79% [95%CI, 74,7-82,7]), GIV (70,5% [95%CI, 65,9-74,8]), e GI (64,8% [95%CI, 60,0-69,3]). Conclusões: A avaliação isolada da retinografia colorida por oftalmologistas não especialistas em glaucoma não pode diferenciar pacientes com glaucoma daqueles com aumento fisiológico de escavação. Houve aumento da acurácia diagnóstica e da concordância interobservador com o acréscimo do campo visual ou da tomografia de coerência óptica. Entretanto, o uso de ambas as modalidades não melhorou a sensibilidade/especificadade.(AU)

Humans , Glaucoma/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Specialization , Visual Fields , Visual Field Tests
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(2): e3354, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251818


RESUMEN Introducción: La conducta ante el glaucoma avanzado es polémica entre los oftalmólogos por sus posibles consecuencias visuales. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado de la trabeculectomía en el tratamiento de pacientes con glaucoma avanzado. Método: En el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el periodo de 2015-2018, se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal, de una serie de casos. El universo fue conformado por 57 ojos con glaucoma avanzado operados con la citada técnica. Se describen las variables: edad, sexo, variables en el periodo preoperatorio y posoperatorio (cantidad de fármacos para el control del glaucoma, agudeza visual mejor corregida, campo visual, medición de la presión intraocular, complicaciones posoperatorias). Resultados: La edad promedio fue de 65,4 años, el 55,8 % eran hombres. La agudeza visual posoperatoria fue la misma que la preoperatoria en 54 ojos (96,5 %). La medicación antiglaucoma disminuyó a un valor medio de 1,6 fármacos y la presión intraocular posoperatoria a los 2 años fue de 16,5 mmHg. El índice total de éxito fue del 93,0 %. Conclusiones: La trabeculectomía permite un índice de éxito satisfactorio en el tratamiento del glaucoma avanzado en los pacientes estudiados.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Behavior in advanced stage glaucoma has brought controversies among specialists in ophthalmology due to its possible visual consequences. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of trabeculectomy surgery in patient treated with glaucoma in advanced stage. Method: An observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study of several cases was conducted at the Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" in Santiago de Cuba, from 2015 through 2018. It was involved as total and selected 57 eyes with glaucoma in advanced stage and associated with a trabeculectomy surgery. Variables used were: age, sex, preoperative and postoperative variables used (number of drugs used for glaucoma management, best corrected visual acuity, visual field, measurement of intraocular pressure, and postoperative complications). Results: Average age was 65.4% and 55.8% were male. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity in 54 eyes (96.5%) was the same. Antiglaucoma medication decreased to a median value of 1.6 drugs and the postoperative intraocular pressure, 2 years after surgery, was 16.5 mmHg. The overall success rate was 93.0%. Conclusions: Trabeculectomy had a satisfactory success rate in the patients with glaucoma in advanced stage treated.

RESUMO Introdução: O comportamento no glaucoma avançado é controverso entre os oftalmologistas devido às suas possíveis consequências visuais. Objetivo: Avaliar o resultado da trabeculectomia no tratamento de pacientes com glaucoma avançado. Método: No Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, durante o período 2015-2018, foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e longitudinal de uma série de casos. O universo era formado por 57 olhos com glaucoma avançado operados pela técnica citada. As variáveis são descritas: idade, sexo, variáveis no período pré e pós-operatório (quantidade de medicamentos para controle do glaucoma, acuidade visual melhor corrigida, campo visual, medida da pressão intra-ocular, complicações pós-operatórias). Resultados: A média de idade foi de 65,4 anos, 55,8% eram homens. A acuidade visual pós-operatória foi igual à pré-operatória em 54 olhos (96,5%). A medicação antiglaucoma diminuiu para um valor médio de 1,6 medicamentos e a pressão intra-ocular pós-operatória em 2 anos foi de 16,5 mmHg. A taxa de sucesso total foi de 93,0%. Conclusões: A trabeculectomia permite uma taxa de sucesso satisfatória no tratamento do glaucoma avançado nos pacientes estudados.

Humans , Male , Aged , Trabeculectomy , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 31-36, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153098


ABSTRACT Purpose: Our goal was to analyze the prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with glaucoma and to identify risk factors related to these disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2016 and August 2017 at the Hospital das Clínicas of Universidade Estadual de Campinas and at the Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders among patients diagnosed with glaucoma. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination with standard automated perimetry to confirm the diagnosis of glaucoma. All participants were asked to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Seventy-four were men (57.36%) and 55 (42.64%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 70.14 ± 15.8 years. Ninety participants were white (69.77%) and 38 (29.46%) were black. The study demonstrated a prevalence of depression and/or anxiety at 10.08%. Logistic regression revealed that women were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depression (OR: 5.25, p=0.015) and patients with a larger number of comorbidities also were at higher risk for anxiety and/or depressive disorders (OR: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusion: A significant proportion of patients with glaucoma present with depression and/or anxiety. Females and patients with comorbidities are at greater risk for these disorders.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de transtornos de depressão e ansiedade em pacientes com glaucoma e identificar fatores de riscos associados. Métodos: Estudo transversal em pacientes com glaucoma, avaliados durante Agosto de 2016 e Agosto de 2017 no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Campinas e no Hospital Oftalmológico de Brasília. Todos pacientes foram submetidos à exame oftalmológico completo para confirmar o diagnóstico de glaucoma. Todos pacientes preencheram o questionário "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale". Resultados: Foram incluídos 129 pacientes no estudo, sendo 74 homens (57.36%) e 55 (42.64%) mulheres, 90 pacientes eram brancos (69.77%) e 38 (29.46%) eram negros. A idade média foi de 70.14 ± 15.8 anos. O estudo demonstrou uma prevalência de 10.08% de transtornos depressivo e/ou ansiedade. A regressão logística demonstrou que mulheres apresentam maior risco de desenvolver transtornos depressivos e/ou ansiedade (Risco relativo: 5.25, p=0.015), assim como pacientes com maior número de comorbidades clínicas (Risco relativo: 2.82, p=0.038). Conclusão: Uma proporção significativa dos pacientes com glaucoma podem apresentar transtornos de depressão e/ou ansiedade. Pacientes com glaucoma do sexo feminino e que apresentem maiores comorbidades clínicas apresentam maior risco de apresentar esses transtornos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma , Depressive Disorder , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Glaucoma/complications , Glaucoma/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression/etiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880835


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate accuracy of the currently used strategies for intraocular pressure measurements for reflecting actual 24-hour intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*METHODS@#From September, 2018 to January, 2019, the patients with a suspected diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma at our hospital were prospectively enrolled to receive 24-hour intraocular pressure monitoring using a Goldmann tonometer. With the intraocular pressure measurements at 0:00, 2:00, 5:00, 7:00, 8:00, 10:00, 11:00, 14:00, 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, and 22:00 as the gold standard (strategy 1), we compared the measurements taken at 5:00, 7:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00 (strategy 2) and at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00, and 16:00 (strategy 3) for their accuracy in reflecting 24-h intraocular pressure fluctuations.@*RESULTS@#A total of 41 patients (82 eyes) were enrolled in this study. The peak intraocular pressures measured using the 3 strategies were 21.09±4.15 mmHg, 20.54±4.10 mmHg, and 19.91±4.38 mmHg, respectively, showing significant differences among them (@*CONCLUSIONS@#For suspected cases of glaucoma, intraocular pressure measurements at 4 and 6 time points of a day can not precisely reflect the actual range of intraocular pressure fluctuations, and may lead to a missed diagnosis of glaucoma.

Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Prospective Studies , Tonometry, Ocular
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(1): 27-32, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280803


Introdução: A inteligência artificial (IA) está revolucionando a área da saúde. Na oftalmologia, esta tecnologia pode possibilitar diagnósticos mais rápidos e precisos, impedindo a progressão das alterações na visão. Médicos e algoritimosalgoritmos podem ser mais eficientes quando trabalham juntos. Desenvolver um software de IA com alta especificidade e sensibilidade para apoio no diagnóstico de algumas patologias oftalmológicas. Métodos: O software de deep learning foi construído através de redes neurais valendo de duas bases computacionais MobileNet e Inception. Para o treinamento do banco de dados foram utilizadas 2.520 imagens de glaucoma, retinopatia diabética, toxoplasmose ocular, papiledema, descolamento de retina e retina normal. Para a validação foi utilizado 428 imagens patológicas e normais para os cálculos de sensibilidade e de especificidade. Todas as imagens foram cedidas da Sociedade Americana de Especialistas da Retina. Resultados: Os resultados de sensibilidade e especificidade foram no MobileNet de 91% (IC 95%, 89-92%) e 98,5% (IC 95%, 98-99%); no Inception, de 91,4% (IC 95%, 89-93,5%) de 98,4% (IC 95%, 98-98,8%), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois métodos utilizados. Conclusão: O software apresentou resultados promissores na distinção das condições oftalmológicas pesquisadas. (AU)

Introduction: Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing health care. In ophthalmology, this technology can enable faster and more accurate diagnoses, preventing the progression of vision Physicians and algorithms are most effective when working together. To develop an AI software with high specificity and sensitivity to support the diagnosis of some ophthalmic diseases. Methods: A deep learning software was built through neural networks using two computational bases, MobileNet and Inception. For training the database, 2520 images of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, ocular toxoplasmosis, papilledema, retinal detachment, and normal retina were used. For validation, 428 pathological and normal images were used for calculations of sensitivity and specificity. All images were obtained from the American Society of Retina Specialists. Results: The results of sensitivity and specificity were 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89-92%) and 98.5% (95% CI, 98-99%) on MobileNet, and 91.4% (95% CI, 89-93.5%) and 98.4% (95% CI, 98-98.8%) on Inception, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two methods. Conclusion: The software showed promising results in distinguishing the main ophthalmic conditions surveyed. (AU)

Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Papilledema/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Glaucoma , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Software , Artificial Intelligence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Deep Learning
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31103, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291249


Introdução: O glaucoma é uma neuropatia óptica progressiva que pode acarretar defeitos progressivos do campo visual e perda da visão. É a principal causa de cegueira irreversível no mundo, sendo o aumento da pressão intraocular (PIO) o principal fator de risco. Objetivos: Identificar o perfil dos usuários do SUS no Estado de Minas Gerais, especificamente do Departamento de Glaucoma do Instituto de Olhos Ciências Médicas (IOCM). Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo clínico observacional, transversal e de caráter retrospectivo com 1484 pacientes. Foram incluídos pacientes do sexo feminino e masculino, acima de 18 anos de idade, encaminhados ao setor de glaucoma do IOCM para o primeiro atendimento, com suspeita ou doença confirmada. Os diagnósticos considerados foram: suspeita de glaucoma; hipertenso ocular; glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto; glaucoma primário de ângulo fechado; glaucoma de pressão normal; glaucoma congênito; glaucoma secundário; glaucoma neovascular e glaucoma maligno. Resultados: Houve predomínio do sexo feminino e o diagnóstico mais frequente foi "glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto". Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram idade avançada e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusões: O perfil clínico demográfico dos pacientes em tratamento de glaucoma em Minas Gerais são semelhantes ao encontrado em alguns trabalhos realizados em outros países do mundo.

Introduction: Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that can lead to progressive visual field defects and loss of vision. It is the main cause of irreversible blindness in the world, with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) being the main risk factor. Objectives: Identify the profile of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) users, specifically in the Department of Glaucoma at the Instituto de Olhos Ciencias Medicas (IOCM), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study enrolled 1484 patients. Were inclueded female and male patients, over 18 years of age, referred to the glaucoma sector of the IOCM for the first visit, with suspected or confirmed disease. The diagnoses considered were: suspected glaucoma; ocular hypertension; primary open-angle glaucoma; primary closedangle glaucoma; normal-pressure glaucoma; congenital glaucoma; secondary glaucoma; neovascular glaucoma. Results: There was a predominance of females and the most frequent diagnosis was "Primary Open-angle Glaucoma". The most prevalent risk factors were advanced age and hypertension. Conclusions: The demographics and clinical profile of patients undergoing glaucoma treatment at IOCM are similar to those found in some studies performed in other countries.

Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Ocular Hypertension , Blindness , Intraocular Pressure
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0031, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341159


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o conhecimento da população sobre o glaucoma. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo transversal, descritivo, não controlado, cujo instrumento de coleta de dados foi um questionário contendo perguntas sobre o perfil sociodemográfico e o glaucoma, aplicado em indivíduos, antes e depois da apresentação de vídeo educacional sobre o glaucoma, em Fortaleza (CE), que decidiram participar espontaneamente de uma campanha de prevenção ao glaucoma. Resultados Foram coletados 153 questionários, dentre os quais 130 foram considerados elegíveis, incluindo 65 antes da realização de vídeo educativo e 65 após. Antes e após o vídeo educativo, 80% e 7%, respectivamente, acreditavam que glaucoma não era mais comum em afro-americanos. As questões abordadas eram semelhantes a outras consolidadas na literatura, com o intuito de avaliar o grau de conhecimento dos participantes. Conclusão Foi possível observar um aumento no número de acertos após apresentação de material educativo.

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the population awareness of glaucoma. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, non-controlled study, using a questionnaire to collect data. The questions addressed sociodemographic profile and glaucoma, and were asked to individuals, before and after the presentation of an educational video on glaucoma. It was conducted in the city of Fortaleza (CE) and the respondents spontaneously decided to participate in a glaucoma prevention campaign. Results A total of 153 questionnaires were collected; in that, 130 were considered eligible, including 65 answered before and 65 after the presentation of the educational video. Before and after the educational video, 80% and 7%, respectively, believed glaucoma was not more common in African Americans. The questions addressed were similar to others already consolidated in the literature, aiming to assess level of knowledge of participants. Conclusion An increase in number of correct answers was observed after presentation of the educational material.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Primary Prevention , Glaucoma/prevention & control , Blindness/prevention & control , Health Education , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 141-147, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337663


Introdução: A diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) é uma desordem metabólica ocasionada pela disfunção das células beta pancreáticas que interferem na produção de insulina e/ou pela resistência dos órgãos alvos a esse hormônio. Níveis elevados de radicais livres em conjunto com o declínio das defesas antioxidantes presente na DM2 podem ocasionar danos a organelas celulares, promovendo complicações da doença. As glutationas S- transferases (GST) são as principais enzimas antioxidantes que participam da defesa celular contra o estresse oxidativo. Os polimorfismos nos genes que codificam essas enzimas podem acarretar o surgimento de complicações oftalmológicas em diabéticos. Este trabalho avaliou a influência dos polimorfismos nos genes GST no desenvolvimento de doenças como a catarata e o glaucoma em pacientes com DM2 na Grande Vitória (ES). Metodologia: Os polimorfismos dos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 foram investigados através da técnica de PCR multiplex. Para o gene GSTP1 utilizou-se a técnica PCR- RFLP. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste exato de Fisher ou do teste do qui-quadrado com P-valor < 0.05. Resultados: Não foi encontrada relação entre os polimorfismos nos genes GSTM1, GSTT1 e GSTP1 e o surgimento de doenças como glaucoma e catarata em pacientes com DM2. Conclusão: Nossos dados sugerem que os polimorfismos nulos nos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 e o polimorfismo Ile105Val no gene GSTP1 não estão associados com a suscetibilidade individual para o desenvolvimento de complicações oftalmológicas em pacientes com DM2. (AU)

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder caused by beta cell dysfunction that interferes with insulin production and/or by the resistance of target organs to this hormone. An increase in free radicals together with a decline in antioxidant defenses, present in T2DM, can damage cellular organelles and promote the occurrence of disease complications. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the main antioxidant enzymes involved in cellular defense against oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in genes encoding GSTs can lead to ophthalmic complications in persons with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the influence of GST polymorphisms on the development of diseases such as cataract and glaucoma in patients with T2DM in Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Methods: GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were investigated using a multiplex PCR technique. PCR-RFLP was used for the GSTP1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher's exact test or the chi-square test, with P-value <0.05. Results: There was no relationship between GSTM1, GSTT1, or GSTP1 polymorphisms and the occurrence of diseases such as glaucoma and cataract in patients with T2DM. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms and the ile105Val polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene are not associated with individual susceptibility to the development of ophthalmic complications in persons with T2DM. (AU)

Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cataract/etiology , Glaucoma/etiology , Oxidative Stress